US 20050276955 A1
A camouflage utilizing statistical countercoloring, countershading, and disruptive coloration principles to provide concealment to a person or object. The method of manufacturing the camouflage covering includes photographing a form and obtaining imagery from the photographs. The imagery is then manipulated by photographic manipulative software to determine appropriate countershading for the camouflage covering. The countershading may then be statistically varied to enhance the concealment properties. In addition, appropriate statistical countercoloring and disruptive coloration may be utilized upon indicia applied to the camouflage covering. Counterbanding of an object may also be employed to conceal an object.
1. A camouflage covering for concealment, said covering comprising:
a covering having indicia located on a surface of said covering, the indicia employing countershading, said covering providing concealment of an object in an outdoor environment.
2. The camouflage covering for concealment of
3. The camouflage covering for concealment of
4. The camouflage covering for concealment of
5. The camouflage covering for concealment of
6. The camouflage covering for concealment of
7. The camouflage covering for concealment of
8. The camouflage covering for concealment of
9. The camouflage covering for concealment of
10. The camouflage covering for concealment of
the indicia employs countercoloring and disruptive coloration; and
the indicia includes situational camouflage utilizing countercoloring, disruptive coloration and countershading.
11. The camouflage covering for concealment of
the indicia employs countercoloring and disruptive coloration; and
the covering is worn by a person, whereby the indicia enhances the aesthetics of the human form of the person.
12. The camouflage covering for concealment of
13. A method of manufacturing a camouflage covering employing principles of countershading, said method comprising the steps of:
photographing a form to obtain imagery of the form;
producing photographic negatives derived from the imagery of the form;
determining a countershade design from the negatives;
designing indicia from the countershade design by statistically varying the countershade design; and
applying the indicia on the camouflage covering.
14. The method of manufacturing a camouflage covering of
15. The method of manufacturing a camouflage covering of
16. The method of manufacturing a camouflage covering of
employing countercoloring on the camouflage covering; and
employing disruptive coloration on the camouflage covering, whereby both the countercoloring and disruptive coloration is statistically varied.
17. A camouflage covering for concealment of an object, said covering comprising:
a covering having indicia located on a surface of said covering, the indicia employing counterbanding, said covering providing concealment of the object.
18. The camouflage covering for concealment of
19. The camouflage covering for concealment of
20. The camouflage covering for concealment of
This application is a continuation-in-part of a copending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/407,655 by Kurt Tooley entitled “CAMOUFLAGE COVERING AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURE OF THE CAMOUFLAGE COVERING,” filed Nov. 30, 2001 and is hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference herein.
1. Technical Field of the Invention
This invention relates to camouflage and, more particularly, to a camouflage employing statistical countershading, countercoloring and disruptive coloration camouflage techniques.
2. Description of Related Art
U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/407,655 to Tooley (Tooley) discloses a unique camouflage employing countershading, countercoloring and disruptive coloration techniques to conceal an object or person. Currently, the most popular form of camouflage technique utilized is situational camouflage. Situational camouflage attempts to conceal an object or person with patterns resembling the surrounding vegetation in which the object or person is located. The basic theory is the better the resemblance to the local vegetation, the better the concealment of the object or person. With situational camouflage, there are no universal camouflage patterns which may be used in general for most environments. Rather, the more appropriate camouflage patterns depend on the local environment in which concealment by an individual or object is sought. There are patterns for broadleaf forest in the early and late seasons of the year, patterns for willows, wetlands, marshes, grasslands, evergreens, pear flats, and various other environments. Virtually all situational camouflages are optimized for concealment within specific environments. In addition, many of these camouflage patterns incorporate three-dimensional effects and photorealistic detail to provide greater emulation of the surrounding vegetation.
However, in addition to the fact that tailoring camouflage for every environment is expensive, the basic use of situational camouflage is flawed. It can be seen in nature that situational camouflage is not utilized by large predators. Large predators hunt by stealth, but still have not evolved camouflage patterns that look like the surrounding vegetation in which they hunt. In addition, all large predators that hunt by stealth have evolved camouflage patterns that, though they differ in the finest details, are exactly alike in principle. The forms of camouflage used by large predators are far superior to the situational camouflage used in existing camouflage. Additionally, the camouflage used by large predators is universal, or nearly universal, thus offering the best possible concealment in almost all environments. Presently, no camouflage exploits the crucial elements of the camouflage evolved by large predators.
The leopard species provides an excellent example which contradicts the basic tenets of situational camouflage. Leopards live in many different habitats from rainforests, to frigid mountains, to deserts. The leopard is found as far north as 50 degrees latitude to the southern tip of Africa. In order to survive, a leopard must kill by using stealth to approach its prey. When in close enough proximity to the prey, the leopard can launch an attack. Thus, the leopard's camouflage is particularly demanding and definitely a requisite for survival. It should be noted, that wherever the leopard is found around the world, the spots of the leopard never change. Thus, the leopard does not change to blend in with its environment as would be dictated by situational camouflage. Rather, the leopard has evolved to be invisible rather than look like the surrounding vegetation.
All of the great cats of the world, such as leopards, have developed camouflage which follows three basic principles. The first principle is that these large predators all are countershaded. Countershading conceals the shape of a countershaded form. Ordinarily, the way light strikes a form reveals its shape, contours, and orientation. Countershading counteracts the ordinary way that light strikes a form from above, thereby concealing the orientation, shape, contour and form of a countershaded form. Countershaded forms are invariably darker on top where the light is brighter, and lighter on the usually shadow-shrouded bottom. This subtle and sometimes dramatic shading conceals a predator by making it more uniformly lit, thereby making it seem less three-dimensional and more two-dimensional. A countershaded form appears flat, and is easily hidden, even in the thinnest of cover.
The second principle used by these large predators is countercoloring. Countercoloring counteracts the color composition of the light typically encountered by the predator and determines the color in which an animal is countershaded. Where countershading counteracts the intensity of light reflected on a countershaded form, countercoloring counteracts the color composition of the light reflected about the environment, thereby reducing the contrast of a countercolored form to its environment.
Three factors must be taken into account for countercoloring. First, in the open/under “normal” daylight, much of the light is blue light reflected around the blue sky. Second, yellow is the color that counteracts blue and reduces the contrast between a form countercolored in yellow under the sky in daylight. Third, the light filtering through vegetation is depleted in red light in proportion to the amount of vegetation because plants preferentially absorb red light for photosynthesis. Taken together, these three facts explain why animals that depend on stealth are countershaded in their particular colors. Yellow is the color needed to reduce the contrast of an object in normal, unfiltered daylight. Thus, the lion, which lives preferentially in the open and is exposed to the blue sky, is yellow in color. The heavier the vegetation in which an animal evolves and lives, the more depleted the prevailing light is in red and, thus, the redder (relative to a basic lion-like yellow which is the starting point needed to counteract strongly blue unfiltered daylight) an animal must be to compensate for the absorption of red light by the vegetation. This is why animals of the jungle such as tigers and jaguars are reddish brown or even orange. In addition, this explains why the leopard's color tends to be more yellow in more open habitats and tends to darken to rusty reddish brown and orange in jungle habitats. Also, this explains why there are no large predators that are green, even though almost all of them live in environments that are predominantly green for much of the year.
The third principle utilized by large predators is the use of disruptive coloration. Disruptive coloration further conceals the predator's shape by breaking it up with a contrasting pattern or shading. This effect may be quite subtle, such as the dark color on a lion's ear, or bold like a leopard's spots or a tiger's stripes. In each case, the disruptive patterns resemble the shadows cast by the vegetation through which the predator is likely to move while hunting.
Collectively, countershading, countercoloring, and disruptive coloration (CCD) are indispensable for camouflage success in big cats. CCD camouflage is currently not being used by man.
Although Tooley discloses a unique camouflage which conceals an object by employing CCD, an improved camouflage may be obtained by statistically employing disruptive coloration, countershading and countercoloring. By randomizing the different shapes, coloration, etc., of the camouflage, camouflage concealment can be enhanced.
In addition, as discussed above, situational camouflage is now predominately used in existing camouflage. Although the basic concept of situational camouflage is flawed, situational camouflage is used in most every condition. It would be advantageous to employ CCD techniques with existing situational camouflage to enhance the concealment properties of the camouflage.
It would also be advantageous to have a camouflage that provides protective coloration of an object or person in urban areas. True camouflage conceals the very presence of a camouflaged object. However, in some situations, such as fighting at close quarters in urban environments, such concealment is difficult, if not impossible. In such situations, it may be desirable to abandon concealment as a goal and utilize protective coloration to delay, confuse, and degrade an enemy's ability to attack.
Thus, it would be a distinct advantage to statistically employ the principles of CCD camouflage in concealing people and objects. It is an object of the present invention to provide methods in implementing and manufacturing CCD camouflage.
In one aspect, the present invention is a camouflage covering for concealment. The covering has indicia located on a surface of the covering. The indicia employs countershading. The covering is utilized to provide concealment in an outdoor environment. The countershading may include statistical variations to the countershading. Countercoloring and disruptive coloration principles may also be employed and varied statistically upon the indicia.
In another aspect, the present invention is a method of manufacturing a camouflage covering employing principles of countershading. The method begins by photographing a form to obtain imagery of the form. Next, photographic negatives derived from the imagery of the form are produced. A countershade design is then determined from the negatives. Indicia is designed for a camouflage covering by statistically varying the countershade design. The indicia is applied on the camouflage covering. The indicia may also employ statistical disruptive coloration and countercoloring.
In still another aspect, the present invention is a camouflage covering for concealment of an object. The covering has an indicia located upon a surface of the covering. The indicia employs principles of counterbanding to conceal the object.
The invention will be better understood and its numerous objects and advantages will become more apparent to those skilled in the art by reference to the following drawings, in conjunction with the accompanying specification, in which:
The present invention employs statistical CCD camouflage principles for concealing an object or person.
As discussed in Tooley, the principles of CCD cannot be achieved by merely creating another camouflage pattern, transferring the pattern to cloth, and sewing pieces of cloth together to make the garment. An exact orientation of the pattern of each piece of cloth is indispensable to achieve true CCD camouflage. Each piece of the camouflage system 22 must be carefully constructed and oriented to achieve true CCD concealment for the CCD system to be constructed from dyed cloth. Specifically, the CCD system cannot be manufactured by simply sewing together pieces of cloth bearing the CCD camouflage pattern of a leopard or tiger. Emulating such patterns of other animals on a camouflage pattern do not capture the essence of the principles of CCD camouflage for human concealment. For example, the countershading of a tiger evolved to conceal a tiger's shape, not a man's shape. Human concealment, through the use of CCD principles, can only be achieved by utilizing countershading, countercoloring and disruptive coloration specialized for a human form or specific object to be camouflaged. Considering first countercoloration within the camouflage system 22, as discussed above, predators simply do not vary much in color. Thus, the only reasonable choices for coloration of the camouflage system fall in a continuum from lion-like yellow to tiger-like rusty brown or orange, with the medium tones such as the base colors of a cougar or leopard providing an effective medium for nearly universal application. Therefore, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the camouflage system 22 is countercolored in the base colors of either leopards or cougars for maximum effectiveness and nearly universal utility.
Disruptive coloration is next considered for use in the camouflage system 22. Unlike countercoloring and countershading, there are no known universal laws governing disruptive coloration. Spots, stripes, and other patterns appear to work effectively. Extensive patterns may be seen in leopards, tigers, and jaguars while minimal patterns are seen in lions and cougars. Although the camouflage system 22 may utilize any number of acceptable ways, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the disruptive coloration of the leopard and/or cougar is utilized in the camouflage system.
The most difficult and unique principle utilized in the camouflage system 22 is the use of countershading. Countershading is crucial in implementing the principles of CCD in the camouflage system. As discussed above, countershading counteracts the tendency of daylight to reveal a shape of an object. Countershaded forms are darker on top where the light is stronger, and lighter where the light is weaker and typically white on the unlighted shadow-shrouded bottom. Countershading accounts for effects in both shade and direct sunlight. Typically, shaded portions are simply white, except for disruptive coloration native to typically shaded areas. Lighted portions darken in direct proportion to how well the subject is normally lighted. Thus, lighted portions are not uniformly colored like shaded portions, but smoothly shaded from dark to light in inverse proportion to the strength of the lighting, all of which varies over the complex curves of an animal's surface, an effect known to photographers as the “limb effect.” The “limb effect” operates in much the same manner as film negatives. In practicality, countershading, and CCD camouflaging in general, is “film negative” or “color negative” camouflage.
Film negatives are light where the photographed scene is dark and dark where the photographed scene is light in precisely the same manner as a countershaded form. Thus, photographing the human form in various ways and from various angles in strong sunlight produces a blueprint for countershading the human form.
Unlighted portions of the anatomy are easily handled by photographing the human form in strong sunlight from various angles with a black and white film exposed and developed for extreme contrast. In the resulting negatives, areas that should be countershaded in white appear bright. However, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the human form is photographed, the film is exposed and developed as black and white film, and the negatives are then scanned. The negatives may then be manipulated utilizing conventional photographic computer software, such as Adobe Photoshop®. The areas on the negative that should be countershaded white are revealed as bright areas on the negatives by manipulating image levels or by scanning the negatives as pure black and white images, rather than grayscale images.
The use of manipulative photographic computer software programs, such as Adobe Photoshop®, permits the combining of images to produce composites that reveal areas to be countershaded white in “average” light. Average sunlight is the average effect of the light as the sun passes overhead from dawn to dusk. Countershading evolved to counter light from above as a whole, not the light of any particular time of the day. Therefore, no single photo can capture “average sunlight.” A single photograph merely produces an approximation of how to countershade a form. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, photographs are taken from all around a human form throughout the day. Then the average of the negatives from each vantage point is obtained via a computer and associated software by stacking the negatives (numbering n) and setting the opacity of each to 1/n. The result shows the areas to be countershaded white on average as the brightest areas on the composite of the negatives of photographs taken from each vantage point. This process may be repeated indefinitely to produce finer results. The result of the process is the determination of the areas on the countershaded human form which must be white as the brightest area on the composite negatives.
The tint and color intensity of the tint on the countershaded form is preferably, as explained above, in a narrow range of colors from lion-like yellow to tiger-like rust. The tawny base color of the mountain lion and the yellow-orange base color of the leopard are preferred. As the colors evolve on the garment utilized in the camouflage system 22 to minimize the contrast of the countershaded/countercolored form in sunlight, the human form being photographed should be photographed in sunlight and a shade of blue similar to the color of the sky.
Referring back to
To provide a variation in the camouflage and enhance the concealment properties of the camouflage, statistical CCD may be employed. Statistical CCD is the statistical or probabilistic alteration of a 3-D pattern employing CCD principles to permit variation in the pattern without seriously compromising the visual effectiveness of the underlying pattern. For example, the present invention may be used in military pixilated patterns. Each pixel assumes a probability of assuming another related value (i.e., either a color or tint found elsewhere on the garment or a color or tint related in a specified way to the normal color of the area being altered), or a random distribution of related values such that the average of the area being randomized remains unchanged or nearly unchanged from its normal state.
For example, a field of 1000 pixels may be used for a given color. A pixel is a subunit of an area composed of a plurality of subunits to form a larger area. The pixel is preferably precisely defined and distributed subunits within the larger area. In that field of 1000 pixels, 100 pixels may be randomly distributed which are 25 percent brighter and 100 pixels may be 25 percent darker. (In a corresponding approach built only on probability has each pixel retaining an 80 percent chance of retaining its native color in the original pattern, with a 10 percent chance of being lighter, and a 10 percent change of being darker.) The result is a field of 1000 pixels with the same average value as the original field, and thus serving the same function as the original field. The present invention provides a less uniform, and thus, less recognizable form to the human eye and mind. In addition, the present invention also is less recognizable by the pattern recognition surveillance technologies that may soon be developed and deployed in the near future.
In general, statistical or probabilistic alteration need only specify six variables: the nature of the randomization (e.g., independent probability of alteration vs. probabilistic distribution of alternations), the size of the area subject to alteration, the probability of alteration of an area from its normal color, the color(s) that an altered area may acquire (some statistical variations need not strictly preserve the average value of an area), the probability of the altered area assuming each of the colors that can be acquired in alteration, and the shape of the area the alteration will assume. For military pixilated “digital” garments, this shape is always a square, but this is not a requirement to employ the present invention. If a given number of shapes are to be randomly distributed to an area, the shapes to be distributed may be any shape or even random shapes. For example, given a field of 1000 pixels, randomly distribute 100 circles (diameter=1) that are 15 percent lighter and 100 similar circles that are 15 percent darker in the field. The random distribution or generation of the varied pixels can be created in a wide variety of ways. For example, a computer may be utilized to randomly generate the variations sought. Random number generation software may be utilized. In addition, random number generation by a computer may be created by recording a random process, such as atmospheric static. Such methods are used in two pad encryption processes to produce truly random transformations. Additionally, physical processes, such as the flipping of a coin may be used to provide randomness. It should be understood that any method of creating a random or pseudo-random variation may be used.
Although variation of the camouflage is often desired, the unwise selection of alteration parameters may result in patterns that are highly non-adaptive and non-functional for concealment. For example, too high a probability of alteration combined with unwise alteration values (i.e., color changes) produces garments that are not countershaded. Specifically, for example, in a traditional military “digital” pattern, a 20 percent chance of no change from the normal color and an 80% chance of change to black produce a garment that is highly likely to be nearly black. Such changes are unwise. Although alteration may enhance concealment, the goal of randomization is not to change the pattern so much as to sacrifice essential function, but subtle change that preserves essential function while introducing potentially valuable variability.
The method then moves to step 106 where the countercoloring of the camouflage system 22 is determined. The preferred coloration of the camouflage system is most preferably within the colors used by the a lion (e.g., yellow) to a tiger (e.g., rusty brown or orange). These base colors are utilized for the camouflage system 22. Next, in step 108, disruptive coloration is determined for the camouflage system 22. As discussed above, any form of disruptive coloration may be employed. However, in the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the disruptive coloration of the leopard and/or the cougar is utilized.
The method then moves to step 110 where the collective determination of countershading, countercoloration and disruptive coloration found in steps 100-108 are statistically or probabilistically varied. A computer (not shown) may be utilized to randomize the camouflage. As discussed above, statistical or probabilistic alteration need only specify six variables: the nature of the randomization, the size of the area subject to alteration, the probability of alteration of an area from its normal color, the color(s) that an altered area may acquire, the probability of the altered area assuming each of the colors that can be acquired in alteration, and the shape of the area the alteration will assume. These variables are assigned a value and inputted within the computer. The computer then randomizes, through a randomization system well known in the art of computing systems, the variables as desired.
Next, in step 112, the randomized collective determination of countershading, countercoloration, and disruptive coloration found in steps 100-108 are applied to the garments used in the camouflage system 22 by applying as an indicia upon the garments of the camouflage system. Preferably, the determined pattern is applied on conventionally dyed cloth. Once a prototype pattern is created, this resulting pattern is utilized as a blueprint for manufacturing a true CCD garment from conventionally manufactured dyed cloth.
Although present technology prefers the use of negatives from photographs, any imagery process may be utilized which can capture countershading of the human form. In addition, several variations of the camouflage system 22 may be utilized. For example, in order to comply with “Hunter Orange” laws which call for the use of the color orange for safety reasons, countercoloring and countershading in “Hunter Orange” may be used. In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, where cultures and/or laws prohibit the use of traditional camouflage, the camouflage system may use minimal disruptive coloration, such as a mountain lion.
Alternatively, the same methodology discussed above may be implemented by an artist utilizing an airbrush on a white garment to produce prototypes. The prototypes may then be disassembled by opening all seams and the resulting pieces. The resulting pattern of pieces may then be utilized as a blueprint for manufacturing a garment from conventionally manufactured dyed cloth with minimal waste and complications.
In addition, although the human form and camouflage garments are discussed above, it should be understood that the methodology may be applied to any object, such as a vehicle or equipment.
In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, CCD may be employed in conventional camouflage or clothing. Traditional camouflage patterns depict with varying degrees of detail and fidelity objects of the environment in which concealment is sought. Even though this theory is mistaken, it is nonetheless so strongly fixed in the mind of consumers of camouflage garments that it may not be easily overcome. Thus, it may be desirable to produce true CCD patterns that employ elements of traditional camouflage patterns. In this alternate embodiment, elements of the environment of a specified color are simply combined to compose CCD camouflage patterns. For example, on one embodiment, the base color/tint of true CCD camouflage (areas not typically strongly lighted or shaded on the side of the body) is composed simply by laying out a pattern of appropriately colored pale yellow/brown leaves. The darker elements of CCD camouflage (areas typically strongly lighted) are similarly composed of leaves of appropriately darker colors, while the paler areas of CCD camouflage (areas typically shaded) are composed of elements of the environment that are appropriately light in color, such as leaves, stones, bark (e.g., white birch or aspen) or even dead timber that has been bleached white by the sun. Finally, dark disruptive coloration may be added in the form of shadows (e.g., leaves or even shadows on the bottom of leaves already depicted in the pattern).
Cosmetic shading and countershading may also be employed for fashion or enhancing the appearance of an individual. Shading and countershading may also be employed for use on ordinary garments to enhance the wearer's appearance. Subtle changes in garment color may make a person look thinner, or more or less shapely. Waists may be visually minimized, bosoms visually enhanced or reduced. For example, subtly darkening the fabric below the bosom may enhance the visual appearance of the bosom and gives the impression of a fuller bosom without transparently attempting to do so. Similarly, subtly lightening the material under the bosom may give the impression of a smaller bosom.
In another alternate embodiment, protective coloration may be utilized in various instances to confuse or degrade the ability to not only detect but also precisely locate a person or object. True camouflage conceals the very presence of a camouflaged object. However, in some situations, such as fighting at close quarters in urban environments, such concealment is very difficult. For such situations, it may be desirable to abandon concealment as a goal, and embrace alternative forms of protective coloration that do not conceal, but rather, delay, confuse, or degrade an enemy's ability to precisely locate the object or person. In the natural world, for example, zebras bear a pattern evolved primarily to degrade the effectiveness of attacking predators rather than to escape detection by predators. Consequently, various patterns employing shading, countershading, and other visual illusions may be developed not to conceal or camouflage in close quarter battle, but to visually confuse an enemy and thereby delay the launching of attacks, while also degrading the effectiveness of attacks that are actually launched. Protective coloration that provides such benefits for urban close quarter battle may be a decisive advantage on the urban battlefield.
A range of visual illusions is potentially adaptable for protective coloration on the urban battlefield. Some of these patterns may also be suitable for all environments between the arctic and Antarctic. The simplest embodiment of these patterns is the ordinary, countershaded and countercolored pattern for human concealment, where the pattern of disruptive coloration has been replaced with a soft, irregular rectilinear grid roughly resembling the pattern of mortar in brickwork. In such a pattern, the countershading conceals the shape of the wearer. The countercoloring allows the garment to fade or “gray out” and remain unobtrusive in any environment. In addition, the brickwork pattern further breaks up the shape of the wearer while simultaneously suggesting the presence of nothing noteworthy or out of place. The brickwork pattern may then be adjusted or distorted to flatten the visual appearance of a soldier wearing such a pattern when seen from the front or back. This is accomplished on the curved sides of the body by allowing the horizontal elements of the brickwork pattern to diverge slightly, thereby countering distance induced convergence of parallel lines and allowing the interval between vertical elements to grow (to compensate for the visual compression produced by the curve of the body as seen from the front or back). In an urban environment, such a pattern may not permit a soldier or group of soldiers to entirely escape detection, but may certainly degrade an enemy's ability to quickly recognize and identify the soldier or group of soldiers so protected. Additionally, it is also likely to degrade an enemy's ability to precisely locate a soldier or group of soldiers that are so protected. All of this delays attack, and degrades the effectiveness of attacks that are ultimately launched. Such a pattern is also extremely likely to be highly adapted and highly functional for all non-urban, non-polar environments as well. For this it is important that the brickwork grid be soft (e.g., devoid of sharp, crisp, or well-defined edges of high contrast color or diffused) and of irregular color and clarity. Such a grid appears splotchy and irregular at all but the closest ranges and in all but the best light and thus, functions as ordinary disruptive coloration in all other circumstances.
In an alternate embodiment of the present invention, counterbanding may be employed to conceal an object. Counterbanding utilizes cryptic coloration of a cylinder or any basically cylindrical shape or form composed of such shapes such that the cylinders (are countershaded, with the countershading having a reduced directional bias or very low directional bias). Directional bias is the normal appearance of the shading when countering only light from above. Reduced bias creates the appearance of light from more than one direction. The result is that the basic cylindrical shape of an object so colored is confused and recognized only with great difficulty. Though somewhat difficult to visualize, the mechanics of producing such patterns are straightforward. A cylinder may be countershaded by visualizing the following. A cylinder is laid on its side. The cylinder is cut into a plurality of discs. Each disc is rotated by the number of degrees equal to 360 divided by the number of discs. The result is a cylinder that looks oddly chainlike from any angle of observation. This process may be extended indefinitely by then overlapping such patterns at various angles, where each pattern contributes equally to the composite image. For example, a 90-degree change of orientation of one pattern produces a grid of squares with even less directional bias than the original banded pattern. In all cases, the result is a pattern that confuses the shape and orientation of objects that are composed of cylindrical shapes.
The simple pattern depicted in
It should be noted that this illusion is most effective when executed neither too finely or too coarsely. The proper disc thickness is intimately linked with cylinder height. If there are not enough or too many discs per unit height, much of the counterbanding effect is lost. However, it should be noted that if a finer pattern is warranted, this pattern too is subject to ordinary pixilation, where the discrete color of the pixel merely assumes the average value of the area occupied by the pixel. Thus, the counterbanding effect may be achieved though the proper construction of patterns of any pixel size and the counterbanding effect may be embedded to function at different scales or different distances of observation. Such procedures produce a pattern within a pattern, and can be combined with other garment features, in whole or in part, including especially countershading, countercoloring and disruptive coloration.
The present invention provides many advantages over existing camouflage garments. The present invention statistically employs the principles of CCD to created garments which provide the most effective camouflage and enhance human concealment. Additionally, the principles of CCD may be utilized in urban settings where concealment is difficult and confusion and delay in acquisition of the protected person or object is desired. Additionally, the present invention may be used by employing CCD to enhance the aesthetics of a human body. The present invention also may be utilized to employ the concept of counterbanding to objects in order to conceal the object.
It is thus believed that the operation and construction of the present invention will be apparent from the foregoing description. While the method and system shown and described have been characterized as being preferred, it will be readily apparent that various changes and modifications could be made therein without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.