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Publication numberUS20050260259 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/112,879
Publication dateNov 24, 2005
Filing dateApr 22, 2005
Priority dateApr 23, 2004
Also published asUS7589169, US20060093660, WO2005112977A2, WO2005112977A3
Publication number11112879, 112879, US 2005/0260259 A1, US 2005/260259 A1, US 20050260259 A1, US 20050260259A1, US 2005260259 A1, US 2005260259A1, US-A1-20050260259, US-A1-2005260259, US2005/0260259A1, US2005/260259A1, US20050260259 A1, US20050260259A1, US2005260259 A1, US2005260259A1
InventorsElijah Bolotin
Original AssigneeBolotin Elijah M
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Compositions for treatment with glucagon-like peptide, and methods of making and using the same
US 20050260259 A1
Abstract
In part, the present invention is directed to compositions comprising a carrier with a metal binding domain, a metal ion, and GLP-1.
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Claims(22)
1. A biocompatible composition comprising: a carrier with a metal binding domain (MBD), a metal ion chelated to the metal binding domain of the carrier, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) with a MBD chelated to the metal ion, wherein after administration of the composition to a patient, GLP-1 is released from the carrier.
2. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier is one of the following: polymer, micelle, reverse micelle, liposome, emulsion, hydrogel, microparticle, nanoparticle, microsphere, or solid surface.
3. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier is a polymer.
4. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier is a polymer having a molecular mass ranging from about 100 to about 100,000,000 daltons.
5. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier is a polymer having a molecular mass ranging from about 10,000 to about 250,000 daltons.
6. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier comprises a poly amino acid.
7. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier comprises poly-lysine.
8. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier comprises poly(ethyleneglycol).
9. The composition of claim 1, wherein the carrier comprises a protective sidechain.
10. The composition of claim 9, wherein the protective side chain comprises poly(ethylene glycol).
11. The composition of claim 9, wherein the protective side chain comprises alkoxy poly(ethyleneglycol).
12. The composition of claim 9, wherein the protective side chain comprises methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) (MPEG).
13. The composition of claim 1, wherein the metal binding domain comprises a nitrogen containing poly carboxylic acid.
14. The composition of claim 1, wherein the metal binding domain comprises one or more of the following:
N-(hydroxy-ethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid;
nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA);
ethylene-bis(oxyethylene-nitrilo)tetraacetic acid;
1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodo-decane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid;
1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid;
1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-10-(2′-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazocyclodecane;
1,4,7-triazacyclonane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid;
1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetra-decane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid;
diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA);
ethylenedicysteine;
bis(aminoethanethiol)carboxylic acid;
triethylenetetraamine-hexaacetic acid;
ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA);
1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid; or
polypeptide.
15. The composition of the claim 14, wherein the polypeptide has the formula: (AxHy)p where A is any amino acid residue, H is histidine, x is an integer from 0-6; y is an integer from 1-6; and p is an integer from 1-6.
16. The composition of claim 1, wherein the metal ion is a transition metal ion.
17. The composition of claim 1, wherein the metal ion is one or more of the following: Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, or Cu2+.
18. The composition of claim 1, wherein the metal ion is Zn2+ or Ni2+.
19. The composition of claim 9, wherein the carrier comprises poly-L-lysine, the protective side chain comprises MPEG, the metal binding domain comprises NTA, and the metal ion is Ni2+.
20. The composition of claim 9, wherein the carrier comprises poly-L-lysine, the protective side chain comprises MPEG, the metal binding domain comprises NTA, and the metal ion is Zn2+.
21. A pharmaceutical composition comprising the composition of claim 1.
22. The pharmaceutical composition of claim 22, wherein the pharmaceutical composition is an injectable composition.
Description
RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/564,710, filed Apr. 23, 2004.

INTRODUCTION

The development of new drugs, formulations and other systems for administration of physiologically active peptides and proteins and other therapeutics and materials is driven by the need to provide these peptides or proteins or other materials to achieve the desirable physiological effects. With respect to peptides and proteins, many of them have been observed to be unstable in the gastro-intestinal tract and therefore may need to be stabilized or protected or delivered via systemic circulation. In addition, peptides and proteins that have low molecular masses tend to have short biological half-lives due to their efficient removal from systemic circulation via kidneys. For example, a fraction of these peptides and proteins can also be removed via reticulo-endothelial uptake due to recognition by monocyte/macrophages or as a result of opsonization by complement components. Many peptides and proteins can also lose their activity in vivo due to proteolysis (peptide bond cleavage).

In part to circumvent these undesirable effects, a drug delivery system may be used. There are several drug delivery strategies that can be useful for peptide and protein delivery in vivo. First, a continuous systemic infusion of drug via a pump can be employed. This strategy is proven efficient in clinical practice but may be impractical for outpatients requiring high levels of mobility, associated disadvantages of quality of life and potential intravenous (I.V.) line infections.

Second, peptides and proteins can be included in an implantable pump comprised of a capsule with a membrane allowing diffusion of the drug, for example, at a desirable release rate. Due to limited volume of these capsules, peptides and proteins are often used in a concentrated formulation, which leads to a loss of solubility due to aggregation and potential loss of specific activity. In most cases, the drug is usually released into the extracellular space and distributed in lymphatics. Overall concentration of peptide or protein may be affected by local lymph node activity and the efficacy of lymph node drainage of the implantation site. There is also a potential of host reaction to capsule material but in general, this side effect is infrequent.

Third, the drug release system can be made biodegradable as a result of encapsulation or inclusion into degradable drug delivery vehicles or carriers, e.g. polymeric matrices, particles or membrane vesicles (liposomes). These delivery systems are usually either implantable or injectable. Implantable drug delivery systems are often placed under the epidermis where the components of the system are usually slowly degraded as a result of biological activity of surrounding cells (i.e. as a result of the release of enzymes degrading chemical bonds that hold these implants together).

One example of treatment with a peptide that is currently rendered ineffective due to proteolysis is treatment with glucagon-like peptides such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2). In particular, treatment that involves proteolysis protected GLP-1 would be beneficial for the treatment of diabetes.

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Diabetes is the third most common disease and fourth leading cause of death in North America with an estimated 18.2 million (6.3% of the population) affected in the United States. The annual economic cost of diabetes in the US is estimated to be as much as $100 billion, making the disease an important clinical and public health problem.

There are two major types of diabetes: Type 1, (5-10% of diabetics) in which the immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas and Type 2 in which individuals develop resistance to insulin. Untreated diabetics are affected by a myriad of complications including eye, kidney, nerve and cardiovascular disease. The goal of diabetes treatment is to regulate blood sugar levels and prevent hyperglycemia. While high blood sugar can be controlled in Type II diabetes by lifestyle changes and oral anti-hyperglycemic agents, the only standard treatment for Type I diabetes, however, is strict control of blood glucose levels by insulin therapy by injection, with the associated risk of serious hypoglycemic events. More recently, the transplantation of insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells has been shown to be highly effective in reversing diabetes in Type I patients. The success of this therapy however depends on effective immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of the transplanted islets by the autoimmune response of the patient, though reports of sustained tolerance to the transplant have been reported.

The recent finding that islet cells can be regenerated in diabetic animals by GLP-1 has raised the exciting possibility of a new approach for a cure that avoids the need for transplantation of islets and its associated complications. GLP-1 may offer an attractive alternative to islet transplantation, circumventing the complications associated with surgery or portal vein administration of islet cells. However, this treatment still suffers from a short half life for GLP-1 due to proteolysis.

New therapies are still desperately needed to relieve patients with diabetes from the neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy associated with the current standard of treatment, injected insulin. An attractive new treatment presented herein is a drug delivery system that overcomes the problems presented above.

In part, the present invention is directed towards novel drug delivery systems, and methods of making and using the same.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

In part, the present invention is directed to the use of metal bridges to connect a carrier and GLP-1. In certain instances, the subject compositions provide a means of achieving sustained release of the active agent after administration to a patient. In certain instances, the release may be designed to be other than sustained. As used herein, a “metal bridge” comprises the metal binding domain (MBD) of the carrier, the MBD of the active agent, and the metal that is chelated to both of them. It may be the case that the metal bridge may comprise more than a single metal ion (i.e., multiple metal ions) with bridging ligands, provided that the MBDs of the carrier and active agent are capable of being connected through the metal ions and bridging ligand. It may be in the case of GLP-1 that an MBD is not necessary.

In part, the present invention is directed to a drug delivery system involving a polymeric carrier to which a drug may associate via a metal ion. It has been observed that polymeric carriers bearing chelated metal ion can bind biologically active peptides and proteins in the absence or presence of plasma proteins. The subject compositions, and methods of making and using the same, may achieve a number of desirable results and features, one or more of which (if any) may be present in any particular embodiment of the present invention: 1) protecting peptides and proteins and other associated drugs from the interaction with other macromolecules and cells; 2) decreasing undesirable immunogenicity of the carrier or peptide/protein/drug; 3) prolonging biological half-life of peptides and proteins and drugs in vivo (e.g. for decreasing glomerular filtration in kidneys, decreasing kidney and liver uptake, decreasing macrophage uptake etc); 4) stabilizing peptides/proteins/drugs by complexation with metal ion and carrier. One potential advantage of the metal binding domain of the present invention is to afford labile binding with peptides and proteins and other drugs which are capable of forming coordination bonds with metal ions (e.g., Zn and Ni). In many instances, coordinate bonding affords reversible dissociation of the peptide or protein or drug from the polymeric carrier. It may be possible to affect the dissociation rate by modulating with competitive ligands for the metal ion, such as imidazole or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA).

In certain embodiments, the present invention may not require the use of a MBD with GLP-1, in so much as certain carriers associate with GLP-1 in the absence of a MBD.

In certain embodiments, the present invention relates to a biocompatible composition comprising: (i) a carrier with a metal binding domain (MBD); (ii) a metal ion chelated to the MBD; and (iii) an active agent with a MBD chelated to the metal ion, wherein after administration of the composition to a patient, the active agent is released in a sustained manner. It is understood that not all of the active agents in a sample of the composition will necessarily be attached to the carrier through the metal ion, but that some portion of the active agent may be combined with the carrier. Likewise, it is understood that not all of the metal binding domains attached to the carrier will chelate a metal ion, and that not all of the metal ions bound to a metal binding domain will form a coordinate bond with an active agent.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the composition described above wherein the carrier is one of the following: polymer, micelle, reverse micelle, liposome, emulsion, hydrogel, microparticle, nanoparticle, microsphere, colloid or solid surface. In a further embodiment, the carrier is a biocompatible polymer. In a further embodiment, the carrier is a polymer having a molecular weight ranging from about 100 to about 1,000,000 daltons. In a further embodiment, the carrier is a polymer having a molecular weight ranging from about 10,000 to about 250,000 daltons. In a further embodiment, the carrier comprises a poly amino acid. In a further embodiment, the carrier comprises poly-lysine.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the carrier comprises protective side chains. In a further embodiment, the protective side chain comprises poly(ethylene glycol). In a further embodiment, the protective side chain comprises alkoxy poly(ethylene glycol). In a further embodiment, the protective side chain comprises methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG).

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the metal binding domain comprises a nitrogen containing poly carboxylic acid. In a further embodiment, the metal binding domain comprises one or more of the following moieties: N-(hydroxy-ethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid; nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); ethylene-bis(oxyethylene-nitrilo)tetraacetic acid; 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclodo-decane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid; 1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid; 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-10-(2′-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraarocyclodecane; 1,4,7-triazacyclonane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid; 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetra-decane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid; diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA); ethylenedicysteine; bis(aminoethanethiol)carboxylic acid; triethylenetetraamine-hexaacetic acid; ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA); 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid; or polypeptide. In a further embodiment, the polypeptide in the metal binding domain has the formula: (AxHy)p where A is any amino acid residue, H is histidine, x is an integer from 0-6; y is an integer from 1-6; and p is an integer from 1-6.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the metal ion is a transition metal ion. In a further embodiment, the metal ion is one or more of the following: Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, or Cu2+.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the active agent is one of the following: a diagnostic, targeting moiety, or therapeutic agent. In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein more than one type of active agent forms a coordinate bond with the metal binding domain of the polymeric carrier. In a further embodiment, the active agent is a therapeutic agent comprising a protein, peptide, peptidomimetic, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, oligonucleotide, other nucleic acid, oligosaccharide, antibody or proteoglycan.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the carrier comprises poly-L-lysine, the protective side chain comprises MPEG, the metal binding domain comprises NTA, the metal ion is Ni2+, and the active agent is GLP-1.

In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to the above described composition wherein the carrier comprises poly-L-lysine, the protective side chain comprises MPEG, the metal binding domain comprises NTA, the metal ion is Zn2+, and the active agent is GLP-1.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising any of the above described compositions. In a further embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition is an injectable composition.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a composition comprising: a carrier with a metal binding domain (MBD), a metal ion chelated to the MBD of the carrier, one or more protective side chains covalently bonded to the carrier, and an active agent with a MBD chelated to the metal ion. In a further embodiment, the carrier comprises a polymer. In a further embodiment, the protective sidechain comprises poly(ethylene glycol). In a further embodiment, the protective sidechain comprises alkoxy poly(ethyleneglycol). In a further embodiment, the protective sidechain comprises methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol) (MPEG). In a further embodiment, the active agent is a therapeutic agent. In a further embodiment, the active agent is a peptide or protein.

The present invention provides a number of methods of making the subject compositions. Examples of such methods include those described in the Exemplification below.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of treatment, comprising administering any of the above described compositions. In a further embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of treating diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's, or cardiovascular problems comprising administering any of the above described compositions.

In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a kit comprising a composition comprising: (i) a carrier with a MBD; (ii) a metal ion chelated to the MBD of the carrier; and (iii) an active agent with a MBD chelated to the metal ion. Uses for such kits include, for example, therapeutic applications. Such kits may have a variety of uses, including, for example, imaging, targeting, diagnosis, therapy, vaccination, and other applications.

In another aspect, the compositions of the present invention may be used in the manufacture of a medicament for any number of uses, including for example treating any disease or other treatable condition of a patient. In still other aspects, the present invention is directed to a method for formulating biocompatible compositions of the present invention in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.

These embodiments of the present invention, other embodiments, and their features and characteristics, will be apparent from the description, drawings and claims that follow.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 depicts a graph showing the binding of hrGH to polymers in the presence of Zn and Ni cations. Size-separation on Centricon YM-100 membrane suggests that approximately 1 mg of rhGH binds to 100 mg of MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA.

FIG. 2 depicts a chromatogram showing elution profiles of 125I-labled rhGH (squares) and rhGH complex with MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA (circles) on SEC-5 size-exclusion HPLC column. The profile of time-dependent elution shows that a fraction of the complex of labeled hormone with MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA elutes earlier than the free hormone suggesting a complex formation.

FIG. 3 depicts a bar-graph showing histidine tagged-GFP binding yields after separation of complexes with MPEGs-PL-NTA (Ni or Zn salts), MPEGs-PL or MPEGs-PL-succinate in the presence or absence of blood plasma. The graph shows that complex formation with metal salts of MPEGs-PL-NTA is equally possible in the presence or absence of bulk protein of plasma.

FIG. 4 depicts a bar graph showing the levels of GFP in plasma of animals injected with a histidine tagged-GFP (control); and complexes of histidine tagged-GFP with MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA and MPEGs-PL-NiNTA. The graph shows significantly higher in vivo levels of GFP in blood in the case of Ni-complex suggesting prolonged circulation of histidine tagged-GFP bound to MPEGs-PL-NiNTA carrier.

FIG. 5 depicts N-terminal cleavage at the Ala2 position by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) in GLP-1 amide.

FIG. 6 depicts a protected graft copolymer (PGC) nanocarrier with PharmaIn reversible binding (PRB) (reversible binding that comprises a metal ion bridge).

FIG. 7 depicts an example of binding isotherm for the interaction. ITC is a true in-solution method.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION

Definitions

For convenience, before further description of the present invention, certain terms employed in the specification, examples and appended claims are collected here. These definitions should be read in light of the remainder of the disclosure and understood as by a person of skill in the art. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art.

The articles “a” and “an” are used to refer to one or to more than one (i.e., to at least one) of the grammatical object of the article. By way of example, “an element” means one element or more than one element.

The term “plurality” means more than one.

The terms “comprise” and “comprising” are used in the inclusive, open sense, meaning that additional elements may be included.

The term “including” is used to mean “including but not limited to”. “Including” and “including but not limited to” are used interchangeably.

The term “Glucagon-like Peptide-1”, “GLP-1”, or “GLP-1 amide” is art recognized, and is an intestinal hormone that increases insulin secretion. This definition includes derivatives and fragments thereof that have substantially the same biological effect as naturally occurring GLP-1. GLP-1 may be isolated or synthetically prepared. Derivatives and fragments may also be isolated or synthetically prepared.

The term “backbone polymer” is art-recognized and refers to any linear or branched polymer or copolymer from which pendant side chains may be chemically linked.

The term “carrier” refers to any substance capable of supporting a metal binding domain which in turn chelate at least one metal ion which in turn coordinates at least one active agent.

The term “protective side chain” is art recognized and refers to any side chain chemical moiety chemically linked to the backbone polymer or other type of carrier that is capable of providing protection for a therapeutic agent also associated with the backbone polymer or other type of carrier. In some instances, the protective side chain is capable of protecting the therapeutic agent through sterics. In certain embodiments, the protective side chain is linear or branched polymer or copolymer.

The term “chemically linked” is art-recognized and refers to two atoms or chemical moieties bonded together through either a covalent, ionic, or hydrogen bond.

The term “metal binding domain” is art-recognized and refers to any conformational arrangement of several chemical groups that is capable of forming a complex between the metal ion and the chemical groups by coordinate bonds.

The term “chelated” is art-recognized and refers to a metal ion coordinated with a Lewis Base of a chemical moiety. In certain instances, when the moiety would be deemed a bidentate ligand, the metal ion and the moiety form a ring.

The term “chelating group” is art-recognized and refers to a molecule, often an organic one, and often a Lewis base, having two or more unshared electron pairs available for donation to a metal ion. The metal ion is usually coordinated by two or more electron pairs to the chelating agent. The terms, “bidentate chelating agent”, “tridentate chelating agent”, and “tetradentate chelating agent” are art-recognized and refer to chelating agents having, respectively, two, three, and four electron pairs readily available for simultaneous donation to a metal ion coordinated by the chelating agent. Usually, the electron pairs of a chelating agent forms coordinate bonds with a single metal ion; however, in certain examples, a chelating agent may form coordinate bonds with more than one metal ion, with a variety of binding modes being possible.

The term “non-liposomic carrier” refers to carriers that do not have the properties of liposomes. It is understood by those ordinarily skilled in the art that liposomes are vesicles with an internal cavity and an external surface, and further that the location of a MBD in either the internal or external portion would effect the properties of the compositions of the present invention. For example, in certain applications an external MBD would be desirable for the slow release of a therapeutic agent.

The term “biocompatible composition” as used herein means that the composition in question, upon implantation in a subject, does not elicit a detrimental response sufficient to result in the rejection of the composition or to render it inoperable, for example through degradation. To determine whether any subject composition is biocompatible, it may be necessary to conduct a toxicity analysis. Such assays are well known in the art. One non-limiting example of such an assay for analyzing a composition of the present invention would be performed with live carcinoma cells, such as GT3TKB tumor cells, in the following manner: various amounts of subject compositions are placed in 96-well tissue culture plates and seeded with human gastric carcinoma cells (GT3TKB) at 104/well density. The degraded products are incubated with the GT3TKB cells for 48 hours. The results of the assay may be plotted as % relative growth versus amount of compositions in the tissue-culture well. In addition, compositions of the present invention may also be evaluated by well-known in vivo tests, such as subcutaneous implantations in rats to confirm that they do not cause significant levels of irritation or inflammation at the subcutaneous implantation sites.

The term “treating” is art recognized and includes preventing a disease, disorder or condition from occurring in a patient which may be predisposed to the disease, disorder and/or condition but has not yet been diagnosed as having it; inhibiting the disease, disorder or condition, e.g., impeding its progress; and relieving the disease, disorder or condition, e.g., causing regression of the disease, disorder and/or condition. Treating the disease or condition includes ameliorating at least one symptom of the particular disease or condition, even if the underlying pathophysiology is not affected. Treating includes, without limitation, use of the subject compositions with a diagnostic for diagnostic purposes as well as a targeting moiety or an antigen.

The term “active agent” includes without limitation, therapeutic agents, diagnostics, targeting moieties, and antigens.

The term “therapeutic agent” is art-recognized and refers to any chemical moiety that is a biologically, physiologically, or pharmacologically active substance that acts locally or systemically in a subject. Examples of therapeutic agents, also referred to as “drugs”, are described in well-known literature references such as the Merck Index, the Physicians Desk Reference, and The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, and they include, without limitation, medicaments; vitamins; mineral supplements; substances used for the treatment, prevention, diagnosis, cure or mitigation of a disease or illness; substances which affect the structure or function of the body; or pro-drugs, which become biologically active or more active after they have been placed in a physiological environment. Various forms of a therapeutic agent may be used which are capable of being released from the subject composition into adjacent tissues or fluids upon administration to a subject. Examples include steroids and esters of steroids (e.g., estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, androsterone, cholesterol, norethindrone, digoxigenin, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid), boron-containing compounds (e.g., carborane), chemotherapeutic nucleotides, drugs (e.g., antibiotics, antivirals, antifingals), enediynes (e.g., calicheamicins, esperamicins, dynemicin, neocarzinostatin chromophore, and kedarcidin chromophore), heavy metal complexes (e.g., cisplatin), hormone antagonists (e.g., tamoxifen), non-specific (non-antibody) proteins (e.g., sugar oligomers), oligonucleotides (e.g., antisense oligonucleotides that bind to a target nucleic acid sequence (e.g., mRNA sequence)), peptides, proteins, antibodies, photodynamic agents (e.g., rhodamine 123), radionuclides (e.g., I-131, Re-186, Re-188, Y-90, Bi-212, At-211, Sr-89, Ho-166, Sm-153, Cu-67 and Cu-64), toxins (e.g., ricin), and transcription-based pharmaceuticals.

A “diagnostic” or “diagnostic agent” is any chemical moiety that may be used for diagnosis. For example, diagnostic agents include imaging agents containing radioisotopes such as indium or technetium; contrasting agents containing iodine or gadolinium; enzymes such as horse radish peroxidase, GFP, alkaline phosphatase, or α-galactosidase; fluorescent substances such as europium derivatives; luminescent substances such as N-methylacrydium derivatives or the like.

“Diagnosis” is intended to encompass diagnostic, prognostic, and screening methods.

The term “targeting moiety” refers to any molecular structure which assists the construct in localizing to a particular target area, entering a target cell(s), and/or binding to a target receptor. For example, lipids (including cationic, neutral, and steroidal lipids, virosomes, and liposomes), antibodies, lectins, ligands, sugars, steroids, hormones, nutrients, and proteins may serve as targeting moieties.

A “target” shall mean a site to which targeted constructs bind. A target may be either in vivo or in vitro. In certain embodiments, a target may be a tumor (e.g., tumors of the brain, lung (small cell and non-small cell), ovary, prostate, breast and colon as well as other carcinomas and sarcomas). In other embodiments, a target may be a site of infection (e.g., by bacteria, viruses (e.g., HIV, herpes, hepatitis) and pathogenic fungi (Candida sp.). In still other embodiments, a target may refer to a molecular structure to which a targeting moiety binds, such as a hapten, epitope, receptor, dsDNA fragment, carbohydrate or enzyme. Additionally, a target may be a type of tissue, e.g., neuronal tissue, intestinal tissue, pancreatic tissue etc.

The term “antigen” refers to any molecule or compound that specifically binds to an antigen binding site.

The term “antigen binding site” refers to a region of an antibody construct that specifically binds an epitope on an antigen.

The term “antibody” is art-recognized and intended to include whole antibodies, e.g., of any isotype (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, etc.), and includes fragments thereof which are also specifically reactive with a vertebrate, e.g., mammalian, protein. Antibodies may be fragmented using conventional techniques and the fragments screened for utility in the same manner as described above for whole antibodies. Thus, the term includes segments of proteolytically-cleaved or recombinantly-prepared portions of an antibody molecule that are capable of selectively reacting with a certain protein. The subject invention may include polyclonal, monoclonal or other purified preparations of antibodies and recombinant antibodies.

The phrases “systemic administration,” “administered systemically,” “peripheral administration” and “administered peripherally” are art-recognized, and include the administration of a subject composition or other material at a site remote from the disease being treated. Administration of a subject composition directly into, onto or in the vicinity of a lesion of the disease being treated, even if the composition is subsequently distributed systemically, may be termed “local” or “topical” or “regional” administration, other than directly into the central nervous system, e.g., by subcutaneous administration, such that it enters the patient's system and, thus, is subject to metabolism and other like processes.

The phrase “therapeutically effective amount” is an art-recognized term. In certain embodiments, the term refers to an amount of the therapeutic agent that, when bridged through a metal ion to a carrier of the present invention, produces some desired effect at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any medical treatment. In certain embodiments, the term refers to that amount necessary or sufficient to eliminate, reduce or maintain (e.g., prevent the spread of) a tumor or other target of a particular therapeutic regimen. The effective amount may vary depending on such factors as the disease or condition being treated, the particular targeted constructs being administered, the size of the subject or the severity of the disease or condition. One of ordinary skill in the art may empirically determine the effective amount of a particular compound without necessitating undue experimentation. In certain embodiments, the term refers to that amount necessary or sufficient for a use of the subject compositions described herein.

The term “naturally-occurring”, as applied to an object, refers to the fact that an object may be found in nature. For example, a carrier that may be isolated from a source in nature and which has not been intentionally modified by man in the laboratory is naturally-occurring.

The term “porous particles” refers to particles having a total mass density less than about 0.4 g/cm3. The mean diameter of the particles can range, for example, from about 100 nm to 15 μm, or larger depending on factors such as particle composition.

The term “ligand” is art-recognized and refers to a species that interacts in some fashion with another species. In one example, a ligand may be a Lewis base that is capable of forming a coordinate bond with a Lewis Acid. In other examples, a ligand is a species, often organic, that forms a coordinate bond with a metal ion. Ligands, when coordinated to a metal ion, may have a variety of binding modes know to those of skill in the art, which include, for example, terminal (i.e., bound to a single metal ion) and bridging (i.e., one atom of the Lewis base bound to more than one metal ion).

The terms “labile” and “non-labile” are art-recognized and are usually used in this context in reference to a ligand bonded to a metal ion. Without intending to limit or modify the definition for the term as it is known in the art, a labile ligand may be understood to be a ligand whose bond to the metal ion is expected to break under certain circumstances.

The term “cis” is art-recognized and refers to the arrangement of two atoms or groups around a central metal atom such that the atoms or groups are next to each other.

The term “trans” is art-recognized and refers to the arrangement of two atoms or groups around a central metal atom such that the atoms or groups are not next to each other and are on opposite sides of the central metal atom.

The terms “Lewis acid” and “Lewis acidic” are art-recognized and refer to chemical moieties which can accept a pair of electrons from a Lewis base as defined above.

The terms “Lewis base” and “Lewis basic” are art-recognized and generally refer to a chemical moiety capable of donating a pair of electrons under certain reaction conditions. It may be possible to characterize a Lewis base as donating a single electron in certain complexes, depending on the identity of the Lewis base and the metal ion, but for most purposes, however, a Lewis base is best understood as a two electron donor. Examples of Lewis basic moieties include uncharged compounds such as alcohols, thiols, and amines, and charged moieties such as alkoxides, thiolates, carbanions, and a variety of other organic anions. In certain examples, a Lewis base may consist of a single atom, such as oxide (O2−). In certain, less common circumstances, a Lewis base or ligand may be positively charged. A Lewis base, when coordinated to a metal ion, is often referred to as a ligand. Further description of ligands relevant to the present invention is presented herein.

The term “covalent bond” is art-recognized and refers to a bond between two atoms where electrons are attracted electrostatically to both nuclei of the two atoms, and the net effect of increased electron density between the nuclei counterbalances the internuclear repulsion. The term covalent bond includes coordinate bonds when the bond is with a metal ion.

The term “coordination” is art-recognized and refers to an interaction in which one multi-electron pair donor coordinatively bonds (is “coordinated”) to one metal ion.

The term “coordinate bond” is art-recognized and refers to an interaction between an electron pair donor and a coordination site on a metal ion leading to an attractive force between the electron pair donor and the metal ion. The use of this term is not intended to be limiting, in so much as certain coordinate bonds may also be classified as having more or less covalent character (if not entirely covalent character) depending on the nature of the metal ion and the electron pair donor.

The term “coordination site” is art-recognized and refers to a point on a metal ion that can accept an electron pair donated, for example, by a liquid or chelating agent.

The term “free coordination site” is art-recognized and refers to a coordination site on a metal ion that is vacant or occupied by a species that is weakly donating. Such species is readily displaced by another species, such as a Lewis base.

The term “coordination number” is art-recognized and refers to the number of coordination sites on a metal ion that are available for accepting an electron pair.

The term “coordination geometry” is art-recognized and refers to the manner in which coordination sites and free coordination sites are spatially arranged around a metal ion. Some examples of coordination geometry include octahedral, square planar, trigonal, trigonal biplanar and others known to those of skill in the art.

The term “complex” is art-recognized and refers to a compound formed by the union of one or more electron-rich and electron-poor molecules or atoms capable of independent existence with one or more electronically poor molecules or atoms, each of which is also capable of independent existence. A “coordination complex” is one type of a complex, in which there is a coordinate bond between a metal ion and an electron pair donor. A transition metal complex is a coordination complex in which the metal ion is a transition metal ion. In general, the terms “compound,” “composition,” “agent” and the like discussed herein include complexes, coordination complexes and transition metal complexes. As a general matter, the teachings of Advanced Inorganic Chemistry by Cotton and Wilkinson are referenced as supplementing the definitions herein in regard to coordination complexes and related matters.

In certain circumstances, a coordination complex may be understood to be composed of its constitutive components. For example, a coordination complex may have the following components: (i) one or more metal ions, which may or may not be the same atom, have the same charge, coordination number or coordination geometry and the like; and (ii) one or more Lewis bases that form coordinate bonds with the metal ion(s). Examples of such Lewis bases include chelating agents and ligands. Examples of such chelating agents and ligands include the metal binding domains and therapeutic agents of the present invention.

If a transitional metal complex is charged, in that the transition metal ion and any Lewis bases, in the aggregate, are not neutral, then such a complex will usually have one or more counterions to form a neutral compound. Such counterions may or may not be considered part of the coordination complex depending on how the term coordination complex is used. Counterions generally do not form coordinate bonds to the metal ion, although they may be associated, often in the solid state, with the metal ion or Lewis bases that make up the coordination complex. Some examples of counterions include monoanions such as nitrate, chloride, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, and monocarboxylates having the general formula RCOO, and dianions such as sulfate. In some cases, coordination complexes themselves may serve as counterions to another coordination complex, as in Magnus (green) salt [Pt(NH3)4]2+[PtCl4]2−.

The same chemical moiety may be either a ligand or a counterion to a coordination complex. For example, the anionic ligand chloride may be either coordinately bound to a metal ion or may act as a counterion without any need for bond formation. The exact form observed for chloride in any coordination complex will depend on a variety of factors, including theoretical considerations, such as kinetic versus thermodynamic effects, and the actual synthetic procedures utilized to make the coordination complex, such as the extent of reaction, acidity, concentration of chloride. These considerations are applicable to other counterions as well.

Additionally, a coordination complex may be solvated. Solvation refers to molecules, usually of solvent and often water, that associate with the coordination complex in the solid state. Again, as for counterions, such solvation molecules may or may not be considered part of the coordination complex depending on how the term coordination complex is used.

The term “hrGH” is art-recognized and refers to human recombinant growth hormone.

The term “tether” is art-recognized and refers to, as used herein, a chemical linking moiety between a metal ion center and another chemical moiety, often a therapeutic agent. As such, the tether may be considered part of the chemical moiety (e.g., therapeutic agent).

When used with respect to an active agent, the term “sustained release” or “released in a sustained manner” is art-recognized. For example, a subject composition which releases an active agent over time may exhibit sustained release characteristics, in contrast to a bolus type administration in which the entire amount of the active agent is made biologically available at one time. This sustained release may result in prolonged delivery of effective amounts of the particular active agent.

The term “therapeutic effect” is art-recognized and refers to a local or systemic effect in animals, particularly mammals, and more particularly humans caused by a pharmacologically active substance. The term thus means any substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease or in the enhancement of desirable physical or mental development and/or conditions in an animal or human. The phrase “therapeutically-effective amount” means that amount of such a substance that produces some desired local or systemic effect at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to any treatment. The therapeutically effective amount of such substance will vary depending upon the subject and disease condition being treated, the weight and age of the subject, the severity of the disease condition, the manner of administration and the like, which can readily be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, certain compounds of the present invention, such as the subject coordination complex, may be administered in a sufficient amount to produce a at a reasonable benefit/risk ratio applicable to such treatment.

The terms “combinatorial library” or “library” are art-recognized and refer to a plurality of compounds, which may be termed “members,” synthesized or otherwise prepared from one or more starting materials by employing either the same or different reactants or reaction conditions at each reaction in the library. There are a number of other terms of relevance to combinatorial libraries (as well as other technologies). The term “identifier tag” is art-recognized and refers to a means for recording a step in a series of reactions used in the synthesis of a chemical library. The term “immobilized” is art-recognized and, when used with respect to a species, refers to a condition in which the species is attached to a surface with an attractive force stronger than attractive forces that are present in the intended environment of use of the surface, and that act on the species. The term “solid support” is art-recognized and refers to a material which is an insoluble matrix, and may (optionally) have a rigid or semi-rigid surface. The term “linker” is art-recognized and refers to a molecule or group of molecules connecting a support, including a solid support or polymeric support, and a combinatorial library member. The term “polymeric support” is art-recognized and refers to a soluble or insoluble polymer to which a chemical moiety can be covalently bonded by reaction with a functional group of the polymeric support. The term “functional group of a polymeric support” is art-recognized and refers to a chemical moiety of a polymeric support that can react with an chemical moiety to form a polymer-supported amino ester.

The term “synthetic” is art-recognized and refers to production by in vitro chemical or enzymatic synthesis.

The term “meso compound” is art-recognized and refers to a chemical compound which has at least two chiral centers but is achiral due to a plane or point of symmetry.

The term “chiral” is art-recognized and refers to molecules which have the property of non-superimposability of the mirror image partner, while the term “achiral” refers to molecules which are superimposable on their mirror image partner. A “prochiral molecule” is a molecule which has the potential to be converted to a chiral molecule in a particular process.

The term “stereoisomers” is art-recognized and refers to compounds which have identical chemical constitution, but differ with regard to the arrangement of the atoms or groups in space. In particular, “enantiomers” refer to two stereoisomers of a compound which are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. “Diastereomers”, on the other hand, refers to stereoisomers with two or more centers of dissymmetry and whose molecules are not mirror images of one another.

Furthermore, a “stereoselective process” is one which produces a particular stereoisomer of a reaction product in preference to other possible stereoisomers of that product. An “enantioselective process” is one which favors production of one of the two possible enantiomers of a reaction product.

The term “regioisomers” is art-recognized and refers to compounds which have the same molecular formula but differ in the connectivity of the atoms. Accordingly, a “regioselective process” is one which favors the production of a particular regioisomer over others, e.g., the reaction produces a statistically significant increase in the yield of a certain regioisomer.

The term “epimers” is art-recognized and refers to molecules with identical chemical constitution and containing more than one stereocenter, but which differ in configuration at only one of these stereocenters.

The term “ED50” is art-recognized and refers to the dose of a drug or other compound or coordination complex which produces 50% of its maximum response or effect, or alternatively, the dose which produces a pre-determined response in 50% of test subjects or preparations.

The term “LD50” is art-recognized and refers to the dose of a drug or other compound or coordination complex which is lethal in 50% of test subjects.

The term “therapeutic index” is art-recognized and refers to the therapeutic index of a drug or other compound or coordination complex defined as LD50/ED50.

The term “agonist” is art-recognized and refers to a compound or coordination complex that mimics the action of natural transmitter or, when the natural transmitter is not known, causes changes at the receptor complex in the absence of other receptor ligands.

The term “antagonist” is art-recognized and refers to a compound or coordination complex that binds to a receptor site, but does not cause any physiological changes unless another receptor ligand is present.

The term “competitive antagonist” is art-recognized and refers to a compound or coordination complex that binds to a receptor site; its effects may be overcome by increased concentration of the agonist.

The term “partial agonist” is art-recognized and refers to a compound or coordination complex that binds to a receptor site but does not produce the maximal effect regardless of its concentration.

The term “aliphatic” is art-recognized and refers to a linear, branched, cyclic alkane, alkene, or alkyne. In certain embodiments, aliphatic groups in the present invention are linear or branched and have from 1 to about 20 carbon atoms.

The term “alkyl” is art-recognized, and includes saturated aliphatic groups, including straight-chain alkyl groups, branched-chain alkyl groups, cycloalkyl (alicyclic) groups, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl groups, and cycloalkyl substituted alkyl groups. In certain embodiments, a straight chain or branched chain alkyl has about 30 or fewer carbon atoms in its backbone (e.g., C1-C30 for straight chain, C3-C30 for branched chain), and alternatively, about 20 or fewer. Likewise, cycloalkyls have from about 3 to about 10 carbon atoms in their ring structure, and alternatively about 5, 6 or 7 carbons in the ring structure. The term “alkyl” is also defined to include halosubstituted alkyls.

Moreover, the term “alkyl” (or “lower alkyl”) includes “substituted alkyls”, which refers to alkyl moieties having substituents replacing a hydrogen on one or more carbons of the hydrocarbon backbone. Such substituents may include, for example, a hydroxyl, a carbonyl (such as a carboxyl, an alkoxycarbonyl, a formyl, or an acyl), a thiocarbonyl (such as a thioester, a thioacetate, or a thioformate), an alkoxyl, a phosphoryl, a phosphonate, a phosphinate, an amino, an amido, an amidine, an imine, a cyano, a nitro, an azido, a sulfhydryl, an alkylthio, a sulfate, a sulfonate, a sulfamoyl, a sulfonamido, a sulfonyl, a heterocyclyl, an aralkyl, or an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the moieties substituted on the hydrocarbon chain may themselves be substituted, if appropriate. For instance, the substituents of a substituted alkyl may include substituted and unsubstituted forms of amino, azido, imino, amido, phosphoryl (including phosphonate and phosphinate), sulfonyl (including sulfate, sulfonamido, sulfamoyl and sulfonate), and silyl groups, as well as ethers, alkylthios, carbonyls (including ketones, aldehydes, carboxylates, and esters), —CN and the like. Exemplary substituted alkyls are described below. Cycloalkyls may be further substituted with alkyls, alkenyls, alkoxys, alkylthios, aminoalkyls, carbonyl-substituted alkyls, —CN, and the like.

The term “aralkyl” is art-recognized and refers to an alkyl group substituted with an aryl group (e.g., an aromatic or heteroaromatic group).

The terms “alkenyl” and “alkynyl” are art-recognized and refer to unsaturated aliphatic groups analogous in length and possible substitution to the alkyls described above, but that contain at least one double or triple bond respectively.

Unless the number of carbons is otherwise specified, “lower alkyl” refers to an alkyl group, as defined above, but having from one to about ten carbons, alternatively from one to about six carbon atoms in its backbone structure. Likewise, “lower alkenyl” and “lower alkynyl” have similar chain lengths.

The term “heteroatom” is art-recognized and refers to an atom of any element other than carbon or hydrogen. Illustrative heteroatoms include boron, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium.

The term “aryl” is art-recognized and refers to 5-, 6- and 7-membered single-ring aromatic groups that may include from zero to four heteroatoms, for example, benzene, pyrrole, furan, thiophene, imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, triazole, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyridazine and pyrimidine, and the like. Those aryl groups having heteroatoms in the ring structure may also be referred to as “aryl heterocycles” or “heteroaromatics.” The aromatic ring may be substituted at one or more ring positions with such substituents as described above, for example, halogen, azide, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, alkoxyl, amino, nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, sulfonamido, ketone, aldehyde, ester, heterocyclyl, aromatic or heteroaromatic moieties, —CF3, —CN, or the like. The term “aryl” also includes polycyclic ring systems having two or more cyclic rings in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings (the rings are “fused rings”) wherein at least one of the rings is aromatic, e.g., the other cyclic rings may be cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls and/or heterocyclyls.

The terms ortho, meta and para are art-recognized and refer to 1,2-, 1,3- and 1,4-disubstituted benzenes, respectively. For example, the names 1,2-dimethylbenzene and ortho-dimethylbenzene are synonymous.

The terms “heterocyclyl” or “heterocyclic group” are art-recognized and refer to 3- to about 10-membered ring structures, alternatively 3- to about 7-membered rings, whose ring structures include one to four heteroatoms. Heterocycles may also be polycycles. Heterocyclyl groups include, for example, thiophene, thianthrene, furan, pyran, isobenzofuran, chromene, xanthene, phenoxanthene, pyrrole, imidazole, pyrazole, isothiazole, isoxazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine, indolizine, isoindole, indole, indazole, purine, quinolizine, isoquinoline, quinoline, phthalazine, naphthyridine, quinoxaline, quinazoline, cinnoline, pteridine, carbazole, carboline, phenanthridine, acridine, pyrimidine, phenanthroline, phenazine, phenarsazine, phenothiazine, furazan, phenoxazine, pyrrolidine, oxolane, thiolane, oxazole, piperidine, piperazine, morpholine, lactones, lactams such as azetidinones and pyrrolidinones, sultams, sultones, and the like. The heterocyclic ring may be substituted at one or more positions with such substituents as described above, as for example, halogen, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, amino, nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, ketone, aldehyde, ester, a heterocyclyl, an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety, —CF3, —CN, or the like.

The terms “polycyclyl” or “polycyclic group” are art-recognized and refer to two or more rings (e.g., cycloalkyls, cycloalkenyls, cycloalkynyls, aryls and/or heterocyclyls) in which two or more carbons are common to two adjoining rings, e.g., the rings are “fused rings”. Rings that are joined through non-adjacent atoms are termed “bridged” rings. Each of the rings of the polycycle may be substituted with such substituents as described above, as for example, halogen, alkyl, aralkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, hydroxyl, amino, nitro, sulfhydryl, imino, amido, phosphonate, phosphinate, carbonyl, carboxyl, silyl, ether, alkylthio, sulfonyl, ketone, aldehyde, ester, a heterocyclyl, an aromatic or heteroaromatic moiety, —CF3, —CN, or the like.

The term “carbocycle” is art-recognized and refers to an aromatic or non-aromatic ring in which each atom of the ring is carbon.

The term “nitro” is art-recognized and refers to —NO2; the term “halogen” is art-recognized and refers to —F, —Cl, —Br or —I; the term “sulfhydryl” is art-recognized and refers to —SH; the term “hydroxyl” means —OH; and the term “sulfonyl” is art-recognized and refers to —SO2 . “Halide” designates the corresponding anion of the halogens, and “pseudohalide” has the definition set forth on 560 of “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry” by Cotton and Wilkinson.

The terms “amine” and “amino” are art-recognized and refer to both unsubstituted and substituted amines, e.g., a moiety that may be represented by the general formulas:


wherein R50, R51 and R52 each independently represent a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, —(CH2)m—R61, or R50 and R51, taken together with the N atom to which they are attached complete a heterocycle having from 4 to 8 atoms in the ring structure; R61 represents an aryl, a cycloalkyl, a cycloalkenyl, a heterocycle or a polycycle; and m is zero or an integer in the range of 1 to 8. In certain embodiments, only one of R50 or R51 may be a carbonyl, e.g., R50, R51 and the nitrogen together do not form an imide. In other embodiments, R50 and R51 (and optionally R52) each independently represent a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, or —(CH2)m—R61. Thus, the term “alkylamine” includes an amine group, as defined above, having a substituted or unsubstituted alkyl attached thereto, i.e., at least one of R50 and R51 is an alkyl group.

The term “ammine” is art-recognized are refers to a compound containing an ammonia moiety or moieties coordinated to a metal ion. The term “ammonia” is art-recognized an refers to an amine group substituted with hydrogens.

The term “acylamino” is art-recognized and refers to a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


wherein R50 is as defined above, and R54 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl or —(CH2)m—R61, where m and R61 are as defined above.

The term “amido” is art recognized as an amino-substituted carbonyl and includes a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


wherein R50 and R51 are as defined above. Certain embodiments of the amide in the present invention will not include imides which may be unstable.

The term “alkylthio” refers to an alkyl group, as defined above, having a sulfur radical attached thereto. In certain embodiments, the “alkylthio” moiety is represented by one of —S-alkyl, —S-alkenyl, —S-alkynyl, and —S—(CH2)m—R61, wherein m and R61 are defined above. Representative alkylthio groups include methylthio, ethyl thio, and the like.

The term “carbonyl” is art recognized and includes such moieties as may be represented by the general formulas:


wherein X50 is a bond or represents an oxygen or a sulfur, and R55 and R56 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl, —(CH2)m—R61 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, R56 represents a hydrogen, an alkyl, an alkenyl or —(CH2)m—R61, where m and R61 are defined above. Where X50 is an oxygen and R55 or R56 is not hydrogen, the formula represents an “ester”. Where X50 is an oxygen, and R55 is as defined above, the moiety is referred to herein as a carboxyl group, and particularly when R55 is a hydrogen, the formula represents a “carboxylic acid”. Where X50 is an oxygen, and R56 is hydrogen, the formula represents a “formate”. In general, where the oxygen atom of the above formula is replaced by sulfur, the formula represents a “thiolcarbonyl” group. Where X50 is a sulfur and R55 or R56 is not hydrogen, the formula represents a “thiolester.” Where X50 is a sulfur and R55 is hydrogen, the formula represents a “thiolcarboxylic acid.” Where X50 is a sulfur and R56 is hydrogen, the formula represents a “thiolformate.” On the other hand, where X50 is a bond, and R55 is not hydrogen, the above formula represents a “ketone” group. Where X50 is a bond, and R55 is hydrogen, the above formula represents an “aldehyde” group.

The terms “alkoxyl” or “alkoxy” are art-recognized and refer to an alkyl group, as defined above, having an oxygen radical attached thereto. Representative alkoxyl groups include methoxy, ethoxy, propyloxy, tert-butoxy and the like. An “ether” is two hydrocarbons covalently linked by an oxygen. Accordingly, the substituent of an alkyl that renders that alkyl an ether is or resembles an alkoxyl, such as may be represented by one of —O-alkyl, —O-alkenyl, —O-alkynyl, —O—(CH2)m—R61, where m and R61 are described above.

The term “sulfonate” is art recognized and refers to a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R57 is an electron pair, hydrogen, alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl.

The term “sulfate” is art recognized and includes a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R57 is as defined above.

The term “sulfonamido” is art recognized and includes a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R50 and R56 are as defined above.

The term “sulfamoyl” is art-recognized and refers to a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R50 and R51 are as defined above.

The term “sulfonyl” is art-recognized and refers to a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R58 is one of the following: hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl or heteroaryl.

The term “sulfoxido” is art-recognized and refers to a moiety that may be represented by the general formula:


in which R58 is defined above.

The term “phosphoryl” is art-recognized and may in general be represented by the formula:


wherein Q50 represents S or O, and R59 represents hydrogen, a lower alkyl or an aryl. When used to substitute, e.g., an alkyl, the phosphoryl group of the phosphorylalkyl may be represented by the general formulas:
wherein Q50 and R59, each independently, are defined above, and Q51 represents O, S or N. When Q50 is S, the phosphoryl moiety is a “phosphorothioate”.

The term “phosphoramidite” is art-recognized and may be represented in the general formulas:


wherein Q51, R50, R51 and R59 are as defined above.

The term “phosphonamidite” is art-recognized and may be represented in the general formulas:


wherein Q51, R50, R51 and R59 are as defined above, and R60 represents a lower alkyl or an aryl.

Analogous substitutions may be made to alkenyl and alkynyl groups to produce, for example, aminoalkenyls, aminoalkynyls, amidoalkenyls, amidoalkynyls, iminoalkenyls, iminoalkynyls, thioalkenyls, thioalkynyls, carbonyl-substituted alkenyls or alkynyls.

The definition of each expression, e.g. alkyl, m, n, and the like, when it occurs more than once in any structure, is intended to be independent of its definition elsewhere in the same structure.

The term “selenoalkyl” is art-recognized and refers to an alkyl group having a substituted seleno group attached thereto. Exemplary “selenoethers” which may be substituted on the alkyl are selected from one of —Se-alkyl, —Se-alkenyl, —Se-alkynyl, and —Se—(CH2)m—R61, m and R61 being defined above.

The terms triflyl, tosyl, mesyl, and nonaflyl are art-recognized and refer to trifluoromethanesulfonyl, p-toluenesulfonyl, methanesulfonyl, and nonafluorobutanesulfonyl groups, respectively. The terms triflate, tosylate, mesylate, and nonaflate are art-recognized and refer to trifluoromethanesulfonate ester, p-toluenesulfonate ester, methanesulfonate ester, and nonafluorobutanesulfonate ester functional groups and molecules that contain said groups, respectively.

The abbreviations Me, Et, Ph, Tf, Nf, Ts, and Ms represent methyl, ethyl, phenyl, trifluoromethanesulfonyl, nonafluorobutanesulfonyl, p-toluenesulfonyl and methanesulfonyl, respectively. A more comprehensive list of the abbreviations utilized by organic chemists of ordinary skill in the art appears in the first issue of each volume of the Journal of Organic Chemistry; this list is typically presented in a table entitled Standard List of Abbreviations.

Certain compounds of the present invention may exist in particular geometric or stereoisomeric forms. In addition, polymers of the present invention may also be optically active. The present invention contemplates all such compounds, including cis- and trans-isomers, R- and S-enantiomers, diastereomers, (D)-isomers, (L)-isomers, the racemic mixtures thereof, and other mixtures thereof, as falling within the scope of the invention. Additional asymmetric carbon atoms may be present in a substituent such as an alkyl group. All such isomers, as well as mixtures thereof, are intended to be included in this invention.

If, for instance, a particular enantiomer of compound of the present invention is desired, it may be prepared by asymmetric synthesis, or by derivation with a chiral auxiliary, where the resulting diastereomeric mixture is separated and the auxiliary group cleaved to provide the pure desired enantiomers. Alternatively, where the molecule contains a basic functional group, such as amino, or an acidic functional group, such as carboxyl, diastereomeric salts are formed with an appropriate optically-active acid or base, followed by resolution of the diastereomers thus formed by fractional crystallization or chromatographic means well known in the art, and subsequent recovery of the pure enantiomers.

It will be understood that “substitution” or “substituted with” includes the implicit proviso that such substitution is in accordance with permitted valence of the substituted atom and the substituent, and that the substitution results in a stable compound, e.g., which does not spontaneously undergo transformation such as by rearrangement, cyclization, elimination, or other reaction.

The term “substituted” is also contemplated to include all permissible substituents of organic compounds. In a broad aspect, the permissible substituents include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and nonaromatic substituents of organic compounds. Illustrative substituents include, for example, those described herein above. The permissible substituents may be one or more and the same or different for appropriate organic compounds. For purposes of this invention, the heteroatoms such as nitrogen may have hydrogen substituents and/or any permissible substituents of organic compounds described herein which satisfy the valences of the heteroatoms. This invention is not intended to be limited in any manner by the permissible substituents of organic compounds.

For purposes of this invention, the chemical elements are identified in accordance with the Periodic Table of the Elements, CAS version, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 67th Ed., 1986-87, inside cover. Also for purposes of this invention, the term “hydrocarbon” is contemplated to include all permissible compounds having at least one hydrogen and one carbon atom. In a broad aspect, the permissible hydrocarbons include acyclic and cyclic, branched and unbranched, carbocyclic and heterocyclic, aromatic and nonaromatic organic compounds that may be substituted or unsubstituted.

The term “protecting group” is art-recognized and refers to temporary substituents that protect a potentially reactive functional group from undesired chemical transformations. Examples of such protecting groups include esters of carboxylic acids, silyl ethers of alcohols, and acetals and ketals of aldehydes and ketones, respectively. The field of protecting group chemistry has been reviewed by Greene and Wuts in Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (2nd ed., Wiley: New York, 1991).

The term “hydroxyl-protecting group” is art-recognized and refers to those groups intended to protect a hydrozyl group against undesirable reactions during synthetic procedures and includes, for example, benzyl or other suitable esters or ethers groups known in the art.

The term “carboxyl-protecting group” is art-recognized and refers to those groups intended to protect a carboxylic acid group, such as the C-terminus of an amino acid or peptide or an acidic or hydroxyl azepine ring substituent, against undesirable reactions during synthetic procedures and includes. Examples for protecting groups for carboxyl groups involve, for example, benzyl ester, cyclohexyl ester, 4-nitrobenzyl ester, t-butyl ester, 4-pyridylmethyl ester, and the like.

The term “amino-blocking group” is art-recognized and refers to a group which will prevent an amino group from participating in a reaction carried out on some other functional group, but which can be removed from the amine when desired. Such groups are discussed by in Ch. 7 of Greene and Wuts, cited above, and by Barton, Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry ch. 2 (McOmie, ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1973). Examples of suitable groups include acyl protecting groups such as, to illustrate, formyl, dansyl, acetyl, benzoyl, trifluoroacetyl, succinyl, methoxysuccinyl, benzyl and substituted benzyl such as 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl, o-nitrobenzyl, and triphenylmethyl; those of the formula —COOR where R includes such groups as methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl, 1-methyl-1-phenylethyl, isobutyl, t-butyl, t-amyl, vinyl, allyl, phenyl, benzyl, p-nitrobenzyl, o-nitrobenzyl, and 2,4-dichlorobenzyl; acyl groups and substituted acyl such as formyl, acetyl, chloroacetyl, dichloroacetyl, trichloroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, benzoyl, and p-methoxybenzoyl; and other groups such as methanesulfonyl, p-toluenesulfonyl, p-bromobenzenesulfonyl, p-nitrophenylethyl, and p-toluenesulfonyl-aminocarbonyl. Preferred amino-blocking groups are benzyl (—CH2C6H5), acyl [C(O)R1] or SiR13 where R1 is C1-C4 alkyl, halomethyl, or 2-halo-substituted-(C2-C4 alkoxy), aromatic urethane protecting groups as, for example, carbonylbenzyloxy (Cbz); and aliphatic urethane protecting groups such as t-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) or 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC).

The definition of each expression, e.g. lower alkyl, m, n, p and the like, when it occurs more than once in any structure, is intended to be independent of its definition elsewhere in the same structure.

The term “electron-withdrawing group” is art-recognized, and refers to the tendency of a substituent to attract valence electrons from neighboring atoms, i.e., the substituent is electronegative with respect to neighboring atoms. A quantification of the level of electron-withdrawing capability is given by the Hammett sigma (σ) constant. This well known constant is described in many references, for instance, March, Advanced Organic Chemistry 251-59 (McGraw Hill Book Company: New York, 1977). The Hammett constant values are generally negative for electron donating groups (σ(P)=−0.66 for NH2) and positive for electron withdrawing groups (σ(P)=0.78 for a nitro group), σ(P) indicating para substitution. Exemplary electron-withdrawing groups include nitro, acyl, formyl, sulfonyl, trifluoromethyl, cyano, chloride, and the like. Exemplary electron-donating groups include amino, methoxy, and the like.

The term “amino acid” is art-recognized and refers to all compounds, whether natural or synthetic, which include both an amino functionality and an acid functionality, including amino acid analogs and derivatives.

The terms “amino acid residue” and “peptide residue” are art-recognized and refer to an amino acid or peptide molecule without the —OH of its carboxyl group.

The term “amino acid residue” further includes analogs, derivatives and congeners of any specific amino acid referred to herein, as well as C-terminal or N-terminal protected amino acid derivatives (e.g. modified with an N-terminal or C-terminal protecting group).

The names of the natural amino acids are abbreviated herein in accordance with the recommendations of IUPAC-IUB.

A “reversed” or “retro” peptide sequence as disclosed herein refers to that part of an overall sequence of covalently-bonded amino acid residues (or analogs or mimetics thereof) wherein the normal carboxyl-to amino direction of peptide bond formation in the amino acid backbone has been reversed such that, reading in the conventional left-to-right direction, the amino portion of the peptide bond precedes (rather than follows) the carbonyl portion. See, generally, Goodman et al. Accounts of Chem. Res. 12:423 (1979).

The reversed orientation peptides described herein include (a) those wherein one or more amino-terminal residues are converted to a reversed (“rev”) orientation (thus yielding a second “carboxyl terminus” at the left-most portion of the molecule), and (b) those wherein one or more carboxyl-terminal residues are converted to a reversed (“rev”) orientation (yielding a second “amino terminus” at the right-most portion of the molecule). A peptide (amide) bond cannot be formed at the interface between a normal orientation residue and a reverse orientation residue.

Therefore, certain reversed peptide compounds of the invention may be formed by utilizing an appropriate amino acid mimetic moiety to link the two adjacent portions of the sequences depicted above utilizing a reversed peptide (reversed amide) bond.

The reversed direction of bonding in such compounds will generally, in addition, require inversion of the enantiomeric configuration of the reversed amino acid residues in order to maintain a spatial orientation of side chains that is similar to that of the non-reversed peptide. The configuration of amino acids in the reversed portion of the peptides is usually (D), and the configuration of the non-reversed portion is usually (L). Opposite or mixed configurations are acceptable when appropriate to optimize a binding activity.

The term “nucleic acid” is art-recognized and refers to polynucleotides such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and, where appropriate, ribonucleic acid (RNA). The term should also be understood to include, as equivalents, analogs of either RNA or DNA made from nucleotide analogs, and, as applicable to the embodiment being described, single-stranded (such as sense or antisense) and double-stranded polynucleotides.

An “imaging agent” shall mean a composition capable of generating a detectable image upon binding with a target and shall include radionuclides (e.g., In-111, Tc-99m, I-123, I-125 F-18, Ga-67, Ga-680); for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT), unpair spin atoms and free radicals (e.g., Fe, lanthanides, and Gd); and contrast agents (e.g., chelated (DTPA) manganese) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Imaging agents are discussed in greater detail below.

The term “small molecule” is art-recognized and refers to a composition which has a molecular weight of less than about 2000 amu, or less than about 1000 amu, and even less than about 500 amu. Small molecules may be, for example, nucleic acids, peptides, polypeptides, peptide nucleic acids, peptidomimetics, carbohydrates, lipids or other organic (carbon containing) or inorganic molecules. Many pharmaceutical companies have extensive libraries of chemical and/or biological mixtures, often fungal, bacterial, or algal extracts, which can be screened with any of the assays of the invention. The term “small organic molecule” refers to a small molecule that is often identified as being an organic or medicinal compound, and does not include molecules that are exclusively nucleic acids, peptides or polypeptides.

The term “modulation” is art-recognized and refers to up regulation (i.e., activation or stimulation), down regulation (i.e., inhibition or suppression) of a response, or the two in combination or apart.

The term “prophylactic” or “therapeutic” treatment is art-recognized and refers to administration to the host of one or more of the subject compositions. If it is administered prior to clinical manifestation of the unwanted condition (e.g., disease or other unwanted state of the host animal) then the treatment is prophylactic, i.e., it protects the host against developing the unwanted condition, whereas if administered after manifestation of the unwanted condition, the treatment is therapeutic (i.e., it is intended to diminish, ameliorate or maintain the existing unwanted condition or side effects therefrom).

A “patient,” “subject” or “host” to be treated by the subject method may mean either a human or non-human animal.

The term “mammal” is known in the art, and exemplary mammals include humans, primates, bovines, porcines, canines, felines, and rodents (e.g., mice and rats).

The term “bioavailable” is art-recognized and refers to a form of the subject invention that allows for it, or a portion of the amount administered, to be absorbed by, incorporated to, or otherwise physiologically available to a subject or patient to whom it is administered.

The term “pharmaceutically-acceptable salts” is art-recognized and refers to the relatively non-toxic, inorganic and organic acid addition salts of compounds, including, for example, coordination complexes of the present invention.

The term “pharmaceutically acceptable carrier” is art-recognized and refers to a pharmaceutically-acceptable material, composition or vehicle, such as a liquid or solid filler, diluent, excipient, solvent or encapsulating material, involved in carrying or transporting any supplement or composition, or component thereof, from one organ, or portion of the body, to another organ, or portion of the body. Each carrier must be “acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the supplement and not injurious to the patient. Some examples of materials which may serve as pharmaceutically acceptable carriers include: (1) sugars, such as lactose, glucose and sucrose; (2) starches, such as corn starch and potato starch; (3) cellulose, and its derivatives, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, ethyl cellulose and cellulose acetate; (4) powdered tragacanth; (5) malt; (6) gelatin; (7) talc; (8) excipients, such as cocoa butter and suppository waxes; (9) oils, such as peanut oil, cottonseed oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, olive oil, corn oil and soybean oil; (10) glycols, such as propylene glycol; (11) polyols, such as glycerin, sorbitol, mannitol and polyethylene glycol; (12) esters, such as ethyl oleate and ethyl laurate; (13) agar; (14) buffering agents, such as magnesium hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide; (15) alginic acid; (16) pyrogen-free water; (17) isotonic saline; (18) Ringer's solution; (19) ethyl alcohol; (20) phosphate buffer solutions; and (21) other non-toxic compatible substances employed in pharmaceutical formulations.

The terms “systemic administration,” “administered systemically,” “peripheral administration” and “administered peripherally” are art-recognized and refer to the administration of a subject supplement, composition, therapeutic or other material other than directly into the central nervous system, such that it enters the patient's system and, thus, is subject to metabolism and other like processes, for example, subcutaneous administration.

The terms “parenteral administration” and “administered parenterally” are art-recognized and refer to modes of administration other than enteral and topical administration, usually by injection, and includes, without limitation, intravenous, intramuscular, intraarterial, intrathecal, intracapsular, intraorbital, intracardiac, intradermal, intraperitoneal, transtracheal, subcutaneous, subcuticular, intra-articulare, subcapsular, subarachnoid, intraspinal, and intrastemal injection and infusion.

Contemplated equivalents of the compounds described herein include compounds which otherwise correspond thereto, and which have the same general properties thereof (such as other coordination complexes comprising tethered therapeutic agents), wherein one or more simple variations of substituents are made which do not adversely affect the characteristics of the compounds of interest. In general, the compounds of the present invention may be prepared by the methods illustrated in the general reaction schema as, for example, described below, or by modifications thereof, using readily available starting materials, reagents and conventional synthesis procedures. In these reactions, it is also possible to make use of variants which are in themselves known, but are not mentioned here.

General Introduction

In part, the present invention relates to a carrier with a metal binding domain, a metal ion chelated to the metal binding domain, and GLP-1 with a metal binding domain coordinated to the metal ion. By way of a further embodiment, the carrier may contain protective side chains. By way of a further embodiment GLP-1 may bind to a carrier by a means other than through its MBD.

The carrier compositions of the present invention include polymers and co-polymers of linear or branched structure or conjugates thereof, micelles, emulsions, colloids and solid surfaces, where the polymers may in addition self-organize in supramolecular structures including at least two polymers. The copolymers include as one of the main polymeric elements a backbone carrier that contains metal binding domains where said domains comprise chelating groups covalently attached to the monomeric units of the backbone element or comprised of non-modified monomeric units that are spontaneously folding with the formation of metal-binding domains.

In one example, a composition of the present invention comprises the backbone linear polyamino acid with degree of polymerization in the range of 2-10,000 to which independently and covalently linked are methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) protective chains with a mass of 300-6000 D and chelating groups, where said chains and chelating groups are independently linked to the backbone. In another example, the degree of polymerization is in the range of 100-1,000. In still another example, the degree of polymerization is in the range of 100 to 300. The metal binding domains of the present invention may include polycarboxylic acids containing nitrogen where at least one of carboxylic groups may be utilized for covalent linking of the chelate to the carrier backbone polymer component of the composition of the invention. The addition of said metal ions to chelates included in the carrier compositions of the invention either at room temperature or at elevated temperatures results in the formation of coordinate complexes (metal-chelates). These metal-chelate complexes bind to the metal binding domain of peptide or protein, added either in a purified state or in the presence of bulk protein or blood plasma proteins, with the formation of drug-delivery compositions containing coordinate complexes formed between the metal-chelate and peptides or proteins. The amino acid sequence of peptides or proteins of the invention may include one or more histidines or cysteines which increase the stability of the complex formed between the peptide or protein and metal-chelate complexes bound to compositions of the invention.

For the purpose of delivery of peptides and proteins to their receptors on cells or other molecular targets in the body with the goal of providing medicinal, therapeutic, targeting or diagnostic effects, the bond between the metal-chelate and peptide or protein is chosen to allow dissociation of the peptide or protein from the metal-chelate bound to the carrier composition. The dissociation of the bond between metal-chelate and peptide or protein can be accelerated by the administration of competing compounds (histidine, imidazole).

For the purpose of stabilization and better distribution/dissolution of peptides and proteins, and other biologically active molecules in water and organic solvent(s) based environment of formulations and drug delivery systems, the described composition of association of polymer, chelate-metal, and bound peptide or protein allow significant increase in stability, solubility and distribution of the active molecule.

Carrier

The carrier of the present invention may be any substance capable of supporting at least one metal binding domain which in turn chelates a metal ion which in turn coordinates active agents. Non-limiting examples of carriers include polymers and copolymers, micelles, reverse micelles, liposomes, microspheres, emulsions, hydrogels, microparticles, nanoparticles, colloids and solid surfaces. In one aspect, the carrier is biocompatible.

(i) Polymers and Co-Polymers

In certain embodiments, the polymers or co-polymers of the subject compositions, e.g., which include repetitive elements shown in any of the subject formulas, have molecular weights ranging from about 2000 or less to about 1,000,000 or more daltons, or alternatively about 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, or 50,000 daltons, more particularly at least about 100,000 daltons, and even more specifically at least about 250,000 daltons or even at least 500,000 daltons. Number-average molecular weight (Mn) may also vary widely, but generally fall in the range of about 1,000 to about 200,000 daltons, or even from about 1,000 to about 100,000 daltons or even from about 1,000 to about 50,000 daltons. In one embodiment, Mn varies between about 8,000 and 45,000 daltons. Within a given sample of a subject polymer, a wide range of molecular weights may be present. For example, molecules within the sample may have molecular weights which differ by a factor of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, or more, or which differ from the average molecular weight by a factor of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, or more.

One method to determine molecular weight is by gel permeation chromatography (“GPC”), e.g., mixed bed columns, CH2Cl2 solvent, light scattering detector, and off-line dn/dc. Other methods are known in the art.

In certain embodiments, the intrinsic viscosities of the polymers generally vary from about 0.01 to about 2.0 dL/g in chloroform at 40° C., alternatively from about 0.01 to about 1.0 dL/g and, occasionally, from about 0.01 to about 0.5 dL/g.

The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the subject polymers may vary widely, and depend on a variety of factors, such as the degree of branching in the polymer components, the relative proportion of phosphorous-containing monomer used to make the polymer, and the like. When the article of the invention is a rigid solid, the Tg is often within the range of from about −10° C. to about 80° C., particularly between about 0 and 50° C. and, even more particularly between about 25° C. to about 35° C. In other embodiments, the Tg is low enough to keep the composition of the invention flowable at body temperature. Then, the glass transition temperature of the polymer used in the invention is usually about 0 to about 37° C., or alternatively from about 0 to about 25° C.

In other embodiments, the polymer composition of the invention may be a flexible or flowable material. When the polymer used is itself flowable, the polymer composition of the invention, even when viscous, need not include a biocompatible solvent to be flowable, although trace or residual amounts of biocompatible solvents may still be present.

A flexible polymer may be used in the fabrication of a solid article. Flexibility involves having the capacity to be repeatedly bent and restored to its original shape. Solid articles made from flexible polymers are adapted for placement in anatomic areas where they will encounter the motion of adjacent organs or body walls. A flexible solid article can thus be sufficiently deformed by those moving tissues that it does not cause tissue damage. Flexibility is particularly advantageous where a solid article might be dislodged from its original position and thereby encounter an unanticipated moving structure; flexibility may allow the solid article to bend out of the way of the moving structure instead of injuring it. Such a flexible article might be suitable for covering pulsatile vessels such as the carotid artery in the neck, or for covering more delicate structures in the neck like the jugular vein that may also be affected by local movements. Similarly, a flexible solid article may be used to protect nerves exposed during a neck dissection such as the spinal accessory nerve, wherein the flexibility of the solid article may permit it to bend or deform when encountering motion rather than eroding into or damaging the nerve. Use of a solid carrier according to the present invention in the aforesaid ways may allow less extensive dissections to be carried out with surgical preservation of structures important to function. Solid articles may be configured as three-dimensional structures suitable for implantation in specific anatomic areas. Solid articles may be formed as films, meshes, sheets, tubes, or any other shape appropriate to the dimensions and functional requirements of the particular anatomic area. Physical properties of polymers may be adjusted to attain a desirable degree of flexibility by modification of the chemical components and crosslinking thereof, using methods familiar to practitioners of ordinary skill in the art.

Examples of polymeric carriers include carboxylated or carboxymethylated linear poly-1-lysine (PL) or poly-D-lysine; carboxylated or carboxymethylated poly-alfa,beta-(2-aminoethyl)-D,L-aspartamide; poly-1-aspartic acid; poly-glutamic acid, copolymers of histidine with positively or negatively charged aminoacids, carboxylated polyethyleneimines,i.e. polyethylene imines reacted with derivatives of carbonic acids; natural saccharides or products chemically derived thereof, bearing carboxylic groups, which may be exemplified by: galacturonic acid, glucuronic acid, mannuronic acid, hyaluronic acid, pectic acid, neuraminic acid, alginic acid, carrageenan; oxidized dextrans; aminated, e.g. containing linked aminogroups, polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, linear or branched; carboxylated, carboxymethylated, sulfated or phosphorylated polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, e.g.reacted with derivatives of carbonic, dicarbonic, sulfuric, aminosulfuric, phosphoric acids with resultant linking of carboxylic, aminocarboxylic, carboxymethyl, sulfuric, amino or phosphate groups. Such olygosaccharides may be obtained by chemical alteration of e.g., dextran, mannan, xylan, pullulan, cellulose, chytosan, agarose, fucoidan, galactan, arabinan, fructan, fucan, chitin, pustulan, levan or pectin. In addition these poly- or oligosachharides may be represented by heteropolymers or homopolymers of monosaccharides such as glucose, galactose, mannose, galactose, deoxyglucose, ribose, deoxyribose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, xylulose, ribulose, polyamidoamine, linear or branched; polyacrylic acid; polyalcohols,e.g.polyvinylalcohol an polyxylitol, to which carboxylic or aminogroups are chemically linked. The molecular weight of a polyaminoacid is preferably larger than 1000 and smaller than 100000. Polyamino acids with narrow molecular weight (MW) distribution are preferred to those with broad MW distribution. Polyamino acids are linked with peptide bonds. Polyaminoacids are prepared by chemical synthesis or by recombinant techniques, such as genetic engineering. For additional examples of polymers suitable for use in the present invention see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,509,323; 6,492,560; 6,468,532; 6,521,736; 6,348,069; 5,871,710; and 6,051,549. In another embodiment, the polymer acting as the carrier may be poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with functional groups at the far-end making up the metal binding domain to which the metal ion coordinates and in turn coordinates the active agent. Schematically the embodiment may be represented by the following: PEG-MBD-Metal-MBD-Active agent. Alternatively, PEG may be functionalized along its backbone allowing MBD-Metal-MBD-Active agent moieties to be pendant to the backbone. This functionalization may also allow pendant protective chains as well.

(ii) Micelles, Reverse Micelles, Liposomes and Microspheres

Amphipathic compounds that contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains are typically organized into vesicular structures such as liposomes, micellar, or reverse micellar structures. Liposomes can contain an aqueous volume that is entirely enclosed by a membrane composed of lipid molecules (usually phospholipids). Micelles and reverse micelles are microscopic vesicles that contain amphipathic molecules but do not contain an aqueous volume that is entirely enclosed by a membrane. In micelles the hydrophilic part of the amphipathic compound is on the outside (on the surface of the vesicle) whereas in reverse micelles the hydrophobic part of the amphipathic compound is on the outside. The reverse micelles thus contain a polar core that can solubilize both water and macromolecules within the inverse micelle. As the volume of the core aqueous pool increases the aqueous environment begins to match the physical and chemical characteristics of bulk water. The resulting inverse micelle can be referred to as a microemulsion of water in oil.

In water, when a sufficient concentration of the two or more components that make up a micelle is present, the components spontaneously aggregate into thermodynamically stable polymeric micelles. The micelle particles assume a microspheroidal shape and possess, in essence, a double layer. The core “layer” forms by virtue of the hydrophobic interactions between, for example, hydrophobic polyesters. Similarly, the surface “layer” forms by virtue of the corresponding hydrophilic interactions of a, for example, hydrophilic polycation with water. A net positive charge will exist around the surface of the micelle, since the hydrophilic segment of the first component is a polycation.

Functional compounds having metal binding properties can be easily introduced to the micelle by: (1) creating a third copolymer component that bears the functional group and (2) coupling the copolymer to the surface of a pre-assembled polymeric micelle. Alternatively, a metal binding domain-bearing component can be incorporated into a micelle at the time the micelle originally forms. If so, then it may be preferable to use a copolymer wherein the metal binding domain resides in the hydrophilic segment so that it is exposed in the micelle surface layer. It is an advantage of the present invention that the kind and content of the functional group can be easily changed without limitation.

Micelles according to the present invention may comprise biodegradable, biocompatible copolymers, resulting in non-immunogenicity and non-toxicity. In one aspect copolymers disclosed herein degrade into non-toxic, small molecules subject to renal excretion and are inert during the required period of treatment. Degradation may occur via simple hydrolytic and/or enzymatic reaction. Degradation through simple hydrolysis may be predominant when the backbone of a copolymer comprises ester bonds. Enzymatic degradation may become significant in the presence of certain organelles such as lyposomes. The degradation period can be varied from days to months by using polymers of different kinds and molecular weights. In one example, the present invention may use biodegradable polyesters or polypeptides possessing safe and biocompatible degradation pathways. In addition, the highly-branched micellar structure of the present invention may further reduce cytotoxicity since branched polycations such as dendritic polyamidoamines are thought to be less cytotoxic than linear polycations. Accordingly, the advantageous components and structure of polymeric micelles according to the present invention can be appreciated regarding reduced cytotoxicity. For additional examples of micelles, reverse micelles, liposomes, and microspheres suitable for the present invention see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,338,859, 5,631,018; 6,162,462; 6,475,779; 6,521,211; and 6,443,898.

(iii) Emulsions and Hydrogels

Emulsions as the carrier in the present invention relate to emulsions of an aqueous or an aqueous-organic continuous phase and an organic discontinuous phase, the latter containing an organic solvent which is not miscible with water. Hydrogels are similar and refer to a type of gel in which the disperse phase has combined with water to produce a semisolid material. The emulsions and hydrogels used in the present invention may contain organic compounds from the group of the reaction products of alkylene oxides with compounds capable of being alkylated, such as, for example, fatty alcohols, fatty amines, fatty acids, phenols, alkylphenols, carboximides and resinic acids, preferably balsamic resin and/or abietic acid.

Organic solvents which are not miscible with water include, for example, aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons or the acetate-type solvents. Suitable as organic solvents are, preferably, natural, fully- or semisynthetic compounds and, if appropriate, mixtures of these solvents which are fully miscible or soluble with the other compounds of the emulsion in the temperature range of from 20 to 130° C. In one embodiment, suitable solvents are those from the group of the aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons which are liquid at room temperature, including oils, such as, for example, mineral oils, paraffins, isoparaffins, fully-synthetic oils such as silicon oils, semisynthetic oils based on, for example, glycerides of unsaturated fatty acids of medium chain length, essential oils, esters of natural or synthetic, saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, for example C8-C22-fatty acids, C8-C18-fatty acids, especially preferably methyl esters of rapeseed oil or 2-ethylhexyl laurate, alkylated aromatics and their mixtures, alkylated alcohols, in particular fatty alcohols, linear, primary alcohols obtained by hydroformylation, terpene hydrocarbons and naphtene-type oils, such as, for example, Enerthene. Further organic solvents include those from the group of the acetate-type solvents such as, for example, 1,2-propanediol diacetate, 3-methyl-3-methoxybutyl acetate, ethyl acetate and the like. The solvents can be employed individually or as mixtures with each other.

The continuous aqueous or aqueous-organic phase of the active-agent-containing emulsions or microemulsions according to the present invention contain water, an organic solvent that is soluble or miscible in water, and may also contain at least one natural or synthetic surface-active agent which has a solubility of >10 g/l, in particular >100 g/l in water (d) at 20° C., and, if appropriate, further adjuvants. Organic solvents which are soluble or miscible in water have a solubility in water of >5.0 g/l at 20° C., in particular >15 g/l.

Examples of suitable organic solvents are: aliphatic C1-C4-alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, isobutanol or tert-butanol, aliphatic ketones such as acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone or diacetone alcohol, polyols, such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, butylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol with a mean gram-molecular weight of 100 to 4000 g/mol or 200 to 1500 g/mol, or glycerol, monohydroxyethers, such as monohydroxyalkyl ethers or mono-C1-C4-alkyl glycol ethers such as ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or diethylene glycolmonoethyl ether, diethylene glycol monobutyl ether, dipropylene glycol monoethyl ether, thiodiglycol, triethylene glycol monomethyl ether or triethylene glycol monoethyl ether, furthermore 2-pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-ethyl-pyrrolidone, N-vinylpyrrolidone, 1,3-dimethylimidazolidone, dimethylacetamide and dimethyl formamide.

The amount of the solvents employed in the aqueous continuous phase is in general less than 60% by weight or less than 40% by weight, based on the continuous phase.

Surface-active agents are understood as meaning emulsifiers, wetters, dispersants, antifoams or solubilizers which are soluble or fully soluble, in the aqueous phase. In particular, they can be nonionic, anionic, cationic or amphoteric or of monomeric, oligomeric or polymeric nature. The choice of the surface-active agents is not limited in accordance with the present invention and must be matched with the discontinuous phase to be stabilized with regard to the desired type of emulsion (for example miniemulsion or microemulsion) and the stability of the emulsion, in particular the sedimentation and/or creaming of the disperse phase.

Examples of suitable surface-active agents include the following: a) alkoxylation product which can be obtained by ethylene-oxide-alkoxylation or propylene-oxide-alkoxylation of condensates of phenolic OH-containing aromatics with formaldehyde and NH functional groups; b) inorganic salts which are soluble in water, such as borates, carbonates, silicates, sulfates, sulfites, selenates, chlorides, fluorides, phosphates, nitrates and aluminates of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals and other metals and also ammonium; c) polymers composed of recurrent succinyl units, in particular polyaspartic acid; d) nonionic or ionically modified compounds form the group of the alkoxylates, alkylolamides, esters, amine oxides and alkyl polyglycosides, including reaction products of alkylene oxides with compounds capable of being alkylated, such as, for example, fatty alcohols, fatty amines, fatty acids, phenols, alkyl phenols, carboximides and resinic acids. These are, for example, ethylene oxide adducts from a class of the reaction products of ethylene oxide with: 1) saturated and/or unsaturated fatty alcohols with 6 to 25 C atoms or 2) alkyl phenols with 4 to 12 C atoms in the alkyl radical or 3) saturated and/or unsaturated fatty amines with 14 to 20 C atoms or 4) saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids with 14 to 22 C atoms or 5) hydrogenated and/or unhydrogenated resinic acids, or 6) esterification and/or arylation products prepared from natural or modified, optionally hydrogenated castor oil lipid bodies which, if appropriate, are linked by esterification with dicarboxylic acids to give recurrent structural units; e) ionic or nonionic compounds from the group of the reaction products of alkylene oxide with sorbitan ester, oxalkylated acetylene diols and acetylene glycols, and oxalkylated phenols; f) ionic or nonionic polymeric surface-active agents from the group of the homo- and copolymers, graft and graft copolymers and random and linear block copolymers. Examples of such suitable polymeric surface-active agents include polyethylene oxides, polypropylene oxides, polyoxymethylenes, polytrimethylene oxides, polyvinyl methyl ethers, polyethylene imines, polyacrylic acid, polyaryl amides, polymethacrylic acids, polymethacrylamides, poly-N,N-dimethyl-acrylamides, poly-N-isopropyl acrylamides, poly-N-acrylglycinamides, poly-N-methacryl-glycinamides, polyvinyloxazolidones, polyvinylmethyloxazolidones; g) anionic surface-active agents such as, for example, alkyl sulfates, ether sulfates, ether carboxylates, phosphate esters, sulfosuccinate amides, paraffin sulfonates, olefin sulfonates, sarcosinates, isothionates and taurates; h) anionic surface-active agents from the group of what is known as dispersants, in particular condensates which can be obtained by reacting naphthols with alkanols, subjecting alkylene oxide to an addition reaction and at least partially converting the terminal hydroxyl groups into sulfo groups or monoesters of maleic acid, phthalic acid or succinic acid, sulfosuccinic esters, alkylbenzene sulfonates, and salts of the polyacrylic acids, polyethylene sulfonic acids, polystyrene sulfonic acid, polymethacrylic acids, polyphosphoric acids; i) lignin-type compounds, especially lignosulfonates, for example those which have been obtained by the sulfite or Kraft method. They include products which are partially hydrolyzed, oxidized, propoxylated, sulfonated, sulfomethylated or bisulfonated and which are fractionated by known methods, for example according to the molecular weight or the degree of sulfonation. Mixtures of sulfite and Kraft lignosulfonates are also very effective. Suitable are lignosulfonates with a mean molecular weight of greater than about 1,000 to 100,000, a content of active lignosulfonate of at least 80% and, a low content of polyvalent cations. The degree of sulfonation can be varied within wide limits.

In another embodiment, the continuous aqueous phase can also contain, in addition to the abovementioned surface-active agents, water-soluble block or block copolymers; these block or block copolymers include water-soluble block and block copolymers based on ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide and/or water-soluble block and block copolymers of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide on bifunctional amines. Block copolymers based on polystyrene and polyalkylene oxide, poly(meth)acrylates and polyalkylene oxide and also poly(meth)acrylates and poly(meth)acrylic acids are also suitable.

In addition, the continuous aqueous phase can also contain further customary adjuvants such as, for example, water-soluble wetters, antifoams and/or preservatives.

Emulsion types of the present invention which may be mentioned are: macroemulsion: contains droplets >2 μm (microscopic); miniemulsion: droplet diameter 0.1 to 2 μm, turbid; and microemulsion: droplet diameter <0.1 μm; transparent. For additional examples of emulstions and hydrogels suitable for the present invention see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,458,373 and 6,124,273.

(iv) Nanoparticles and Microparticles

Examples of nanoparticles and microparticles that can be used as a carrier in the present invention are include porous particles having a mass density less than 1.0 g/cm3, or less than about 0.4 g/cm3. The porous structure permits, for example, deep lung delivery of relatively large diameter therapeutic aerosols, for example greater than 5 μm in mean diameter.

The porous particles preferably are biodegradable and biocompatible, and optionally are capable of biodegrading at a controlled rate for delivery of a drug. The porous particles may be made of any material which is capable of forming a porous particle having a mass density less than about 0.4 g/cm3. Both inorganic and organic materials can be used. For example, ceramics may be used. Other non-polymeric materials may be used which are capable of forming porous particles as defined herein.

The particles may be formed from any biocompatible, and preferably biodegradable polymer, copolymer, or blend, which is capable of forming porous particles having a density less than about 0.4 g/cm3.

Surface eroding polymers such as polyanhydrides may be used to form the porous particles. For example, polyanhydrides such as poly[(p-carboxyphenoxy)-hexane anhydride] (“PCPH”) may be used. Biodegradable polyanhydrides are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,857,311.

In another embodiment, bulk eroding polymers such as those based on polyesters including poly(hydroxy acids) can be used. For example, polyglycolic acid (“PGA”) or polylactic acid (“PLA”) or copolymers thereof may be used to form the porous particles, wherein the polyester has incorporated therein a charged or functionalizable group such as an amino acid as described below.

Other polymers include polyamides, polycarbonates, polyalkylenes such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly(ethylene glycol), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene terephthalate), poly vinyl compounds such as polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl ethers, and polyvinyl esters, polymers of acrylic and methacrylic acids, celluloses, polysaccharides, and peptides or proteins, or copolymers or blends thereof which are capable of forming porous particles with a mass density less than about 0.4 g/cm3. Polymers may be selected with or modified to have the appropriate stability and degradation rates in vivo for different controlled drug delivery applications.

As another example, the porous particles may be formed from functionalized polyester graft coppolymers, as described in Hrkach et al., Macromolecules, 28:4736-4739 (1995); and Hrkach et al., “Poly(L-Lactic acid-co-amino acid) Graft Copolymers: A Class of Functional Biodegradable Biomaterials” in Hydrogel and Biodegradable Polymers for Bioapplications, ACS Symposium Series No. 627, Raphael M. Ottenbrite et al., Eds., American Chemical Society, Chapter 8, pp. 93-101, 1996, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference. The functionalized graft copolymers are copolymers of polyesters, such as poly(glycolic acid) or poly(lactic acid), and another polymer including functionalizable or ionizable groups, such as a poly(amino acid). In another embodiment, comb-like graft copolymers are used which include a linear polyester backbone having amino acids incorporated therein, and poly(amino acid) side chains which extend from the amino acid groups in the polyester backbone. The polyesters may be polymers of α-hydroxy acids such as lactic acid, glycolic acid, hydroxybutyric acid and valeric acid, or derivatives or combinations thereof. The inclusion of ionizable side chains, such as polylysine, in the polymer has been found to enable the formation of more highly porous particles, using techniques for making microparticles known in the art, such as solvent evaporation. Other ionizable groups, such as amino or carboxyl groups, may be incorporated, covalently or noncovalently, into the polymer to enhance porosity. For example, polyaniline could be incorporated into the polymer.

An exemplary polyester graft copolymer, which may be used to form porous polymeric particles is the graft copolymer, poly(lactic acid-co-lysine-graft-lysine) (“PLAL-Lys”), which has a polyester backbone consisting of poly(L-lactic acid-co-Z-L-lysine) (PLAL), and grafted lysine chains. PLAL-Lys is a comb-like graft copolymer having a backbone composition, for example, of 98 mol % lactic acid and 2 mol % lysine and poly(lysine) side chains extending from the lysine sites of the backbone.

The use of the poly(lactic acid) copolymer is advantageous since it biodegrades into lactic acid and lysine, which can be processed by the body. The existing backbone lysine groups are used as initiating sites for the growth of poly(amino acid) side chains.

In the synthesis, the graft copolymers may be tailored to optimize different characteristic of the porous particle including: i) interactions between the agent to be delivered and the copolymer to provide stabilization of the agent and retention of activity upon delivery; ii) rate of polymer degradation and, thereby, rate of drug release profiles; iii) surface characteristics and targeting capabilities via chemical modification; and iv) particle porosity. For additional examples of nanoparticles and microparticles suitable for the present invention see U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,447,753 and 6,274,175.

(v) Solid Surface

In certain embodiments, the carrier used in the present invention may be a solid support, e.g., a polymer bead or a resin, e.g., a Wang resin. Supports can be solids having a degree of rigidity such as silicon, plastic, and the like. Support can also be flexible materials such as plastic or otherwise synthetic materials (such as nylon), materials made of natural polymers (such as cellulose or silk) or derivatives thereof (such as nitrocellulose) and the like. In certain embodiments the support is a porous material which can be rigid or flexible, intermeshed fibers including woven fabrics, and the like. In some embodiments, the solid support is a bead or pellet, which can be porous.

Another option for creating a solid support with reactive sites is to directly derivatize the solid support so that it can be coupled to a compound. The chemistry used to do this can be the same or similar to that used to derivatize controlled pore glass (cpg) beads and polymer beads. Typically, the first step in this process is to create hydroxyl groups (if they do not already exist on the support) or amino groups on the support. If hydroxyl groups exist or are created, they are typically converted to amino groups, for instance by reacting them with gamma-aminopropyl triethoxy silane. MBDs can be added to the amino groups with cyclic acid anhydrides, activated esters, reactions with polymerized alkylene oxides and other methods known to the art.

Another method to increase the reactive surface area of a solid support is to create columnar structures of silicon monoxide, for instance by thermal evaporation of SiOx. Another such method is to insert into the reaction cells fabrics, such as non-woven glass or plastic (preferably fiberglass or polypropylene fiber) fabrics and plasma treating the fabric to create reactive sites. Still another method uses spin-on glass, which creates a thin film of nearly stoichiometric SiO2 from a sil-sesquioxane ladder polymer structure by thermal oxidation. Sol-gel processing creates thin films of glass-like composition from organometallic starting materials by first forming a polymeric organometallic structure in mixed alcohol plus water and then careful drying and baking. When the sol-gel system is dried above the critical temperature and pressure of the solution, an aerogel results. Aerogels have chemical compositions that are similar to glasses (e.g. SiO2) but have extremely porous microstructures. Their densities are comparably low, in some cases having only about one to about three percent solid composition, the balance being air.

Protective Side Chains

Examples of Protective Chains include poly(ethylene glycol), which may be esterified by dicarboxylic acid to form a poly(ethylene glycol) monoester; methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) or a copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) preferably in a form of an ester with dicarboxylic acid; poly(ethylene glycol)-diacid; poly(ethylene glycol) monoamine; methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) monoamine; methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) hydrazide; methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) imidazolide block-copolymer of poly (ethylene glycol) and one or several polymers represented by polyaminoacid, poly-lactide-glycolide co-polymer, polysaccharide, polyamidoamine, polyethyleneimine or polynucleotide (see polymeric carrier) where these blocks are preferably alternated to give a preferably linear block-copolymer. Overall molecular weight of a protective chain is preferentially larger than 300 but preferably not exceeding 10,000. A protective chain or chains are linked to the polymeric carrier by preferably a single linkage.

Metal Binding Domain

In general, the metal binding domains used in the present invention contain a Lewis base fragment that is contemplated to encompass numerous chemical moieties having a variety of structural, chemical and other characteristics capable of forming coordination bonds with a metal ion. The types of functional groups capable of forming coordinate complexes with metal ions are too numerous to categorize here, and are known to those of skill in the art. For example, such moieties will generally include functional groups capable of interaction with a metal center, e.g., heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus.

Metal cations are almost always Lewis acidic and are therefore able to bind various moieties that may serve as Lewis bases. In general, a moiety serving as a Lewis base will be a strongly acidic group, e.g., with a pKa less than about 7, and more preferably less than 5, which may produce a conjugate base that, under the appropriate conditions, is a strong enough Lewis base to donate an electron pair to a metal ion to form a coordinate bond. The degree of this Lewis acid-to-Lewis base interaction is a function not only of the particular metal ion, but also of the coordinating moiety itself, because the latter may vary in the degree of basicity as well as in size and steric accessibility.

Exemplary Lewis basic moieties which may be included in the metal binding domain include: amines (primary, secondary, and tertiary) and aromatic amines, amino groups, amido groups, nitro groups, nitroso groups, amino alcohols, nitriles, imino groups, isonitriles, cyanates, isocyanates, phosphates, phosphonates, phosphites, phosphines, phosphine oxides, phosphorothioates, phosphoramidates, phosphonamidites, hydroxyls, carbonyls (e.g., carboxyl, ester and formyl groups), aldehydes, ketones, ethers, carbamoyl groups, thiols, sulfides, thiocarbonyls (e.g., thiolcarboxyl, thiolester and thiolformyl groups), thioethers, mercaptans, sulfonic acids, sulfoxides, sulfates, sulfonates, sulfones, sulfonamides, sulfamoyls and sulfinyls.

Illustrative of suitable metal binding domains include those chemical moieties containing at least one Lewis basic nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous or oxygen atom or a combination of such nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous and oxygen atoms. The carbon atoms of such moiety may be part of an aliphatic, cycloaliphatic or aromatic moiety. In addition to the organic Lewis base functionality, such moieties may also contain other atoms and/or groups as substituents, such as alkyl, aryl and halogen substituents.

Further examples of Lewis base functionalities suitable for use in the metal binding domains include the following chemical moieties: amines, particularly alkylamines and arylamines, including methylamine, diphenylamine, trimethylamine, triethylamine, N,N-dimethylaniline, methyldiphenylaniline, pyridine, aniline, morpholine, N-methylmorpholine, pyrrolidine, N-methylpyrrolidine, piperidine, N-methylpiperidine, cyclohexylamine, n-butylamine, dimethyloxazoline, imidazole, N-methylimidazole, N,N-dimethylethanolamine, N,N-diethylethanolimine, N,N-dipropylethanolamine, N,N-dibutylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylisopropanolamine, N,N-diethylisopropanolamine, N,N-dipropylisopropanolamine, N,N-dibutylisopropanolamine, N-methyldiethanolamine, N-ethyldiethanolamine, N-propyldiethanolamine, N-butyldiethanolamine, N-methyldiisopropanolamine, N-ethyldiisopropanolamine, N-propyldiisopropanolamine, N-butyldiisopropanolamine, triethylamine, triisopropanolamine, tri-s-butanolamine and the like; amides, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoric acid triamide and the like; sulfoxide compounds, such as dimethylsulfoxide and the like; ethers such as dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane and the like; thioethers such as dimethylsulfide, diethyl thioether, tetrahydrothiophene and the like; esters of phosphoric acid, such as trimethyl phosphate, triethylphosphate, tributyl phosphate and the like; esters of boric acid, such as trimethyl borate and the like; esters of carboxylic acids, such as ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl benzoate and the like; esters of carbonic acid, such as ethylene carbonate and the like; phosphines including di- and trialkylphosphines, such as tributylphosphine, triethylphosphine, triphenylphosphine, diphenylphosphine and the like; and monohydroxylic and polyhydroxylicalcohols of from 1 to 30 carbon atoms such as methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, tert-butyl alcohol, n-pentyl alcohol, isopentyl alcohol, 2-methyl-1-butyl alcohol, 2-methyl-2-butyl alcohol, n-hexyl alcohol, n-heptyl alcohol, n-octyl alcohol, isooctyl alcohol, 2-ethylhexyl alcohol, n-nonyl alcohol, n-decyl alcohol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, allyl alcohol, crotyl alcohol, 3-hexene-1-ol, citronellol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol, salicyl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, cinnamyl alcohol, and the like; and heterocyclic compounds, including pyridine and the like.

Other suitable structural moieties that may be included in the metal binding domains include the following Lewis base functionalities: arsine, stilbines, thioethers, selenoethers, teluroethers, thioketones, imines, phosphinimine, pyridines, pyrazoles, imidazoles, furans, oxazoles, oxazolines, thiophenes, thiazoles, isoxazoles, isothrazoles, amides, alkoxy, aryoxy, selenol, tellurol, siloxy, pyrazoylborates, carboxylate, acyl, amidates, triflates, thiocarboxylate and the like.

Other suitable ligand fragments for use in the metal binding domains include structural moieties that are bidentate ligands, including diimines, pyridylimines, diamines, imineamines, iminethioether, iminephosphines, bisoxazoline, bisphosphineimines, diphosphines, phosphineamine, salen and other alkoxy imine ligands, amidoamines, imidothioether fragments and alkoxyamide fragments, and combinations of the above ligands.

Still other suitable fragments for use in the metal binding domains include ligand fragments that are tridentate ligands, including 2,5-diiminopyridyl ligands, tripyridyl moieties, triimidazoyl moieties, tris pyrazoyl moieties, and combinations of the above ligands.

Other suitable ligand fragments may consist of amino acids or be formed of oligopeptides and the like.

Because the Lewis basic groups function as the coordination site or sites for the metal cation, in certain embodiments, it may be preferable that the deformability of the electron shells of the Lewis basic groups and the metal cations be approximately similar. Such a relationship often results in a more stable coordination bond. For instance, sulfur groups may be desirable as the Lewis basic groups when the metal cation is a heavy metal. Some examples include the oligopeptides such as glutathione and cysteine, mercapto ethanol amine, dithiothreitol, amines and peptides containing sulfur and the like. Nitrogen containing groups may be employed as the Lewis basic groups when smaller metal ions are the metal. Alternatively, for those applications in which a less stable coordination bond is desired, it may be desirable that the deformability be dissimilar.

Further examples of chelating groups which act as the metal binding domain and can be chemically linked the carrier include 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid; 1,4,7,10-tetraaza-cyclododecane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid; 1,4,7-tris(carboxymethyl)-10-(2′-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazocyclodecane, 1,4,7-triazacyclonane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid; and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetra-decane-N,N′,N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid; diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA); triethylenetetraamine-hexaacetic acid; ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA); EGTA; 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid but preferably N-(hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid; nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); and ethylene-bis(oxyethylene-nitrilo)tetraacetic acid, histidine, cysteine, oligoaspartic acid, oligoglutamic acid, S-acetyl mercaptoacetate and meractoacetyltriglycine.

Metal Ion

The present invention contemplates the use of a variety of different metal ions. The metal ion may be selected from those that have usually two, three, four, five, six, seven or more coordination sites. A non-limiting list of metal ions for which the present invention may be employed (including exemplary and non-limiting oxidation states for them) includes Co3+, Cr3+, Hg2+, Pd2+, Pt2+, Pd4+, Pt4+, Rh3+, Ir3+, Ru3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Fe2+, Tc, Au3+, Au+, Ag+, Cu+, MoO2 2+, Ti3+, Ti4+, CH3Hg+, and Y+3. In another embodiment, the non-limiting list of metal ions for which the present invention may be employed includes Zn2+, Ni2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, and Cu2+. The metal ion contained in the metal bridge between the carrier and the active agent may have a therapeutic use itself, but it cannot serve as the active agent.

Active Agent

An active agent of the present invention is envisioned to be GLP-1 comprising a metal binding domain, naturally occurring within the peptide chain or otherwise, capable of coordinating to a metal ion, thus completing a bridge between the active agent and the carrier. It is envisioned that such an complex will increase the half life of GLP-1 in vivo. GLP-1 activity is rapidly inhibited as a result of the N-terminal cleavage at Ala2 position by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) in the blood stream (See FIG. 5). The cleavage limits GLP-1 half-life to 2-6 minutes, which is considered seriously limiting to its therapeutic potential. A number of GLP-1 analogues are in development that resist the effects of DPP-IV. Some of these have been shown to normalize fasting and postprandial blood glucose in diabetic animal models as well as in humans. However, the effects of long term systemic administration of these non-native peptides are unknown. Side effects of sustained administration of these analogues appear to include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects, and doses have to be carefully controlled to prevent hypoglycemic episodes. Though not documented by clinical trials, there is also the potential for the development of antibodies to these non-native analogues after long-term treatment. An additional potential problem with sustained release analogues is the potential for down-regulation of the GLP-1 receptor, as has been seen with agonists of a closely homologous receptor, PTH.

As an alternative approach to GLP-1 analogues with extended half-lives, small molecule inhibitors of DPP-IV are in development that offer the advantage of being orally available. However, these inhibitors have the potential for other side effects given the importance of DPP-IV in the cleavage of other molecules important for immune function.

The present invention overcomes these problems by protecting the natural form of GLP-1 making it a potentially effective treatment for diabetes. The present invention benefits from the positioning of the N-terminal His in GLP-1 inside the protective side chains on the carrier via the MBD. Such positioning of the peptide would hide the peptidase sensitive area of the peptide from DPP-IV through steric interactions. Additionally, GLP-1 would target the pancreas once it has coordinated to the carrier with a passive targeting/enhanced permeability retention (EPR) effect. GLP-2 is very similar in chemical structure and sensitivity to peptidases, but with different mechanism of action. Using the same MBD/protective side chain approach it would be possible to stabilize and prolong circulation time, which is very beneficial. Different therapeutic agents may be combined with GLP-1 or GLP-2. For example, GLP-1 can be combined with immunosuppressants such as tacrolimus for treatment of type 1 diabetes.

GLPs can also be stabilized by attachment to the carrier via MBD for oral/mucosal administration and for other forms of administration as is, or in combination with other delivery systems such as emulsions, micelles, reversed micelles, polymerized reversed micelles, liposomes, hydrogels, microparticles, and nanoparticles. For example, GLP-1 may be attached via a MBD to a polymer forming reverse micelles. Attachment via a MBD would increase shelf life stability and solubility of the peptides like GLPs, especially amide derivatives. Combinations of these peptides with PEG based drug delivery carriers would also decrease immunogenecity, especially for chronic administration, and especially with the MBD approach (the structure would remain intact).

(i) GLP-1 and Type 2 Diabetes

GLP-1 amide is a potent intestinal hormone that increases insulin secretion. Believed to be released in response to a meal, GLP-1 is believed to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, inhibit the release of the hormone glucagon (which functions as an insulin antagonist), and delay gastric emptying. By interacting with the GLP-1 receptor on pancreatic islet cells, GLP-1 leads to a cascade of signaling reactions resulting in an increased exocytosis of insulin-containing granules in a strictly glucose-dependent manner (at glucose concentrations >4.5 mM). Additionally, it is believed that GLP-1 strongly enhances all steps of insulin biosynthesis including transcription of the insulin gene. The transcription of other genes essential for beta cell function (glucokinase and Glut-2) is also increased in response to GLP-1 treatment. Given these effects of GLP-1, there is considerable interest in this peptide as a potential therapeutic agent that could stimulate insulin release in Type 2 diabetics with functional beta cells.

(ii) GLP-1 and Type I Diabetes

The observation that GLP-1 not only increases the proliferation of beta cells and prevents their apoptosis, but also stimulates their neogenesis, inducing the differentiation of new beta cells from ductal progenitor cells, has led to interest in this peptide for a possible cure for Type 1 diabetes. Indeed, the importance of GLP-1 in islet generation is seen in mice lacking the GLP-1 receptor, which have islets with fewer beta cells and abnormal glucose tolerance. The regeneration of islet cells and increase in pancreatic beta cell mass has been demonstrated in animal models by GLP-1 and other agonists of the GLP-1 receptor and, further, GLP-1 has been shown to attenuate the development of diabetes after partial pancreatectomy. Therefore, GLP-1 treatment can potentially regenerate destructed islets in Type 1 diabetics.

“PEGylation” of GLP-1 is the direct bonding of GLP-1 to PEG and may result in loss of activity. GLP-1 coordinated to a carrier with protecting side chains according to the present invention, however, may result in a stable, long circulating alternative to PEGylation. A coordinated GLP-1 of the present invention may act as a cryoprotectant and macromolecular stabilizer preserving GLP-1 in solution as well as during the lyophilization and reconstitution process. It also may allow removal of albumin from freeze-dried formulations.

GLP-1 naturally contains at least one MBD, which may be used for binding to the carriers described above. GLP-1, therefore, supplies an MBD naturally such that there is no need to provide one synthetically. Alternatively, GLP-1 may bind to a carrier through other means besides an MBD. As non-limiting examples, binding may occur through both covalent and non-covalent interactions such as hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, Van de Waals attractions, or electrostatic interactions. When GLP-1 is bound to the carrier through non-covalent interactions, the complex may be in the form of colloidal particles less than 0.05 microns. GLP-1 may be located between the side chains on the carrier and/or on the side chain surface. When the protective side chains are PEG a pegylated carrier is formed. This pegylated carrier is a non-limiting example of a protected graft copolymer (PGC) delivery system. As used herein, PGC refers to a carrier comprising protective graft copolymers or polymers.

Importantly, GLP-1 has an N-terminal histidine residue (see FIG. 5), which contributes to its zinc binding properties making it a candidate for coupling via PRB, reversible binding comprising a metal ion. The proposed GLP-1 formulation is expected to not only increase the circulation time, protect GLP-1 from DPP-IV and control release, but also target delivery to the pancreas as well as supply longer shelf-life stability.

GLP-1 may be loaded by co-lyophilization with a PGC or other carrier through reconstitution with water or normal saline solution, or by simple incubation of a GLP-1 solution with a PGC or other carrier solution, or by reconstitution of a “lyophilized cake” of GLP-1 with a solution of a PGC or other carrier.

Coordinated GLP-1 according to the present invention may result in longer circulating, more stable GLP-1 which may be more conveniently administered (for example, quicker administrations such as through bolus instead of infusion, and less frequent administrations, e.g. once a week instead of every day are possible). Often chronic administration of GLP-1 may be immunogenic. PGC based formulations generally result in less immunogenicity than PEG based delivery systems so GLP-1 is expected to be less immunogenic in compositions of the present inventions.

Targeting Moieties

The role of a targeting moiety is to place the compositions of the present invention in close proximity to a target within a patient's body. In this manner, it is envisioned that the present invention can utilize more than one type of active agent. For instance, one type of active agent could be a targeting moiety while another type of active agent could be a diagnostic label or therapeutic agent. Conceivably, three types of active agents could be coordinated to the carrier through a metal ion bridge.

Examples of targeting moieties include: (i) cells including smooth muscle cells, leukocytes, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, foam cells, platelets, granulocytes, neutophilis, heme, porphoryns, and phthalocyanines; (ii) chemotactic proteins and peptides including monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenalanine; (iii) colony stimulating factors including GM-CSF, CSF-1, and receptors and antibodies thereto; and platelet factor 4; (iv) growth factors including TGF-β and VEGF; (v) adhesive cell-surface glycoproteins including E-selectin, VCAM-1, and VCAM1β; (vi) carbohydrates including 11C-deoxy-D-glucose, and 18F-2-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose; (vii) components of a vascular inflammatory response including C1, C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C3, C3a, C3b, C4, C4C2, C4C2C3b, C5a, C5b and C5a; (viii) interleukins including IL-1, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-7, and IL-8; (ix) interferons including interferon α and interferon γ; (x) tumor necrosis factor TNF-α; and (xi) lipids including liposomes, polyethylene glycol coated liposomes, cholesterol, esters of cholesterol, lipoproteins including LDL, HDL, oxidized LDL, and lipid receptors.

Sustained Release

If a subject biocompatible composition is formulated with an active agent, release of such an active agent for a sustained or extended period as compared to the release from an isotonic saline solution generally results. Such release profile may result in prolonged delivery (over, say 1 to about 4,000 hours, or alternatively about 4 to about 1500 hours) of effective amounts (e.g., about 0.00001 mg/kg/hour to about 10 mg/kg/hour) of the active agent or any other material associated with the biocompatible composition.

A variety of factors may affect the desired rate of dissociation of the active agent of the subject invention, the desired softness and flexibility of the biocompatible composition, rate and extent of active agent release. Some of such factors include: the selection of various coordinating groups on the metal ion, or, when the carrier is a polymer, the enantiomeric or diastereomeric purity of the monomeric subunits, homogeneity of subunits found in the polymer, and the length of the polymer. For instance, the present invention contemplates heteropolymers with varying linkages, and/or the inclusion of other monomeric elements in the polymer, in order to control, for example, the rate of active agent release of the subject compostion.

To illustrate further, a wide range of dissociation rates may be obtained by adjusting the hydrophobicities of the backbones or side chains of the polymers while still maintaining sufficient biodegradability for the use intended for any such polymer. Such a result may be achieved by varying the various functional groups of the polymer. For example, the combination of a hydrophobic backbone and a hydrophilic metal ion containing bridges between the carrier and active agent produces heterogeneous release because dissociation is encouraged whereas water penetration is resisted.

One protocol generally accepted in the field that may be used to determine the release rate of any active agent or other material attached to the carrier through a metal ion bridge of the present invention involves dissociation of any such active agent or other material in a 0.1 M PBS solution (pH 7.4) at 37° C., an assay known in the art. For purposes of the present invention, the term “PBS protocol” is used herein to refer to such protocol.

In certain instances, the release rates of different polymer systems of the present invention may be compared by subjecting them to such a protocol. In certain instances, it may be necessary to process polymeric systems in the same fashion to allow direct and relatively accurate comparisons of different systems to be made. Such comparisons may indicate that any one polymeric system releases the active agent at a rate from about 2 or less to about 1000 or more times faster than another polymeric system. Alternatively, a comparison may reveal a rate difference of about 3, 5, 7, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 or 750. Even higher rate differences are contemplated by the present invention and release rate protocols.

In certain embodiments, when formulated in a certain manner, the release rate for polymer systems of the present invention may present as mono- or bi-phasic. Release of any material incorporated into the polymer carrier, which may be provided as a microsphere, may be characterized in certain instances by an initial increased release rate, which may release from about 5 to about 50% or more of the active agent or alternatively about 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or 40%, followed by a release rate of lesser magnitude.

The release rate of the active agent may also be characterized by the amount of such material released per day per mg of carrier. For example, in certain embodiments, when the carrier is a polymer, the release rate may vary from about 1 ng or less of active agent per day per mg of polymeric system to about 5000 or more ng/day/mg. Alternatively, the release rate may be about 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 600, 700, 800 or 900 ng/day/mg. In still other embodiments, the release rate of the active agent may be 10,000 ng/day/mg or even higher. In certain instances, active agents characterized by such release rate protocols may include therapeutic agents, antigens, diagnostics, targeting moieties and other substances.

In another aspect, the rate of release of an active agent from any carrier of the present invention may be presented as the half-life of such material in the such matrix.

In addition to the embodiment involving protocols for in vitro determination of release rates, in vivo protocols, whereby in certain instances release rates of active agents from the carrier may be determined in vivo, are also contemplated by the present invention. Other assays useful for determining the release of active agents from the carriers of the present invention may be envisoned.

Dosages

The dosage of any compound of the present invention will vary depending on the symptoms, age and body weight of the patient, the nature and severity of the disorder to be treated or prevented, the route of administration, and the form of the supplement. Any of the subject formulations may be administered in a single dose or in divided doses. Dosages for the compounds of the present invention may be readily determined by techniques known to those of skill in the art or as taught herein. Also, the present invention contemplates mixtures of more than one subject compound, as well as other therapeutic agents.

In certain embodiments, the dosage of the subject compounds will generally be in the range of about 0.01 ng to about 10 g per kg body weight, specifically in the range of about 1 ng to about 0.1 g per kg, and more specifically in the range of about 100 ng to about 10 mg per kg.

An effective dose or amount, and any possible affects on the timing of administration of the formulation, may need to be identified for any particular compound of the present invention. This may be accomplished by routine experiment as described herein, using one or more groups of animals (preferably at least 5 animals per group), or in human trials if appropriate. The effectiveness of any compound and method of treatment or prevention may be assessed by administering the supplement and assessing the effect of the administration by measuring one or more indices associated with the neoplasm of interest, and comparing the post-treatment values of these indices to the values of the same indices prior to treatment.

The precise time of administration and amount of any particular compound that will yield the most effective treatment in a given patient will depend upon the activity, pharmacokinetics, and bioavailability of a particular compound, physiological condition of the patient (including age, sex, disease type and stage, general physical condition, responsiveness to a given dosage and type of medication), route of administration, and the like. The guidelines presented herein may be used to optimize the treatment, e.g., determining the optimum time and/or amount of administration, which will require no more than routine experimentation consisting of monitoring the subject and adjusting the dosage and/or timing.

While the subject is being treated, the health of the patient may be monitored by measuring one or more of the relevant indices at predetermined times during a 24-hour period. Treatment, including supplement, amounts, times of administration and formulation, may be optimized according to the results of such monitoring. The patient may be periodically reevaluated to determine the extent of improvement by measuring the same parameters, the first such reevaluation typically occurring at the end of four weeks from the onset of therapy, and subsequent reevaluations occurring every four to eight weeks during therapy and then every three months thereafter. Therapy may continue for several months or even years, with a minimum of one month being a typical length of therapy for humans. Adjustments to the amount(s) of agent administered and possibly to the time of administration may be made based on these reevaluations.

Treatment may be initiated with smaller dosages which are less than the optimum dose of the compound. Thereafter, the dosage may be increased by small increments until the optimum therapeutic effect is attained.

The combined use of several compounds of the present invention, or alternatively other chemotherapeutic agents, may reduce the required dosage for any individual component because the onset and duration of effect of the different components may be complimentary. In such combined therapy, the different active agents may be delivered together or separately, and simultaneously or at different times within the day.

Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of subject compounds may be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures or experimental animals, e.g., for determining the LD50 and the ED50. Compositions that exhibit large therapeutic indices are preferred. Although compounds that exhibit toxic side effects may be used, care should be taken to design a delivery system that targets the compounds to the desired site in order to reduce side effects.

The data obtained from the cell culture assays and animal studies may be used in formulating a range of dosage for use in humans. The dosage of any supplement, or alternatively of any components therein, lies preferably within a range of circulating concentrations that include the ED50 with little or no toxicity. The dosage may vary within this range depending upon the dosage form employed and the route of administration utilized. For agents of the present invention, the therapeutically effective dose may be estimated initially from cell culture assays. A dose may be formulated in animal models to achieve a circulating plasma concentration range that includes the IC50 (i.e., the concentration of the test compound which achieves a half-maximal inhibition of symptoms) as determined in cell culture. Such information may be used to more accurately determine useful doses in humans. Levels in plasma may be measured, for example, by high performance liquid chromatography.

Formulation

The compounds of the present invention may be administered by various means, depending on their intended use, as is well known in the art. For example, if compounds of the present invention are to be administered orally, they may be formulated as tablets, capsules, granules, powders or syrups. Alternatively, formulations of the present invention may be administered parenterally as injections (intravenous, intramuscular or subcutaneous), drop infusion preparations or suppositories. For application by the ophthalmic mucous membrane route, compounds of the present invention may be formulated as eyedrops or eye ointments. These formulations may be prepared by conventional means, and, if desired, the compounds may be mixed with any conventional additive, such as an excipient, a binder, a disintegrating agent, a lubricant, a corrigent, a solubilizing agent, a suspension aid, an emulsifying agent or a coating agent.

In formulations of the subject invention, wetting agents, emulsifiers and lubricants, such as sodium lauryl sulfate and magnesium stearate, as well as coloring agents, release agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and antioxidants may be present in the formulated agents.

Subject compounds may be suitable for oral, nasal, topical (including buccal and sublingual), rectal, vaginal, aerosol and/or parenteral administration. The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. The amount of agent that may be combined with a carrier material to produce a single dose vary depending upon the subject being treated, and the particular mode of administration.

Methods of preparing these formulations include the step of bringing into association agents of the present invention with the carrier and, optionally, one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association agents with liquid carriers, or finely divided solid carriers, or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product.

Formulations suitable for oral administration may be in the form of capsules, cachets, pills, tablets, lozenges (using a flavored basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth), powders, granules, or as a solution or a suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid, or as an oil-in-water or water-in-oil liquid emulsion, or as an elixir or syrup, or as pastilles (using an inert base, such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia), each containing a predetermined amount of a compound thereof as an active ingredient. Compounds of the present invention may also be administered as a bolus, electuary, or paste.

In solid dosage forms for oral administration (capsules, tablets, pills, dragees, powders, granules and the like), the coordination complex thereof is mixed with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, such as sodium citrate or dicalcium phosphate, and/or any of the following: (1) fillers or extenders, such as starches, lactose, sucrose, glucose, mannitol, and/or silicic acid; (2) binders, such as, for example, carboxymethylcellulose, alginates, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, sucrose and/or acacia; (3) humectants, such as glycerol; (4) disintegrating agents, such as agar-agar, calcium carbonate, potato or tapioca starch, alginic acid, certain silicates, and sodium carbonate; (5) solution retarding agents, such as paraffin; (6) absorption accelerators, such as quaternary ammonium compounds; (7) wetting agents, such as, for example, acetyl alcohol and glycerol monostearate; (8) absorbents, such as kaolin and bentonite clay; (9) lubricants, such a talc, calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, solid polyethylene glycols, sodium lauryl sulfate, and mixtures thereof; and (10) coloring agents. In the case of capsules, tablets and pills, the compositions may also comprise buffering agents. Solid compositions of a similar type may also be employed as fillers in soft and hard-filled gelatin capsules using such excipients as lactose or milk sugars, as well as high molecular weight polyethylene glycols and the like.

A tablet may be made by compression or molding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared using binder (for example, gelatin or hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose), lubricant, inert diluent, preservative, disintegrant (for example, sodium starch glycolate or cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose), surface-active or dispersing agent. Molded tablets may be made by molding in a suitable machine a mixture of the supplement or components thereof moistened with an inert liquid diluent. Tablets, and other solid dosage forms, such as dragees, capsules, pills and granules, may optionally be scored or prepared with coatings and shells, such as enteric coatings and other coatings well known in the pharmaceutical-formulating art.

Liquid dosage forms for oral administration include pharmaceutically acceptable emulsions, microemulsions, solutions, suspensions, syrups and elixirs. In addition to the compound, the liquid dosage forms may contain inert diluents commonly used in the art, such as, for example, water or other solvents, solubilizing agents and emulsifiers, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl carbonate, ethyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, propylene glycol, 1,3-butylene glycol, oils (in particular, cottonseed, groundnut, corn, germ, olive, castor and sesame oils), glycerol, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, polyethylene glycols and fatty acid esters of sorbitan, and mixtures thereof.

Suspensions, in addition to compounds, may contain suspending agents as, for example, ethoxylated isostearyl alcohols, polyoxyethylene sorbitol and sorbitan esters, microcrystalline cellulose, aluminum metahydroxide, bentonite, agar-agar and tragacanth, and mixtures thereof.

Formulations for rectal or vaginal administration may be presented as a suppository, which may be prepared by mixing a coordination complex of the present invention with one or more suitable non-irritating excipients or carriers comprising, for example, cocoa butter, polyethylene glycol, a suppository wax or a salicylate, and which is solid at room temperature, but liquid at body temperature and, therefore, will melt in the body cavity and release the active agent. Formulations which are suitable for vaginal administration also include pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.

Dosage forms for transdermal administration of a supplement or component includes powders, sprays, ointments, pastes, creams, lotions, gels, solutions, patches and inhalants. The active component may be mixed under sterile conditions with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and with any preservatives, buffers, or propellants which may be required. For transdermal administration of transition metal complexes, the complexes may include lipophilic and hydrophilic groups to achieve the desired water solubility and transport properties.

The ointments, pastes, creams and gels may contain, in addition to a supplement or components thereof, excipients, such as animal and vegetable fats, oils, waxes, paraffins, starch, tragacanth, cellulose derivatives, polyethylene glycols, silicones, bentonites, silicic acid, talc and zinc oxide, or mixtures thereof.

Powders and sprays may contain, in addition to a supplement or components thereof, excipients such as lactose, talc, silicic acid, aluminum hydroxide, calcium silicates and polyamide powder, or mixtures of these substances. Sprays may additionally contain customary propellants, such as chlorofluorohydrocarbons and volatile unsubstituted hydrocarbons, such as butane and propane.

Compounds of the present invention may alternatively be administered by aerosol. This is accomplished by preparing an aqueous aerosol, liposomal preparation or solid particles containing the compound. A non-aqueous (e.g., fluorocarbon propellant) suspension could be used. Sonic nebulizers may be used because they minimize exposing the agent to shear, which may result in degradation of the compound.

Ordinarily, an aqueous aerosol is made by formulating an aqueous solution or suspension of the compound together with conventional pharmaceutically acceptable carriers and stabilizers. The carriers and stabilizers vary with the requirements of the particular compound, but typically include non-ionic surfactants (Tweens, Pluronics, or polyethylene glycol), innocuous proteins like serum albumin, sorbitan esters, oleic acid, lecithin, amino acids such as glycine, buffers, salts, sugars or sugar alcohols. Aerosols generally are prepared from isotonic solutions.

Pharmaceutical compositions of this invention suitable for parenteral administration comprise one or more components of a supplement in combination with one or more pharmaceutically-acceptable sterile isotonic aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, dispersions, suspensions or emulsions, or sterile powders which may be reconstituted into sterile injectable solutions or dispersions just prior to use, which may contain antioxidants, buffers, bacteriostats, solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient or suspending or thickening agents.

Examples of suitable aqueous and non-aqueous carriers which may be employed in the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention include water, ethanol, polyols (such as glycerol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, and the like), and suitable mixtures thereof, vegetable oils, such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters, such as ethyl oleate. Proper fluidity may be maintained, for example, by the use of coating materials, such as lecithin, by the maintenance of the required particle size in the case of dispersions, and by the use of surfactants.

Kits

This invention also provides kits for conveniently and effectively implementing the methods of this invention. Such kits comprise any of the compounds of the present invention or a combination thereof, and a means for facilitating compliance with methods of this invention. Such kits provide a convenient and effective means for assuring that the subject to be treated takes the appropriate active in the correct dosage in the correct manner. The compliance means of such kits includes any means which facilitates administering the actives according to a method of this invention. Such compliance means include instructions, packaging, and dispensing means, and combinations thereof. Kit components may be packaged for either manual or partially or wholly automated practice of the foregoing methods. In other embodiments involving kits, this invention contemplates a kit including compositions of the present invention, and optionally instructions for their use.

EXEMPLIFICATION

The invention is further illustrated by the following Examples. The Examples are provided for illustrative purposes only, and are not to be construed as limiting the scope or content of the invention in any way.

General-Vertebrate Animals

The use of animals is proposed to determine the PK and accumulation of the GLP-1 formulation in the pancreas and to demonstrate in vivo efficacy in islet regeneration. Rats are used for these studies as they are a standard and accepted rodent species for drug developmental studies. It will be more feasible to view the pancreas of the rat by imaging studies versus the mouse and hence rats have been chosen for both Examples 14 and 15. Animal studies are required in Example 15 in order to verify whether the hypothesis elaborated from in vitro studies is confirmed by in vivo experiments.

Newborn Wistar rats will be used for the efficacy studies, 10/group x 5 groups (50 animals) with potentially an additional 10 animals if STZ treatment does not induce elevated glucose in all by the second day. Total for Example 15=˜60. For Example 14, initially pilot studies with 3 rats per group and then repeat with 12 or less rats per group for validation and statistics will be done. The groups are:

  • 1. MacroGd (for MRI), then for Nuclear Imaging/PK/distribution studies:
  • 2. GLP-1 control high dose
  • 3. GLP-1 control low dose
  • 4. PGC-GLP-1 high dose
  • 5. PGC-GLP-1 low dose
  • 6. MacroTc (PGC alone) control high dose
  • 7. MacroTc (PGC alone) control low dose
    • So total initially for pilot, 7*3=21 rats, then for repeat 12*7=84 (or less)
  • Overall total for Example 14 is 21+84=105 rats or so.
  • Total rats for proposal =155.

For Example 15, animals will be housed at a constant 22° C., with a fixed 12:12-h artificial light-dark cycle. They will be fed with regular chow and studied at various months of age, as described in the individual specific Examples. Their sera will be analyzed to evaluate the effect of GLP-1 on glucose tolerance. Tissues will be harvested to investigate the effect of GLP-1 on beta cell augmentation. For Example 14 the animals will be housed in an AAALAC International accredited facility. Animals will be singly housed in polycarbonate cages with Anderson bed-o'cob bedding (Heinold, Kankakee, Ill.) in a temperature (64-79° F.) and humidity (50±20%) controlled room with a 14 hour light/10 hour dark cycle. The cage size, 840 cm2 area and 20 cm height, is adequate to house rats at the upper weight range as described in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, National Research Council, 1996. All animals will be routinely transferred to clean cages with fresh bedding once weekly. Certified Rodent Chow No. 5002 (PMI Feeds, Inc., St. Louis, Mo.), powder form, will be provided ad libitum from arrival until termination. For blood collection, the animals will be anesthetized by carbon dioxide inhalation (70% CO2:30% O2), and blood will be collected from the orbital sinus. No other pain or distress are anticipated in the PK and tissue distribution study. Therefore no analgesics or anaesthesia required.

Rats will be anesthetized with pentobarbital anesthesia (4 mg/100 g body wt i.p.) for the glucose tolerance test in Example 15. Blood samples will be drawn from the tail vein.

Animals will be humanely euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation from CO2 tank. This method is accepted and classified by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

Example 1 Synthesis of MPEG-PL

Poly-L-lysine, hydrobromide (Sigma, mol mass. 48000, d.p. 200), Ig was dissolved in 175 ml of 0.1 M Na2CO3, pH 8.7. An aliquot of this solution was removed for NH2-groups determination by TNBS titration (final concentration of NH2-groups, 25 mM). Methoxy polyethylene glycol succinate (MPEGS9.6 g, 1.9 mmol) was dissolved in 25 ml of water, degassed, and N-hydroxy(sulfo)succinimide (500 mg, 2.3 mmol) was added, followed by 1 g, 5 mmol of EDC in 2 ml of water. This solution was incubated for 10 min at room temperature and added drop-wise to the solution of poly-1-lysine, final pH 7.7. The mixture was incubated for six hours. The product was purified using ultrafiltration on a cartridge with a cut-off of 100 kD (UFP-100 A/G Technology) to remove unconjugated MPEGS and other reactants.

Example 2 Synthesis of MPEG-PL-NTA

The product obtained as described in Example 1 (MPEGsuccinyl-poly-L-Lys (m.w. 340000) was succinylated using 10-fold molar excess of succinic anhydride over the concentration of TNBS-reactive free aminogroups in the co-polymer in 0.5 M sodium carbonate pH 8.0, 4 hours room temperature. Succinylated co-polymer (MPEGs-PL-Suc) was purified using dialysis against water.

100 mg Lyophilized MPEGs-PL-Suc was dissolved in 2 ml water at 28 μmol succinate/ml, treated with 30 mg ethyl-diaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC) in the presence of 20 mg Sulfo-NHS for 10 min at room temperature. A solution of activated MPEGs-PL-Suc was added to a solution of N_,N_-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine Hydrate (BCMLys) in 1 ml sodium bicarbonate, pH 8.7. Final pH 7.6, incubated 24 hours at 4° C. The resultant product MPEGs-PL-Suc-NTA was purified using ultrafiltration on YM50 membrane (Amicon) by diluting to 100 ml and concentrating to 5 ml volume four times. A solution of MPEGs-PL-Suc was used as a control in further experiments.

Example 3 Synthesis of MPEGs-PL-NiNTA

A solution of product MPEGs-PL-Suc-NTA was dialysed against IL of 10 mM Ni acetate/20 mM citric acid, pH 6 for 24 hours at 4° C. and purified by dialysing against 2 L water (2 changes). Binding of Ni was measured by spectrophotometry at 625 nm using Ni-citrate as a standard.

Example 4 Synthesis of MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA

A solution of MPEGs-PL-Suc-NTA was dialysed against 1 L of 10 mM Zn acetate/20 mM citric acid, pH 6 for 24 hours at 4° C. and purified by dialysing against 2 L water (2 changes). Binding of Zn was measured by using elemental analysis.

Example 5 Binding of rhGH to MPEGs-PL-Zn/NiNTA

500 μg rhGH were mixed with 40 μl radioactively labeled trace amounts of 125I-rhGH (concentration −5 mg/ml). Centricon YM100 was used to remove rhGH aggregates (flow-through collected). Final [rhGH]=3.22 mg/ml. Various amounts of MPEGs-PL-Zn/NiNTA were incubated with 20 μg rhGH in a volume of 100 μl. Unbound rhGH was removed on Centricon YM100. Membrane-retained GH-MPEGs-PL-Ni/ZnNTA complex was washed with 100 μl PBS by centrifugation. Radioactivity in eluate and retentate were determined separately using a gamma counter (see Table 1 and FIG. 1):

TABLE 1
Binding of labeled rhGH (20 μg) to various amounts of experimental
and control copolymer complexes with Ni and Zn.
Sample, chelate The fraction of rGH μg bound
attached to MPEG-PL- retained on YM100 minus
Suc and carrier amount membrane μg bound background
Membrane control 0.05 1.03 control
sucNi, 1 mg 0.05 1.04 0.01
sucNi, 2 mg 0.06 1.29 0.25
ZnNTA, 1 mg 0.11 2.26 1.22
ZnNTA, 2 mg 0.25 5.05 4.02
NiNTA, 1 mg 0.10 2.05 1.01
NiNTA, 2 mg 0.23 4.63 3.60

Non-specific binding to YM100 membrane surface and binding to succinylated control (compound I of Example 1) polymers were similar. Ni and Zn complexes of MPEGs-PL-NTA showed 12 to 20-fold higher binding (2 mg polymer in the incubation mixture):

Example 6 Size-Exclusion Analysis of rhGH Complex with MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA

MPEGs-PL-Zn NTA complex (100 μl, 2 mg) was mixed with 100 μg rhGH and analyzed on size-exclusion HPLC column (SEC-5, Rainin). Fractions were collected and counted using a gamma-counter (see FIG. 2). The formation of a complex between the co-polymer and rhGH is evident from a change in elution pattern (fractions 11-14 contain higher molecular weight complex).

Example 7 Construction of His-Tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) variant

CDNA encoding for humanized GFP isoform was excised from BlueScriptGFP vector using compatible restriction sites. GFP fragment was then subcloned into SalI-KpnI-restricted pHAT10 vector (Clontech) to afford in-frame expression with His-tag (HAT™) from chicken lactate dehydrogenase (KNHLIHRVHKDDHAHAHRK) containing six histidines. Subcloning was performed by ligating the purified GFP fragment with linearized pHAT10 vector using T4 DNA ligase. Ligation reactions were used for E. coli transformation. Several colonies exhibiting bright green fluorescence under the UV light were selected. Bacterial colonies were transferred into LB broth and grown overnight in a volume of 5 ml. This starter culture was then used for infecting 1 l of LB medium grown to the density of 0.8 at 600 nm and bacterial culture was centrifuged at 6000 g to isolate bacterial mass. Bacteria were then lysed using B-PER buffer (Pierce) in the presence of 1× protease inhibitors (with no EDTA, Roche Biochemicals). Lysate was cleared by centrifugation at 16000×g (SS-34 Rotor, Sorvall) and the supernatant was combined with washed, pre-equilibrated TALON™ resin (Clontech). The mixture was agitated at 4° C. overnight and washed several times with loading buffer (50 mM phosphate, 300 mM NaCl pH 7). Histidine tagged-GFP product was eluted using 100 mM imidazole in 45 mM Na-phosphate, 270 mM NaCl, pH 7). Fluorescent eluate was dialyzed against PBS, pH 7 and analyzed by electrophoresis.

Example 8 Binding of Histidine Tagged-GFP to MPEG-PL-NTA and Control Polymers

Complex formation between NTA-conjugated MPEG-PL copolymer and histidine-tagged GFP was achieved by combining histidine tagged-GFP and Ni2+ or Zn2+ salts of MPEG-PL-NTA or MEPG-PL-succinate (control). After a 1 hour incubation the complexes were placed in YM-50 membrane. Various amounts of MPEGs-PLZn/NiNTA were incubated with 20 μg rhGH in a volume of 100 μl. Free non-bound histidine tagged-GFP was removed on Centricon YM100. Membrane-retained MPEGs-PL-Ni/ZnNTA complex was washed three times using 100 μl PBS aliquots by centrifugation. The fluorescence intensities in eluate and retentate were determined using a fluorometer (excitation 475, emission 510 μm). In some experiments, 100% mouse plasma was added to the incubation mixtures and samples were processed as described before.

TABLE 2
Binding of histidine tagged-GFP (20 μg) to
1 mg of MPEG-PL-NTA and a control polymer.
Sample % GFP bound
GFP control 0.002
MPEG-PL-succinate control 0.003
MPEG-PL-ZnNTA 99.68
MPEG-PL-NiNTA 99.52

The obtained result shows that the binding of histidine tagged-GFP to metal chelates linked to MPEG-PL co-polymer was highly specific (Table 2) and that the association of HAT-GFP with similar co-polymer bearing no NTA residues was close to the background.

In the presence of plasma binding of histidine tagged-GFP was also highly specific. Binding to NTA-linked co-polymers in the presence of Ni and Zn cations was approximately the same in the presence or in the absence of the plasma. The only detectable non-specific binding levels were detectable in the case of polycationic MPEGs-PL co-polymer (see FIG. 3) and this binding has not been inhibitable by plasma.

Example 9 Distribution of Histidine Tagged-GFP and Histidine Tagged-GFP Complexes with MPEGs-PL-NTA in vivo after Intravenous Injection

Pre-formed complexes of histidine tagged-GFP with MPEGs-PL-NiNTA and MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA as well as control histidine tagged-GFP were injected IV in the tail vein of anesthetized balb/c mice (20 μg histidine tagged-GFP mixed with 1 mg of co-polymer or 20 μg histidine tagged-GFP in a total volume of 0.1 ml, 2 per group) and blood samples were drawn through a catheter inserted in a contralateral tail vein. Blood samples (40 μl) were heparinized, centrifuged (3,000 g) and plasma samples were analyzed for histidine tagged-GFP using fluorometry (excitation-475/emission 508 nm). Observed fluorescence intensity values were normalized for injection dose using histidine tagged-GFP standard diluted in mouse plasma. The blood volume was calculated as 7% of animal weight and hematocrit—at 50% (see FIG. 4).

Example 10 Formulation and Determination of PGC-GLP-1 Complex Formation Efficiency

Based on our preliminary results and known structure and properties of GLP-1 it is expected that GLP-1 will bind to the backbone of PGC via His and therefore be positioned in a way that the chains of polyethylene glycol would protect the peptide from DPP-IV degradation (see FIGS. 5 and 6).

The feasibility of radioiodination of GLP-1 to evaluate the efficiency of binding to the carrier will be tested first. Radioiodinated GLP-1 will be obtained by using sodium [125I]iodide in the presence of Iodo-Gen (Pierce) at approximately 0.01-0.05 mCi/μg peptide followed by purification on C18-reversed phase HPLC column using a gradient of acetonitrile in 0.1% TFA. Due to the possibility of additional N-terminal histidine radioiodination, reactions in the presence and in the absence of trace amounts of Zn to protect the His residue will be performed. The ability of the peptide to form a complex with ZnNTA after the radioiodination will be tested by measuring the retention of radioactivity on Zn-saturated NTA-column. Trace amounts of radioiodinated GLP-1 will be mixed with cold GLP-1 followed by the incubation with PGC-Zn (MPEGs-PL-ZnNTA) to determine complex formation efficiency. Unbound GLP-1 will be removed using Microcon YM100-ultrafiltration followed by the separate radioactivity determination in the eluate and the retentate.

To demonstrate that binding of GLP-1 to the carrier is mediated via histidine binding to the PRB linker, competition studies with imidazole, evaluating the dissociation of radioiodinated GLP-1 from the complex in the presence of either a buffer or buffer containing imidazole will be carried out.

Example 11 Measurement of Dissociation Constant (Kd) of PGC/PRB:GLP-1 Complex

The refolded N-terminal domain of the human GLP-1R was reported to have a Kd of 47 nM, as determined by surface plasmon resonance, and 144 nM from isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).

ITC will be used to measure the dissociation constant of PGC/PRB:GLP-1. ITC is a thermodynamic technique for monitoring any chemical reaction initiated by the addition of a binding component, and has become the method of choice for characterizing biomolecular interactions. When substances bind, heat is either generated or absorbed. Measurement of this heat allows accurate determination of binding constant (KB) or dissociation constant (Kd), reaction stoichiometry (n), enthalpy (H) and entropy (S), providing a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction in a single experiment.

ITC is routinely used to study all types of binding interactions, including: antigen-antibody, protein-ligand, protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-carbohydrate, DNA-drug, and receptor-target.

In ITC, a syringe containing a “ligand” solution is titrated into a cell containing a solution of the “macromolecule” at constant temperature. When the ligand is injected into the cell, the two materials interact, and heat is released or absorbed in direct proportion to the amount of binding. As the macromolecule in the cell becomes saturated with ligand, the heat signal diminishes until only background heat of dilution is observed. The area underneath each injection peak (see top panel of FIG. 7) is equal to the total heat released for that injection. When this integrated heat is plotted against the molar ratio of ligand added to macromolecule in the cell, a complete binding isotherm for the interaction is obtained (see bottom panel of FIG. 7). Experiments performed with VP-ITC are entirely computer-controlled, including injection parameters and mixing.

Example 12 Demonstration of the Effect of PGC/PRB:GLP-1 In Vitro in Model Systems on Insulin Secretion, Expression of Glucose Sensor Genes and Glucose Responsiveness of Beta Cells

The following experiments will be run to demonstrate that PGC/PRB:GLP-1 behaves in an similar manner to native GLP-1 in vitro with respect to increasing the insulin-responsiveness of beta cells. The clonal rat pancreatic beta cell line INS-1 will be used as a model since the effects of GLP-1 on the expression of glucose sensor genes and glucose responsiveness on this cell line is well documented. Cells will be incubated either alone, in the presence of naked GLP-1 at 2, 10 or 50 nM, or in the presence of equivalent molar concentrations of GLP-1 formulated in PRB/PBC.

Glucose Responsiveness—Insulin Synthesis and Secretion

To evaluate the effect of GLP-1 on the response of beta cells to glucose, a glucose-induced insulin secretion test, will be performed on INS-1 cells. After a 1, 3 and 5 day incubation with GLP-1, each group of cells will be tested. At different time points (0, 10, 20, 60 minutes) after glucose stimulation, an aliquot of the culture medium, as well as the cell pellet, will be collected and used to detect the intracellular content of insulin by R.I.A. assay (LINCO Research Inc. St. Charles, Mo.). The insulin values will be normalized for the total protein content obtained from the cell pellet extracted with M-PER mammalian protein extraction buffer (PIERCE, Rockford, Ill.) in the presence of the Halt™ protease inhibitor cocktail (PIERCE).

Expression of Glucose Sensor Genes

The expression of insulin and two main regulators of the glucose sensing machine of normal beta cells, the glucose transporter GLUT-2, and the glucose phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase, will be evaluated by RT PCR as described previously. Briefly, total RNA will be isolated using the TRiazol-method (Gibco-BRL), and treated with DNase (Amplification Grade, Gibco/BRL) to remove any traces of contaminating genomic DNA. RNA (2.5 μg) will then be subjected to reverse transcription (RT reagents; Promega; Madison, Wis.) and amplified by PCR with sense and antisense primers to rat beta-specific genes. RT-PCR for β-actin will be used as a control for cDNA loading.

Example 13 Effect of GLP-1 on Neogenesis of Beta Islet Cells In Vitro

The rat pancreatic ductal cell line ARIP (ATCC) will be used as a biological model to evaluate the effects of GLP-1 on the trans-differentiation of ductal cells into insulin producing cells.

Analysis of Expression of Beta-Cell Specific Genes

ARIP cells will be cultured in the presence of GLP-1 and analyzed for the acquisition of β-cell-specific gene expression profile (GLUT-2, glucokinase and insulin). Trans-differentiation will be monitored by RT-PCR after 24, 48 and 72 h of GLP-1 treatment. Based on previous studies, insulin mRNA should be detectable after 48 h, GLUT-2 after 24 h and glucokinase mRNA at 72 h. No RT-PCR products for insulin, GLUT-2 or glucokinase should be detectable in non-GLP-1 treated cells. RT-PCR for P-actin will be used as a control for cDNA loading.

Detection of Insulin Production by Immunofluorescence Microscopy

The acquisition of insulin-secreting phenotype (marker of beta cells) and loss of a protein marker of ARIP ductal epithelial cells (cytotkeratin-20) will be evaluated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cells will be stained for insulin as described previously. Briefly, ARIP cells will be grown in monocoated chamber slides (Nange Nunc International; Naperville, Ill.) in the presence, or absence, of GLP-1 (10 nM) or PGC/PRB:GLP-1 for 0, 12, 24, 48, or 72 hours. After washing in PBS, the cells will be fixed with washed in PBS and permeabilized with 0.1% (vol/vol) of Triton X-100. The cells will be sequentially incubated with 10% normal blocking serum in PBS (Santacruz), overnight incubation with guinea pig anti-porcine insulin antibody (Dako, Carpinteria, Calif.), or with mouse anti-human cytokeratin 20 (Novocastra, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) at a dilution of 1:50, at 4° C., in a humid chamber. After washing, the cells will be incubated with FITC-conjugated rabbit anti-guinea pig IgG (Dako) (1:40) for insulin detection and FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (Chemicon, Temecula, Calif.) (1:50) for CK20 detection. Mounted slides will be examined using a fluorescent microscope (Olympus AX-70) and images captured by Apogee Digital Camera and processed by the Image-Pro Computer software.

Example 14 Pharmacokinetics, Biodistribution (Accumulation in Pancreas) and Stability of Complex In Vivo in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

Evaluation of PGC-Based Imaging Agent Accumulation in Pancreas by MR

Rats (Wistar, n=6) will be divided into two groups (n=3). The first group will be treated with streptozotocin (160 mg/kg, 4-5 days before the experiment, via the tail vein and butylscopolamine (0.5 mg/kg IP), to stop peristaltic movement of the intestine). The other (n=3) will be injected with saline and used as a control. Animals will be anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine/xylazine intraperitoneally (80 mg/kg per 12 mg/kg) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be performed using and 1.5T MRI scanner (Signa, GE) using a 3-inch surface coil. A GdDTPA standard (500 μM) in a tube will be placed next to the animal. After the initial anatomical T1 (SE 700/12 TR/TE, 90 degree flip angle)—and T2 (SE 3000/60 TR/TE, ms)—weighted images will be acquired, all animals will be injected with PGC labeled with GdDTPA (MacroGd) at 0.05 mmol/kg intravenously. Serial coronal and axial images will be acquired with 10 min intervals (two images at 10 and 20 min) to allow distribution and early accumulation of PGC in pancreas. The imaging will be repeated at 12 hours and the results will be analyzed using normalized signal intensity values.

Radioactively-Labeled PGC:GLP-1 Pharmacokinetic and Pancreas Accumulation Study

Wistar rats normal (n=12) and streptozotocin-treated (n=12) will be used for bio-distribution studies. Animals will be anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine as described above and injected at t=0 via the tail vein with 125I-labeled GLP-1/PGC complex (10 μg GLP-1/kg?). Lugol's solution in drinking water will be supplied to prevent accumulation of dehalogenated iodine in the thyroid. Animals will be sacrificed at 6 h (n=6 each group), 12 h (n—6 each group) and 24 h (n=6 for each group) with a lethal overdose of anaesthetic (pentobarbital 200 mg/kg, i. p.). Samples of blood, brain, fat, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes, muscle, pancreas, spleen, stomach and thyroid will excised, weighed and radioactivity measured using a well-type gamma counter. The organ samples will be counted together, with decay correction, and the dose in each sample will be calculated. Bio-distribution results will be expressed as percentage of the injected dose (ID) per gram of tissue (% ID/g) corrected for radioactive decay.

Example 15 Demonstration of Increase in Beta Cell Mass in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

The currently accepted animal models for human Type 1 diabetes are the NOD mouse and the BB rat. These models of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes mimic the human condition in that they share many important immunological characteristics with the human disease. However, there are no published reports of GLP-1R agonists increasing beta cell mass in either of these models, despite numerous publications in other animal models of diabetes. This is likely due to the need for immunosuppression concomitant with GLP-1 treatment in these models, to prevent destruction of regenerated islets by the autoimmune system.

The efficacy of PGC/PRB:GLP-1 will be demonstrated in an experimental model used to study the regeneration of B-cells is the neonatal rat, with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (n0-STZ model). Injection of STZ to newborn rats results in damage to β-cells. After 3-5 days, β-cell regeneration occurs through differentiation from precursor cells and increased beta cell proliferation and there is a rapid recovery from neonatal diabetes. However, despite some regeneration, adult rats exhibit a decreased β-cell mass and chronic diabetes characterized by glucose intolerance and low insulin response to glucose. As has been demonstrated previously for Exenatide, whether PGC:PRB:GLP-1 can protect against diabetes in this model by augmenting beta cell mass will be evaluated. Animal studies will examine the effect of PGC/PRB:GLP-1 in an autoimmune model of Type 1 diabetes in combination with immunosuppression.

To induce diabetes, newborns will be injected I.P with a single dose of STZ (100 μg/g). Glucose will be monitored on day two and only animals with elevated blood glucose will be included in the study. Five groups of animals will be studied: Non-STZ treated, STZ treated, STZ treated with GLP-1, STZ treated with carrier alone (PGC/PRB) and STZ treated with PGC/PRB:GLP-1. GLP-1 treatment or carrier will be administered by injection for 5 days from day 2-6. The dose of GLP-1 will depend on PK data from above.

Animals will be sacrificed on day 7 or at 2 months and blood samples and pancreas taken. Insulin content of pancreas will be determined by immunostaining and beta cell mass determined by calculating the fraction of area of pancreas occupied by insulin-positive beta cells multipled by the weight of the pancreas.

Replication of beta cells will be determined by 5′-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment of animals one hour before sacrifice (50 mg/kg bodywt i.p). Pancreatic sections will be double stained for BrdU and insulin. The proportion of BrdU+ β-cell nuclei to total β-cell nuclei will represent the percentage β-cell replicative rate in a 1-h interval. In addition to BrdU the sections should be stained for markers of islets (insulin, glucagon, Som, PP), markers of neogenesis (PDX-1, neug 3) and markers of ductal cells (CK19).

Animals will be tested for glucose tolerance by subjecting fasted animals to IV (or IP for newborns) glucose (0.5 g glucose/kg body wt). Blood samples will be immediately drawn from the tail vein, after anesthesia, and plasma stored at −20° C. Insulin and glucose responses during the glucose tolerance tests will be calculated as the incremental plasma insulin (pmol/l) values integrated over the period (30 min) after the injection of glucose I.P. and the corresponding incremental integrated plasma glucose (mmol/l) values. The insulinogenic index represents the ratio of these two parameters. The rate of glucose disappearance (K) was calculated from the slope of the regression line obtained with the log-transformed plasma glucose values between 10 and 30 min after glucose administration.

REFERENCES

All publications and patents mentioned herein, including those items listed below, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety as if each individual publication or patent was specifically and individually incorporated by reference. In case of conflict, the present application, including any definitions herein, will control.

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EQUIVALENTS

While specific embodiments of the subject invention have been discussed, the above specification is illustrative and not restrictive. Many variations of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art upon review of this specification. The full scope of the invention should be determined by reference to the claims, along with their full scope of equivalents, and the specification, along with such variations.

Unless otherwise indicated, all numbers expressing quantities of ingredients, reaction conditions, and so forth used in the specification and claims are to be understood as being modified in all instances by the term “about.” Accordingly, unless indicated to the contrary, the numerical parameters set forth in this specification and attached claims are approximations that may vary depending upon the desired properties sought to be obtained by the present invention.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification424/450, 514/11.7, 514/6.9
International ClassificationA61K9/51, A61K9/107, A61K47/42, A61K38/26, A61K9/00, A61K47/34, A61K38/16, A61K9/127, A61K47/10
Cooperative ClassificationA61K47/42, A61K47/34, A61K38/26, A61K47/10, A61K47/48215, A61K47/48315, A61K9/0019
European ClassificationA61K47/48R2T, A61K47/48K6P, A61K47/42, A61K9/00M5, A61K38/26, A61K47/10, A61K47/34
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