US 20060009132 A1
Conductive elements of a chemical mechanical polishing system may generate undesired eddy currents under the influence of a time-dependent magnetic field used in an eddy current monitoring system. To improve the accuracy of an eddy current monitoring system, elements that may contribute an undesired signal to the sensed eddy current signal may be fabricated from a non-conductive material such as plastic or ceramic. In some implementations, elements may be fabricated from non-magnetic materials.
1. A carrier head, comprising:
a substrate backing assembly having non-conductive rigid components, the substrate backing assembly to provide a mounting surface for a substrate to be polished.
2. The carrier head of
3. The carrier head of
4. The carrier head of
5. The carrier head of
6. The carrier head of
7. The carrier head of
8. The carrier head of
9. The carrier head of
10. The carrier head of
11. The carrier head of
12. The carrier head of
13. The carrier head of
14. A carrier head comprising:
a housing to be secured to a drive shaft, the housing including one or more housing elements;
a base assembly, the base assembly including one or more base elements, the one or more base elements including means for permitting the base assembly to move with respect to the housing; and
a flexible membrane secured to the base assembly, the flexible membrane having a lower surface that provides a substrate-mounting surface, and wherein the base elements having at least a portion within a minimum distance of the lower surface are non-conductive, and further wherein the housing elements having at least a portion within the minimum distance are non-conductive.
15. The carrier head of
16. The carrier head of
This application is a divisional application and claims the benefit of priority under 35 U.S.C. Section 120 of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/643,773, filed on Aug. 18, 2003, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/452,406, filed Mar. 4, 2003. The disclosure of each prior application is considered part of and is incorporated by reference in the disclosure of this application.
This invention relates to semiconductor manufacturing, and more particularly to endpoint detection.
An integrated circuit is typically formed on a substrate by the sequential deposition of conductive, semiconductive or insulative layers on a silicon wafer. One fabrication step involves depositing a filler layer over a non-planar surface, and planarizing the filler layer until the non-planar surface is exposed. For example, a conductive filler layer can be deposited on a patterned insulative layer to fill the trenches or holes in the insulative layer. The filler layer is then polished until the raised pattern of the insulative layer is exposed. After planarization, the portions of the conductive layer remaining between the raised pattern of the insulative layer form vias, plugs and lines that provide conductive paths between thin film circuits on the substrate. In addition, planarization is needed to planarize the substrate surface for photolithography.
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is one accepted method of planarization. This planarization method typically requires that the substrate be mounted on a carrier or polishing head. The exposed surface of the substrate is placed against a rotating polishing disk pad or belt pad. The polishing pad can be either a “standard” pad or a fixed-abrasive pad. A standard pad has a durable roughened surface, whereas a fixed-abrasive pad has abrasive particles held in a containment media. The carrier head provides a controllable load on the substrate to push it against the polishing pad. A polishing slurry, including at least one chemically-reactive agent, and abrasive particles if a standard pad is used, is supplied to the surface of the polishing pad.
One problem in CMP is determining whether the polishing process is complete, i.e., whether a substrate layer has been planarized to a desired flatness or thickness, or when a desired amount of material has been removed. Overpolishing (removing too much) of a conductive layer or film may lead to increased circuit resistance. On the other hand, underpolishing (removing too little) of a conductive layer may lead to electrical shorting. Variations in the initial thickness of the substrate layer, the slurry composition, the polishing pad condition, the relative speed between the polishing pad and the substrate, and the load on the substrate can cause variations in the material removal rate. These variations cause variations in the time needed to reach the polishing endpoint. Therefore, the polishing endpoint cannot be determined merely as a function of polishing time.
One way to determine the polishing endpoint is to remove the substrate from the polishing surface and examine it. For example, the substrate can be transferred to a metrology station where the thickness of a substrate layer is measured, e.g., with a profilometer or a resistivity measurement. If the desired specifications are not met, the substrate is reloaded into the CMP apparatus for further processing. This is a time-consuming procedure that reduces the throughput of the CMP apparatus. Alternatively, the examination might reveal that an excessive amount of material has been removed, rendering the substrate unusable.
More recently, in-situ monitoring of the substrate has been performed, e.g., with optical or capacitance sensors, in order to detect the polishing endpoint. Other proposed endpoint detection techniques have involved measurements of friction, motor current, slurry chemistry, acoustics and conductivity. One detection technique that has been considered is to induce an eddy current in the metal layer and measure the change in the eddy current as the metal layer is removed.
In general, in one aspect a carrier head may include a non-conductive substrate backing assembly, which may include a flexible membrane and one or more clamp rings. The carrier head may include a base assembly, where some components of the base assembly may be non-conductive. The carrier head may include a housing, which may include non-conductive elements. Portions of the carrier head within a sensing distance of the substrate mounting surface may be non-conductive. The sensing distance may be between about one tenth of an inch and about two inches, depending on a number of factors.
The non-conductive elements of the carrier head may also be non-magnetic. That is, they may have a relatively small magnetic permeability and a relatively large resistivity. In some implementations, some elements may be conductive but non-magnetic. For example, non-magnetic fasteners such as aluminum fasteners may be used rather than magnetic fasteners such as steel fasteners.
In general, in another aspect, a polishing system may include a polishing pad having a polishing surface, a carrier to hold a substrate against the polishing surface of the polishing pad, and an eddy current monitoring system including an induction coil positioned on a side of the polishing surface opposite the substrate. The induction coil may be to generate a magnetic field through the pad into a sensing region of the system. Components of the polishing system with at least a portion positioned within a sensing distance of the polishing pad in the sensing region may be non-conductive. The sensing distance may be a distance beyond which the eddy current signal from one or more conductive components of the system is not discernible over a noise signal. The sensing distance may be a distance beyond which the eddy current signal from the one or more conductive components of the system in the sensing region is about equal to or less than an error amount corresponding to an acceptable amount of sign inaccuracy.
The details of one or more implementations are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features and advantages will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
The current disclosure provides methods and apparatus for improving an eddy current sensing system by providing non-conductive and/or non-magnetic elements in regions where conductive or magnetic elements may affect the eddy current signal.
In a chemical mechanical polishing apparatus with an eddy current monitoring system, changes in a conductive layer on a wafer may be monitored by detecting an amplitude and/or a phase of a received signal. In some implementations, an amplitude signal may be more sensitive to changes in polishing pad thickness (e.g., due to pad wear or swelling) than a phase signal. Because of this effect, detecting a phase signal may provide a more accurate measure of changes in the conductive layer.
However, the phase signal may be more susceptible to the effect of eddy currents generated in regions outside the conductive region of interest. For example, the phase signal may be non-monotonic (i.e., two different conductive layer thicknesses may correspond to the same phase value) due to eddy currents generated in the chemical mechanical polishing system rather than in the conductive region on the wafer.
Therefore, in order to provide an eddy current sensing signal that more accurately reflects the thickness of one or more conductive regions on a wafer being polished, the current application describes a CMP apparatus where those portions of a CMP carrier head that may prevent a suitably accurate measurement of a conductive layer on a wafer are fabricated using non-conductive materials and/or non-magnetic materials (materials with low magnetic permeability). For example, parts of a CMP carrier head that are proximate to a substrate during polishing may be fabricated from non-conductive and/or non-magnetic materials rather than conductive, magnetic materials such as steel.
Reducing extraneous contributions from the sensed eddy current signal is particularly important in emerging systems that use real-time profile control. In real-time profile control, the sensed eddy current signal is used to update polishing parameters in real time. Noise in the eddy current signal may prevent the real-time profile control system from accurately controlling polishing parameters.
Each polishing station includes a rotatable platen 24 on which is placed a polishing pad 30. The first and second stations can include a two-layer polishing pad with a hard durable outer surface or a fixed-abrasive pad with embedded abrasive particles. The final polishing station can include a relatively soft pad. Each polishing station can also include a pad conditioner apparatus 28 to maintain the condition of the polishing pad so that it will effectively polish substrates.
A rotatable multi-head carousel 60 supports four carrier heads 70. The carousel is rotated by a central post 62 about a carousel axis 64 by a carousel motor assembly (not shown) to orbit the carrier head systems and the substrates attached thereto between polishing stations 22 and transfer station 23. Three of the carrier head systems receive and hold substrates, and polish them by pressing them against the polishing pads. Meanwhile, one of the carrier head systems receives a substrate from and delivers a substrate to transfer station 23.
Each carrier head 70 is connected by a carrier drive shaft 74 to a carrier head rotation motor 76 (shown by the removal of one quarter of cover 68) so that each carrier head can independently rotate about it own axis. In addition, each carrier head 70 independently laterally oscillates in a radial slot 72 formed in carousel support plate 66. A description of a suitable carrier head 70 can be found in U.S. Pat. No. 6,183,354, filed May 21, 1997, issued Feb. 6, 2001, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. A description of other carrier heads may be found below. In operation, the platen is rotated about its central axis 25, and the carrier head is rotated about its central axis 71 and translated laterally across the surface of the polishing pad.
A slurry 38 containing one or more chemically reactive agents such as catalyzers and oxidizers can be supplied to the surface of polishing pad 30 by a slurry supply port or combined slurry/rinse arm 39. If polishing pad 30 is a standard pad, slurry 38 can also include abrasive particles.
When a CMP apparatus is removing conductive material from the surface of a substrate, an eddy current monitoring system may be used to monitor changes in one or more conductive regions. Referring to
Alternatively, as shown in
Alternatively, as shown in
In operation, CMP apparatus 20 uses monitoring system 40 to determine when the bulk of the filler layer has been removed and the underlying stop layer has been exposed. Monitoring system 40 can be used to determine the amount of material removed from the surface of the substrate. A general purpose programmable digital computer 90 can be connected to amplifier 56 to receive the intensity signal from the eddy current sensing system. Computer 90 can be programmed to sample amplitude measurements from the monitoring system when the substrate generally overlies the core, to store the amplitude measurements, and to apply the endpoint detection logic to the measured signals to detect the polishing endpoint. Possible endpoint criteria for the detector logic include local minima or maxima, changes in slope, threshold values in amplitude or slope, or combinations thereof.
Since the eddy current sensor sweeps beneath the substrate with each rotation of the platen, information on the metal layer thickness is being accumulated in-situ and on a continuous real-time basis. In fact, the amplitude or phase (or both) measurements from the eddy current sensor can be displayed on an output device 92 during polishing to permit the operator of the device to visually monitor the progress of the polishing operation.
Moreover, after sorting the amplitude measurements into radial ranges, information on the metal film thickness can be fed in real-time into a closed-loop controller to periodically or continuously modify the polishing pressure profile applied by a carrier head, as discussed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 60/143,219, filed Jul. 7, 1999, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference. For example, the computer could determine that the endpoint criteria have been satisfied for the outer radial ranges but not for the inner radial ranges. This would indicate that the underlying layer has been exposed in an annular outer area but not in an inner area of the substrate. In this case, the computer could reduce the diameter of the area in which pressure is applied so that pressure is applied only to the inner area of the substrate, thereby reducing dishing and erosion on the outer area of the substrate. Alternatively, the computer can halt polishing of the substrate on the first indication that the underlying layer has been exposed anywhere on the substrate, i.e., at first clearing of the metal layer.
Initially, referring to
As shown in
Consequently, the presence of conductive film 16 reduces the Q-factor of the sensor circuit, thereby significantly reducing the amplitude of the signal from RF amplifier 56.
The eddy current monitoring system can also be used to trigger a change in polishing parameters. For example, when the monitoring system detects a polishing criterion, the CMP apparatus can change the slurry composition (e.g., from a high-selectivity slurry to a low selectivity slurry). As another example, as discussed above, the CMP apparatus can change the pressure profile applied by the carrier head.
In addition to sensing changes in amplitude, the eddy current monitoring system can calculate a phase shift in the sensed signal. As the metal layer is polished, the phase of the sensed signal changes relative to the drive signal from the oscillator 50. This phase difference can be correlated to the thickness of the polished layer. One implementation of a phase measuring device, shown in
The phase shift measurement can be used to detect the polishing endpoint in the same fashion as the amplitude measurements discussed above. Alternatively, both amplitude and phase shift measurements could be used in the endpoint detection algorithm. An implementation for both the amplitude and phase shift portions of the eddy current monitoring system is shown in
A possible advantage of the phase difference measurement is that the dependence of the phase difference on the metal layer thickness may be more linear than that of the amplitude. In addition, the absolute thickness of the metal layer may be determined over a wide range of possible thicknesses. A phase difference measurement may additionally be less sensitive to changes in pad thickness than an amplitude measurement.
The eddy current monitoring system can be used in a variety of polishing systems. Either the polishing pad, or the carrier head, or both can move to provide relative motion between the polishing surface and the substrate. The polishing pad can be a circular (or some other shape) pad secured to the platen, a tape extending between supply and take-up rollers, or a continuous belt. The polishing pad can be affixed on a platen, incrementally advanced over a platen between polishing operations, or driven continuously over the platen during polishing. The pad can be secured to the platen during polishing, or there could be a fluid bearing between the platen and polishing pad during polishing. The polishing pad can be a standard (e.g., polyurethane with or without fillers) rough pad, a soft pad, or a fixed-abrasive pad. Rather than tuning when the substrate is absent, the drive frequency of the oscillator can be tuned to a resonant frequency with a polished or unpolished substrate present (with or without the carrier head), or to some other reference.
Various aspects of the invention, such as placement of the coil on a side of the polishing surface opposite the substrate or the measurement of a phase difference, still apply if the eddy current sensor uses a single coil. In a single coil system, both the oscillator and the sense capacitor (and other sensor circuitry) are connected to the same coil.
In an implementation of a semiconductor processing apparatus, an in-situ eddy current monitoring system such as system 40 of
In order to obtain information about properties of a conductive layer on a substrate, a time-dependent magnetic field may be produced using the drive system of the eddy current monitoring system. As explained above, a conductive layer acts as an impedance source and reduces the received signal. In order to provide an accurate measure of the thickness of a conductive layer (or accurate endpoint determination), the magnetic field needs to have sufficient magnitude at the conductive layer so that it can have a measurable effect on the received signal. For conductive layers with higher resistivities (e.g., tungsten layers rather than copper layers), the magnetic field may need to have a greater amplitude, since the magnitude of produced eddy currents is smaller.
However, in order to provide a sufficient magnetic field in the conductive region of interest, the magnetic field may have a non-negligible amplitude in conductive and/or magnetic regions of the semiconductor processing apparatus other than the conductive regions of interest. In such cases, inaccuracies may be introduced into the received signal.
During polishing, substrate 1240 is held against a polishing pad 1250 having a thin portion 1255 by a flexible membrane 1260. A plate 1270 proximate to the flexible membrane may be included in a carrier head assembly (e.g., plate 1410 of carrier head 1400
For a particular chemical mechanical polishing system using an eddy current monitoring sensor assembly 1200, a sensing distance D may be defined between, for example, a surface of core 1220 and a plane 1280, where portions of the chemical mechanical polishing system at a distance of D or less from the surface of core 1220 are non-conductive, in order to improve the sensing ability of the eddy current monitoring system.
The sensing distance D may correspond to a distance at which the eddy current signal generated in conductive parts of the chemical mechanical polishing system rather than in conductive regions on the substrate is not discernible over other noise in the signal. Alternately, D may be chosen as a distance at which the eddy current signal generated in conductive parts of the system is small enough that the accuracy of the thickness or endpoint measurement being made falls within acceptable limits. For example, an error amount may be defined for a measurement of an eddy current signal. D may be chosen as a distance beyond which the eddy current signal generated in conductive parts of the system is less than or equal to the error amount. D may be chosen in some other way; for example, as a distance at which the magnetic field falls to a certain percentage of the maximum value.
D may depend on a number of factors, including the types of conductive materials to be polished, the geometry of the eddy current monitoring system, and the acceptable contribution to the sensed signals from sources other than the conductive regions on the layer. For magnetic fields more localized in the substrate region, a smaller sensing distance may suffice; for example, the signal accuracy may be acceptable when parts of the carrier head within about a tenth of an inch of the substrate are non-conductive. For magnetic fields having an appreciable magnitude beyond the substrate, a larger sensing distance such as a sensing distance between about one inches and about two inches or even greater may be necessary to achieve a desired signal accuracy.
Determining which elements of a chemical mechanical polishing system should be non-conductive/non-magnetic depends on the system being used. Different implementations of carrier heads may have different elements that may potentially reduce the accuracy of the eddy current sensing system. Referring to
The housing 1302 can be generally circular in shape and can be connected to the drive shaft 74 of
The base assembly 1304 is a vertically movable assembly located beneath the housing 1302. The base assembly 1304 includes a main base portion such as a generally rigid annular body 1330, an outer clamp ring 1334, and the gimbal mechanism 1306. The gimbal mechanism 1306 includes a gimbal rod 1336 which slides vertically the along bore 1320 to provide vertical motion of the base assembly 1304, and a flexure ring 1338 which bends to permit the base assembly to pivot with respect to the housing 1302 so that the retaining ring 1310 may remain substantially parallel with the surface of the polishing pad.
The loading chamber 1308 is located between the housing 1302 and the base assembly 1304 to apply a load, i.e., a downward pressure or weight, to the base assembly 1304. The vertical position of the base assembly 1304 relative to the polishing pad 32 of
The retaining ring 1310 may be a generally annular ring secured at the outer edge of the base assembly 1304. When fluid is pumped into the loading chamber 1308 and the base assembly 1304 is pushed downwardly, the retaining ring 1310 is also pushed downwardly to apply a load to the polishing pad 32 of
The substrate backing assembly 1312 includes a flexible membrane 1340 with a generally flat main portion 1342 and five concentric annular flaps 1350, 1352, 1354, 1356, and 1358 extending from the main portion 1342. The edge of the outermost flap 1358 is clamped between the base assembly 1304 and a first clamp ring 1346. Two other flaps 1350, 1352 are clamped to the base assembly 1304 by a second clamp ring 1347, and the remaining two flaps 1354 and 1356 are clamped to the base assembly 1304 by a third clamp ring 1348. A lower surface 1344 of the main portion 1342 provides a mounting surface for the substrate 10.
The volume between the base assembly 1304 and the internal membrane 1350 that is sealed by the first flap 1350 provides a first circular pressurizable chamber 1360. The volume between the base assembly 1304 and the internal membrane 1350 that is sealed between the first flap 1350 and the second flap 1352 provides a second pressurizable annular chamber 1362 surrounding the first chamber 1360. Similarly, the volume between the second flap 1352 and the third flap 1354 provides a third pressurizable chamber 1364, the volume between the third flap 1354 and the fourth flap 1356 provides a fourth pressurizable chamber 1366, and the volume between the fourth flap 1356 and the fifth flap 1358 provides a fifth pressurizable chamber 1368. As illustrated, the outermost chamber 1368 is the narrowest chamber. In fact, the chambers 1352, 1354, 1356 and 1358 can be configured to be successively narrower.
Each chamber can be fluidly coupled by passages through the base assembly 1304 and housing 1302 to an associated pressure source, such as a pump or pressure or vacuum line. One or more passages from the base assembly 1304 can be linked to passages in the housing by flexible tubing that extends inside the loading chamber 1308 or outside the carrier head. Thus, pressurization of each chamber, and the force applied by the associated segment of the main portion 1342 of the flexible membrane 1340 on the substrate, can be independently controlled. This permits different pressures to be applied to different radial regions of the substrate during polishing, thereby compensating for non-uniform polishing rates caused by other factors or for non-uniform thickness of the incoming substrate.
Depending on the design of the eddy current sensing system, one or more parts of a carrier head such as carrier head 1300 of
Conductive/magnetic elements of carrier head 1300 in higher field regions may provide a greater contribution to the received signal. Those elements that are less resistive (e.g., fabricated from a material with a lower resistivity and/or having a shorter length/smaller cross sectional area for current flow) may provide a greater contribution to the received signal, as may those elements having a greater magnetic permeability. Therefore, elements of carrier head 1300 that are closer to substrate 10 and/or are larger may be fabricated from a non-conductive material to improve the ability of the eddy current sensing system to reflect changes in one or more conductive regions on a substrate.
In some implementations, the eddy current signal may be sufficiently improved by fabricating elements of carrier 1300 using semiconductive materials such as silicon or semi-conductive ceramics. Additionally, in some implementations replacing conductive, magnetic parts with conductive non-magnetic parts may provide a significant signal improvement. For example, some stainless steel parts made from an alloy with a non-negligible magnetic permeability may be replaced by aluminum parts. Although the resistivity of aluminum is lower than stainless steel, aluminum is non-magnetic and generally has a less detrimental effect on the measured signal.
Providing non-conductive/non-magnetic fasteners may eliminate irregular noise termed “screw bump” noise. A particular fastener may contribute to the sensed signal in scans where the sensor scans under the screw, but not in other scans. Whether or not a particular fastener contributes to the signal depends on the geometry of the system, the rotational speed of the platen/head, and the head sweep. A screw bump is particularly problematic, because it may be confused with a signal caused by a locally thicker copper layer.
For a particular implementation of a chemical mechanical polishing system with an eddy current monitoring system, a minimum distance such as the sensing distance D discussed above may be determined, where unshielded conductive elements within the minimum distance of the eddy current monitoring system will detrimentally contribute to the eddy current signal. Although D was defined in terms of a distance from a surface of the sensing core, the minimum distance could alternately be stated in terms of the distance from the bottom of the flexible membrane (which is about equal to the distance from a conductive region on the wafer during polishing of the conductive region).
As mentioned above, some carrier head assemblies include a plate or ring behind a flexible membrane that holds a substrate to the polishing pad, where the plate may be perforated. The plate is generally close to the substrate during processing (e.g., in some implementations it is right behind the flexible membrane; in others, within about one or two inches of the substrate). If the plate is fabricated from a conductive material, it may be a source of inaccuracy in the sensed eddy current signal. Therefore, fabricating such a plate from a non-conductive material may allow for more accurate determination of the eddy current generated in the conductive regions on the substrate. Additionally, some carrier head assemblies include conductive fasteners, even for non-conductive parts of the carrier head. For example, retaining rings similar to retaining ring 1310 of
In other implementations of carrier heads, other elements may be proximate to a substrate being polished, and therefore (if conductive) may provide an unwanted contribution to a sensed signal for an eddy current monitoring system. Referring to
The difference in the sensed signal for the second version, denoted as Δ2, is much larger than the signal difference for the first version, denoted as Δ1. The metal parts, which are both conductive and magnetic, introduce a large background in the measured signal. Thus, the sensitivity of the eddy current sensing system in the first version is significantly less than the sensitivity in the second version.
A number of implementations have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. For example, different implementations of carrier heads and eddy current sensing systems may be used. Fabricating elements of the carrier head or other part of the chemical mechanical polishing apparatus from non-conductive materials such as plastics or ceramics may improve the accuracy of the eddy current sensing system. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.