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Publication numberUS20050253157 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/102,744
Publication dateNov 17, 2005
Filing dateApr 11, 2005
Priority dateMay 17, 2004
Also published asUS7462869, US20070145385
Publication number102744, 11102744, US 2005/0253157 A1, US 2005/253157 A1, US 20050253157 A1, US 20050253157A1, US 2005253157 A1, US 2005253157A1, US-A1-20050253157, US-A1-2005253157, US2005/0253157A1, US2005/253157A1, US20050253157 A1, US20050253157A1, US2005253157 A1, US2005253157A1
InventorsKenichi Ohashi, Yasuhiko Akaike, Hitoshi Sugiyama, Yasuharu Sugawara
Original AssigneeKabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Semiconductor light emitting device and semiconductor light emitting apparatus
US 20050253157 A1
Abstract
A first semiconductor light emitting device comprises: a transparent substrate; a light emitting layer; and a roughened region. The transparent substrate has a first major surface and a second major surface, and is translucent to light in a first wavelength band. The light emitting layer is selectively provided in a first portion on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band. The roughened region is provided in a second portion different from the first portion on the first major surface. A second semiconductor light emitting device comprises: a transparent substrate; a light emitting layer; a first electrode; and at least one groove. The groove is provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate and is extending from a first side face to a second side face opposing the first side face of the transparent substrate.
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Claims(20)
1. A semiconductor light emitting device comprising:
a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface, and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band;
a light emitting layer selectively provided in a first portion on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band; and
a roughened region provided in a second portion different from the first portion on the first major surface.
2. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein
the first portion is a center portion on the first major surface, and
the second portion is a periphery portion surrounding the first portion on the first major surface.
3. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein
the first portion includes a center portion on the first major surface and a periphery portion distantly surrounding the center portion, part of the periphery portion being connected to the center portion, and
the second portion is a portion located between the center portion and the periphery portion.
4. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein irregularities constituting the roughened region has an average bottom length of 0.1 to 3 micrometers.
5. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein irregularities constituting the roughened region has an average height of 0.05 to 1.5 micrometers.
6. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein the first portion has an area of 0.6 to 0.9 times the area of the first major surface.
7. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 1, wherein
the transparent substrate is made of GaP, and
the light emitting layer is made of InGaAlP-based compound semiconductor.
8. A semiconductor light emitting device comprising:
a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band;
a light emitting layer provided on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band;
a first electrode provided on the light emitting layer;
a second electrode provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate: and
a first groove provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate and extending from a first side face to a second side face opposing the first side face of the transparent substrate.
9. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein the first groove has a first beveled surface and a second beveled surface, each beveled surface being oblique with respect to the second major surface.
10. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein the first groove has a curved surface.
11. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein at least part of an inner wall of the first groove is provided with one or more roughened regions.
12. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein a second groove is formed on the second major surface of the transparent substrate, the second groove intersecting with the first groove at a substantially right angle.
13. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein width of the first groove becomes wider from a center thereof toward the first and second side faces.
14. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein
the first major surface has a first portion and a second portion,
the light emitting layer is provided on the first portion, and
a roughened region is provided on the second portion.
15. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 14, wherein irregularities constituting the roughened region has an average bottom length of 0.1 to 3 micrometers.
16. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 14, wherein irregularities constituting the roughened region has an average height of 0.05 to 1.5 micrometers.
17. A semiconductor light emitting device according to claim 8, wherein
the transparent substrate is made of GaP, and
the light emitting layer is made of InGaAlP-based compound semiconductor.
18. A semiconductor light emitting apparatus comprising:
a packaging member having a mounting surface; and
a semiconductor light emitting device having:
a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band;
a light emitting layer provided on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band;
a first electrode provided on the light emitting layer;
a second electrode provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate; and
at least one groove provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate and extending from a first side face to a second side face opposing the first side face of the transparent substrate,
the semiconductor light emitting device being mounted on the mounting surface, with the second major surface facing the mounting surface.
19. A semiconductor light emitting apparatus according to claim 18, wherein the packaging member has a light reflecting surface facing the first and second side faces.
20. A semiconductor light emitting apparatus according to claim 18, wherein at least part of an inner wall of the groove is provided with one or more roughened regions.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is based upon and claims the benefit of priority from the prior Japanese Patent Application No. 2004-146231, filed on May 17, 2004; the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a semiconductor light emitting device and a semiconductor light emitting apparatus using a transparent substrate, and more particularly to a semiconductor light emitting device and a semiconductor light emitting apparatus having a structure suitable to achieving sufficient optical output.

Semiconductor light emitting devices, especially light emitting diodes (LEDs), have been widely used for such applications as full-color displays, traffic signal equipment, and in-vehicle applications. These applications particularly require the devices with higher optical output.

Conventionally, typical LEDs of this type have a structure in which a light emitting layer having a p-n junction is formed on the upper surface of a transparent substrate having a generally rectangular cross section and being translucent to the emission wavelength. For the purpose of electrical connection, the light emitting layer is provided with an upper surface electrode on its upper surface side and a lower surface electrode on its lower surface side.

In a LED configured as described above, part of the light emitted from the p-n junction has an incident angle not greater than the critical angle and can be extracted outside the LED. However, light having an incident angle greater than the critical angle is totally reflected, subjected to multiple reflections inside the LED, and finally vanished by absorption in the light emitting layer or the transparent substrate. This presents a problem that LEDs having a high optical output cannot be obtained.

In this respect, a LED having an upper surface on which a roughened light extraction region is formed, and a LED having a lower surface on which a recessed portion of generally spherical shape is formed, are known (see, e.g., Japanese Laid-Open Patent Application 10-200156 (1998), page 3, FIG. 4 (hereinafter referred to as Patent Document 1); or Japanese Laid-Open Patent Application 9-92878 (1997), page 4, FIG. 1 (hereinafter referred to as Patent Document 2)).

The LED disclosed in Patent Document 1 is a LED of the so-called mesa-structure, which has downward curved surfaces in the upper portion of an AlGaAs semiconductor substrate having a p-n junction. The LED comprises a light extraction region made of a rough surface on the upper surface of the p-type semiconductor region, and a light reflection region having a collection of numerous microsurfaces on the lower surface of the n-type semiconductor region, and another light extraction region made of a rough surface on the curved surface formed by mesa etching.

The LED disclosed in Patent Document 2 has a light reflection region with a recessed portion of generally spherical shape formed on the lower surface of an AlGaAs semiconductor substrate having a p-n junction by photolithography and etching.

However, the LED disclosed in Patent Document 1 or 2 described above has a problem that, when the LED has a chip size as large as, for example, 0.5 to 1 mm in order to obtain higher optical output, light emitted from the light emitting layer is subjected to multiple reflections inside the LED and absorbed by the light emitting layer many times, which increases the proportion of vanished light and prevents accomplishment of a LED with higher optical output.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a semiconductor light emitting device comprising: a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface, and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band; a light emitting layer selectively provided in a first portion on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band; and a roughened region provided in a second portion different from the first portion on the first major surface.

According to other aspect of the invention, there is provided a semiconductor light emitting device comprising: a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band; a light emitting layer provided on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band; a first electrode provided on the light emitting layer; a second electrode provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate; and a first one groove provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate and extending from a first side face to a second side face opposing the first side face of the transparent substrate.

According to other aspect of the invention, there is provided a semiconductor light emitting apparatus comprising: a packaging member having a mounting surface; and a semiconductor light emitting device having: a transparent substrate having a first major surface and a second major surface and being translucent to light in a first wavelength band; a light emitting layer provided on the first major surface of the transparent substrate and configured to emit light in the first wavelength band; a first electrode provided on the light emitting layer; a second electrode provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate; and a first one groove provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate and extending from a first side face to a second side face opposing the first side face of the transparent substrate, the semiconductor light emitting device being mounted on the mounting surface, with the second major surface facing the mounting surface.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a first embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 1A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 1B is a cross section along line A-A in FIG. 1A;

FIG. 2 illustrates the operation of the semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 2A is a cross section showing an optical path in the LED, and FIG. 2B shows an optical intensity distribution of the LED;

FIG. 3 shows a light emitting layer formed on a GaAs substrate in a process of manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 4 shows the light emitting layer bonded to a transparent substrate in the process of manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 5A through 5D sequentially show a process of forming a rough surface portion in the process of manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 6A and 6B show a process of scribing a wafer in the process of manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 7 is a cross section showing a semiconductor light emitting apparatus using a semiconductor light emitting device according to the first embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 8 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a second embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 8A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 8B is a cross section along line B-B in FIG. 8A;

FIGS. 9A and 9B show a semiconductor light emitting device according to a third embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 9A is a bottom view thereof, and FIG. 9B is a cross section along line C-C in FIG. 9A;

FIG. 9C is a schematic perspective view showing the semiconductor light emitting device mounted on the mounting surface of a packaging member;

FIG. 9D is a side view showing that light L1 emitted from the end portions of grooves 53, 54 is reflected on the reflecting surface of the packaging member;

FIG. 9E is a cross section showing a semiconductor light emitting device having roughened regions 52P formed on the beveled surfaces 52;

FIG. 10A is a cross section illustrating a process of forming grooves having beveled surfaces according to the third embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 10B is a plan view illustrating a process of forming grooves having beveled surfaces according to the third embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 11 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a fourth embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 11A is a bottom view thereof, and FIG. 11B is a cross section along line D-D in FIG. 11A;

FIG. 11C is a cross section showing a semiconductor light emitting device having roughened regions 62P formed on the curved surfaces 62;

FIG. 12 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a fifth embodiment of the invention, in particular, FIG. 12A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 12B is a cross section along line E-E in FIG. 12A; and

FIG. 12C is a cross section showing a semiconductor light emitting device having roughened regions 52P formed on the beveled surfaces 52.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Embodiments of the invention will now be described with reference to the drawings.

First Embodiment

FIG. 1 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a first embodiment of the invention. In particular, FIG. 1A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 1B is a cross section cut along line A-A in FIG. 1A and viewed in the direction of the arrows. This embodiment is an example of a semiconductor light emitting device comprising a light emitting layer of InGaAlP-based material directly bonded to a GaP transparent substrate without the use of adhesives.

As shown in FIG. 1, the semiconductor light emitting device 11 (hereinafter simply referred to as LED) of this embodiment comprises a transparent substrate 12 being translucent to the emission wavelength, a light emitting layer 13 having a p-n junction formed at the center of a first major surface of the transparent substrate 12, a first electrode 14 formed on the surface of the light emitting layer 13, a second electrode 15 formed on a second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 opposite to the first major surface of the transparent substrate 12, and a roughened region 16 formed on the periphery of the first major surface surrounding the light emitting layer 13.

Next, the operation of the LED 11 will be described in detail with reference to the drawings. FIG. 2A schematically shows an optical path of light emitted from the light emitting layer 13, reflected on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12, and radiated outside from the first major surface side, as compared to the conventional LED. The right side, R, of the center line a is a cross section showing the optical path in the LED 11, and the left side, L, is a cross section showing the optical path in the conventional LED. FIG. 2B schematically shows a horizontal optical intensity distribution of the LED 11 as compared to the conventional LED. The right side, R, of the center O shows the optical intensity distribution of the LED 11, and the left side, L, shows the optical intensity distribution of the conventional LED.

As shown in FIG. 2A, light b, emitted from the light emitting layer 13 downward into the transparent substrate 12, reflected on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12, and reaching the roughened region 16 without passing through the light emitting layer 13, is mostly extracted outside the transparent substrate 12 without being reflected back toward the second major surface side.

On the other hand, in the conventional LED, light c, emitted from the light emitting layer 13 downward into the transparent substrate 12 and reflected on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12, passes through the light emitting layer 13. While part of the light is extracted outside the transparent substrate 12, most of the light is reflected on the upper surface of the light emitting layer 13, passes through the light emitting layer 13 again, and experiences multiple reflections.

That is, while the light b in the LED 11 experiences a single occurrence of absorption by the light emitting layer, the light c in the conventional LED experiences at least three occurrences of absorption.

As shown in FIG. 2B, since current flowing through the light emitting layer 13 is generally attenuated as a function of the distance from the first electrode 14, the optical output is decreased with the distance from the first electrode 14. For this reason, as the chip size becomes larger, the conventional LED is more likely to exhibit an optical intensity distribution d having an optical output sharply decreased on the periphery of the transparent substrate 12.

On the other hand, in the LED 11, the light emitting layer 13 is not formed on the periphery of the transparent substrate 12 where otherwise absorption of passing light is greater in proportion than light emission. Therefore the proportion of emitted light absorbed by the light emitting layer 13 can be reduced.

As a result, an optical intensity distribution e can be obtained, which has a smaller decrease of optical output on the periphery of the transparent substrate 12. This can enhance the optical output by an amount indicated by the hatched portion f.

According to experiments, the optical output was enhanced when the ratio of the area, S2, of the light emitting layer 13 to the area, S1, of the transparent substrate 12 is about 0.6 to 0.9. Since the optical output is decreased as the ratio deviates from this range, it is appropriate and preferable that the ratio of the area S2 of the light emitting layer 13 to the area S1 of the transparent substrate 12 be in the range of about 0.6 to 0.9.

This is because, when the ratio of the area S2 of the light emitting layer 13 to the chip area S1 is smaller than 0.6, the amount of light emission itself from the light emitting layer 13 is decreased, which results in insufficient optical output. On the other hand, when the ratio is greater than 0.9, the proportion of light from the light emitting layer 13 absorbed by the light emitting layer 13 is not significantly different from the conventional case.

Advantageously, in order to prevent light reflection, irregularities in the roughened region 16 have an average bottom length of about 0.1 to 3 μm, and an average height equal to or greater than 0.5 times the bottom length. Since the optical output is decreased with deviation from this range, it is appropriate and preferable that the irregularities have an average bottom length of about 0.1 to 3 μm, and an average height of about 0.5 times the bottom length. That is, it is desirable that the average height of irregularities be about 0.05 to 1.5 μm.

This is because a surface of irregularities less than about a fraction of the wavelength of light is substantially identical to a mirror surface, and a surface of irregularities greater than several times the wavelength of light is not favorable to diffuse reflection of light, in view of the fact that light is diffusely reflected on the irregular surface and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of light extraction from the transparent substrate 12.

In addition, it is more preferable that the area of the first electrode 14 be minimized as long as the connecting conductor such as gold wiring can be connected.

In the LED 11 configured as described above, a light emitting layer 13 having a p-n junction is formed at the center of the first major surface of the transparent substrate 12, and the periphery surrounding the light emitting layer 13 is roughened. Therefore a larger proportion of light reflected on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 is extracted outside from the roughened region 16 without being absorbed by the light emitting layer 13, which enables to achieve sufficient optical output.

Next, description will be made on a LED comprising a transparent substrate 12 of GaP and a light emitting layer 13 made of InGaAlP-based material, and a specific example of manufacturing a semiconductor light emitting apparatus using this LED.

FIGS. 3 to 6 illustrate a process of manufacturing the LED 11. FIG. 3 is a cross section showing a light emitting layer made of InGaAlP-based material formed on a GaAs substrate. FIG. 4 is a cross section showing a light emitting layer made of InGaAlP-based material bonded to a GaP substrate. FIG. 5 sequentially shows a process of forming a roughened region on the LED on which electrodes have been formed. FIG. 6 shows a process of dividing a wafer having LEDs formed thereon into chips.

As shown in FIG. 3, on an n-GaAs substrate 21 having a thickness of 250 μm, an n-GaAs buffer layer 22 having a thickness of 0.5 μm is formed by MOCVD method. Subsequently, an InGaP etching stop layer 23 having a thickness of 0.2 μm, an n-GaAs contact layer 24 having a thickness of 0.1 μm, an n-InAlP cladding layer 25 having a thickness of 1 μm, an InGaAlP MQW active layer 26 having a thickness of 1 μm, a p-InAlP cladding layer 27 having a thickness of 1 μm, and a p-InGaP bonding layer 28 having a thickness of 0.05 μm are sequentially stacked.

Here, the active layer 26 is not limited to the multiple quantum well (MQW) structure, but can also be configured as a single heterostructure (SH), double heterostructure (DH), or quantum well heterostructure (QWH).

Next, as shown in FIG. 4, the p-InGaP bonding layer 28 is brought into intimate contact with the first major surface of the p-GaP transparent substrate 12, and subjected to heat treatment at 800 C., for example.

Next, the GaAs substrate 21 and the GaAs buffer layer 22 are selectively etched away using ammonia-based etchant. Furthermore, the InGaP etching stop layer 23 is selectively etched away by hydrochloric acid.

In this way, the p-InGaP bonding layer 28 is coupled to the p-GaP transparent substrate 12 at an atomic level to obtain a LED comprising a light emitting layer 13 directly bonded to the transparent substrate 12 without the use of translucent adhesives (insulator).

Next, as shown in FIG. 5A, the surface of the light emitting layer 13 is patterned with first electrodes 14 primarily composed of AuGe. A second electrode 15 primarily composed of AuZn is then formed on the second major surface of the p-GaP transparent substrate 12.

Next, as shown in FIG. 5B, a resist film 31 is formed on the light emitting layer 13. Then, as shown in FIG. 5C, the resist film 31 is used as a mask to selectively etch away the light emitting layer 13 by, for example, hydrochloric acid at room temperature for 30 seconds, to expose the first major surface of the p-GaP transparent substrate 12.

Next, as shown in FIG. 5D, the p-GaP transparent substrate 12 is etched by, for example, hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for 20 minutes, to form a roughened region 16 on the periphery of the first major surface of the p-GaP transparent substrate 12 so that the roughened region 16 surrounds the light emitting layer 13, irregularities in the roughened region 16 having an average bottom length of 1 to 3 μm, and an average height substantially equal to the bottom length.

Next, as shown in FIG. 6, the wafer 32 having LEDs formed thereon is divided into chips by using a scriber (not shown) to scribe the transparent substrate 12 from the second electrode 15 side with a diamond pen 33. This results in completion of the LED 11 shown in FIG. 1, in which a light emitting layer 13 is located at the center of the transparent substrate 12 and a roughened region 16 surrounding the light emitting layer 13 is located on the periphery of the transparent substrate 12.

FIG. 7 is a cross section showing a semiconductor light emitting apparatus using the LED 11 shown in FIG. 1. As shown in FIG. 7, the LED 11 is mounted in a reflecting cup 35 formed on a lead frame 34 a so that the light emitting layer serves as a light emitting observed surface. The second electrode is fixed to the bottom of the reflecting cup 35 with a conductive adhesive. The first electrode is connected to a lead frame 34 b with gold wiring 36.

Finally, a semiconductor light emitting apparatus 38 is obtained by being molded with transparent resin 37. The optical output of this semiconductor light emitting apparatus 38 is enhanced 30% or more as compared to semiconductor light emitting apparatus using a LED of conventional structure.

As described above, according to this embodiment, the proportion of light from the light emitting layer absorbed by the light emitting layer is reduced, which enables to achieve a semiconductor light emitting device having sufficient optical output. Therefore a semiconductor light emitting apparatus having high optical output can be provided.

The foregoing has described a light emitting layer 13 of rectangular shape and a first electrode 14 of circular shape. However, both the light emitting layer 13 and the first electrode 14 may be of rectangular shape, or of circular shape. If the light emitting layer 13 is similar to the first electrode 14, the distance from the first electrode 14 to the edge of the light emitting layer 13 remains generally constant. This provides an advantage of equalizing the in-plane distribution of optical output of the LED 11.

In addition, the semiconductor light emitting apparatus of the invention is not limited to those using a lead frame, but includes various types such as a surface mounting device (SMD) type in which a semiconductor light emitting device is mounted on a packaging board, and a stem type in which a semiconductor light emitting device is mounted on a stem.

Second Embodiment

FIG. 8 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a second embodiment of the invention. In particular, FIG. 8A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 8B is a cross section cut along line B-B in FIG. 8A and viewed in the direction of the arrows. In this embodiment, like components as in the first embodiment are marked with like reference numerals and will not be described further.

The second embodiment is different from the first embodiment in that a light emitting layer is formed on each of the center and periphery of the first major surface of the transparent substrate and that a roughened region is formed between the light emitting layers of the center and the periphery.

More specifically, as shown in FIG. 8, the LED 41 of this embodiment comprises a circular light emitting layer 42 a formed at the center of a first major surface of the transparent substrate 12, a rectangular light emitting layer 42 b formed at the periphery, and a roughened region 43 formed between the light emitting layers 42 a and 42 b surrounding the light emitting layer 42 a.

A circular first electrode 14 is formed on the light emitting layer 42 a. A rectangular first electrode 44 is formed on the light emitting layer 42 b. The first electrode 14 is electrically connected to the first electrode 44 via wiring 45.

The roughened region 43 is made by, for example, treating the surface of the GaP transparent substrate 12 with inductive coupled plasma (ICP) in an Ar/Cl2 gas atmosphere, followed by immersion into hydrochloric acid. Protrusions of rectangular pyramid shape are formed in the roughened region 43, where the irregularities have an average bottom length of 0.5 to 2 μm and an average height substantially equal to the bottom length.

In the LED 41 configured as described above, a region between the light emitting layers 42 a and 42 b formed at the center and the periphery, respectively, of the first major surface of the transparent substrate 12 is roughened so that the region surrounds the light emitting layer 42 a. Therefore a larger proportion of light reflected on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 is extracted outside from the roughened region 43 without being absorbed by the light emitting layers 42 a and 42 b, which enables to achieve sufficient optical output.

As described above, according to this embodiment, the periphery is also provided with a light emitting layer 42 b, which provides an advantage that the in-plane distribution of optical output of the LED 41 can be further equalized.

Third Embodiment

FIGS. 9A and 9B show a semiconductor light emitting device according to a third embodiment of the invention. In particular, FIG. 9A is a bottom view thereof, and FIG. 9B is a cross section cut along line C-C in FIG. 9A and viewed in the direction of the arrows. In this embodiment, like components as in the first embodiment are marked with like reference numerals and will not be described further.

As shown in FIGS. 9A and 9B, the LED 51 of this embodiment comprises grooves 53, 54 extending from one side to the other opposing side of the transparent substrate 12. Each of the grooves 53, 54 has beveled surfaces 52 on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 diverging from the first major surface side toward the second major surface side.

The grooves 53 and 54 intersect with each other at a generally right angle at the center of the transparent substrate 12. Second electrodes 55 are formed on the remaining second major surface where the grooves 53, 54 are not formed.

In the LED 51 configured as described above, a larger proportion of light emitted from the light emitting layer 13 toward the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 can have an incident angle below the critical angle. This results in reducing the proportion of light being subjected to multiple reflections on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 and absorbed by the light emitting layer 13. The proportion of light extracted from the beveled surfaces 52 is thus increased.

Therefore the light extracted from the beveled surfaces 52 is repeatedly reflected on the mounting surface of the packaging member such as a reflecting cup (not shown) of a lead frame and on the beveled surfaces 52. Part of the reflected light can be extracted outside from the end portions of the grooves 53, 54.

FIG. 9C is a schematic perspective view showing the semiconductor light emitting device mounted on the mounting surface of a packaging member.

More specifically, the semiconductor light emitting device 51 of this embodiment is mounted on the mounting surface 35P such as the bottom of the reflecting cup of a lead frame, with the grooves 53, 54 of the semiconductor light emitting device 51 facing down. Light L1 emitted from the light emitting layer via the beveled surfaces 52 of the grooves 53, 54 toward the mounting surface 35P is repeatedly reflected between the mounting surface 35P and the beveled surfaces 52 and radiated outside from the end portions of the grooves 53, 54 as shown in the figure. That is, the grooves 53, 54 serve as waveguides for emitting the light L1 from the side faces.

FIG. 9D is a side view showing that light L1 emitted from the end portions of grooves 53, 54 is reflected on the reflecting surface of the packaging member.

More specifically, the light L1 emitted from the end portions of grooves 53, 54 is reflected on the reflecting surface 35R such as the reflecting cup 35 of a lead frame, and extracted upward. As a result, the light extraction efficiency can be further enhanced.

Returning again to FIGS. 9A and 9B, the angle θ between the beveled surface 52 and the normal to the transparent substrate 12 is preferably selected to be in the vicinity of about 27 degrees (critical angle) when the transparent substrate 12 is made of GaP and molded with transparent resin composed of epoxy resin, because their refractive index for red light is 3.3 and 1.5, respectively. In general, a suitable angle is in the range of about 20 to 40 degrees.

In addition, as the area of the beveled surface 52 increases, the amount of light having an incident angle below the critical angle increases. It is thus desirable to increase the area as long as the mechanical strength of the LED 51 is not compromised.

Moreover, as shown in FIG. 9E, roughened regions 52P provided on the beveled surfaces 52 can further enhance the light extraction efficiency. More specifically, when the beveled surfaces 52 are provided thereon with roughened regions 52P made of irregularities similar to those described with reference to the first and second embodiments, the light extraction efficiency via the beveled surfaces 52 can be enhanced, and thus a stronger light L1 can be extracted from the end portions of the grooves 53, 54 served as waveguides.

A method of manufacturing the foregoing LED will now be described with reference to FIG. 10. FIG. 10 is a cross section illustrating a process of forming grooves 53, 54 having beveled surfaces 52 on a wafer having numerous LEDs formed thereon.

As shown in FIG. 10A, a wafer 57 having LEDs formed thereon is stuck to a dicing sheet (not shown) with second electrodes 55 of the wafer 57 facing up. A dicing blade 58 having a V-shaped cross section is used to half-dice the wafer 57 from the second electrode 55 side at a predetermined pitch.

Next, the wafer 57 is rotated by 90 degrees and half-diced in a direction orthogonal to the dicing grooves from the second electrode 55 side at a predetermined pitch.

FIG. 10B is a bottom view showing part of the wafer 57 having arrays of V-shaped grooves that have been cut as described above.

Next, the half-diced V-shaped grooves 53, 54 are etched by, for example, mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution, to remove any grinding damage layer due to dicing. The wafer 57 is then divided into chips to obtain the LED 51 shown in FIG. 9.

Subsequently, as in FIG. 7, the LED 51 is fixed to the reflecting cup 35 of a lead frame 34 a using, for example, eutectic mounting with gold-tin alloy, to obtain a semiconductor light emitting apparatus.

As described above, according to this embodiment, light emitted from the light emitting layer toward the second major surface is extracted outside from the beveled surfaces 52 formed on the second major surface. This reduces the proportion of light subjected to multiple reflections on the second major surface and the upper surface of the light emitting layer 13 and absorbed by the light emitting layer 13, which results in a semiconductor light emitting device having sufficient optical output. Therefore a semiconductor light emitting apparatus having high optical output can be provided.

Moreover, the rectangular cross section of the transparent substrate 12 contributes to more uniform stress due to molded resin as compared to a LED having a trapezoidal cross section. This provides an advantage of preventing occurrence of failures such as chip lifting and cracking, and enhancing reliability. In addition, chip handling is facilitated.

The foregoing has described the case where the beveled surfaces 52 are diced and then etched. However, as illustrated in FIG. 9E, roughened regions 52P can be further formed on the beveled surfaces 52. The roughened regions 52P can be formed by the method described above with reference to the first or second embodiment.

Fourth Embodiment

FIGS. 11A and 11B show a semiconductor light emitting device according to a fourth embodiment of the invention. In particular, FIG. 11A is a bottom view thereof, and FIG. 11B is a cross section cut along line D-D in FIG. 11A and viewed in the direction of the arrows. In this embodiment, like components as in the first embodiment are marked with like reference numerals and will not be described further.

The fourth embodiment is different from the third embodiment in that grooves having a curved surface are formed on the second major surface of the transparent substrate, with the curved surface being opened from the first major surface side toward the second major surface side and being curved toward the first major surface side.

More specifically, as shown in FIGS. 11A and 11B, the LED 61 of this embodiment comprises grooves 63, 64 having a curved surface 62 and extending from one side to the other opposing side of the transparent substrate 12, where the grooves 63, 64 are provided on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12, and the curved surface 62 is opened from the first major surface side toward the second major surface side and curved toward the first major surface side.

The grooves 63 and 64 intersect with each other at a generally right angle at the center of the transparent substrate 12, and have a groove width diverging from the center toward the side faces. Second electrodes 65 are formed on the remaining second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 where the grooves 63, 64 are not formed.

Light extracted from the curved surface 62 of the grooves 63, 64 having a groove width diverging from the center toward the side faces is repeatedly reflected on the bottom surface of the reflecting cup (not shown) and on the curved surface 62 as it travels toward the side face. Thus the grooves 63, 64 serve as waveguides as in the third embodiment, and can further increase the proportion of light extracted outside from the side faces.

The grooves 63, 64 having a curved surface and a diverging groove width can be formed by, for example, using a resist film as a mask and etching by mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide solution.

As described above, the LED 61 includes grooves 63, 64 on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12, with grooves 63, 64 having a groove width diverging from the center toward the side faces. As a result, the optical output extracted from the side faces can be further increased.

Moreover, as shown in FIG. 11C, roughened regions 62P provided on the curved surface 62 of the grooves 63, 64 can further enhance the light extraction efficiency. More specifically, when the curved surface 62 is provided thereon with roughened regions 62P as described with reference to the first and second embodiments, the light extraction efficiency via the curved surface 62 can be enhanced. As a result, the intensity of light extracted outside from the end portions of the grooves 63, 64 can be increased.

Fifth Embodiment

FIG. 12 shows a semiconductor light emitting device according to a fifth embodiment of the invention. In particular, FIG. 12A is a plan view thereof, and FIG. 12B is a cross section cut along line E-E in FIG. 12A and viewed in the direction of the arrows. In this embodiment, like components as in the first embodiment are marked with like reference numerals and will not be described further.

The fifth embodiment is different from the third embodiment in including both a roughened region formed on the first major surface of the transparent substrate where the light emitting layer is not formed, and grooves having beveled surfaces on the second major surface diverging from the first major surface side toward the second major surface side.

More specifically, as shown in FIG. 12, the LED 71 of this embodiment comprises a transparent substrate 12 being translucent to the emission wavelength, a light emitting layer 13 having a p-n junction formed at the center of a first major surface of the transparent substrate 12, a first electrode 14 formed on the surface of the light emitting layer 13, and a roughened region 16 formed on the periphery of the first major surface surrounding the light emitting layer 13.

Moreover, the LED 71 comprises grooves 53, 54 formed on a second major surface opposing a first major surface of the transparent substrate 12 and extending from one side to the other opposing side of the transparent substrate 12. Each of the grooves 53, 54 has beveled surfaces 52 on the second major surface of the transparent substrate 12 diverging from the first major surface side toward the second major surface side. A second electrode 55 is formed on the part of the second major surface where the grooves 53, 54 are not formed. The grooves 53, 54 serves as waveguides as described above with reference to the third embodiment to enhance the light extraction efficiency.

As described above, according to this embodiment, light can be extracted from both the roughened region 16 and the grooves 53, 54, which enable to achieve a semiconductor light emitting device having higher optical output.

As shown in FIG. 12C, also in this embodiment, roughened regions 52P provided on the beveled surfaces 52 of the grooves 53, 54 can further enhance the light extraction efficiency. That is, as described above with reference to the third embodiment, roughened regions 52P formed on the beveled surfaces 52 can enhance the efficiency of light extraction from the beveled surfaces 52. As a result, the intensity of light extracted outside from the end portions of the grooves 53, 54 can be increased.

The above embodiments are described with reference to a GaP transparent substrate and an InGaAlP light emitting layer. However, the invention is not limited thereto. Any substrate transparent to the emission wavelength may be used without particular limitation. For example, the invention is also applicable to a blue LED using a sapphire substrate and an infrared LED using a GaAs substrate.

Furthermore, it is to be understood that the roughened region may be formed on a portion of the surface of the light emitting layer where the first electrode is not formed, or on the side face of the transparent substrate.

While the present invention has been disclosed in terms of the embodiment in order to facilitate better understanding thereof, it should be appreciated that the invention can be embodied in various ways without departing from the principle of the invention. Therefore, the invention should be understood to include all possible embodiments and modification to the shown embodiments which can be embodied without departing from the principle of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US7968980 *Mar 1, 2007Jun 28, 2011Nichia CorporationSupport member for mounting a semiconductor device, conductive materials, and its manufacturing method
US8174025 *Jun 9, 2006May 8, 2012Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcSemiconductor light emitting device including porous layer
US8188495Jun 8, 2007May 29, 2012Showa Denko K.K.Gallium nitride-based compound semiconductor light emitting device
US8653547Nov 10, 2010Feb 18, 2014Lg Innotek Co., LtdLight emitting device and light emitting device package
US8698174 *Apr 13, 2007Apr 15, 2014Epistar CorporationSemiconductor light emitting device
US20070241356 *Apr 13, 2007Oct 18, 2007Epistar CorporationSemiconductor light emitting device
US20070284607 *Jun 9, 2006Dec 13, 2007Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, LlcSemiconductor Light Emitting Device Including Porous Layer
DE102008006364A1 *Jan 28, 2008Jul 30, 2009Zeller, Philipp, Dr.Beleuchtungs- und Anzeigevorrichtung
EP2095437A2 *Nov 15, 2007Sep 2, 2009The Regents of the University of CaliforniaHigh light extraction efficiency sphere led
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Classifications
U.S. Classification257/95, 257/E33.074, 257/98
International ClassificationH01L33/22, H01L33/30, H01L33/06
Cooperative ClassificationH01L33/20, H01L33/22
European ClassificationH01L33/20, H01L33/22
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 6, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:OHASHI, KENICHI;AKAIKE, YASUHIKO;SUGIYAMA, HITOSHI;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016838/0583
Effective date: 20050425