Publication number | US20050243791 A1 |

Publication type | Application |

Application number | US 10/971,491 |

Publication date | Nov 3, 2005 |

Filing date | Oct 22, 2004 |

Priority date | Apr 30, 2004 |

Also published as | CN1943151A, EP1741217A1, WO2005107120A1 |

Publication number | 10971491, 971491, US 2005/0243791 A1, US 2005/243791 A1, US 20050243791 A1, US 20050243791A1, US 2005243791 A1, US 2005243791A1, US-A1-20050243791, US-A1-2005243791, US2005/0243791A1, US2005/243791A1, US20050243791 A1, US20050243791A1, US2005243791 A1, US2005243791A1 |

Inventors | Min-Cheol Park, Yun-Sang Park, Bong-Gee Song, Jae-Hwan Chang |

Original Assignee | Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (80), Classifications (7), Legal Events (1) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US 20050243791 A1

Abstract

A channel estimation apparatus and method for an OFDM/OFDAM receiver. A channel characteristic value, positioned prior to a pilot symbol of a current slot, from among data symbols of the current slot is estimated by a time-domain interpolation method for use with a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of a previous slot and a channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot. A channel characteristic value next to the pilot symbol of the current slot from among the data symbols of the current slot is estimated by a time-domain extrapolation method for use with the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot.

Claims(6)

estimating a channel characteristic value associated with a data symbol, which is positioned prior to a pilot symbol of a current slot, from among data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain interpolation method for use with a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of a previous slot and a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of the current slot; and

estimating a channel characteristic value associated with a data symbol, which is next to the pilot symbol of the current slot, from among the data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain extrapolation method for use with the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot.

where i is an index of an order number of data symbols contained in one slot, a_{i }is a weight factor, which is applied to the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot according to positions of individual data symbols contained in one slot, b_{i }is a weight factor, which is applied to the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot according to positions of individual data symbols contained in one slot, P_{k−1 }is a channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot, P_{k }is a channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot, and H_{k,i }is a channel characteristic value estimated for an i-th data symbol from among the data symbols included in a slot.

a pilot reader for recognizing a current slot number using a data symbol number that identifies an order number of a data symbol to be channel-estimated from among data symbols contained in a single frame, and reading a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of a previous slot and a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of a current slot from an FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) unit on the basis of the recognized current slot number; and

a channel estimation processor for estimating a channel characteristic value associated with a data symbol, which is positioned prior to the pilot symbol of the current slot, from among data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain interpolation method for use with the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot, and estimating a channel characteristic value associated with a data symbol, which is next to the pilot symbol of the current slot, from among the data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain extrapolation method for use with the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot.

a weight factor provider for storing weight factor pairs, each of which is includes first and second weight factors, which are respectively applied to the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot according to locations of individual data symbols in one slot, and generating a pair of the first and second weight factors corresponding to the data symbol number; and

a channel characteristic value generator for performing one of an interpolation method and an extrapolation method according to

upon receiving the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot, the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot, and the first and second weight factors, and generating a channel characteristic value associated with the data symbol,

where i is an index of an order number of data symbols contained in one slot, a_{i }is indicative of a first weight factor, b_{i }is a second weight factor, P_{k−1 }is the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot, P_{k }is the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot, and H_{k,i }is a channel characteristic value estimated for an i-th data symbol from among data symbols included in a slot.

Description

- [0001]This application claims priority to an application entitled “CHANNEL ESTIMATION METHOD FOR OFDM/OFDMA RECEIVER AND CHANNEL ESTIMATOR FOR THE SAME”, filed in the Korean Intellectual Property Office on Apr. 30, 2004 and assigned Ser. No. 2004-30567, the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
- [0002]1. Field of the Invention
- [0003]The present invention relates generally to an OFDM/OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing/Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) transmission system, and more particularly to a method and apparatus for performing channel estimation using a pilot symbol in an OFDM/OFDMA receiver, such that channel distortion in the OFDM/OFDMA receiver can be compensated.
- [0004]2. Description of the Related Art
- [0005]An OFDM scheme or an OFDMA scheme based on the OFDM scheme is a multi-carrier modulation scheme for the parallel-transmission of data using several sub-carriers having orthogonality therebetween, instead of using a broadband single carrier. The OFDM or the OFDMA scheme is based on the fact that individual narrowband sub-channels have flat fading characteristics even in a frequency selective fading channel with a very large ISI (Inter-Symbol Interference). The OFDM scheme determines its symbol in a frequency domain, such that an equalizer for the frequency domain is required to compensate for channel distortion associated with a received symbol. A transmission end of the OFDM transmission system transmits a data symbol and also transmits a pilot symbol used for channel estimation to equalize the data symbol.
- [0006]Technologies for selecting a pilot signal, which effectively estimates an OFDM channel and maintains a high transfer rate, and also a variety of OFDM channel estimation methods have recently been proposed. For example, a method for acquiring a channel characteristic value by averaging samples of the pilot signal in a time domain, and a method for estimating channel characteristics in a frequency domain using a mean squared error of the pilot signal and applying the estimated result to a signal compensation process have recently been introduced.
- [0007]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a conventional OFDM receiver. More specifically,FIG. 1 illustrates a receiver for recovering data from a baseband signal acquired from a received signal. - [0008]Referring to
FIG. 1 , a burst symbol extractor**100**extracts an OFDM symbol from the baseband signal acquired from the received signal using an RF processor (not shown). If a CP (Cyclic Prefix) inserted from a transmission end is deleted from a CP remover**102**and is then FFT (Fast Fourier Transform)-processed by an FFT unit**104**, the symbol extracted by the burst symbol extractor**100**is transmitted to an equalizer**108**. Upon receiving the FFT-processed data signal, the equalizer**108**compensates for channel distortion according to a channel characteristic value estimated by a channel estimator**106**. The signal in which channel distortion is compensated is demodulated by a demodulator**110**, is viterbi-decoded by a decoder**112**, and the viterbi-decoded data is recovered by a determination result of a decision unit**114**. - [0009]The channel estimation in the channel estimator
**106**is performed using a pilot symbol. - [0010]An exemplary pilot symbol for use in the OFDM scheme is illustrated in
FIG. 2 . As can be seen fromFIG. 2 , pilot symbols are arranged among data symbols. Oblique-lined circles are pilot symbols and empty circles having no oblique-lines are data symbols. More specifically,FIG. 2 illustrates pilot distribution according to IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 802.16(d) in regard to sub-carriers in a frequency domain and also symbols in a time domain. - [0011]For the distribution format of the data and pilot symbols in the time domain, data is composed in slot units rather than symbol units, as can be seen from
FIG. 3 . More specifically,FIG. 3 is an example of an OFDM transmission frame according to IEEE 802.16(d). A preamble and a data symbol are positioned at a header of the OFDM transmission frame, and a plurality of slots follow the preamble and the data symbol. The data symbol following the preamble is a data symbol for transmitting header information of a corresponding frame, such that it will hereinafter be called a header data symbol. Each slot includes three data symbols, and one pilot symbol is positioned in each slot. In other words, one slot includes two data symbols, one pilot symbol, and one data symbol, which are sequentially connected in the time domain. - [0012]When one slot is configured as illustrated in
FIG. 3 , channel estimation of data symbols positioned in a data symbol interval between two pilot symbols is performed by a linear interpolation scheme in a time domain, as in the following Equations (1)-(3), acquired from channel characteristic values at positions of two pilot symbols positioned at both sides of the data symbol interval. In this case, the channel estimation for decoding data by compensating for channel distortion of the data in slot units requires information of a current slot and information of previous and next slots.$\begin{array}{cc}{H}_{k,1}=\frac{1}{2}\left({P}_{k-1}+{P}_{k}\right)& \left(1\right)\\ {H}_{k,2}=\frac{1}{4}\left({P}_{k-1}+3{P}_{k}\right)& \left(2\right)\\ {H}_{k,3}=\frac{1}{4}\left(3{P}_{k}+{P}_{k+1}\right)& \left(3\right)\end{array}$ - [0013]Referring to Equations (1)-(3), assuming that a current slot with information to be recovered is determined to be a k-th slot, H
_{k,1 }is a channel characteristic value estimated for a first data symbol of the current slot ‘k’, H_{k,2 }is a channel characteristic value estimated for a second data symbol of the current slot ‘k’, and H_{k,3 }is a channel characteristic value estimated for a third data symbol of the current slot ‘k’ (seeFIG. 4 illustrating a channel estimation method using a linear interpolation method). - [0014]Referring to Equations (1)-(3) and
FIG. 4 , P_{k−1 }is a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’, P_{k }is a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’, and P_{k+1 }is a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of the next slot ‘k+1’. - [0015]Referring to
FIG. 4 , provided that the channel characteristic value of a received signal varies as a curved line**200**, a linear interpolation method is performed using weight factors associated with positions of individual data symbols, such that a plurality of channel characteristic values H_{k,1}, H_{k,2}, and H_{k,3 }are estimated as shown in Equations (1)-(3). That is, the channel characteristic values H_{k,1}, H_{k,2}, and H_{k,3 }are associated with a slope**202**from P_{k−1 }to P_{k }and the other slope**204**from P_{k }to P_{k+1}. - [0016]As can be seen from
FIG. 4 , it can be understood that the aforementioned Equations (1)-(3) are acquired from the following Equations (4)-(6).$\begin{array}{cc}\frac{\left({H}_{k,1}-{P}_{k-1}\right)}{2}=\frac{\left({P}_{k}-{H}_{k,1}\right)}{2}& \left(4\right)\\ \frac{\left({H}_{k,2}-{P}_{k-1}\right)}{3}=\frac{\left({P}_{k}-{H}_{k,2}\right)}{1}& \left(5\right)\\ \frac{\left({H}_{k,3}-{P}_{k}\right)}{1}=\frac{\left({P}_{k+1}-{H}_{k,3}\right)}{3}& \left(6\right)\end{array}$ - [0017]If channel estimation is carried out by using a first slot (i.e., Slot
**1**) in the OFDM frame ofFIG. 3 as a current slot, a preamble is used as a pilot symbol of a previous slot. - [0018]The channel estimation for the first data symbol of the OFDM frame of
FIG. 3 , i.e., a header data symbol between the preamble and the Slot**1**, is performed using Equation (7).$\begin{array}{cc}{H}_{0,0}=\frac{1}{4}\left(3{P}_{0}+{P}_{1}\right)& \left(7\right)\end{array}$ - [0019]Referring to Equation (7), H
_{0.0 }is a channel characteristic value estimated for the header data symbol, P_{0 }is a channel characteristic value of the preamble, and P_{1 }a channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the Slot**1**. - [0020]Equation (7) is acquired from Equation (8) in the same manner as in Equations (1)-(3).
$\begin{array}{cc}\frac{\left({H}_{0,0}-{P}_{0}\right)}{1}=\frac{\left({P}_{1}-{H}_{0,0}\right)}{3}& \left(8\right)\end{array}$ - [0021]In order to recover any slot information using the aforementioned channel estimation method, a channel characteristic value of a current slot to be recovered, a channel characteristic value of a previous slot, and a channel characteristic value of the next slot must be used. Consequently, a buffer capable of temporarily storing channel characteristic values of pilot symbols of three slots including the current slot is required. Further, a delay is created during the channel estimation.
- [0022]Accordingly, the present invention has been designed in view of the above and other problems, and it is an object of the present invention to provide a channel estimation method and apparatus for reducing a size of a buffer required for channel estimation and reducing a delay.
- [0023]In accordance with the present invention, the above and other objects can be accomplished by a channel estimation method for estimating a channel characteristic value, positioned prior to a pilot symbol of a current slot, from among data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain interpolation method for use with a channel characteristic value of a pilot symbol of a previous slot and a channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot; and estimating a channel characteristic value next to the pilot symbol of the current slot from among the data symbols of the current slot according to a time-domain extrapolation method for use with the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the channel characteristic value of the pilot symbol of the current slot.
- [0024]The above and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will be more clearly understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
- [0025]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a conventional OFDM receiver; - [0026]
FIG. 2 depicts the distribution of OFDM pilot symbols; - [0027]
FIG. 3 is an example of an OFDM transmission frame; - [0028]
FIG. 4 is a graph illustrating a channel estimation method using a linear interpolation method; - [0029]
FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating a channel estimation method in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention; - [0030]
FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a channel estimator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; - [0031]
FIG. 7 is a flow chart illustrating a channel estimation process in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and - [0032]
FIGS. 8-9 each illustrate comparisons between a channel estimation performance based on a linear interpolation method and an inventive channel estimation performance. - [0033]Preferred embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail herein below with reference to the annexed drawings. In the following description, a detailed description of known functions and configurations incorporated herein will be omitted when it may obscure the subject matter of the present invention.
- [0034]
FIG. 5 is a graph illustrating a channel estimation method in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. Particularly,FIG. 5 shows an application example of the present invention when a single slot includes two data symbols, one pilot symbol, and one data symbol, which are connected in a time domain as illustrated inFIG. 3 .FIG. 5 does not refer to a channel characteristic value P_{k+1 }of a pilot symbol of the next slot ‘k+1’, but refers to both a channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of a pilot symbol of a previous slot ‘k−1’ and a channel characteristic value P_{k }of a pilot symbol of a current slot ‘k’, differently fromFIG. 4 , such that channel characteristic values H_{k,1}, H_{k,2}, and H_{k,3 }can be estimated using the following Equations (9)-(11):$\begin{array}{cc}{H}_{k,1}=\frac{1}{2}\left({P}_{k-1}+{P}_{k}\right)& \left(9\right)\\ {H}_{k,2}=\frac{1}{4}\left({P}_{k-1}+3{P}_{k}\right)& \left(10\right)\\ {H}_{k,3}=\frac{1}{4}\left(-{P}_{k-1}+5{P}_{k}\right)& \left(11\right)\end{array}$ - [0035]Although Equations (9)-(10) are equal to Equations (1)-(2), respectively, Equation (11) is different from Equation (3). Therefore, it can be understood that H
_{k,3 }is estimated differently from Equation (3) whereas H_{k,1}, and H_{k,2 }are estimated using the interpolation method in the same manner as in Equations (1)-(2). - [0036]More specifically, the method of
FIG. 5 does not perform channel estimation using an interpolation method, which refers to channel characteristic values of pilot symbols positioned at both sides of a data symbol next to the pilot symbol in each slot, but performs channel estimation using an extrapolation method in a time domain. In this case, the extrapolation method refers to both the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’. Different fromFIG. 4 , it can be understood that the channel characteristic values H_{k,1}, H_{k,2}, and H_{k,3 }ofFIG. 5 are associated with a slope**206**from P_{k−1 }to H_{k,3}, and are not associated with a slope**208**from P_{k }to P_{k+1}. Therefore, a specific interval, which is not applied to channel estimation, is selected from a straight line of the slopes**206**and**208**, and the selected interval is denoted by dotted lines, differently fromFIG. 4 . - [0037]As can be seen from
FIG. 5 , it can be noted that Equation (11) is acquired from the following Equation (12):$\begin{array}{cc}\frac{\left({H}_{k,3}-{P}_{k-1}\right)}{5}=\frac{\left({H}_{k,3}-{P}_{k}\right)}{1}& \left(12\right)\end{array}$ - [0038]A data symbol not included in slots, i.e., a first data symbol (also called a header data symbol) of the frame of
FIG. 3 , is channel-estimated in the same manner as in Equation (7). - [0039]
FIG. 6 is a block diagram illustrating a channel estimator in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. An application example of the present invention is depicted inFIG. 6 on the condition that one slot includes two data symbols, one pilot symbol, and one data symbol, which are sequentially connected in a time domain as illustrated inFIG. 3 . - [0040]Referring to
FIG. 6 , the channel estimator includes a pilot reader**300**and a channel estimation processor**302**. The pilot reader**300**includes a slot selector**304**, an address counter**306**, and first and second buffers**308**and**310**, such that it checks a current slot number ‘k’ based on a data symbol number to be channel-estimated, and reads the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot and the other channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot from the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) unit**104**illustrated inFIG. 1 . The data symbol number indicates consecutive numbers ranging from a data symbol next to the preamble to the last data symbol (i.e., the last data symbol of the last slot ‘n’), in association with data symbols contained in one frame (seeFIG. 3 ) in a typical OFDM receiver. Therefore, the data symbol number applied to the slot selector**304**of the pilot reader**300**indicates the order of a data symbol, which must be currently channel-estimated, from among data symbols contained in one frame. - [0041]The slot selector
**304**determines a current slot number ‘k’ on the basis of a data symbol number in order to select a slot including the data symbol to be currently channel-estimated, and applies the determined current slot number to the address counter**306**. The slot selector**304**determines a slot number ‘k’ to be ‘0’ in association with the header data symbol next to the preamble in one frame. In association with the following data symbols next to the header data symbol, the slot selector**304**increases the slot number ‘k’ by one for every three data symbols, because three data symbols exist in each slot. - [0042]The address counter
**306**transmits a pointer, which increases as the slot number ‘k’ received from the slot selector**304**increases, to the FFT unit**104**illustratedFIG. 1 . Additionally, the address counter**306**selects the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the other channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’, and reads the channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k}. The pointer generated from the address counter**306**identifies an address of a storage area in which the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the other channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’ are stored. The channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the other channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’ are temporarily stored in first and second buffers**308**and**310**, respectively. - [0043]The channel estimation processor
**302**includes a weight factor provider**312**and a channel characteristic value generator**314**. The channel estimation processor**302**applies a weight factor to both the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the other channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’, such that channel estimation for a data symbol is performed by interpolation or extrapolation in a time domain using Equation (13). Consequently, the channel estimation value H_{k,i }created by channel estimation is transmitted to the equalizer**108**illustrated inFIG. 1 .

*H*_{k,i}*=a*_{i}*×P*_{k−1}*+b*_{i}*×P*_{k }(13) - [0044]In Equation (13), i is an index of the order of data symbols contained in one slot, a
_{i }is applied to the channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot according to positions of individual data symbols contained in one slot, b_{i }is applied to the channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot according to positions of individual data symbols contained in one slot, in which a_{i }and b_{i }are a pair of weight factors for every index i, and H_{k,i }is a channel characteristic value estimated for an i-th data symbol from among data symbols contained in one slot. - [0045]As described above, the present invention has been used in a case in which one slot includes two data symbols, one pilot symbol, and one data symbol connected in the time domain. However, provided that channel estimation is performed using a pilot symbol positioned between data symbols in a single slot even though the number of data symbols contained in the single slot or the location of the pilot symbol contained in the single slot is changed to another value, the present invention can also be used.
- [0046]Equation (13) is obtained by generalizing Equations (9)-(11) in consideration of the above case in which the number of data symbols in the single slot or the location of the pilot symbol in the single slot is changed to another value. Therefore, the weight factors a
_{i }and b_{i }are determined according to the index i. - [0047]In
FIG. 3 , the index i ranges from 0 to 3. If the index i is determined to be ‘0’, this identifies a channel estimation case associated with the header data symbol. If the index i is determined to be ‘1’, this identifies a channel estimation case associated with the first data symbol from among data symbols of each slot. If the index i is determined to be ‘2’, this identifies a channel estimation case associated with the second data symbol from among data symbols of each slot. If the index i is determined to be ‘3’, this identifies a channel estimation case associated with the third data symbol from among data symbols of each slot. Therefore, the weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }in association with the header data symbol used when i=0 are determined as illustrated in Table 1 using Equation (7). The weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }in association with data symbols in one slot are determined as shown in the following Table 1 using Equations (9)-(11).TABLE 1 Index i a _{i}b _{i }= 1 − a_{i}0 ¾ ¼ 1 ½ ½ 2 ¼ ¾ 3 −¼ 5/4 - [0048]If the number of data symbols in one slot or the location of the pilot symbol in one slot is different from that illustrated in
FIG. 3 , the range of i varies with the number of data symbols in one slot, such that not only the number of a_{i }and b_{i }indicating a pair of weight factors, but also values of the weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }must be differently determined according to the number of data symbols in one slot and the location of the pilot symbol in one slot. - [0049]The weight factors a
_{i }and b_{i}, which comprise one pair for every index i, are generated from the weight factor provider**312**. The weight factor provider**312**includes a weight factor storage unit**316**, a symbol index selector**318**, and a weight factor selector**320**, such that it stores weight factor pairs a_{i }and b_{i}, and outputs a weight factor pair corresponding to the data symbol number to the channel characteristic value generator**314**. In this case,FIG. 6 illustrates an example applied to the case illustrated inFIG. 3 , such that weight factor pairs a_{i }and b_{i }stored in the weight factor storage unit**316**are denoted by a_{0 }and b_{0}, a_{1 }and b_{1}, a_{2 }and b_{2}, and a_{3 }and b_{3}, as described in Table 1. - [0050]The symbol index selector
**318**determines the index i for selecting a weight factor on the basis of a data symbol number to be channel-estimated, and applies the determined index i to the weight factor selector**320**. The symbol index selector**318**determines an index i of the header data symbol next to the preamble in one frame to be ‘0’, determines an index i of the first data symbol from among three data symbols contained in one slot to be ‘1’, determines an index i of the second data symbol to be ‘2’, and determines an index i of the third data symbol to be ‘3’. Accordingly, the symbol index selector**318**sequentially increases indexes i of the first to third data symbols one by one. The weight factor selector**320**selects a pair of weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }corresponding to the index i determined by the symbol index selector**318**, and transmits the selected weight factors to the channel characteristic value generator**314**. - [0051]The channel characteristic value generator
**314**includes two multipliers**322**and**324**, and a single adder**326**. The first multiplier**322**multiplies a channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of a pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ received from the first buffer**308**by the weight factor a_{i}. The second multiplier**324**multiplies a channel characteristic value P_{k }of a pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’ received from the second buffer**310**by the weight factor b_{i}. The adder**326**adds the output values of the first and second multipliers**322**and**324**, such that the channel characteristic value H_{k,i }of Equation (13) is generated and is then applied to the equalizer**108**illustrated inFIG. 1 . - [0052]
FIG. 7 is a flow chart illustrating a method for controlling the channel estimator illustrated inFIG. 6 to perform channel estimation associated with data symbols of a single frame. Referring toFIG. 7 , the current slot ‘k’ is determined to be ‘0’ by the slot selector**304**at step**400**. At step**402**, it is determined if the current slot ‘k’ is ‘0’. If it is determined that the current slot ‘k’ is ‘0’ at step**402**, steps**404**to**410**are performed. However, if it is determined that the current slot ‘k’ is not ‘0’ at step**402**, then steps**414**to**422**are performed. - [0053]Steps
**404**to**410**illustrate channel estimation processes associated with the header data symbol from among the data symbols contained in one frame illustrated inFIG. 3 . Using the address counter**306**, the channel characteristic value P_{0 }of the preamble and the channel characteristic value P1 of the pilot symbol of the Slot**1**are read as channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k}, respectively, from the FFT unit**104**illustratedFIG. 1 to the first and second buffers**308**and**310**at step**404**, such that the channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k }are applied to the multipliers**322**and**324**, respectively. The index i is determined to be ‘0’ by the symbol index selector**318**at step**406**, such that the weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }are selected by the weight factor selector**320**, and the selected weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }are applied to the multipliers**322**and**324**, respectively. Therefore, the channel characteristic value generator**314**performs the operation of a specific case in which the index i is determined to be ‘0’ in Equation (13) at step**408**, such that the channel characteristic value H_{0,0 }associated with the header data symbol is calculated using Equation (7). - [0054]The channel characteristic value H
_{0,0 }is transmitted to the equalizer**108**illustrated inFIG. 1 at step**410**. Accordingly, after the channel estimation associated with the header data symbol has been performed, the slot selector**304**increases a current slot number ‘k’ by one at step**412**. Therefore, the current slot ‘k’ is not ‘0’ at step**402**, and steps**414**to**422**are subsequently performed. - [0055]Steps
**414**to**422**illustrate a channel estimation process in which three data symbols of one slot in the frame illustrated inFIG. 3 are sequentially channel-estimated. The channel characteristic value P_{k−1 }of the pilot symbol of the previous slot ‘k−1’ and the channel characteristic value P_{k }of the pilot symbol of the current slot ‘k’ are read from the FFT unit**104**illustrated inFIG. 1 to the first and second buffers**308**and**310**at step**414**, such that the channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k }are applied to the multipliers**322**and**324**, respectively. The index i is determined to be ‘1’ by the symbol index selector**318**at step**416**, such that the weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }are selected by the weight factor selector**320**, and the selected weight factors a_{i }and b_{i }are applied to the multipliers**322**and**324**, respectively. Therefore, the channel characteristic value generator**314**performs the operation of Equation (13) at step**418**, such that the channel characteristic value H_{k,i }associated with a specific data symbol (whose index i is ‘1’) from among data symbols of the current slot ‘k’, i.e., H_{k,1 }of Equation (9), is calculated. The channel characteristic value H_{k,1 }is applied to the equalizer**108**ofFIG. 1 at step**420**. - [0056]If the index i is equal to ‘3’ at step
**422**, after the channel estimation associated with one data symbol has been performed, step**426**is performed. However, if the index i is not equal to ‘3’ at step**422**, step**424**is performed. If the index i is not equal to ‘3’ at step**422**, i.e., if channel estimation for data symbols contained in one slot is not finished, the symbol index selector**318**increases the index i by ‘1’ at step**424**, and steps**418**and**420**are repeated, such that channel estimation for the next data symbol can be performed. Therefore, the channel characteristic value H_{k,i }associated with data symbols (whose indexes i=2 and 3) from among data symbols of the current slot ‘k’, and the channel characteristic values H_{k,2 }and H_{k,3 }of Equations (10) and (11) are sequentially calculated, and the calculated channel characteristic values H_{k,2 }and H_{k,3 }are transmitted to the equalizer**108**illustrated inFIG. 1 . If channel estimation of data symbols contained in one slot is terminated, the index i is determined to be ‘3’, so that steps**422**to**426**are performed. - [0057]At step
**426**, it is determined if a current slot number ‘k’ is equal to a maximum slot number ‘n’ in one frame ofFIG. 3 . If the current slot number ‘k’ is equal to the maximum slot number ‘n’ at step**426**, an overall process is terminated. However, if the current slot number ‘k’ is not equal to the maximum slot number ‘n’ at step**426**, the channel estimation is not finished yet, such that step**412**is performed. - [0058]At step
**412**, the slot selector**304**increases the current slot number ‘k’ by ‘1’. Therefore, when the current slot ‘k’ is not equal to ‘0’ at step**402**, steps**414**to**422**are repeated. If channel estimation for one frame is finished by the repetition of the steps, the current slot number ‘k’ is equal to the maximum slot number ‘n’ at step**426**in such a way that the channel estimation for one frame can be performed. - [0059]Accordingly, the channel characteristic values H
_{k,1}, H_{k,2}, and H_{k,3 }associated with data symbols are estimated using only two channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k }of two pilot symbols, instead of using the channel characteristic value P_{k+1}, such that only first and second buffers**308**and**310**are required to store the channel characteristic values P_{k−1 }and P_{k }of two pilot symbols, respectively, resulting in reductions of buffer size and delay. - [0060]As described above, the present invention estimates channel characteristic values using an interpolation or extrapolation for use with pilot symbols of only two slots, such that it minimizes performance deterioration caused by channel estimation, and at the same time reduces a buffer size consumed for channel estimation, and also delay.
- [0061]
FIGS. 8-9 each illustrate results of comparisons between channel estimation performance based on a linear interpolation method described in Equations (1)-(3) andFIG. 4 and the channel estimation performance of the present invention. More specifically,FIG. 8 illustrates an exemplary graph of an SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) to a BER (Bit Error Rate) at a specific speed of 3 km/h on the basis of an ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Pedestrian B model. InFIG. 8 , the line denoted by reference number**500**indicates performance of channel estimation based on linear interpolation, and the line denoted by reference number**502**identifies performance of channel estimation of the present invention. - [0062]
FIG. 9 illustrates an exemplary graph of an SNR to a BER at a specific speed of 60 km/h in an ITU (International Telecommunication Union) Vehicular A model. InFIG. 9 , the line denoted by reference number**504**indicates performance of channel estimation based on the linear interpolation, and the line denoted by reference number**506**indicates performance of channel estimation of the present invention. - [0063]As can be seen from
FIGS. 8 and 9 , the difference between the channel estimation performance of the present invention and the other channel estimation performance based on the linear interpolation is only about 0.5 dB. Accordingly, the present invention reduces the buffer size and delay, and reduces deterioration of data restoration performance during the channel estimation. - [0064]Particularly, although the present invention has been described above with reference to a specific case in which one slot includes two data symbols, one pilot symbol, and one data symbol, which are sequentially connected in a time domain as illustrated in
FIG. 3 , based on IEEE 802.16(d), it should be noted that the present invention can be applied to an OFDM/OFDMA scheme and also other modulation schemes on the condition that the channel estimation is performed using pilot symbols positioned among data symbols within one slot. However, if the number of data symbols contained in a single slot or the location of a pilot symbol in the single slot is different from that illustrated inFIG. 3 , the range of i varies with the number of data symbols included in the single slot, the number of weight factor pairs a_{i }and b_{i}, and individual values of the weight factor pairs a_{i }and b_{i }are also differently determined according to the number of data symbols included in the single slot and the location of the pilot symbol in the single slot. - [0065]Although preferred embodiments of the present invention have been disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various modifications, additions, and substitutions are possible, without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention as disclosed in the accompanying claims.

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Classifications

U.S. Classification | 370/343 |

International Classification | H04L25/02, H04J1/00, H04L27/26, H04J11/00 |

Cooperative Classification | H04L25/0232 |

European Classification | H04L25/02C7C1A |

Legal Events

Date | Code | Event | Description |
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Oct 22, 2004 | AS | Assignment | Owner name: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD., KOREA, REPUBLIC OF Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PARK, MIN-CHEOL;PARK, YUN-SANG;SONG, BONG-GEE;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:015930/0870 Effective date: 20041020 |

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