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Publication numberUS2005048 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 18, 1935
Filing dateDec 16, 1932
Priority dateDec 16, 1932
Publication numberUS 2005048 A, US 2005048A, US-A-2005048, US2005048 A, US2005048A
InventorsRandall Martin H
Original AssigneeUnited Shoe Machinery Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shoe and the manufacture thereof
US 2005048 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

June 18, 1935. M H, RANDA L 2,005,048

SHOE AND THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF Filed Dec. 16, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet l Tigl.

' FigfZ.

'miiimim;mil/WWO June 18, 1935. M. H. RANDALL 2,005,048

' SHOE AND THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF Filed Dec. 16, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented June 18, 1935 PATENT OFFICE SHOE AND THE MANUFACTURE THEREOF Martin H. Randal Beach Bluil, Mass., assignor to United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Paterson, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey Application December 16, 1932, Serial No. 647,607

21 Claims. (Cl. 12-142) This invention relates to improvements in shoes and in the manufacture thereof and is illustrated ing wire brush or an abrasive wheel, subjects the shoe upper to a considerable amount of abrasive action which tends not only to weaken the leather of the shoe upper but often causes serious damage to the upper by tearing the marginal portion thereof.

It is, accordingly, an object of the present invention to reinforce the marginal portions of a shoe upper from about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe.

As illustrated herein, this is accomplished by cutting the marginal portion of one layer of a multi-ply shoe upper (this portion being com- .monly referred to as the lasting allowance" of the upper) fuller than normal by an amount substantially equal to the width of the normal lasting allowance of the upper, and then turning this excess material back upon such lasting allowance and cementing it thereto. The other layers of the multi-ply upper are cut in accordance with the usual upper pattern and the parts are stitched together in th'eusual manner to form the complete shoe upper. The upper is thenassembled with an insole on a last and the marginal portion thereof is secured in lasted relation to the insole. The portions of the lasting allowance of the upper which have been cut fuller than normal preferably should extend from about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe. As illustrated, these .portions will be approximately or inches wide, this width being substantially equal to the width of the normal lasting allowance of the upper. Prior to cementing the wide portions of the upper to. the overlasted marginal portion thereof, this overlasted portion, if it is of leather with the grain surface exposed, should be roughened lightly forwardly of the heel breast line of the shoe. A coating of cement is now applied to the overlasted marginal portions of the upper at each side of the shoe from substantially the tip 55 line to the heel breast line and the excess material is turned back and pressed firmly against the lasting allowance of the upper until the cement has set, thereby reinforcing the marginal portions of the shoe upper. I

The reinforcing of the shoe upper, by the 5 method herein disclosed, provides an extra thickness of material along the overlasted marginal portions of the upper from about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe, this reinforcing material being integral with one of the layers of 10 the upper and being permanently securedto the overlasted portions of the upper. This not only strengthens the lasting allowance of the upper from about the tip line to the heel breast line but in many instances it also provides exposed 15 surfaces at each side of the shoe which in their normal conditions are well adapted to receive the cement by which the sole is to be attached to the shoe. If the reinforcing material is of leather with the flesh side out (for exampleif of suede) or if it consists of fabric material, no roughening operation will be necessary along the reinforced portions of the upper in order to obtain areliable cement bond between the outsole and the shoe bottom. 2

With the above and other objects in view the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings and pointed out in the appended claims. v

In the drawings, 30

Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation of a multi-ply shoe upper the marginal portion of the outer layer of which has been cut fuller than normal substantially from the tip line to the heel breast line;

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the shoe upper shown in Fig. 1 after it has been secured in lasted relation to aninsole on a last, and the marginal portions of the upper, forwardly of the heel breast line, have been roughened; Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the shoe after the .excess material at the marginal portions of the upper has been turned back and cemented flat against the overlasted marginal portions of the upper; I

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the shoe after the outsole has been attached thereto;

Fig. 5 is a transverse sectional view of a portion of the shoe after the outsole has been attached thereto;

Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a multi-ply upper the lining of which has been cut fuller than normal from about the tip line to the heel breast line, the lining being formed partly of fabric material and partly of leather;

Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a shoe showing the upper of Fig. 6 secured in lasted relation to an insole on a last, the overlasted marginal portions of the upper, forwardly of the heelbreast line, being roughened;

Fig. 8 is a perspective view similar to Fig. 7, showing the shoe bottom after the excess material of the lining has been turned back and cemented flat against the overlasted marginal portions of the upper, and the bottom filler and a shank piece have been applied;

Fig. 9 isa transverse sectional view of a portion of the shoe after the outsole has been cement attached thereto, the shoe upper having been side lasted by means of cement instead of staples as shown in Fig. 7 and 1 Fig. 10 is a transverse sectional view of a portion of a shoe in which the doubler instead of the lining of the upper has been used to reinforce the overlasted marginal portions of the upper.

In the manufacture of shoes in accordance with the present invention a shoe upper l0, comprising an outer layer I2, a doubler H, and a lining I 6, is prepared in the usual manner by cutting the parts from suitable materials, assembling the parts, and stitching them together to form a multi-ply upper. The outer layer 12 of the upper is preferably composed of leather or a substitute therefor and the doubler I4 is composed of fabric material such, for example, as cotton flannel;

The lining l6 of the upper may be made entirely of one material such as fabric, or the forepart or vamp lining may be made of fabric and the quarter lining of leather, such as sheep-skin. The present invention contemplates the use of either type of lining since the steps of the method herein disclosed can be performed with substantially equal facility whether the lining is formed entirely of fabric or partly of fabric and partly of leather.

In cutting the various parts of the multi-ply upper 10 in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, the outer layer l2 of the upper is cut fuller than a normal upper by a width substantially equal to the width of the lasting allowance" of the upper, that is, thatportion of the upper which is secured in lasted relation to the insole after the upper and insole have been assembled on a last, this lasting allowance normally being about /2 or of an inch in width. The portions of the upper III which are cut fuller than normal extend at each side of the upperfrom about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe, as indicated at IS in Fig. 1, and, as stated; their width is substantially equal to the width of the normal lasting allowance of the upper which is about or of an inch. Fig. 1 illustrates the multi-ply upper leather layer I 2 of which hasbeen cut fuller than normal at the marginal portions in the manner described.

After the upper materials have been cut and assembled to form the multi-plyupper 10, the upper and an insole I8 are assembled'on a last 20 and'the shoe is pulled over and lasted in any usual or suitable manner. Fig. 2 illustrates the upper in secured in lasted relation to the insole l8, the sides'of the shoe having been lasted by meansof staples, indicated at 22, which are anchored in the material of the insole without passing completely therethrough. The shoe may be conveniently side lasted in this fashion with the aid, for example, of the staple side lasting machine shown in Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,815,297, granted July 21, 1931,

heel breast line.

In the outeran application filed in the name of George Goddu. The toe end of the shoe may be secured in lasted relation to the insole by means of cement with the aid, for example, of a bed lasting machine which utilizes the toe plate or binder disclosed in Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,894,678 granted January 17, 1933, on an application filed in the name of Joseph Fausse. The heel end of the shoe, as illustrated, may be lasted by means of driven fastenings,. indicated at 24 (Fig. 2). It should be understood, however, that the lasting of the upper to the insole may be done in other ways and by hand or with the aid of other machines if desired. For example, the upper may be lasted at the sides of the shoe by cement, as shown in Fig. 9, in which case the upper is temporarily secured in lasted position in any usual manner until the cement has set so that no staples or other securing means will extend through the overlasted marginal portions of the upper.

After the upper [0 has been secured in lasted relation to the insole l8 and last 20, the overlasted marginal portion of the outer layer l2 of the upper, forwardly of the heel breast line, should be roughened lightly to remove the finish from the grain side of the leather and thus provide a surface suitable for the reception of an adhesive, for example, pyroxylin cement. This roughening of the upper leather, which is usually performed by a rotating wire brush or an abrasive wheel, scrapes and scours the grain surface of the leather and removes the finish therefrom, thereby providing a good surface for the cement and insuring that a reliable cement bond will be obtained between the parts' which are to be ccmented together. As shown in Fig. 2,'the marginal portions [3 of the upper, which have been cut fuller than normal from substantially the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe and which extend beyond the overlasted marginal portions of the upper, are also roughened lightly to remove the finish from the grain sides thereof.

.Pyroxylin cement is now applied to the overlasted marginal portions of the upper at each side of the shoe from about the tip line to the After the cement has dried a softener is applied to activate the cement and the excess material I3 at each side of the shoe is turned back and pressed firmly against the cemented outer layer of the upper. It will be seen that the overlasted marginal portions of the shoe upper, from the tip line to the heel breast line,

are now reinforced by a layer of leather integral with the leather outer layer of the upper the flesh side of which is uppermost. Since the flesh side of the leather is rough enough to afford a good surface to receive the sole attaching cement, it will be clear that an upper roughening operation will not be necessary along the reinforced portions of the upper before the sole attaching cement is applied to the shoe bottom.

It has already been pointed out that the marginal portions of the outer layer of the upper l0 are cut fuller than normal by an amount substantially equal to the width of the normal lasting allowance of the upper; Consequently, after tom. However, in order to insure that no portions of the turned-back upper material will show at the crease between the upper and the outsole in the finished shoe, the edges of the reinforced lasting margin may be trimmed by the usual upper trimming operation. After the trimming operation has been performed, the bottom filler 26 and a shank piece 28 are applied in the usual way to prepare the shoe bottom for the attachment of the outsole. Fig. 3 shows a shoe after the marginal portion of the upper has been roughened forwardly of the heel breast line and reinforced from about the tip line to the heel breast line by cementing thereto the excess material of the outer leather layer I2 of the multi-ply shoe upper l0.

An outsole 30 (Fig. 4) is now prepared for cement attachment to the shoe, its marginal portion being reduced in thickness, if desired, particularly at the shank of the shoe, and then roughened, after which a band of pyroxylin cement is applied to the roughened portion. After the cement on the shoe bottom and outsole 30 has dried, it is activated on one or both of these parts, preferably on the sole, with a suitable softener, for example, a softener such as disclosed in Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,959,320, granted May 15, 1934, upon an application filed in the name of Walter H. Wedger.

the complete shoe upper.

leather, indicated at 4|.

The shoe and sole are then brought together in proper location and placed under pressure while the sole attaching cement is setting, this operation being performed, for example, by a cement sole attaching machine of the type disclosed in Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,897,105, granted February 14, 1933, upon an application filed in the name of Milton H. Ballard. Fig. 4 illustrates a shoe after the sole 3!! has been attached to the shoe bottom by cement in the manner described above.

Figs. 6 to 10, inclusive, illustrate different ways in which the present invention may be practiced. Referring to Fig. 6, a multi-ply upper 32 is prepared by cutting the partsfrom the proper materials in the manner already described and assembling and stitching them together to form In the present instance, the lining 36 is cut fuller than the leather outer layer 34 and the doubler 39 from substantially the heel breast line to the tip line of the shoe as indicated at 38. Asshown in Figs. 6 and 7, the extended portions 38 of the lining are formed partly of fabric material 40 and partly of The multi-ply upper 32 is now assembled with an insole 42 on a last 44 and the upper is pulled over and secured in lasted relation to the insole and last. As shown in Fig. '7, the upper 32 is side lasted by means of staples 45 in the manner already described, these staples extending only part way through the substance of the insole. The upper may, however, if desired, be side lasted by cement, as shown in Fig. 9, the upper being temporarily secured in lasted position in any usual manner until the cement has set so that no staples or other securing means will pass through the upper into the material of the insole. The toe portion of the shoe may be cement lasted and the heel end of the shoe may be lasted by metal fastenings, as described above.

against the overlasted marginal portions of the upper and is held in this position until the cement has set, thereby reinforcing the marginal portions of the upper. Since the quarter lining of the upper is made up of leather, such, for example, as sheep-skin, a portion of this reinforced lasting margin of the upper 32 will be composed of leather with the grain side out. A slight roughening operation should be performed on this portion of the lasting margin, therefore, to remove the finish from the grain surface of the leather 4| and provide a roughened surface suitable to receive the sole attaching cement. The bottom filler 46 and a shank piece 48 are now applied to the shoe bottom to prepare it for the attachment of the outsole. Fig. 8 illustrates the shoe at this stage .of the process and shows those marginal portions of the upper which are reinforced by the leather portion 4| of the lining roughened in the manner described An outsole 50 is prepared for attachment to the shoe bottom by roughening its marginal rtion and applying a band of pyroxylin ceme t to such portion, after which the sole is positioned on the shoe bottom and the sole attaching pressure is applied. Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view illustrating how the shoe will look in cross section after the outsole 50 has been attached to the shoe bottom by cement, the upper in Fig. 9 having been side lasted by cement so that no staples are shown for holding the upper in lasted relation to the insole 42.

It is also within the scope of the present invention to reinforce the overlasted marginal portions of the shoe upper 32 by utilizing the doubler 39 in place of either the leather outer layer 34 or the lining 36. In this case the marginal portions of the upper will be reinforced from about the tip line to the heel breast line with fabric because the doubler consists entirely of fabric material. After the excess material of the doubler 39 has been turned and cemented to the lasting allowance of the leather outer layer 34 of the upper is ready to receive the sole attaching cement without a roughening operation, since the coarse texture of the fabric material of the doubler will serve to anchor the cement and thus insure that a good cement bond will be obtained between the shoe bottom and the outsole. Fig. illustrates a shoe the upper 32 of which has been reinforced at the marginal portion by the excess material of the doubler 39. i

A multi-ply shoe upper prepared in accordance with the present invention will not only be substantially strengthened along its marginal portion so that it will be less apt to weaken and tear during subsequent operations on the shoe, but the lasting margin of the upper, at least from the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe, will present a surface the greater portion of which is rough and unfinished and therefore well adapted to receive the sole attaching cement without a roughening operation. When the lining is used to reinforce the upper and it is necessary to roughen the grain surfaces of the leather portions of the lining which have been turned back upon'the lasting allowance of theupper, the double thickness of the leather at the reinforced portions prevents any serious weakening of the lasting margin by the roughening operation. By reinforcing the shoe upper in the manner described, the upper roughening operation is either eliminated entirely or is confined to the toe portion of the shoe and to those por- 'of the upper 32, the overlasted marginal portion tions' of the margin of the upper which have been reinforced by the leather portions of the lining. Consequently, the disadvantages resulting from the upper roughening operation, such as weakening or tearing the marginal portion of the shoe upper, or roughening too much or too little at the shank portion of the shoe, are thus reduced to a minimum. I

While the reinforcement of the upper has been described herein as extending from about the heel breast line to the tip line at each side of the shoe it is to be understood that, under some conditions, the reinforcement may with advantage be confined to the forepart only, or to the shank portion only, of the upper and that such practice is within the scope of the invention claimed.

Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises making a shoe upper fuller than normal by a width substantially equal to the lasting allowance of the upper, assembling the shoe upper and an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and securing it thereto, and turning back the excess material and securing it by an adhesive to the lasting allowance of the upper, thereby reinforcing the marginal portion of the 7 upper.

2. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises making a shoe upper fuller than normal at least from the heel breast line to the tip line of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the lasting allowance of the upper, assembling the shoe upper and an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and securing it thereto, roughening the overlasted marginal portion of the upper andthe excess material forwardly of the heel breast line of the shoe, and turning back the excess material and securing it with cement against the lasting allowance of the upper, thereby'reinforcing the marginal portion of the upper.

3. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a shoe up- 'per fuller than normal at the sides of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the lasting allowance of the upper, stitching the upper and a lining together to form a complete upper, assembling the upper and an insole upon a last,

' working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and securing it in such relation, turning L back the excess material of the upper against the lasting allowance and cementing it thereto, thereby reinforcing the marginal portion of the shoe upper, and cement attaching an outsole to the shoe bottom without roughening the reinforced portion of said upper.

4. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a shoe upper of leather fuller than normal at the sides of the shoe by a width approximately equal to' the lasting allowance of the upper, stitching the upper and a lining together to form a multi-ply shoe upper with the grain surface of the leather out, assembling the upper and an insole upon a last, working the upper intolasted relation to the insole and last and securing it thereto, roughening the overlasted portion and the excess upper leather, turning the excess material back against the lasting allowance and cementing it thereto, thereby providing an exposed flesh surface of leather. and cement attaching-an outsole -to the shoe bottom without roughening said flesh surface.

5. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a shoe upper and a lining therefor with one of the layers fuller than the other by a width substantially equal to the lasting allowance of the upper, stitching the layers together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and securing it in such relation by driven fastenings and cement, turning the excess material of the fuller layer back upon the overlasted marginal portion of the upper and cementing it thereto, and cement attaching an outsole to the shoe bottom.

6. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a multiply shoe upper with one of the layers fuller than the other layers by a width substantially equal to the normal lasting allowance of the upper, the fuller portion extending from about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe, stitching the various layers together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and securing it in that relation to said insole and last, roughening the overlasted marginal portion of the upper, turning the excess material of the layer which was cut fuller than the other layers back upon the overlasted marginal portion of the other layers of the upper at the sides of the shoe and cementing it to the outer layer of the upper, and cement attaching an outsole'to the shoe bottom.

7. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises making a multiply shoe upper by cutting a leather outer layer, a doubler, and a lining, cutting the leather outer layer of the upper fuller than normal at the sides of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the width of the lasting allowance of the upper, securing the parts together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and securing it in that relation to said insole and last, and turning the excess material of the leather outer layer back against the overlasted marginal portion of the upper and cementing it thereto, thereby reinforcing the marginal portion of the upper.

8. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a shoe upper, cutting a lining for the upper fuller than a normal lining at the sides of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the width of the lasting al-' lowance of the upper, securing the parts together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole upon the last and securing it in such relation to said insole, and turning back the excess material of the lining against the overlasted marginal portion of the upper and cementing it there-- 9. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a shoe upper, cutting the lining therefor, said lining being cut fuller than the upper at the sides of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the width of the lasting allowance of the upper, assembling the two parts together with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and securing the marginal portion of the upper in lasted relation to the insole, roughening the overlasted marginal portion of the upper forwardly of the heel breast line of the shoe, turning back the excess material of the lining against the roughened marginal portion of the upper and securing it thereto by cement, and cement attaching an outsole to the shoe bottom.

10. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises making a multiply shoe upper by cutting a lining for the upper fuller at the sides of the shoe than the other layers of said upper by a width substantially equal to the width of the lasting allowance of the upper, securing the parts together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and-securing the marginal portion thereof forwardly of the heel breast line in lasted relation to the insole by cement, roughening the overlasted marginal portion of the upper, turning back the excess material of the lining against the overlasted marginal portion of the upper and cementing it thereto, and cement attaching an outsole to the shoe bottom without roughening the turned-back material.

11. That improvement in methods of manufacturing shoes which comprises cutting a leather shoe upper, a doubler, and a lining, with the doubler fuller than the other layers from about the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe by a width substantially equal to the normal lasting allowance of the upper, stitching the layers together and assembling them with an insole upon a last, working the upper into lasted relation to the insole and last and securing it in that relation to the insole and last, roughening the overlasted marginal portion ofthe leather layer of the upper forwardly of the heel breast line, turning back the excess material of the doubler upon the overlasted marginal portion of the upper at the sides of the shoe and cementing it thereto, and cement attaching an outsole to the shoe bottom.

12. A shoe having the overlasted marginal portion of its upper at thesides thereof reinforced by material integral therewith and turned back upon and cemented to the overlasted marginal portions of the upper at the sides of the shoe.

13. A shoe having a cement attached outsole, the overlasted marginal portion of the upper of the shoe being covered by material integral with the upper which is turned back upon and cemented to the overlasted marginal portions of the upper at the sides of the shoe, thereby reinforcing the upper.

14. A shoe having a multi-ply upper, one of the layers of the upper being turned back and cemented to the overlasted marginal portion of the upper, thereby reinforcing the marginal portion of the upper.

15. A shoe having the overlasted marginal por tion of its upper from. substantially the tip line to the heel breast line of the shoe reinforced by material integral with the upper and turned back and cemented to the overlasted marginal portion thereof, thereby providing a surface well adapted to receive sole attaching cement, and an outsole attached to the shoe bottom with said cement.

16. A shoe having a leather upper, the overlasted marginal portions of the upper at the sides of the shoe, at least between the tip line and the heel breast line, being reinforced by leather integral with the upper and turned back and cemented to said overlasted marginal portions thereof, thereby providing a. flesh surface upon which to apply cement, and an outsole cementattached to the shoe bottom.

1'7. A shoe having a. multi-ply upper comprising a leather outer layer, a doubler, and a lining, the outer layer of which is cut fuller than normal by an amount substantially equal to the width of the normal lasting allowance of the upper and turned back and cemented to the overlasted marginal portion of the upper, thereby reinforcing the upper, and an outsole attached to the shoe bottom by cement. 1

18. A shoe having the overlasted marginal portion of its upper reinforced by material integral with the lining of the shoe and turned back and cemented to the overlasted marginal portion of the upper, and an outsole cement attached to the shoe bottom.

19. A shoe having a multi-ply upper consisting of an outer layer, a doubler, and a lining, the overlasted marginal portions of. the upper at the sides of the shoe being reinforced by material integral with the doubler and turned back upon and ce= mented to the overlasted marginal portion of the upper. t

20. A shoe having an upper of leather with its grain surface out, the overlasted marginal por= tions of the upper at the sides of the shoe being reinforced substantially from the tip line to heel breast line by material integral with the leather of the upper and turned back against and cemented to the overlasted marginal portion of the upper.

Tm H. 9 .1

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6484420 *Sep 15, 2000Nov 26, 2002Danner, Inc.Footwear with integrated stitchdown/athletic bottom construction
US6757990Sep 10, 2002Jul 6, 2004Danner, Inc.Footwear with integrated stitchdown/athletic bottom construction
US6941682Apr 9, 2004Sep 13, 2005Danner, Inc.Footwear with integrated stitchdown/athletic bottom construction
US7197840Feb 25, 2005Apr 3, 2007Wolverine World Wide, Inc.Footwear and related method of manufacture
US7647709May 19, 2006Jan 19, 2010Danner, Inc.Footwear with a shank system
US7793427 *Dec 1, 2006Sep 14, 2010Wolverine World Wide, Inc.Platform footwear construction and related method
US8789292May 18, 2011Jul 29, 2014LaCrosse Footware, Inc.Footwear assemblies having reinforced insole portions and associated methods
Classifications
U.S. Classification36/19.5, 12/142.00F, 36/55, 36/46.5, 36/12, 12/145
International ClassificationA43D8/32, A43D8/00, A43B23/02
Cooperative ClassificationA43B23/02, A43D8/32
European ClassificationA43D8/32, A43B23/02