US 20050201246 A1
In a particle-optical projection system (32) a pattern (B) is imaged onto a target (tp) by means of energetic electrically charged particles. The pattern is represented in a patterned beam (pb) of said charged particles emerging from the object plane through at least one cross-over (c); it is imaged into an image (S) with a given size and distortion. To compensate for the Z-deviation of the image (S) position from the actual positioning of the target (tp) (Z denotes an axial coordinate substantially parallel to the optical axis cx), without changing the size of the image (S), the system comprises a position detection means (ZD) for measuring the Z-position of several locations of the target (tp),
1. A particle-optical projection system (32) for imaging a pattern onto a target (tp) by means of energetic electrically charged particles in a particle-beam exposure apparatus, adapted to produce, from the pattern positioned at an object plane (bp) and represented in a patterned beam (pb) of said charged particles emerging from the object plane through at least one cross-over (c), an image (S) at the position of the target, with said image (S) having a given size and distortion, said projection system comprising
a position detection means (ZD) for measuring the Z-position of several locations of the target (tp), with Z denoting a coordinate taken along a direction substantially parallel to the optical axis (cx) of the projection system,
a control means (33) adapted to calculate modifications (cr) of selected lens parameters of the final particle-optical lens (L2) of said projection system and control said lens parameters according to said modifications, with said modifications being suitable to compensate for the Z-deviation of the image (S) position from the actual positioning of the target (tp) as determined from said Z-position measurements, without changing the size of the image.
2. The projection system of
3. The projection system of
4. The projection system of
5. The projection system of
6. The projection system of
7. The projection system of
8. The projection system of
9. A particle-optical projection system (32) for imaging a pattern onto a target (tp) by means of energetic electrically charged particles in a particle-beam exposure apparatus, adapted to produce, from the pattern positioned at an object plane (bp) and represented in a patterned beam (pb) of said charged particles emerging from the object plane through at least one cross-over (c), an image (S) at the position of the target, with said image (S) having a given size and distortion, said projection system comprising
a multi-beam pattern definition means for defining the patterned beam with a time-variable pattern, having
an aperture array means (203) having a plurality of apertures (230) defining the shape of beamlets (bm) permeating said apertures and
at least one deflector array means (501, 502, 503) separate from the aperture array means (203), with said deflector array means (501, 502, 503) having a plurality of openings (250) surrounding the beamlets (bm), wherein for each opening or group of openings are provided at least two deflecting electrodes (ea1, ea2; eb1, eb2) to which different electrostatic potentials are applicable, thus correcting the path of the beamlet(s) passing through the respective opening according to a desired path through the device (102),
wherein at least one of said deflector array means (502) is adapted to adjust the angles of the beamlets passing the apertures (bm) to minimize the aberration of the crossover (c).
10. The projection system of
11. The projection system of
12. The projection system of
a first deflector array means (502) which is adapted to adjust the angles of the beamlets passing the apertures (bm) to minimize the aberration of the crossover (c),
a second deflector array means (503) which is adapted to produce a virtual object (203′) different from the object as defined by the aperture (230),
said first and second deflector array means (502, 503) being adapted to adjust the position of the virtual object (230′) and the angles of the beamlets independently from each other.
13. The projection system of
14. The projection system of
15. The projection system of
calculate a beam current value (Ib) corresponding to the entire patterned beam,
calculate modifications of the electric potentials (U1, U2) of said central electrodes suitable to compensate for the influence of said beam current value (Ib) upon the geometric imaging properties of the projection system, with the difference (U1−U2) between the potentials of the central electrodes being smaller than the difference between the potential of one of the central electrodes (431, 432) to the potential of the initial and the final electrode (421, 422) by at least an order of magnitude, and
control the electric potentials (U1, U2) of the central electrodes according to said modifications.
16. The projection system of
calculate a beam current value (Ib) corresponding to the entire patterned beam,
calculate modifications of the axial position (Δz) of said lens suitable to compensate for the influence of said beam current value (Ib) upon the geometric imaging properties of the projection system, and
control said axial positions (z1, z2) according to said modifications by means of said positioning means.
17. The projection system of
The invention relates to the field of particle-optical projection systems and, in particular, to the adjustment of the image field position along the optical axis with the actual position of the target in a particle-optical projection system without a change of magnification or image quality. More in detail, the invention relates to the improvement of a particle-optical projection system for imaging a pattern onto a target by means of energetic electrically charged particles in a particle-beam exposure apparatus, adapted to produce, from the pattern positioned at an object plane and represented in a patterned beam of said charged particles emerging from the object plane through at least one cross-over, an image at the position of the target, with said image having a given size and distortion.
In systems of this kind, the Z-position of the image plane, i.e. the position as measured along the direction of the particle beam, must coincide with the target position within a certain Z-tolerance determined by the depth of focus (DoF) of the projection system. For a typical ion-optical device, the Z-tolerance is in the order of a few μm or even lower. For an electron-optical apparatus the tolerance is generally smaller because, due to the higher diffraction of electrons, a larger numerical aperture is needed which reduces the DoF.
The target of such a system, e.g. a silicon wafer, may display individual geometric properties which differ from the ideal plane at a specified position. For instance, a wafer may be bulged or otherwise distorted due to inner stress, or may have an increased or decreased thickness varying over the surface of the wafer. An uncertainty in the position of the stage to which the wafer is mounted does also lead to deviating target positions.
Furthermore, in systems such as multibeam systems, which comprise a wafer stage moving during image exposure, the Z-position of the target will vary according to the tolerance of the wafer stage movement. This can easily surmount the allowed tolerance of the Z-position for a semiconductor production equipment.
Furthermore, the invention refers to the effect of Coulomb interactions on the position of the image plane (image field). When the intensity of the patterned particle beam varies, the focusing characteristics of a particle beam are affected by the Coulomb interactions within the beam. Often, the pattern varies in time with different values of overall transparency according to a motion of the (virtual) image frame on the target during the exposure process, usually in a sort of a scanning motion over the target surface. The Coulomb interactions are usually classified into stochastic interactions, which arise from the fact that the particle beam actually consists of randomly distributed particles and cause an increase of the blur of the image, and space charge effects, due to the space charge of the beam acting on itself as a whole. The space charge acts like a continuous dispersive lens, changing the focusing properties of the system and thereby changing the position of the image plane.
The effect of space charge is particularly disturbing in a multibeam system like the so-called PML2 apparatus described in the US-2003-0155534-A1 (=GB 00693.9=JP 2003-45145) of the applicants. In such an apparatus the beam is composed of a large number of beamlets whose intensities are individually switched between zero and full value. The pattern to be imaged and, as a consequence, the total current (which corresponds to the sum over all beamlets) as well as the current distribution within the beam varies at a MHz rate. Without correction or compensation, the space charge effect will vary at the same rate, with the result that not only the image position, but also the magnification and distortion will continuously change, thereby increasing the image blur as well as the image distortion.
In the PLM2, at a maximum current of 10 μA through the optical column, due to space charge the shift of the image position towards larger Z (i.e., defocusing) may take values between 0 and about 100 μm. The allowed tolerance of the Z-position in this application is given by the resolution requirements and the related depth of focus and is smaller than 1 μm. While the magnification is also changed by space charge, the amount of magnification change is generally not directly coupled to the amount of defocusing.
The problem of varying target positions has been addressed in the state of the art. For instance, according to Okita et al. in the U.S. Pat. No. 6,538,721, the Z-position of the target can be measured online.
In the U.S. Pat. No. 5,260,579, Yasuda et al. propose to correct for the influence of the fast varying space charge effect in a multi-beam system by refocusing, i.e., adjustment of the focal length of the final lens, according to the momentary total beam current. These approaches are, however, not appropriate in projection optical imaging systems, as the magnification is affected by a variation of the focal length as well. Moreover, the space charge effect will also cause different current density distributions within the particle beam to lead to different image distortions.
It is a goal of the present invention to provide a way to arbitrarily change image position and magnification, so as to compensate for deviations between the image position and the target position with respect to the axial direction (Z-direction), which may be due, in particular, to the individual geometrical properties of the target and the space charge effect of the current through each momentary pattern, taking into account the dependence of these imaging characteristics caused by the pattern distribution and the total illumination current density. A primary task to be solved is to move the optical image plane as required, i.e. to “refocus”, but to keep the value of the demagnification constant in order to comply with the requirements (typically to ΔM/M=1×10−5). Furthermore, the image distortion shall be minimized, also in connection with varying space charge effect.
In a first aspect of the invention, the above goal is reached by a particle-optical projection system as set forth in the beginning, further comprising a position detection means for measuring the Z-position of several locations of the target (with Z denoting a coordinate taken along a direction substantially parallel to the optical axis of the projection system), as well as a control means adapted to calculate modifications of selected lens parameters of the final particle-optical lens of said projection system and control said lens parameters according to said modifications, with said modifications being suitable to compensate for the Z-deviation of the image position from the actual positioning of the target as determined from said Z-position measurements, without changing the size of the image.
This solution allows for a simple way to deal with issues of Z-positioning of the target, which also will allow to compensate for the geometry fast. Thus, the invention makes a high throughput possible, in contrast to prior-art arrangements where an insufficient Z-positioning could severely obstruct the performance of a product line. For most applications one lens parameter will be sufficient to effect the desired modification; if appropriate, more lens parameters of the lens, or lens parameters of several lenses, can be modified.
In a preferred development of the invention, which enables to compensate also for other imaging defects, the control means is further adapted to calculate a beam current value corresponding to the entire patterned beam, and calculate modifications of selected lens parameters of the final particle-optical lens, with said modifications being suitable to additionally compensate for the influence of said beam current value upon the geometric imaging properties of the projection system.
One possibility to realize the Z-compensation is by means of an electromagnetic lens having, in a common pole-casing of magnetic material, at least two electroconductive coils which are situated at different positions within the lens and to which different electric currents are applicable, wherein the control means is adapted to calculate modifications of the electric currents fed to said electroconductive coils suitable to compensate for the Z-deviation of the actual positioning of the image from the positioning of the target, and control the electric currents fed to said electromagnetic coils according to said modifications. The electromagnetic lens may comprise, for instance, two electroconductive coils of corresponding size whose positions are different with respect to the direction parallel to the particle beam; or the electromagnetic lens may have a first electroconductive coil which is fed a first electric current and at least one second electroconductive coil fed a second electric current, with the absolute value of the second electric current being smaller than the first electric current by at least an order of magnitude.
Another possible way to implement the Z-compensation aims at an electrostatic lens, in particular an electrostatic Einzel lens having an initial electrode, at least two central electrodes and a final electrode, wherein the central electrodes are adapted to be fed different electrostatic potentials, wherein the control means is adapted to calculate modifications of the electric potentials of said central electrodes suitable to compensate for the Z-deviation of the actual positioning of the image from the positioning of the target, with the difference between the potentials of the central electrodes being smaller than the difference between the potential of one of the central electrodes to the potential of the initial and the final electrode by at least an order of magnitude, and control the electric potentials of the central electrodes according to said modifications.
Yet another possibility is mechanical shifting, namely, a particle-optical lens provided with adjustable positioning means, e.g. piezoelectric actuators, for adjustment of the axial position of the lens as measured along the optical axis of the projection system, wherein the control means is adapted to calculate modifications of the axial position of said lens suitable to compensate for the Z-deviation of the actual positioning of the image from the positioning of the target, and control said axial positions according to said modifications by means of said positioning means.
According to a second aspect of the invention, a particle-optical projection system as set forth in the beginning, further comprising a multi-beam pattern definition means for defining the patterned beam with a time-variable pattern, has
This aspect of the invention bases on the observation that the distortion due to the space charge effect of a beam with inhomogeneous current can be minimized by appropriate choice of the angles of the beamlets leaving the apertures.
In a preferred development of the invention, the deflector array means is positioned immediately before the aperture array means.
It is further advantageous when the deflector array means is adapted to produce a virtual object different from the object as defined by the apertures of the aperture array means. This enables to correct for various defects that may occur, in particular deviations of the transfer function and distortion of the projection optical system.
In order to circumvent imaging problems arising, e.g., from Coulomb interactions and curvature aberration, it is advantageous to re-shape the crossover to a desired degree of aberration. To this end, the multi-beam pattern definition means may comprise
In particular, the modifications of said deflecting electrode potentials may be calculated to compensate for the beam current influence upon the axial position of the image and the size of the image, and/or to additionally compensate for the beam current influence upon the distortion of the image.
Also with this aspect of the invention, the above-mentioned electrostatic Einzel lens and/or a mechanically adjustable lens may be used.
In the following, the present invention is described in more detail with reference to the drawings, which schematically show:
The preferred embodiments of the invention discussed in the following are suitable for use in the PLM2 apparatus mentioned above which has a two-stage demagnifying projection optical system after the pattern definition device which produces the patterned beam.
In the following, with reference to
An overview of a lithographic apparatus employing the preferred embodiment of the invention is shown in
The illumination system comprises, for instance, an electron gun 11, an extraction system 12 as well as a condenser lens system 13. It should, however, be noted that in place of electrons, in general, other electrically charged particles can be used as well. Apart from electrons these can be, for instance, hydrogen ions or heavier ions.
The extraction system 12 accelerates the particles to a defined energy of typically several keV, e.g. 10 keV. By means of a condenser lens system 13, the particles emitted from the source 11 are formed into a wide, substantially telecentric particle beam serving as lithography beam lb. The lithography beam lb then irradiates a PD device 20 which, together with the devices needed to keep its position, form the PD system 102. The PD device 20 is held at a specific position in the path of the lithography beam lb, which thus irradiates a plurality of apertures present in the PD device 20 (for further details on the arrangement and operation of the apertures, see the US-2003-0155534-A1). Some of the apertures are “switched on” or “open” so as to be transparent to the incident beam; the other apertures are “switched off” or “closed”, i.e. non-transparent (opaque) to the beam. The pattern of switched-on apertures is chosen according to the pattern to be exposed on the substrate, as these apertures are the only portions of the PD device transparent to the beam lb, which is thus formed into a patterned beam pb emerging from the apertures (in
The pattern as represented by the patterned beam pb is then projected by means of an electro-magneto-optical projection system 103 onto the substrate 41 where it forms an image of the switched-on mask apertures. The projection system 103 implements a demagnification of, for instance, 200× with two crossovers c, c′. The substrate 41 is, for instance, a silicon wafer covered with a photo-resist layer. The wafer 41 is held and positioned by a wafer stage 40 of the target station 104.
The apparatus 100 may further comprise an alignment system (not shown), which allows to stabilize the position of the image of the mask apertures on the substrate with respect to the particle-optical system by means of reference beams which are formed in the PD system by reference marks at the side of the PD field; the principles of an alignment system are described in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,967,088. For instance, a lateral correction of image position and distortion can be done by means of multipole electrodes 315, 325; additionally, a magnetic coil 62 can be used to generate a rotation of the pattern in the substrate plane.
In the embodiment of the invention shown in
In both projector stages the respective lens system is well compensated with respect to chromatic and geometric aberrations; furthermore, a residual chromatic aberration of the first stage 31 can be compensated by suitable fine correction in the second stage 32.
As a means to shift the image as a whole laterally, i.e. along a direction perpendicular to the optical axis cx, deflection means 315, 325 are provided in one or both of the projector stages. The deflection means can be realized as, for instance, a multipole electrode system which is either positioned near to the crossover, as shown in
These deflection means 315, 325 are not to be confused with the deflection array means of the PD device (see below), since the former only deal with the particle beam as a whole.
The second stage 32 is realized as a lens system, in the present example a doublet lens system with two lenses L1, L2, which modifies an incoming patterned beam from an object B (which in this special case is an intermediate image formed by the previous stage) situated in an object plane bp (corresponding to plane e1 of
In real systems, the image field sp always exhibits deficiencies with respect to the desired imaging onto the target. One major type of deficiency is due to a mis-alignment between the (actual) image field position and the (actual) target position. While the lateral alignment of image and target in particle-optical devices is a well-known issue which has been addressed and solved by so-called alignment procedures such as proposed in the U.S. Pat. No. 4,967,088, also the axial alignment may be problematic, in particular if the shape of the target is not ideally plane but bent or bulged due to mechanic stress or the like. Another type of deficiency is due to the deviation of the geometry of the image field from an ideal plane (“image plane”), typically resulting in a field curvature, in combination with a curvature of the target. The deficiencies discussed here are only slight, but in view of the minute structures to be produced and the high demands with regard to the precise definition of the structures in semiconductor production, they may still be sufficient to cause blurring of the imaged structures at some regions of the target when other regions (for instance the center) of the target receive a sharp image.
Furthermore, as explained in the introduction, the wafer stage may be misplaced with respect to its expected position. Moreover, the image position may be shifted along the Z-direction by the space charge effect, with the amount of Z-shift (“defocusing”) depending on the total current of the patterned beam. The dependence of the Z-shift on the beam current value should be established by calibration experiments for a given projection system preceding its operation, such that during operation, the required Z-correction can be deduced from measurement or calculation of the beam current using the calibration data.
A position detection device ZD is provided for detection of the axial position of the target, which is output as a signal s(tp) for further processing. A suitable position detection device is disclosed by Okita et al. in the U.S. Pat. No. 6,538,721, which uses an illumination light that does not effect development of the resist.
The two consecutive lenses L1, L2, which for the purpose of this disclosure can be assumed as ideally thin, generate a demagnified image of the object B. If the object is positioned in the object focal plane of the first lens L1, which has focal object length f1o, and the image focal plane (focal image length f1i) of the first lens coincides with the object focal plane of the second and final lens L2, with focal length f2o, the demagnification M of the system is given by M=−f1i/f2o; and the image is created in the image focal plane of the second lens L2.
In a typical example, the nominal values of the focal distances are f1:=f1o=f1i=200 mm, and f2:=f2o=f2i=30 mm. (For better clarity, the dimensions in
In the doublet system of
The repositioning of the lens L2, or in general the modification of the lens parameters, is controlled by a controlling device 33, which forms part of the controller system (not shown for the sake of clarity) needed to control the lithography apparatus 100. The controlling device 33 takes the signal s(B) which is used in a pattern definition control PDC to generate the pattern (in this case indirectly, as the object B is actually the image of the pattern) as explained in the US-2003-0155534-A1. From the signal s(B), a beam current value Ib is calculated, for instance in a (digital or analog) summer SUM which adds all transparency values of the apertures in the pattern definition signal s(B). The device 33 also accepts as input the output signal s(tp) from the Z-position measurement of the target. Based on the target Z-position s(tp) and the beam current value Ib, a parameter controller PC generates a correction signal cr which corresponds to the modification of the lens parameters to be corrected, in this case for effecting an axial geometric offset Δz of the lens principal plane. The conversion of the input parameters, such as the target Z-position and the beam current value Ib, into correction values for the lens parameters is done by interpolation of the calibration data determined in the before-hand calibration measurements mentioned above. The correction signal cr is fed to the appropriate components of the lens to effect the desired modification of the lens parameters.
One method to achieve this shifting is to physically move the lens L2 by the needed amount Δz along the Z-direction (parallel to the optical axis) to change the position of the image plane. This is shown in
In order to shift the principal plane, the magnetic lens 300 is provided with two coils, for instance two partial coils 21, 22 of equal size and corresponding shape, which can be operated with respective currents I1, I2 that can be chosen individually. The direction of the currents I1, 12 is the same (e.g., into the plane of drawing). The currents I1, I2 are generated by current sources which are controlled by the control device PC (
In a practical case with two consecutive lenses L1, L2 as in
If the whole excitation Itot is sent through only the first coil 21, the image plane is shifted by about −155 μm, where the negative sign denotes a shift against the direction of the beam, away from the target. In order to keep the demagnification at its original value, the total current has to be decreased, namely by ΔItot=−0.14%.
If, on the other hand, the whole Itot is sent through the second coil 22, the image plane is shifted by about 130 μm, i.e., towards the target. To keep the demagnification at its original value, the total current has to be increased, namely by ΔItot=0.17%. Evidently, the asymmetry between the two otherwise symmetric coils 21, 22 arises from the asymmetric design of the magnetic lens 300.
As becomes clear from this discussion, a quadratic dependence of the current correction ΔItot through each of the coils 21, 22 as a function of the desired image plane shift is established, under the condition that the magnification is kept constant. For instance, if an image plane shift of Δz=−25 μm is required, the required current partition becomes about I1=58.76%, and I2=41.22%; whereas, for an image plane shift of Δz=+25 μm, the required current partition becomes about I1=41.00%, and I2=59.04%.
It should be noted that the actual precision of the current/excitation is required to at least one digit more than indicated in the above examples in order to keep the magnification constant to within 1×10−5.
Preferably, the subsidiary coils 322, 323 may be exactly the same size but wound in opposite directions, and electrically connected. One common supply is then used for both coils, providing the “common” (but opposite) contributions Ic for the two coils in order to shift the image plane, e.g. 9% of the current fed to the main coil 321. In addition, a separate supply may be connected to one of the two coils, e.g. to the right one, which provides an additional current by which the current Ic+ΔIc through the coil 323 deviates from the opposite value of the current −Ic of the coil 322; e.g. ΔIc=+0.04%. Since the value of this additional current is very small, but also very important to keep the magnification constant, it is much easier to be controlled on a separate supply than together with the main excitation current.
If, in addition to a correction of image plane, also a correction of magnification is required, the current through all the coils has to be changed by an identical relative amount, which leads to a change of focal length of the lens.
Another realization of the invention, namely, for an electrostatic lens, is shown in
In order to change the position of the principal plane, the central electrode 430 is split into two identical parts 431, 432 along a plane perpendicular to the optical axis cx; an insulator sheet is inserted between the two half electrodes 431, 432. The voltage applied to one part is, e.g., U1=Uc+ΔUc, the voltage applied to the second part is U2=Uc−ΔUc. In this way, the potential distribution within the lens becomes asymmetric, and as a consequence the principal plane is shifted towards the electrode with the higher (accelerating) potential.
In a particle-optical projection system, where a pattern is imaged by a substantially axially symmetric and homogeneous particle beam, the magnification and the image position will be changed by space charge. Whereas the magnification change may be positive or negative, the image position change due to defocusing is always positive. In optical systems with spherical aberration, the image distortion is also changed by space charge. This is illustrated in
In an optical system with spherical aberration, i.e. a “non-homogeneous” crossover, the space charge effect leads to increased distortion of the image. The mentioned PML2 system disclosed in the US-2003-0155534-A1 uses a two-stage optical system, with two crossovers, for instance having a total demagnification of 200, each stage demagnifying by about a factor of 14. Therefore, the stochastic and global effects of the first stage are reduced by a factor 14 and practically negligible. Only the second crossover (second stage) has to be considered.
It is recalled that the PD device 20 comprises a multitude of apertures, each of which defines a beamlet which, if the corresponding aperture is switched on, is directed and imaged to the target. In multi-beam systems like the PML2, it is possible to minimize the effect of spherical aberration of the lens on the crossover, i.e. to “homogenize” the crossover, by re-direction of each single beamlet already at the position of the object to be imaged. If this is accomplished, varying space charge only results in change of magnification and image position and can be treated by the measures described above. Note that the redirection is independent of the current, only a function of the lens properties and, of course, of the angular distribution of the beam delivered by the illumination system.
To change the direction of the beamlets, an adjustment unit 502 as described below with
The required angular correction of the beamlets can be calculated or measured:
Preferably, an adjustment unit 502 is positioned immediately before the aperture plate 203 of the PD system as shown in
The adjustment unit 502 can be realized as explained in the following with reference to FIGS. 8 to 17. Referring to
A plan view detail of one embodiment of the deflector plates 50 a, 50 b is shown in
During one wafer exposure, the electric potentials applied to the electrodes of the adjustment unit 501 are practically constant over time or varying only slowly in order to adapt to varying substrate geometry during the process of the scanning of the substrate field (FIG. 4 of US-2003-0155534-A1). Also, the spatial variation of the electric potentials within the adjustment unit (i.e., with regard to different x-y positions of the same adjustment unit) is slow as the required angular changes will vary only gradually. Therefore, in the embodiment shown here, as can be seen from
The fact that the deflector electrodes are arranged in corresponding lines, such as regular rows running in parallel (
For the feeding of the potentials to the electrodes and, more specifically, for provision of a gradual variation of the potentials of the electrodes between the feeding points, various ways are possible.
One way is to partition the entire aperture area in n×m sub-areas A11, A12, . . . Anm as shown in
Another possibility is to use a resistor array in order to obtain a linear interpolation of the potentials between adjacent feeding points Pij. For each of the sub-areas Aij (i=1, . . . , n; j=1, . . . , m) the four lattice points Pij, P(i+1)j, Pi(j+1), P(i+1)(j+1) are connected in the array. As shown in
In a further variant, the distribution of the potentials may be realized using a “continuous interpolation”. Then for each polarity of the potentials one layer of a resist material is provided instead of the conductor lines described above. The feeding potentials are applied to the lattice points Pij, and a varying potential will establish which interpolates the values at the feeding points. The potential can then be taken at any set of points in the sub-area Aij as needed for supplying the electrodes of the respective polarity. For the production of the resistive layers and the feedthroughs state-of-the-art lithography and etch techniques can be used.
Furthermore, with the help of the adjustment unit 501 a mis-alignment of the PD plates can be compensated, in particular, a mis-alignment of the type where the openings belonging to the same aperture are aligned along an axis which is not exactly parallel to the Z-axis, but at an angle θ2. Provided that the plates and the structures in them were defined in a corresponding manner, for instance using the same lithography tool for producing them, the relative position of the corresponding structures, in particular the openings 210, 220, 230 will match very well, i.e. with very low deviations of only a few nm. This allows to align the cover plate, blanking plate and aperture plate with respect to each other and to the particle beam in such a way that the particle beam exactly traverses the sequence of openings in the plates. The adjustment unit 501 compensates for a possible deviation of the (local) direction θ1 of the particle beam lb and the (local) direction θ2 of the stacking axis of the openings. The deviation of the stacking direction from the ideal orthogonality (running parallel to the Z-axis) may be due to a tilting of the stack of plates, or due to a torsion of the stack around the Z-axis.
As mentioned with reference to
A third type of adjustment unit 503 (of the same layout as the unit 502), also shown in
It should be noted that for the case that the trajectories will not deviate from the respective meridional planes, it will be sufficient to provide the adjustment units 501, 502 with a radial deflector arrangement only, rather than with a pair of deflectors. Then the deflectors will be realized with deflector plates oriented along rings running around the optical axis.