US 20050227937 A1
The present invention relates to nucleic acid molecules which modulate the synthesis, expression and/or stability of an mRNA encoding one or more receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor.
1. An RNA molecule which specifically targets the cleavage of RNA encoding human fit-1 protein, wherein said RNA molecule is of length between about 14 and about 24 nucleotides and comprises sequence complementary to said fit-1 RNA or a portion thereof.
2. The RNA molecule of
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4. The RNA molecule of
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7. The RNA molecule of
8. The RNA molecule of
9. A composition comprising the RNA molecule of
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This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/685,664 filed Oct. 10, 2000, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/584,040 filed Jan. 11, 1996 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,346,395, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/005,974 filed Oct. 26, 1995, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
The Sequence Listing file named “MBHB00-876-K SequenceListing.txt” (2,337,188 bytes in size) submitted on Compact Disc-Recordable (CD-R) medium (“010706—1627”) in compliance with 37 C.F.R. §1.52(e) is incorporated herein by reference.”
This invention relates to methods and reagents for the treatment of diseases or conditions relating to the levels of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor(s).
The following is a discussion of relevant art, none of which is admitted to be prior art to the present invention.
VEGF, also referred to as vascular permeability factor (VPF) and vasculotropin, is a potent and highly specific mitogen of vascular endothelial cells (for a review see Ferrara, 1993 Trends Cardiovas. Med. 3, 244; Neufeld et al., 1994 Prog. Growth Factor Res. 5, 89). VEGF induced neovascularization is implicated in various pathological conditions such as tumor angiogenesis, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, wound healing and others.
VEGF, an endothelial cell-specific mitogen, is a 34-45 kDa glycoprotein with a wide range of activities that include promotion of angiogenesis, enhancement of vascular-permeability and others. VEGF belongs to the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family of growth factors with approximately 18% homology with the A and B chain of PDGF at the amino acid level. Additionally, VEGF contains the eight conserved cysteine residues common to all growth factors belonging to the PDGF family (Neufeld et al., supra). VEGF protein is believed to exist predominantly as disulfide-linked homodimers; monomers of VEGF have been shown to be inactive (Plouet et al., 1989 EMBO J. 8, 3801).
VEGF exerts its influence on vascular endothelial cells by binding to specific high-affinity cell surface receptors. Covalent cross-linking experiments with 125I-labeled VEGF protein have led to the identification of three high molecular weight complexes of 225, 195 and 175 kDa presumed to be VEGF and VEGF receptor complexes (Vaisman et al., 1990 J. Biol. Chem. 265, 19461). Based on these studies VEGF-specific receptors of 180, 150 and 130 kDa molecular mass were predicted. In endothelial cells, receptors of 150 and the 130 kDa have been identified. The VEGF receptors belong to the superfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by a conserved cytoplasmic catalytic kinase domain and a hydrophylic kinase sequence. The extracellular domains of the VEGF receptors consist of seven immunoglobulin-like domains that are thought to be involved in VEGF binding functions.
The two most abundant and high-affinity receptors of VEGF are fit-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase) cloned by Shibuya et al., 1990 Oncogene 5, 519 and KDR (kinase-insert-domain-containing receptor) cloned by Terman et al., 1991 Oncogene 6, 1677. The murine homolog of KDR, cloned by Mathews et al., 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, 88, 9026, shares 85% amino acid homology with KDR and is termed as flk-1 (fetal liver kinase-1). Recently it has been shown that the high-affinity binding of VEGF to its receptors is modulated by cell surface-associated heparin and heparin-like molecules (Gitay-Goren et al., 1992 J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6093).
VEGF expression has been associated with several pathological states such as tumor angiogenesis, several forms of blindness, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and others. Following is a brief summary of evidence supporting the involvement of VEGF in various diseases:
1) Tumor angiogenesis: Increased levels of VEGF gene expression have been reported in vascularized and edema-associated brain tumors (Berkman et al., 1993 J. Clini. Invest. 91, 153). A more direct demostration of the role of VEGF in tumor angiogenesis was demonstrated by Jim Kim et al., 1993 Nature 362,841 wherein, monoclonal antibodies against VEGF were successfully used to inhibit the growth of rhabdomyosarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme cells in nude mice. Similarly, expression of a dominant negative mutated form of the fit-1 VEGF receptor inhibits vascularization induced by human gliobiastoma cells in nude mice (Millauer et al., 1994, Nature 367, 576).
2) Ocular diseses: Aiello et al., 1994 New Engl. J. Med. 331, 1480, showed that the ocular fluid, of a majority of patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy and other retinal disorders, contains a high concentration of VEGF. Miller et al., 1994 Am. J. Pathol. 145, 574, reported elevated levels of VEGF mRNA in patients suffering from retinal ischemia. These observations support a direct role for VEGF in ocular diseases.
3) Psoriasis: Detmar et al., 1994 J. Exp. Med. 180, 1141 reported that VEGF and its receptors were over-expressed in psoriatic skin and psoriatic dermal microvessels, suggesting that VEGF plays a significant role in psoriasis.
4) Rheumatoid arthritis: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies on tissues from the joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis show an increased level of VEGF and its receptors (Fava et al., 1994 J. Exp. Med. 180, 341). Additionally, Koch et al., 1994 J. Immunol. 152, 4149, found that VEGF-specific antibodies were able to significantly reduce the mitogenic activity of synovial tissues from patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. These observations support a direct role for VEGF in rheumatoid arthritis.
In addition to the above data on pathological conditions involving excessive angiogenesis, a number of studies have demonstrated that VEGF is both necessary and sufficient for neovascularization. Takashita et al., 1995 J. Clin. Invest. 93, 662, demonstrated that a single injection of VEGF augmented collateral vessel development in a rabbit model of ischemia. VEGF also can induce neovascularization when injected into the cornea. Expression of the VEGF gene in CHO cells is sufficient to confer tumorigenic potential to the cells. Kim et al., supra and Millauer et al., supra used monoclonal antibodies against VEGF or a dominant negative form of flk-1 receptor to inhibit tumor-induced neovascularization.
During development, VEGF and its receptors are associated with regions of new vascular growth (Millauer et al., 1993 Cell 72, 835; Shalaby et al., 1993 J. Clin. Invest. 91, 2235). Furthermore, transgenic mice lacking either of the VEGF receptors are defective in blood vessel formation, infact these mouse do not survive; flk-1 appears to be required for differentiation of endothelial cells, while fit-1 appears to be required at later stages of vessel formation (Shalaby et al., 1995 Nature 376, 62; Fung et al., 1995 Nature 376, 66). Thus, these receptors must be present to properly signal endothelial cells or their precursors to respond to vascularization-promoting stimuli.
All of the conditions listed above, involve extensive vascularization. This hyper-stimulation of endothelial cells may be alleviated by VEGF antagonists. Thus most of the therapeutic efforts for the above conditions have concentrated on finding inhibitors of the VEGF protein.
Kim et al., 1993 Nature 362, 841 have been successful in inhibiting VEGF-induced tumor growth and angiogenesis in nude mice by treating the mice with VEGF-specific monoclonal antibody.
Koch et al., 1994 J. Immunol. 152, 4149 showed that the mitogenic activity of microvascular endothelial cells found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue explants and the chemotactic property of endothelial cells from RA synovial fluid can be neutralized significantly by treatment with VEGF-specific antibodies.
Ullrich et al., International PCT Publication No. WO 94/11499 and Millauer et al., 1994 Nature 367, 576 used a soluble form of flk-1 receptor (dominant-negative mutant) to prevent VEGF-mediated tumor angiogenesis in immunodeficient mice.
Kendall and Thomas, International PCT Publication No. WO 94/21679 describe the use of naturally occuring or recombinantly-engineered soluble forms of VEGF receptors to inhibit VEGF activity.
Robinson, International PCT Publication No. WO 95/04142 describes the use of antisense oligonucleotides targeted against VEGF RNA to inhibit VEGF expression.
Jellinek et al., 1994 Biochemistry 33, 10450 describe the use of VEGF-specific high-affinity RNA aptamers to inhibit the binding of VEGF to its receptors.
Rockwell and Goldstein, International PCT Publication No. WO 95/21868, describe the use of anti-VEGF receptor monoclonal antibodies to neutralize the the effect of VEGF on endothelial cells.
The invention features novel nucleic acid-based techniques [e.g., enzymatic nucleic acid molecules (ribozymes), antisense nucleic acids, 2-5A antisense chimeras, triplex DNA, antisense nucleic acids containing RNA cleaving chemical groups (Cook et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,359,051)] and methods for their use to down regulate or inhibit the expression of receptors of VEGF (VEGF-R).
In a preferred embodiment, the invention features use of one or more of the nucleic acid-based techniques to inhibit the expression of fit-1 and/or flk-1/KDR receptors.
By “inhibit” it is meant that the activity of VEGF-R or level of mRNAs or equivalent RNAs encoding VEGF-R is reduced below that observed in the absence of the nucleic acid. In one embodiment, inhibition with ribozymes preferably is below that level observed in the presence of an enzymatically inactive RNA molecule that is able to bind to the same site on the mRNA, but is unable to cleave that RNA. In another embodiment, inhibition with antisense oligonucleotides is preferably below that level observed in the presence of for example, an oligonucleotide with scrambled sequence or with mismatches.
By “enzymatic nucleic acid molecule” it is meant an RNA molecule which has complementarity in a substrate binding region to a specified gene target, and also has an enzymatic activity which is active to specifically cleave target RNA. That is, the enzymatic RNA molecule is able to intermolecularly cleave RNA and thereby inactivate a target RNA molecule. This complementary regions allow sufficient hybridization of the enzymatic RNA molecule to the target RNA and thus permit cleavage. One hundred percent complementarity is preferred, but complementarity as low as 50-75% may also be useful in this invention. By “equivalent” RNA to VEGF-R is meant to include those naturally occurring RNA molecules in various animals, including human, mice, rats, rabbits, primates and pigs.
By “antisense nucleic acid” it is meant a non-enzymatic nucleic acid molecule that binds to target RNA by means of RNA-RNA or RNA-DNA or RNA-PNA (protein nucleic acid; Egholm et al., 1993 Nature 365, 566) interactions and alters the activity of the target RNA (for a review see Stein and Cheng, 1993 Science 261, 1004).
By “2-5A antisense chimera” it is meant, an antisense oligonucleotide containing a 5′ phosphorylated 2′-5′-linked adenylate residues. These chimeras bind to target RNA in a sequence-specific manner and activate a cellular 2-5A-dependent ribonuclease which, in turn, cleaves the target RNA (Torrence et al., 1993 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 1300).
By “triplex DNA” it is meant an oligonucleotide that can bind to a double-stranded DNA in a sequence-specific manner to form a triple-strand helix. Formation of such triple helix structure has been shown to inhibit transcription of the targeted gene (Duval-Valentin et al., 1992 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 504).
By “gene” it is meant a nucleic acid that encodes an RNA.
By “complementarity” is meant that a nucleic acid can form hydrogen bond(s) with another RNA sequence by either traditional Watson-Crick or other non-traditional types (for example, Hoogsteen type) of base-paired interactions.
Six basic varieties of naturally-occurring enzymatic RNAs are known presently. Each can catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA phosphodiester bonds in trans (and thus can cleave other RNA molecules) under physiological conditions. Table I summarizes some of the characteristics of these ribozymes. In general, enzymatic nucleic acids act by first binding to a target RNA. Such binding occurs through the target binding portion of a enzymatic nucleic acid which is held in close proximity to an enzymatic portion of the molecule that acts to cleave the target RNA. Thus, the enzymatic nucleic acid first recognizes and then binds a target RNA through complementary base-pairing, and once bound to the correct site, acts enzymatically to cut the target RNA. Strategic cleavage of such a target RNA will destroy its ability to direct synthesis of an encoded protein. After an enzymatic nucleic acid has bound and cleaved its RNA target, it is released from that RNA to search for another target and can repeatedly bind and cleave new targets. Thus, a single ribozyme molecule is able to cleave many molecules of target RNA. In addition, the ribozyme is a highly specific inhibitor of gene expression, with the specificity of inhibition depending not only on the base-pairing mechanism of binding to the target RNA, but also on the mechanism of target RNA cleavage. Single mismatches, or base-substitutions, near the site of cleavage can completely eliminate catalytic activity of a ribozyme.
Ribozymes that cleave the specified sites in VEGF-R mRNAs represent a novel therapeutic approach to treat tumor angiogenesis, ocular diseases, rhuematoid arthritis, psoriasis and others. Applicant indicates that ribozymes are able to inhibit the activity of VEGF-R (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) and that the catalytic activity of the ribozymes is required for their inhibitory effect. Those of ordinary skill in the art will find that it is clear from the examples described that other ribozymes that cleave VEGF-R mRNAs may be readily designed and are within the invention.
In preferred embodiments of this inventions, the enzymatic nucleic acid molecule is formed in a hammerhead or hairpin motif, but may also be formed in the motif of a hepatitis delta virus, group I intron or RNaseP RNA (in association with an RNA guide sequence) or Neurospora VS RNA. Examples of such hammerhead motifs are described by Rossi et al., 1992, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 8, 183, of hairpin motifs by Hampel et al., EP0360257, Hampel and Tritz, 1989 Biochemistry 28, 4929, and Hampel et al., 1990 Nucleic Acids Res. 18, 299, and an example of the hepatitis delta virus motif is described by Perrotta and Been, 1992 Biochemistry 31, 16; of the RNaseP motif by Guerrier-Takada et al., 1983 Cell 35, 849, Neurospora VS RNA ribozyme motif is described by Collins (Saville and Collins, 1990 Cell 61, 685-696; Saville and Collins, 1991 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 8826-8830; Collins and Olive, 1993 Biochemistry 32, 2795-2799) and of the Group I intron by Cech et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,987,071. The specific motifs are not limiting in the invention and those skilled in the art will recognize that all that is important in an enzymatic nucleic acid molecule of this invention is that it has a specific substrate binding site which is complementary to one or more of the target gene RNA regions, and that it have nucleotide sequences within or surrounding that substrate binding site which impart an RNA cleaving activity to the molecule.
In a preferred embodiment the invention provides a method for producing a class of enzymatic cleaving agents which exhibit a high degree of specificity for the RNA of a desired target. The enzymatic nucleic acid molecule is preferably targeted to a highly conserved sequence region of target mRNAs encoding VEGF-R proteins (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) such that specific treatment of a disease or condition can be provided with either one or several enzymatic nucleic acids. Such enzymatic nucleic acid molecules can be delivered exogenously to specific tissue or cellular targets as required. Alternatively, the ribozymes can be expressed from DNA and/or RNA vectors that are delivered to specific cells.
Synthesis of nucleic acids greater than 100 nucleotides in length is difficult using automated methods, and the therapeutic cost of such molecules is prohibitive. In this invention, small nucleic acid motifs (e.g., antisense oligonucleotides, hammerhead or the hairpin ribozymes) are used for exogenous delivery. The simple structure of these molecules increases the ability of the nucleic acid to invade targeted regions of the mRNA structure. However, these nucleic acid molecules can also be expressed within cells from eukaryotic promoters (e.g., Izant and Weintraub, 1985 Science 229, 345; McGarry and Lindquist, 1986 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83, 399; SullengerScanlon et al., 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 10591-5; Kashani-Sabet et al., 1992 Antisense Res. Dev., 2, 3-15; Dropulic et al., 1992 J. Virol, 66, 1432-41; Weerasinghe et al., 1991 J. Virol, 65, 5531-4; Ojwang et al., 1992 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 10802-6; Chen et al., 1992 Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 4581-9; Sarver et al., 1990 Science 247, 1222-1225; Thompson et al., 1995 Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2259). Those skilled in the art realize that any nucleic acid can be expressed in eukaryotic cells from the appropriate DNA/RNA vector. The activity of such nucleic acids can be augmented by their release from the primary transcript by a ribozyme (Draper et al., PCT WO93/23569, and Sullivan et al., PCT WO94/02595, both hereby incorporated in their totality by reference herein; Ohkawa et al., 1992 Nucleic Acids Svmp. Ser., 27, 15-6; Taira et al., 1991, Nucleic Acids Res., 19, 5125-30; Ventura et al., 1993 Nucleic Acids Res. 21, 3249-55; Chowrira et al., 1994 J. Biol. Chem. 269, 25856).
Such nucleic acid molecules are useful for the prevention of the diseases and onditions discussed above, and any other diseases or conditions that are related to the evels of VEGF-R (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) in a cell or tissue.
By “related” is meant that the reduction of VEGF-R (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) RNA levels and thus reduction in the level of the respective protein will relieve, to some extent, the symptoms of the disease or condition.
Ribozymes are added directly, or can be complexed with cationic lipids, packaged within liposomes, or otherwise delivered to target cells or tissues. The nucleic acid or nucleic acid complexes can be locally administered to relevant tissues ex vivo, or in vivo through injection, infusion pump or stent, with or without their incorporation in biopolymers. In preferred embodiments, the ribozymes have binding arms which are complementary to the sequences in Tables II to IX. Examples of such ribozymes also are shown in Tables II to IX. Examples of such ribozymes consist essentially of sequences defined in these Tables. By “consists essentially of” is meant that the active ribozyme contains an enzymatic center or core equivalent to those in the examples, and binding arms able to bind mRNA such that cleavage at the target site occurs. Other sequences may be present which do not interfere with such cleavage.
In another aspect of the invention, ribozymes that cleave target RNA molecules and inhibit VEGF-R (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) activity are expressed from transcription units inserted into DNA or RNA vectors. The recombinant vectors are preferably DNA plasmids or viral vectors. Ribozyme expressing viral vectors could be constructed based on, but not limited to, adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, adenovirus, or alphavirus. Preferably, the recombinant vectors capable of expressing the ribozymes are delivered as described above, and persist in target cells. Alternatively, viral vectors may be used that provide for transient expression of ribozymes. Such vectors might be repeatedly administered as necessary. Once expressed, the ribozymes cleave the target mRNA. Delivery of ribozyme expressing vectors could be systemic, such as by intravenous or intramuscular administration, by administration to target cells ex-planted from the patient followed by reintroduction into the patient, or by any other means that would allow for introduction into the desired target cell.
By “vectors” is meant any nucleic acid- and/or viral-based technique used to deliver a desired nucleic acid.
Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description of the preferred embodiments thereof, and from the claims.
First the drawings will be described briefly.
Ribozymes of this invention block to some extent VEGF-R (specifically fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) production and can be used to treat disease or diagnose such disease. Ribozymes will be delivered to cells in culture, to cells or tissues in animal models of angiogenesis and/or RA and to human cells or tissues ex vivo or in vivo. Ribozyme cleavage of VEGF-R RNAs (specifically RNAs that encode fit-1 and flk-1/KDR) in these systems may alleviate disease symptoms.
Targets for useful ribozymes can be determined as disclosed in Draper et al., International PCT Publication No. WO 95/13380, and hereby incorporated by reference herein in totality. Other examples include the following PCT applications which concern inactivation of expression of disease-related genes: WO 95/23225, WO 95/13380, WO 94/02595, incorporated by reference herein. Rather than repeat the guidance provided in those documents here, below are provided specific examples of such methods, not limiting to those in the art. Ribozymes to such targets are designed as described in those applications and synthesized to be tested in vitro and in vivo, as also described.
The sequence of human and mouse fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 mRNAs were screened for optimal ribozyme target sites using a computer folding algorithm. Hammerhead or hairpin ribozyme cleavage sites were identified. These sites are shown in Tables II to IX (all sequences are 5′ to 3′ in the tables; X can be any base-paired sequence, the actual sequence is not relevant here). The nucleotide base position is noted in the Tables as that site to be cleaved by the designated type of ribozyme. While mouse and human sequences can be screened and ribozymes thereafter designed, the human targeted sequences are of most utility. However, as discussed in Stinchcomb et al., “Method and Composition for Treatment of Restenosis and Cancer Using Ribozymes,” filed May 18, 1994, U.S. Ser. No. 08/245,466, mouse targeted ribozymes may be useful to test efficacy of action of the ribozyme prior to testing in humans. The nucleotide base position is noted in the Tables as that site to be cleaved by the designated type of ribozyme.
Hammerhead or hairpin ribozymes were designed that could bind and cleave target RNA in a sequence-specific manner. The ribozymes were individually analyzed by computer folding (Jaeger et al., 1989 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7706) to assess whether the ribozyme sequences fold into the appropriate secondary structure. Those ribozymes with unfavorable intramolecular interactions between the binding arms and the catalytic core were eliminated from consideration. Varying binding arm lengths can be chosen to optimize activity.
Ribozymes of the hammerhead or hairpin motif were designed to anneal to various sites in the mRNA message. The binding arms are complementary to the target site sequences described above. The ribozymes were chemically synthesized. The method of synthesis used follows the procedure for normal RNA synthesis as described below and in Usman et al., 1987 J. Am. Chem. Soc., 109, 7845; Scaringe et al., 1990 Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 5433; and Wincott et al., 1995 Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2677-2684 and make use of common nucleic acid protecting and coupling groups, such as dimethoxytrityl at the 5′-end, and phosphoramidites at the 3′-end. Small scale synthesis were conducted on a 394 Applied Biosystems, Inc. synthesizer using a modified 2.5 pmol scale protocol with a 5 min coupling step for alkylsilyl protected nucleotides and 2.5 min coupling step for 2′-O-methylated nucleotides. Table XI outlines the amounts, and the contact times, of the reagents used in the synthesis cycle. A 6.5-fold excess (163 μL of 0.1 M=16.3 pmol) of phosphoramidite and a 24-fold excess of S-ethyl tetrazole (238 μL of 0.25 M=59.5 pmol) relative to polymer-bound 5′-hydroxyl was used in each coupling cycle. Average coupling yields on the 394 Applied Biosystems, Inc. synthesizer, determined by colorimetric quantitation of the trityl fractions, were 97.5-99%. Other oligonucleotide synthesis reagents for the 394 Applied Biosystems, Inc. synthesizer: detritylation solution was 2% TCA in methylene chloride (ABI); capping was performed with 16% N-methyl imidazole in THF (ABI) and 10% acetic anhydride/10% 2,6-lutidine in THF (ABI); oxidation solution was 16.9 mM 12, 49 mM pyridine, 9% water in THF (Millipore). B & J Synthesis Grade acetonitrile was used directly from the reagent bottle. S-Ethyl tetrazole solution (0.25 M in acetonitrile) was made up from the solid obtained from American International Chemical, Inc.
Deprotection of the RNA was performed as follows. The polymer-bound oligoribonucleotide, trityl-off, was transferred from the synthesis column to a 4 mL glass screw top vial and suspended in a solution of methylamine (MA) at 65° C. for 10 min. After cooling to −20° C., the supernatant was removed from the polymer support. The support was washed three times with 1.0 mL of EtOH:MeCN:H2O/3:1:1, vortexed and the supernatant was then added to the first supernatant. The combined supernatants, containing the oligoribonucleotide, were dried to a white powder.
The base deprotected oligoribonucleotide was resuspended in anhydrous TEA.HF/NMP solution (250 μL of a solution of 1.5 mL N-methyl-pyrrolidinone, 750 μL TEA and 1.0 mL TEAe3HF to provide a 1.4 M HF concentration) and heated to 65° C. for 1.5 h. The resulting, fully deprotected, oligomer was quenched with 50 mM TEAB (9 mL) prior to anion exchange desalting.
For anion exchange desalting of the deprotected oligomer, the TEAB solution was loaded onto a Qiagen 500® anion exchange cartridge (Qiagen Inc.) that was prewashed with 50 mM TEAB (10 mL). After washing the loaded cartridge with 50 mM TEAB (10 mL), the RNA was eluted with 2 M TEAB (10 mL) and dried to a white powder.
Inactive hammerhead ribozymes were synthesized by substituting a U for G5 and a U for A14 (numbering from Hertel, K. J., et al., 1992, Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 3252).
The average stepwise coupling yields were >98% (Wincott et al., 1995 Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2677-2684).
Hairpin ribozymes are synthesized in two parts and annealed to reconstruct the active ribozyme (Chowrira and Burke, 1992 Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 2835-2840). Ribozymes are also synthesized from DNA templates using bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (Milligan and Uhlenbeck, 1989, Methods Enzymol. 180, 51).
All ribozymes are modified extensively to enhance stability by modification with nuclease resistant groups, for example, 2′-amino, 2′-C-allyl, 2′-flouro, 2′-O-methyl, 2′-H (for a review see Usman and Cedergren, 1992 TIBS 17, 34; Usman et al., 1994 Nucleic Acids Symp. Ser. 31, 163). Ribozymes are purified by gel electrophoresis using general methods or are purified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC; See Usman et al., Synthesis, deprotection, analysis and purification of RNA and ribozymes, filed May 18, 1994, U.S. Ser. No. 08/245,736 Wincott et al., Supra, the totality of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference) and are resuspended in water.
The sequences of the ribozymes that are chemically synthesized, useful in this study, are shown in Tables II to IX. Those in the art will recognize that these sequences are representative only of many more such sequences where the enzymatic portion of the ribozyme (all but the binding arms) is altered to affect activity. Stem-loop IV sequence of hairpin ribozymes listed in for example Table III (5′-CACGUUGUG-3′) can be altered (substitution, deletion, and/or insertion) to contain any sequence, provided a minimum of two base-paired stem structure can form. The sequences listed in Tables II to IX may be formed of ribonucleotides or other nucleotides or non-nucleotides. Such ribozymes are equivalent to the ribozymes described specifically in the Tables.
Optimizing Ribozyme Activity
Ribozyme activity can be optimized as described by Stinchcomb et al., supra. The details will not be repeated here, but include altering the length of the ribozyme binding arms (stems I and III, see
Sullivan, et al., supra, describes the general methods for delivery of enzymatic RNA molecules. Ribozymes may be administered to cells by a variety of methods known to those familiar to the art, including, but not restricted to, encapsulation in liposomes, by iontophoresis, or by incorporation into other vehicles, such as hydrogels, cyclodextrins, biodegradable nanocapsules, and bioadhesive microspheres. For some indications, ribozymes may be directly delivered ex vivo to cells or tissues with or without the aforementioned vehicles. Alternatively, the RNA/vehicle combination is locally delivered by direct injection or by use of a catheter, infusion pump or stent. Other routes of delivery include, but are not limited to, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous or joint injection, aerosol inhalation, oral (tablet or pill form), topical, systemic, ocular, intraperitoneal and/or intrathecal delivery. More detailed descriptions of ribozyme delivery and administration are provided in Sullivan et al., supra and Draper et al., supra which have been incorporated by reference herein.
Another means of accumulating high concentrations of a ribozyme(s) within cells is to incorporate the ribozyme-encoding sequences into a DNA or RNA expression vector. Transcription of the ribozyme sequences are driven from a promoter for eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (pol I), RNA polymerase II (pol II), or RNA polymerase III (pol III). Transcripts from pol II or pol III promoters will be expressed at high levels in all cells; the levels of a given pol II promoter in a given cell type will depend on the nature of the gene regulatory sequences (enhancers, silencers, etc.) present nearby. Prokaryotic RNA polymerase promoters are also used, providing that the prokaryotic RNA polymerase enzyme is expressed in the appropriate cells (Elroy-Stein and Moss, 1990 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 6743-7; Gao and Huang 1993 Nucleic Acids Res., 21, 2867-72; Lieber et al., 1993 Methods Enzymol., 217, 47-66; Zhou et al., 1990 Mol. Cell. Biol., 10, 4529-37; Thompson et al., 1995 supra). Several investigators have demonstrated that ribozymes or antisese expressed from such promoters can function in mammalian cells (e.g. Kashani-Sabet et al., 1992 Antisense Res. Dev., 2, 3-15; Ojwang et al., 1992 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 10802-6; Chen et al., 1992 Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 4581-9; Yu et al., 1993 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90, 6340-4; L'Huillier et al., 1992 EMBO J. 11, 4411-8; Lisziewicz et al., 1993 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 90, 8000-4; Thompson et al., 1995 Nucleic Acids Res. 23, 2259). The above ribozyme transcription units can be incorporated into a variety of vectors for introduction into mammalian cells, including but not restricted to, plasmid DNA vectors, viral DNA vectors (such as adenovirus or adeno-associated virus vectors), or viral RNA vectors (such as retroviral or alphavirus vectors).
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a transcription unit expressing a ribozyme that cleaves RNAs that encode fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 are inserted into a plasmid DNA vector or an adenovirus or adeno-associated virus DNA viral vector or a retroviral RNA vector. Viral vectors have been used to transfer genes and lead to either transient or long term gene expression (Zabner et al., 1993 Cell 75, 207; Carter, 1992 Curr. OPi. Biotech. 3, 533). The adenovirus, MV or retroviral vector is delivered as recombinant viral particles. The DNA may be delivered alone or complexed with vehicles (as described for RNA above). The recombinant adenovirus or MV or retroviral particles are locally administered to the site of treatment, e.g., through incubation or inhalation in vivo or by direct application to cells or tissues ex vivo. Retroviral vectors have also been used to express ribozymes in mammalian cells (Ojwang et al., 1992 supra; Thompson et al., 1995 supra).
fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 are attractive nucleic acid-based therapeutic targets by several criteria. The interaction between VEGF and VEGF-R is well-established. Efficacy can be tested in well-defined and predictive animal models. Finally, the disease conditions are serious and current therapies are inadequate. Whereas protein-based therapies would inhibit VEGF activity nucleic acid-based therapy provides a direct and elegant approach to directly modulate fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 expression.
Because fit-1 and KDR mRNAs are highly homologous in certain regions, some ribozyme target sites are also homologous (see Table X). In this case, a single ribozyme will target both fit-1 and KDR mRNAs. At partially homologous sites, a single ribozyme can sometimes be designed to accomodate a site on both mRNAs by including G/U basepairing. For example, if there is a G present in a ribozyme target site in KDR mRNA at the same position there is an A in the fit-1 ribozyme target site, the ribozyme can be synthesized with a U at the complementary position and it will bind both to sites. The advantage of one ribozyme that targets both VEGF-R mRNAs is clear, especially in cases where both VEGF receptors may contribute to the progression of angiogenesis in the disease state.
“Angiogenesis” refers to formation of new blood vessels which is an essential process in reproduction, development and wound repair. “Tumor angiogenesis” refers to the induction of the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue into a solid tumor. Tumor growth and tumor metastasis are dependent on angiogenesis (for a review see Folkman, 1985 supra; Folkman 1990 J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 82, 4; Folkman and Shing, 1992 J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10931).
Angiogenesis plays an important role in other diseases such as arthritis wherein new blood vessels have been shown to invade the joints and degrade cartilage (Folkman and Shing, supra).
“Retinopathy” refers to inflammation of the retina and/or degenerative condition of the retina which may lead to occlusion of the retina and eventual blindness. In “diabetic retinopathy” angiogenesis causes the capillaries in the retina to invade the vitreous resulting in bleeding and blindness which is also seen in neonatal retinopathy (for a review see Folkman, 1985 supra; Folkman 1990 supra; Folkman and Shing, 1992 supra).
By engineering ribozyme motifs applicant has designed several ribozymes directed against fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 encoded mRNA sequences. These ribozymes were synthesized with modifications that improve their nuclease resistance (Beigelman et al., 1995 J. Biol. Chem. 270, 25702) and enhance their activity in cells. The ability of ribozymes to cleave target sequences in vitro was evaluated essentially as described in Thompson et al., PCT Publication No. WO 93/23057; Draper et al., PCT Publication No. WO 95/04818.
Several common human cell lines are available that express endogenous fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1. fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 can be detected easily with monoclonal antibodies. Use of appropriate fluorescent reagents and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) will permit direct quantitation of surface fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 on a cell-by-cell basis. Active ribozymes are expected to directly reduce fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 expression and thereby reduce VEGF binding to the cells. In this example, human umbelical cord microvascular endothelial cells were used.
Plates are coated with 1.5% gelatin and allowed to stand for one hour. Cells (e.g., microvascular endothelial cells derived from human umbilical cord vein) are plated at 20,000 cells/well (24 well plate) in 200 μl growth media and incubated overnight (−1 doubling) to yield ˜40,000 cells (75-80% confluent).
Media is removed from cells and the cells are washed two times with 300 μl 1× PBS: Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture. A complex of 200-500 nM ribozyme and LipofectAMINE® (3:1 lipid:phosphate ratio) in 200 μl OptiMEM® (5% FBS) was added to the cells. The cells are incubated for 6 hr (equivalent to 2-3 VEGF-R turnovers).
125I VEGF Binding Assay:
The assay is carried out on ice to inhibit internalization of VEGF during the experiment. The media containing the ribozyme is removed from the cells and the cells are washed twice with with 300 μl 1×PBS: Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture containing 1% BSA. Appropriate 125I VEGF solution (100,000 cpm/well, +/−10× cold 1×PBS, 1% BSA) was applied to the cells. The cells are incubated on ice for 1 h. 125I VEGF-containing solution is removed and the cells are washed three times with with 300 μl 1×PBS: Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture containing 1% BSA. To each well 300 μl of 100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 0.5% Triton X-100 was added and the the mixture was incubated for 2 min. The 125I VEGF-binding was quantitated using standard scintillation counting techniques.
Percent inhibition was calculated as follows:
Hammerhead ribozymes targeted to twenty sites within fit-1 RNA were synthesized as described above. Sequence of the ribozymes used are shown in Table II; the length of stem II region is 3 bp. The hammerhead ribozymes were chemically modified such that the ribozyme consists of ribose residues at five positions; U4 and U7 positions contain 2′-NH2 modifications, the remaining nucleotide positions contain 2′-O-methyl substitutions; four nucleotides at the 5′ terminus contains phosphorothioate substitutions. Additionally, 3′ end of the ribozyme contains a 3′-3′ linked inverted abasic ribose.
Hammerhead ribozymes targeted to twenty one sites within KDR RNA were synthesized as described above. Sequence of the ribozymes used are shown in Table IV; the length of stem II region is 3 bp. The hammerhead ribozymes were chemically modified such that the ribozyme consists of ribose residues at five positions; U4 and U7 positions contain 2′-NH2 modifications, the remaining nucleotide positions contain 2′-O-methyl substitutions; four nucleotides at the 5′ terminus contains phosphorothioate substitutions. Additionally, the 3′ end of the ribozyme contains a 3′-3′ linked inverted abasic deoxyribose.
24-well plates are coated with 1.5% gelatin (porcine skin 300 bloom). After 1 hr, excess gelatin is washed off of the plate. Microvascular endothelial cells are plated at 5,000 cells/well (24 well plate) in 200 p I growth media. The cells are allowed to grow for ˜18 hr (˜1 doubling) to yield ˜10,000 cells (25-30% confluent).
Media is removed from the cells, and the cells are washed two times with 300 p I 1×PBS: Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture.
For anti-fit-1 HH ribozyme experiment (
For anti-KDR HH ribozyme experiment (
After three or six hours, the media is removed from the cells and the cells are washed with 300 μl 1×PBS: Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture. Maintenance media (contains dialyzed 10% FBS)+/−VEGF or basic FGF at 10 ng/ml is added to the cells. The cells are incubated for 48 or 72 h. The cells are trypsinized and counted (Coulter counter). Trypan blue is added on one well of each treatment as control.
As shown in
Human microvascular endothalial cells were also treated with hammerhead ribozymes targeted against sites 527, 730, 3702 or 3950 within the KDR mRNA. As shown in
These results strongly suggest that hammerhead ribozymes targeted against either fit-1 or KDR mRNA can specifically inhibit VEGF-mediated induction of endothelial cell proliferation.
Following are some of the reagents used in the proliferation assay:
Cells: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) from Clonetics®. Cells at early passage are preferably used.
Uptake Medium: EBM (from Clonetics®); 1% L-Glutamine; 20 mM Hepes; No serum; No antibiotics.
Growth Medium: EGM (from Clonetics®); FBS to 20%; 1% L-Glutamine; 20 mM Hepes.
Cell Plating: 96-well tissue culture plates are coated with 0.2% gelatin (50 μl/well). The gelatin is incubated in the wells at room temperature for 15-30 minutes. The gelatin is removed by aspiration and the wells are washed with PBS:Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture. PBS mixture is left in the wells until cells are ready to be added. HAEC cells were detached by trypsin treatment and resuspended at 1.25×104/ml in growth medium. PBS is removed from plates and 200 μl of cells (i.e. 2.5×103 cells/well) are added to each well. The cells are allowed to grow for 48 hours before the proliferation assay.
Assay: Growth medium is removed from the wells. The cells are washed twice with PBS:Ca2+: Mg2+ mixture without antibiotics. A formulation of lipid/antisense oligonucleotide (antisense oligonucleotide is used here as a non-limiting example) complex is added to each well (100 μl/well) in uptake medium. The cells are incubated for 2-3 hours at 37° C. in CO2 incubator. After uptake, 100 μl/well of growth medium is added (gives final FBS concentration of 10%). After approximately 72 hours, 40 μl MTS® stock solution (made as described by manufacturer) was added to each well and incubated at 37° C. for 1-3 hours, depending on the color development. (For this assay, 2 hours was sufficient). The intensity of color formation was determined on a plate reader at 490 nM.
Phosphorothioate-substituted antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were custom synthesized by The Midland Certified Reagent Company®, Midland, Tex. Following non-limiting antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against KDR RNA were used in the proliferation assay:
As shown in
RNA Cleavage Assay In Vitro:
Substrate RNA was 5′ end-labeled using [γ-32P] ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase (US Biochemicals). Cleavage reactions were carried out under ribozyme “excess” conditions. Trace amount (≦1 nM) of 5′ end-labeled substrate and 40 nM unlabeled ribozyme were denatured and renatured separately by heating to 90° C. for 2 min and snap-cooling on ice for 10-15 min. The ribozyme and substrate were incubated, separately, at 37° C. for 10 min in a buffer containing 50 mM Tris-HCl and 10 mM MgCl2. The reaction was initiated by mixing the ribozyme and substrate solutions and incubating at 37° C. Aliquots of 5 μl are taken at regular intervals of time and the reaction is quenched by mixing with equal volume of 2× formamide stop mix. The samples are resolved on 20% denaturing polyacrylamide gels. The results were quantified and percentage of target RNA cleaved is plotted as a function of time.
In this non-limiting example, hammerhead ribozymes targeted against sites 726, 527, 3702 and 3950 within KDR RNA were synthesized as described above. RNA cleavage reactions were carried out in vitro essentially as described under Example 7.
Because fit-1 and KDR mRNAs are highly homologous in certain regions, some ribozyme target sites are also homologous (see Table X). In this case, a single ribozyme will target both fit-1 and KDR mRNAs. Hammerhead ribozyme (FLT/KDR-1) targeted against one of the homologous sites between fit-1 and KDR (fit-1 site 3388 and KDR site 3151) was synthesized as described above. Ribozymes with either a 3 bp stem II or a 4 bp stem II were synthesized. RNA cleavage reactions were carried out in vitro essentially as described under Example 7.
Since both fit-1 and KDR receptors of VEGF are involved in angiogenesis, the inhibition of the expression of both of these genes may be an effective approach to inhibit angiogenesis.
Human microvascular endothalial cells were treated with hammerhead ribozymes targeted against sites fit-1 4229 alone, KDR 527 alone, KDR 726 alone, KDR 3950 alone, fit-1 4229+KDR 527, fit-1 4229+KDR 726 or fit-1 4229+KDR 3950. As shown in
There are several animal models in which the anti-angiogenesis effect of nucleic acids of the present invention, such as ribozymes, directed against VEGF-R mRNAs can be tested. Typically a corneal model has been used to study angiogenesis in rat and rabbit since recruitment of vessels can easily be followed in this normally avascular tissue (Pandey et al., 1995 Science 268: 567-569). In these models, a small Teflon or Hydron disk pretreated with an angiogenesis factor (e.g. bFGF or VEGF) is inserted into a pocket surgically created in the cornea. Angiogenesis is monitored 3 to 5 days later. Ribozymes directed against VEGF-R mRNAs would be delivered in the disk as well, or dropwise to the eye over the time course of the experiment. In another eye model, hypoxia has been shown to cause both increased expression of VEGF and neovascularization in the retina (Pierce et al., 1995 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92: 905-909; Shweiki et al., 1992 J. Clin. Invest. 91: 2235-2243).
In human glioblastomas, it has been shown that VEGF is at least partially responsible for tumor angiogenesis (Plate et al., 1992 Nature 359, 845). Animal models have been developed in which glioblastoma cells are implanted subcutaneously into nude mice and the progress of tumor growth and angiogenesism is studied (Kim et al., 1993 supra; Millauer et al., 1994 supra).
Another animal model that addresses neovascularization involves Matrigel, an extract of basement membrane that becomes a solid gel when injected subcutaneously (Passaniti et al., 1992 Lab. Invest. 67: 519-528). When the Matrigel is supplemented with angiogenesis factors such as VEGF, vessels grow into the Matrigel over a period of 3 to 5 days and angiogenesis can be assessed. Again, ribozymes directed against VEGF-R mRNAs would be delivered in the Matrigel.
Several animal models exist for screening of anti-angiogenic agents. These include corneal vessel formation following corneal injury (Burger et al., 1985 Cornea 4: 35-41; Lepri, et al., 1994 J. Ocular Pharmacol. 10: 273-280; Ormerod et al., 1990 Am. J. Pathol. 137: 1243-1252) or intracorneal growth factor implant (Grant et al., 1993 Diabetologia 36: 282-291; Pandey et al. 1995 supra; Zieche et al., 1992 Lab. Invest. 67: 711-715), vessel growth into Matrigel matrix containing growth factors (Passaniti et al., 1992 supra), female reproductive organ neovascularization following hormonal manipulation (Shweiki et al., 1993 Clin. Invest. 91: 2235-2243), several models involving inhibition of tumor growth in highly vascularized solid tumors (O'Reilly et al., 1994 Cell 79: 315-328; Senger et al., 1993 Cancer and Metas. Rev. 12: 303-324; Takahasi et al., 1994 Cancer Res. 54: 4233-4237; Kim et al., 1993 supra), and transient hypoxia-induced neovascularization in the mouse retina (Pierce et al., 1995 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92: 905-909).
The cornea model, described in Pandey et al. supra, is the most common and well characterized anti-angiogenic agent efficacy screening model. This model involves an avascular tissue into which vessels are recruited by a stimulating agent (growth factor, thermal or alkalai burn, endotoxin). The corneal model would utilize the intrastromal corneal implantation of a Teflon pellet soaked in a VEGF-Hydron solution to recruit blood vessels toward the pellet which can be quantitated using standard microscopic and image analysis techniques. To evaluate their anti-angiogenic efficacy, ribozymes are applied topically to the eye or bound within Hydron on the Teflon pellet itself. This avascular cornea as well as the Matrigel (see below) provide for low background assays. While the corneal model has been performed extensively in the rabbit, studies in the rat have also been conducted.
The mouse model (Passaniti et al., supra) is a non-tissue model which utilizes Matrigel, an extract of basement membrane (Kleinman et al., 1986) or Millipore® filter disk, which can be impregnated with growth factors and anti-angiogenic agents in a liquid form prior to injection. Upon subcutaneous administration at body temperature, the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk forms a solid implant. VEGF embedded in the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk would be used to recruit vessels within the matrix of the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk which can be processed histologically for endothelial cell specific vWF (factor VIII antigen) immunohistochemistry, Trichrome-Masson stain, or hemoglobin content. Like the cornea, the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk are avascular; however, it is not tissue. In the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk model, ribozymes are administered within the matrix of the Matrigel or Millipore® filter disk to test their anti-angiogenic efficacy. Thus, delivery issues in this model, as with delivery of ribozymes by Hydron-coated Teflon pellets in the rat cornea model, may be less problematic due to the homogeneous presence of the ribozyme within the respective matrix.
These models offer a distinct advantage over several other angiogenic models listed previously. The ability to use VEGF as a pro-angiogenic stimulus in both models is highly desirable since ribozymes will target only VEGFr mRNA. In other words, the involvement of other non-specific types of stimuli in the cornea and Matrigel models is not advantageous from the standpoint of understanding the pharmacologic mechanism by which the anti-VEGFr mRNA ribozymes produce their effects. In addition, the models will allow for testing the specificity of the anti-VEGFr mRNA ribozymes by using either a- or bFGF as a pro-angiogenic factor. Vessel recruitment using FGF should not be affected in either model by anti-VEGFr mRNA ribozymes. Other models of angiogenesis including vessel formation in the female reproductive system using hormonal manipulation (Shweiki et al., 1993 supra); a variety of vascular solid tumor models which involve indirect correltations with angiogenesis (O'Reilly et al., 1994 supra; Senger et al., 1993 supra; Takahasi et al., 1994 supra; Kim et al., 1993 supra); and retinal neovascularization following transient hypoxia (Pierce et al., 1995 supra) were not selected for efficacy screening due to their non-specific nature, although there is a correlation between VEGF and angiogenesis in these models.
Other model systems to study tumor angiogenesis is reviewed by Folkman, 1985 Adv. Cancer. Res. 43, 175.
fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 protein levels can be measured clinically or experimentally by FACS analysis. fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 encoded mRNA levels will be assessed by Northern analysis, RNase-protection, primer extension analysis and/or quantitative RT-PCR. Ribozymes that block fit-1, KDR and/or fik-1 protein encoding mRNAs and therefore result in decreased levels of fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 activity by more than 20% in vitro will be identified.
Ribozymes and/or genes encoding them are delivered by either free delivery, liposome delivery, cationic lipid delivery, adeno-associated virus vector delivery, adenovirus vector delivery, retrovirus vector delivery or plasmid vector delivery in these animal model experiments (see above).
Patients can be treated by locally administering nucleic acids targeted against VEGF-R by direct injection. Routes of administration may include, but are not limited to, intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intraarticular, aerosol inhalation, oral (tablet, capsule or pill form), topical, systemic, ocular, intraperitoneal and/or intrathecal delivery.
The purpose ot this study was to assess the anti-angiogenic activity of hammerhead ribozymes targeted against fit-1 4229 site in the rat cornea model of VEGF induced angiogenesis (see above). These ribozymes have either active or inactive catalytic core and either bind and cleave or just bind to VEGF-R mRNA of the fit-1 subtype. The active ribozymes, that are able to bind and cleave the target RNA, have been shown to inhibit (125I-labeled) VEGF binding in cultured endothelial cells and produce a dose-dependent decrease in VEGF induced endothelial cell proliferation in these cells (see Examples 3-5 above). The catalytically inactive forms of these ribozymes, wherein the ribozymes can only bind to the RNA but cannot catalyze RNA cleavage, fail to show these characteristics. The ribozymes and VEGF were co-delivered using the filter disk method: Nitrocellulose filter disks (Millipore®) of 0.057 diameter were immersed in appropriate solutions and were surgically implanted in rat cornea as described by Pandey et al., supra. This delivery method has been shown to deliver rhodamine-labeled free ribozyme to scleral cells and, in all likelihood cells of the pericorneal vascular plexus. Since the active ribozymes show cell culture efficacy and can be delivered to the target site using the disk method, it is essential that these ribozymes be assessed for in vivo anti-angiogenic activity.
The stimulus for angiogenesis in this study was the treatment of the filter disk with 30 p M VEGF which is implanted within the cornea's stroma. This dose yields reproducible neovascularization stemming from the pericorneal vascular plexus growing toward the disk in a dose-response study 5 days following implant. Filter disks treated only with the vehicle for VEGF show no angiogenic response. The ribozymes was co-adminstered with VEGF on a disk in two different ribozyme concentrations. One concern with the simultaneous administration is that the ribozymes will not be able to inhibit angiogenesis since VEGF receptors can be stimulated. However, we have observed that in low VEGF doses, the neovascular response reverts to normal suggesting that the VEGF stimulus is essential for maintaining the angiogenic response. Blocking the production of VEGF receptors using simultaneous administration of anti-VEGF-R mRNA ribozymes could attenuate the normal neovascularization induced by the filter disk treated with VEGF.
Materials and Methods:
Each solution (VEGF and RIBOZYMES) were prepared as a 2× solution for 1:1 mixing for final concentrations above, with the exception of solution 1 in which VEGF was 2× and diluted with ribozyme diluent (sterile water).
3. VEGF Solutions
The 2×VEGF solution (60 μM) was prepared from a stock of 0.82 μg/μL in 50 mM Tris base. 200 μL of VEGF stock was concentrated by speed vac to a final volume of 60.8 μL, for a final concentration of 2.7 μg/μL or 60 μM. Six 10 μL aliquots was prepared for daily mixing. 2× solutions for VEGF and Ribozyme was stored at 4° C. until the day of the surgery. Solutions were mixed for each day of surgery. Original 2× solutions was prepared on the day before the first day of the surgery.
4. Surgical Solutions:
Final anesthesia solution: 50 mg/mL ketamine, 10 mg/mL xylazine, and 0.5 mg/mL acepromazine
Standard surgical procedure as described in Pandey et al., supra. Filter disks were incubated in 1 μL of each solution for approximately 30 minutes prior to implantation.
5. Experimental Protocol:
The animal cornea were treated with the treatment groups as described above. Animals were allowed to recover for 5 days after treatment with daily observation (scoring 0-3). On the fifth day animals were euthanized and digital images of each eye was obtained for quantitaion using Image Pro Plus. Quantitated neovascular surface area were analyzed by ANOVA followed by two post-hoc tests including Dunnets and Tukey-Kramer tests for significance at the 95% confidence level. Dunnets provide information on the significance between the differences within the means of treatments vs. controls while Tukey-Kramer provide information on the significance of differences within the means of each group.
Results are graphically represented in
Ribozymes of this invention may be used as diagnostic tools to examine genetic drift and mutations within diseased cells or to detect the presence of fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 RNA in a cell. The close relationship between ribozyme activity and the structure of the target RNA allows the detection of mutations in any region of the molecule which alters the base-pairing and three-dimensional structure of the target RNA. By using multiple ribozymes described in this invention, one may map nucleotide changes which are important to RNA structure and function in vitro, as well as in cells and tissues. Cleavage of target RNAs with ribozymes may be used to inhibit gene expression and define the role (essentially) of specified gene products in the progression of disease. In this manner, other genetic targets may be defined as important mediators of the disease. These experiments will lead to better treatment of the disease progression by affording the possibility of combinational therapies (e.g., multiple ribozymes targeted to different genes, ribozymes coupled with known small molecule inhibitors, or intermittent treatment with combinations of ribozymes and/or other chemical or biological molecules). Other in vitro uses of ribozymes of this invention are well known in the art, and include detection of the presence of mRNAs associated with fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1 □ related condition. Such RNA is detected by determining the presence of a cleavage product after treatment with a ribozyme using standard methodology.
In a specific example, ribozymes which can cleave only wild-type or mutant forms of the target RNA are used for the assay. The first ribozyme is used to identify wild-type RNA present in the sample and the second ribozyme will be used to identify mutant RNA in the sample. As reaction controls, synthetic substrates of both wild-type and mutant RNA will be cleaved by both ribozymes to demonstrate the relative ribozyme efficiencies in the reactions and the absence of cleavage of the “non-targeted” RNA species. The cleavage products from the synthetic substrates will also serve to generate size markers for the analysis of wild-type and mutant RNAs in the sample population. Thus each analysis will require two ribozymes, two substrates and one unknown sample which will be combined into six reactions. The presence of cleavage products will be determined using an RNAse protection assay so that full-length and cleavage fragments of each RNA can be analyzed in one lane of a polyacrylamide gel. It is not absolutely required to quantify the results to gain insight into the expression of mutant RNAs and putative risk of the desired phenotypic changes in target cells. The expression of mRNA whose protein product is implicated in the development of the phenotype (i.e., fit-1, KDR and/or flk-1) is adequate to establish risk. If probes of comparable specific activity are used for both transcripts, then a qualitative comparison of RNA levels will be adequate and will decrease the cost of the initial diagnosis. Higher mutant form to wild-type ratios will be correlated with higher risk whether RNA levels are compared qualitatively or quantitatively.
Where “N” represents stem II region of a HH ribozyme (Hertel et al., 1992 Nucleic Acids Res. 20 3252).