BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to polymer nanoparticles, methods for their preparation, and their use as, for example, templates for the formation of nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals and nanocomposites.
Nanoparticles have attracted increased attention over the past several years in a variety of fields including catalysis, combinatorial chemistry, protein supports, magnets, and photonic crystals. Nano-scale metal composites have also been used advantageously in a variety of fields including, but not limited to, information technology, medicine and health, material and manufacturing, aeronautics and space exploration, environmental, energy fields, and snow/wet traction improvement for tire rubbers. Formation of nano-scale metal composites has often proven difficult due to the expense and difficulty of creating known templates, as well as the often difficult step of separating the composites from the template.
- SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Accordingly, it would be desirable to develop polymer nano-micelle particles with desirable core and surface characteristics and size. It would also be desirable to develop a process for using these nanoparticles as templates to produce nano-scale metal composites and nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals in pure form.
In one embodiment of the present invention, a method for forming a polymer nano-micelle particle is provided. The method includes forming a copolymer comprising alkenyl monomer units and maleimide monomer units in a dry state, placing the copolymer into a non-polar solvent, and allowing the copolymer chains to form micelles.
In another embodiment, a method for forming metal nanocomposites is provided. The method includes forming a copolymer comprising alkenyl monomer units and alkyl maleimide monomer units in a dry state, placing the copolymer into a non-polar solvent and allowing the copolymer chains to form micelles. At least one metal in solution is added to the solvent containing micelles, thereby allowing the metal to complex with the copolymer chains in the desired concentrations, forming the metal nanocomposites.
A third embodiment, the present invention provides a method comprised of dissolving the polymer particles in a suitable solvent, thereby obtaining nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals in pure form, and regenerating the polymer.
The following definitions apply herein throughout unless a contrary intention is expressly indicated:
“vinyl aromatic hydrocarbon” and “alkenyl benzene” are used interchangeably;
“maleic anhydride” encompasses dicarboxylic acids, including maleic anhydride that can form a copolymer with an alkenyl benzene, an R1R2ethylene, or an alkyl vinyl ether, the copolymer having dicarboxylic acid units capable of reaction with an amine functional group;
“maleimide” encompasses the reaction product of an amine and the dicarboxylic acids described above;
ethylene” encompasses compounds of the general formula:
are the same or different substituents on the same or different carbon atoms of the ethylene group, and are independently H or substituted C1
alkyl groups; and
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide) includes, for example, poly(alkenylbenzene-co-maleimide), poly(R1R2ethylene-co-maleimide), and poly(alkyl vinyl ether-co-maleimide).
FIG. 1 is a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photograph of metal nanocomposites formed in accordance with EXAMPLE 6.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 2 is a TEM photograph of metal nanocomposites formed in accordance with EXAMPLE 7.
General Nanoparticle Process of Formation
One exemplary polymer nanoparticle of the present invention is formed from polymer chains. Preferred polymers include alkylmaleimides. The copolymers are preferably poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide)s and may optionally be crosslinked to form the desired polymer nanoparticles. The polymer nanoparticles have diameters—expressed as a mean average diameter—that are preferably less than about 100 nm, more preferably less than about 75 nm, and most preferably less than about 50 nm. The polymer nanoparticles preferably are substantially monodisperse and uniform in shape. The dispersity is represented by the ratio of Mw to Mn, with a ratio of 1 being substantially monodisperse. The polymer nanoparticles of the present invention preferably have a dispersity less than about 2.5, more preferably less than about 2.2, and most preferably less than about 1.8. Moreover, the polymer nanoparticles are preferably spherical, though shape defects are acceptable. The formation of polymer nanoparticles is preferably reversible. The reversible process can be achieved by, for example, changing solvent, varying temperature, or altering pH value etc.
The poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide)s contain alkenyl contributed monomer units chosen from vinyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon, R1R2ethylene, and/or alkyl vinyl ether. The copolymer further includes maleimide contributed monomer units.
Poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide)s and poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride)s encompass random and stereospecific copolymers, including copolymers having a backbone with alternating alkenyl-contributed units (i.e., monomer units derived from an alkenyl group such as styrene) and maleimide- or maleic anhydride-contributed units (i.e., monomer units derived from a maleimide or a maleic anhydride). Such alternating structures typically are described as poly(alkenyl-alt-maleimide)s and poly(alkenyl-at-maleic anhydride)s; however, these polymers are encompassed within the terms poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide)s and poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride)s. Exemplary copolymers include copolymers with a ratio of about 50% alkenyl contributed monomer units and about 50% maleimide contributed monomer units. However, copolymers with at least about 20% alkenyl contributed monomer units are also contemplated for use.
Preferred vinyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon contributed monomer units of a poly(alkenylbenzene-co-maleimide) are preferably derived from one or more of styrene, α-methylstyrene, 1-vinyl-naphthalene, 2-vinyl-naphthalene, 1-α-methyl vinyl naphthalene, 2-α-methyl naphthalene, as well as alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, alkaryl, and aralkyl derivatives thereof, in which the total number of carbon atoms in the combined hydrocarbon is generally not greater than 18, as well as any di-or tri-vinyl aromatic hydrocarbons. Preferred vinyl aromatic hydrocarbons include styrene and/or α-methyl styrene.
Preferred R1 and R2 groups of R1R2ethylene contributed monomer units and the alkyl groups of said alkyl vinyl ether contributed monomer units are independently selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, pentyl, isopentyl, hexyl, heptyl, octyl, nonyl, decyl, undecyl, dodecyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, pentadecyl, hexadecyl, heptadecyl, octadecyl, nonadecyl, eicosyl, cyclopropyl, 2,2-dimethylcyclopropyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl, methoxymethyl, methoxyethyl, methoxypropyl, methoxybutyl, methoxypentyl, methoxyhexyl, methoxyoctyl, methoxynonyl, ethoxydecyl, ethoxymethyl, ethoxyethyl, ethoxypropyl, ethoxybutyl, ethoxypentyl, ethoxyhexyl, ethoxyheptyl, ethoxyoctyl, ethoxynonyl, ethoxydecyl, propoxymethyl, propoxyethyl, propoxypropyl, propoxybutyl, propoxypentyl, propoxyheptyl, propoxyoctyl, propoxynonyl, propoxydecyl, butoxymethyl, butoxyethyl, butoxypropoyl, butoxybutyl, butoxypentyl, butoxyhexyl, butoxyheptyl, butoxyoctyl, butoxynonyl, butoxydecyl, pentyloxymethyl, pentyloxyethyl, pentyloxypropyl, pentyloxybutyl, pentyloxypentyl, pentyloxyhexyl, pentyloxyoctyl, pentyloxynonyl, pentyloxydecyl, hexyloxymethyl, hexyloxyethyl, hexyloxypropyl, hexyloxybutyl, hexyloxypentyl, hexyloxyhexyl, hexyloxyheptyl, hexyloxyoctyl, hexyloxynonyl, hexyloxydecyl, heptyloxymethyl, heptyloxyethyl, heptyloxypropyl, heptyloxybutyl, hexyloxypentyl, heptyloxyhexyl, heptyloxyheptyl, heptyloxyoctyl, heptyloxynonyl, heptyloxydecyl, octyloxymethyl, octyloxyethyl, octyloxypropyl, octyloxybutyl, octyloxypentyl, octyloxyhexyl, octyloxyheptyl, octyloxyoctyl, octyloxynonyl, decyloxymethyl, decyloxyethyl, decyloxypropyl, decyloxybutyl, decyloxypentyl, decyloxyhexyl, decyloxyheptyl, 1-methylethyl, 1-methylpropyl, 1-methylbutyl, 1-methylpentyl, 1-methylhexyl, 1-methylheptyl, 1-methyloctyl, 1-methylnonyl, 1-methyldecyl, 2-methylpropyl, 2-methylbutyl, 2-bethylpentyl, 2-methylhexyl, 2-methylheptyl, 2-methyloctyl, 2,3,3-trimethylbutyl, 3-methylpentyl, 2,3-dimethylpentyl, 2,4-dimethylpentyl, 2,3,3,4-tetramethylpentyl, 3-methylhexyl, or 2,5-dimethylhexyl.
Preferred R1R2ethylene contributed monomer units of the poly(R1R2ethylene-co-maleimide) include alkenes such as ethylene, propylene, butylene, isobutylene, pentene, hexene, heptene, etc., as well as any di- or tri-alkene, or mixtures thereof, with preference given to isobutylene.
Preferred alkyl vinyl ether contributed monomer units of the poly(alkyl vinyl ether-co-maleimide) include any alkyl vinyl ether such as methyl vinyl ether, ethyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, butyl vinyl ether, and any other alkyl vinyl ether wherein the number of carbons in the alkyl substituent is not greater than about 30, and mixtures thereof. A preferred alkyl vinyl ether is methyl vinyl ether.
The poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide) can be formed by reacting a poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride) in the presence of ammonia or amines at temperatures from about 100° C. to about 300° C. and at a pressure from about slightly above vacuum to about 2000 kPa, under substantially dry conditions. Alternatively, the poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride) may be mixed with a primary amine. The poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride) may be prepared by any means known in the art for forming copolymers. Free radical polymerization is preferred, but other means are contemplated. The individual monomer units may be distributed in any of a random or alternating arrangement along the polymer backbone. Furthermore, the backbone may be linear or branched. The poly(alkeneyl-co-maleic anhydride) and ammonia or amines are preferably dry mixed in the absence of solvents in a suitable mixing apparatus such as a Brabender mixer. Purging the mixer with N2 prior to charging of the reactants can be beneficial. The amines or ammonia may be added in a single charge, or in sequential partial charges into the reactor containing a charge of poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride). Preferably, the amine or ammonia is charged in a ratio of between about 0.8 to 1.0 moles of nitrogen (in the primary amine or ammonia) per monomer contributed units of maleic anhydride in the poly(alkenyl-co-maleic anhydride).
Suitable primary amines include but are not limited to alkyl amines; alkyl benzyl amines; alkyl phenyl amines; alkoxybenzyl amines; allyl aminobenzoates; alkoxy aniline; and other linear primary amines containing from 1 to about 50 carbon atoms, preferably about 6 to about 30 carbon atoms in the alkyl and alkoxy substituents in these primary amines. The alkyl and alkoxy substituents of the primary amines can be linear or branched, preferably linear, and saturated or unsaturated, preferably saturated. Exemplary amines include hexylamine, octylamine, and dodecylamine. Ammonia is the most preferred nitrogen source due to the improved solubility of the resulting product in the electrolyte solutions. The poly(alkenyl-co-maleimide) preferably has a weight-average molecular weight (MW) between about 10,000 and 500,000, more typically between about 150,000 and 450,000.
After formation of the copolymers, they are dispersed in a non-polar solvent, such as a hydrocarbon solvent, leading to the formation of a micellar solution. Suitable solvents include aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane, decane, and the like, as well as alicyclic hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane, methyl cyclopentane, cyclooctane, cyclopentane, cycloheptane, cyclononane, cyclodecane and the like. These hydrocarbons may be used individually or in combination.
With respect to the monomers and solvents identified herein, nano-sized micelle particles are formed by maintaining a temperature that is favorable to micelle formation in the selected solvent(s). More particularly, by maintaining suitable conditions, the nanoparticles will begin to form in the shape of micelles wherein the polar constituents of the copolymer chains, e.g., maleimide, preferentially form the center of the micelle and the non-polar constituents of the copolymer chains, e.g., the alkyl side chains radiate, outwardly therefrom. Exemplary temperatures for the polymers discussed herein are in the range of about −40 to 250° C., with a temperature in the range of about 0 to 150° C. being particularly preferred. As demonstrated in more detail below, the interaction of copolymer selection, temperature, and solvent facilitates the formation of the micelles and ultimately the desired nanoparticles.
Metal Nanocomposite Formation
Nano-sized micelle particles produced in accordance with the present invention may be advantageously utilized as templates in the formation of nano-sized metal nanocomposites and metal/inorganic crystals. The formation of metal nanocomposites is preferably carried out by exposing the nanoparticles to metal ions, preferably metal ions in solution. The metal ion is then complexed with imine groups located inside the nanoparticle. Nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals are formed by introducing a suitable agent, e.g. H2S, CO3 2− and etc., which may react with the metal ions to form crystals within the micelle particles. Advantageously, the condensed nature of the nanoparticles may restrict the growth of the metal nanocomposites, thus providing size control of the metal nanocomposites into nano-scales.
Metals contemplated for use in the present invention include those known in the art as useful in semiconductors, catalysts, magnetic and quantum dots etc., including but not limited to Cu, Ti, Fe, Cd, Ni, Pd, and mixtures thereof. The formation of the metal nanocomposites is preferably carried out at a temperature of between about 0 and 100° C., more preferably between about 0 and 50° C. Preferred solvents useful in the formation include toluene, tetrahydrofuran (“THF”), water, alcohol, and mixtures thereof.
Separation of the metal nano-composites from the nanocomposites is achieved by performing a solvent change. For example, a solvent in which the polymer chains within the nanoparticles are soluble may be utilized. Such a solvent would induce swelling, and possibly dissolving, of the nanoparticles, thus allowing separation of the nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals from the nanoparticles. Preferred solvents for the separation step include THF, HCCl3, CCl4, toluene, and mixtures thereof.
Nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals produced in accordance with the present invention preferably have a mean average diameter less than about 50 nm, more preferably less than about 20 nm, and most preferably less than about 10 nm.
Of course, the present inventive nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals are suited to applications including the medical field, e.g. drug delivery and blood applications, information technology, e.g. quantum computers and dots, aeronautical and space research, energy, e.g., oil refining and lubricants, and tire applications such as snow/wet traction improvements.
Preparation of Alkylmaleimide Copolymers
The following examples are provided to help illustrate the present invention. The examples are not provided to limit the scope of the invention defined by the appended claims.
- Example 2
A N2 purged Brabender mixer (˜310 g capacity) equipped with Banbury blades was set to 10 rpm and 30° C. The mixer was then charged with 120 g of poly(maleimide-alt-isobutylene) (Kuraray, commercial name IM-10, Mn=350 K) and 99.4 g of octyl amine (Aldrich, 99% purity). The mixture was agitated in the mixer for 10 minutes and then heated up at a rate about 10° C./min to 210° C. Once the temperature reached 125° C., agitation was stopped. After reaching a temperature of 210° C., the heating element was set to the isothermal condition. The agitation was then started and increased from 0 to 90 rpm at a rate of 10 rpm/min. Once the agitation speed reached 90 rpm, the temperature was set to 190° C. The mixing was continued isothermally for an additional 90 minutes, the heating element was then turned off and the polymer was allowed to cool down at a rate ˜4° C./min. The final product was removed from the mixer at 160° C.
- Example 3
The experiment and the procedure of example 1 were repeated, except for a minor change of the chemicals used. The mixer was charged with 100 g of poly(maleimide-alt-isobutylene) (Kuraray, commercial name IM-10, Mn=350 K) and 118.8 g of dodecyl amine (Aldrich, 95% purity).
A nitrogen purged Brabender mixer (˜310 g capacity) equipped with Banbury blades was set to 20 rpm and 60° C. The mixer was charged with 85 g of poly(maleimide-alt-isobutylene) (Kuraray, commercial name IM-10, Mn=350 K) and 146.8 g of octadecyl amine (Aldrich, 99% purity). The mixture was agitated in the mixer for 10 minutes and then heated up at a rate about 10° C./min to 200° C. Once the temperature reached 135° C., agitation was stopped. When the temperature reached 200° C., the heating element was set to the isothermal condition. The agitation was then started and increased from 0 to 120 rpm at a rate of 10 rpm/min. The mixing was continued isothermally for additional 160 minutes, the heating element was then turned off and the polymer was allowed to cool down at a rate ˜4° C./min. The final product was removed from the mixer at 160° C.
- Example 4
IR characteristic absorption peaks are 1701, 1770, 2855, 2926 cm−1
. No trace of maleic anhydride absorption peaks (i.e., at 1779 and 1855 cm−1
) and amino-group peaks (i.e., at 3330) were detected for these copolymers. The molecular weights of these products were measured by GPC in THF solution, using polystyrene as the standard. The results are listed below:
| || |
| || |
| ||Ex. 1 ||Ex. 2 ||Ex. 3 |
| || |
| ||Molecular weight, Mn ||116k ||98k ||121 |
| ||Polydispersity Mw/Mn ||1.76 ||2.16 ||2.07 |
| ||Intrinsic Viscosity in THF, ||0.75 ||0.72 ||0.75 |
| ||20° C. |
| || |
Use of Alkylmaleimide Copolymers for Nano-Tech
Two 40 mL bottles were charged with materials as described below. The bottles were named as bottles A and B, respectively. The material inside those bottles was named accordingly as material A and B.
A) 0.2009 g of the products from example 3 were added into 10.056 g dodecane solvent. After being stirred overnight, the alkylmaleimide copolymer was dissolved. The solution was highly translucent and colorless. The solution was then further diluted with addition additional 10.2 g of dodecane. The concentration of the solution was about 1%.
B) 0.5 g of CuAc2 was added into a 15 g of THF. After vigorous stirring for half hour, the CuAc2 was dissolved. The solution was highly translucent to light and was dark blue in color.
- Example 5
The material in bottle A was then charged with 1.0 mL of solution from bottle B. The resulting solution was light blue. Half of the solution was placed in a vacuum oven at 100° C. Further drying of the product under vacuum yielded a polymer-Cu complex film. The film was dark blue, but transparent to light, indicating that the size of Cu++ clusters in the film was in the nano-meter range.
- Example 6
H2S gas was bubbled through the remaining solution in bottle A to fully convert the Cu++ ions to CuS. The solution was then purged with N2 to remove the excess of H2S. The resulting solution is dark colored, with no macroscopic precipitation of CuS from solution. This indicated that the CuS formed are nano-sized and remain within the nanoparticle. (If taking a pure dodecane solvent and then charging with the same amount of Cu++/THF solution, one would find that there was a macroscopic precipitation of CuS from the solution once bubbling H2S through the solution.) Finally, the CuS/polymer solution was placed in a vacuum oven at 100° C. Further drying of the product under vacuum yielded a polymer/nano-sized CuS composite. The material was black, but highly translucent to light.
- Example 7
About 1 mL of the CuS/polymer solution, prepared according to example 5, was further diluted to 50 times with hexane solvent. A drop of the diluted solution was then coated on a graphed copper micro-grid. After the solvent was evaporated, the screen was examined by TEM (FIG. 1). The result demonstrates that the sizes of the particles are of nano-scales (the scale is 60 nm). The size of the CuS particles was about 5 to 10 nm in diameter.
About 1 mL of the CuS/polymer solution, prepared according to example 5, was further diluted to 50 times with THF solvent. THF is known as a good solvent for alkylmaleimide copolymers. Once THF was added, the CuS nano-crystals aggregated and precipitated. After filtrated, a small amount of the CuS was re-dispersed into THF by ultrasound. A drop of the diluted solution was then coated on a graphed copper micro-grid. After the solvent was evaporated, the screen was examined by TEM (FIG. 2). The result demonstrates that using THF solvent in fact dissolves the polymer molecules surround the particle, and the resulting particles aggregate to sub-micrometers (the scale is 100 nm). This phenomenon is very important since it allows separation of the nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals from the alkylmaleimide copolymer nano-micelles and the solvent by using simple centrifuge or filtration. The polymer and the solvent can then be recycled or reused again. After separation the aggregated nano-sized metal/inorganic crystals can be re-dispersed into dodecane solvent via addition of the copolymer.
The invention has been described with reference to the exemplary embodiments. Modifications and alterations will occur to others upon reading and understanding the specification. The invention is intended to include such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the disclosure and claims.