|Publication number||US20060014016 A1|
|Application number||US 11/066,044|
|Publication date||Jan 19, 2006|
|Filing date||Feb 25, 2005|
|Priority date||Mar 1, 2004|
|Also published as||WO2005085505A1|
|Publication number||066044, 11066044, US 2006/0014016 A1, US 2006/014016 A1, US 20060014016 A1, US 20060014016A1, US 2006014016 A1, US 2006014016A1, US-A1-20060014016, US-A1-2006014016, US2006/0014016A1, US2006/014016A1, US20060014016 A1, US20060014016A1, US2006014016 A1, US2006014016A1|
|Inventors||Gilberto Lardizabal, Filemon Pelaez, Hermilo Perez, Francisco Sanchez, Miguel Hernandez, Gerardo Chavez, Rafael Talavera, Armando Perez, Alejandro Garcia, Angel Mejia, Antonio Torres, Johnny Hughes|
|Original Assignee||Gilberto Lardizabal, Filemon Pelaez, Hermilo Perez, Francisco Sanchez, Miguel Hernandez, Gerardo Chavez, Rafael Talavera, Armando Perez, Alejandro Garcia, Angel Mejia, Antonio Torres, Johnny Hughes|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (3), Classifications (6), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims priority to the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 60/549,113 filed on Mar. 1, 2004.
The present invention is directed towards the production of yarn and fabrics. Specifically, the invention relates to the production of yarn and fabrics with improved abrasion resistance, seam slippage and dimensional stability without the use of traditional backing coating.
The present invention concerns yarns and fabrics that have significantly improved abrasion resistance, seam slippage and dimensional stability and methods for their production.
It is known (see U.S. Pat. No. 2,252,999 to Wallach, issued Aug. 19, 1941 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,877,214 to Van der Werf, issued Apr. 15, 1975) to blend non-adhesive fibers with potentially adhesive fibers to form a yarn or other textile structure, then to activate the potentially adhesive fibers to bond them to contacting fibers, thus modifying end-use properties of the yarn. U.S. Pat. No. 3,494,819 to McAlister, issued Feb. 10, 1979, discloses a blend of fusible and non-fusible polyethylene terephthalate fibers incorporated into fabric, wherein the finished fabric is heated to fusion temperatures to provide improved pill resistance. U.S. Pat. No. 3,978,267 to Selwood, issued Aug. 31, 1976 discloses an adhesive fiber to bond to contacting fibers. These patents, however, all disclose methods of making fabrics with backing.
Furthermore, the inventions of the prior art have high production costs, waste, fumes, and water usage. The methods used, for example in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,344,254, 6,300,398, and 4,752,634, require high production costs, utilize complex formulas and methods to application on fabrics, and are linked with numerous environmental problems associated with manufacturing of backing coatings.
In many applications, such as curtains, blankets or tabletops, it would be advantageous for both sides to be visible and aesthetically pleasing, which the prior art does not accomplish. Furthermore, in many applications, it is desirable to use a continuous lay down in the pattern cutting operation, wherein the fabric is folded to form multiple layers and cut. This exposes alternate sides in the finished products. A one-sided fabric, as in the case of backed coated fabrics, prohibits taking advantage of these concerns.
Accordingly, there is a need in the art to provide yarns and fabrics that have improved abrasion resistance, seam slippage and dimensional stability while eliminating the need for use of traditional backing materials and complex manufacturing methods that result in high cost, high waste production and environmentally dangerous fumes.
In one aspect, the present invention is directed to a novel yarn and fabric having superior abrasion resistance, seam slippage and dimensional stability and decreased production costs. The yarns of the present invention may be used on traditional looms such as Dornier mechanical weaving machines, as well as high speed weaving machines, such as airjet, waterjet, projectile technology or multiphase weaving machines. The yarns may be used to make fabrics for a variety of fabric applications. In several embodiments of the present invention, the yarn is woven into fabrics for use as: blankets, tabletops, tops of beds, velvets, upholstery and other textile coverings for both indoor and outdoor applications, automotive and contract textiles, etc.
In one aspect, the method of producing yarn and fabrics comprises supplying a first yarn, supplying a low melt yarn, placing the two yarns adjacent to one another, and winding the two adjacent yarns. In another aspect, the method of producing yarns and fabrics further comprises weaving the yarns into a fabric and heating the fabric, wherein heating the fabric heats the low melt yarn, melting at least one filament and adhering the low melt yarn to the first yarn or fabric. In yet another aspect, the method of producing yarns and fabrics further comprises weaving the yarns into a fabric, breaking at least one filament of the low melt yarn, and heating the low melt yarn, wherein heating the low melt yarn melts at least one broken filament thereby adhering the low melt yarn to the first yarn or fabric.
The yarns of the present invention satisfy the need for a multi-purpose yarn, capable of improved abrasion resistance, seam slippage and dimensional stability while eliminating traditional backing materials and costs associated with the production thereof. In addition, the yarns and fabrics of the present invention reduce fumes and pollution resulting from backing material production and disposal, as well as increase savings in water from backing material mixing. Further savings of the present invention include: the ability to create fabrics with less yarn and that are lighter, while still capable of improved qualities; and the elimination of special treatments necessary to remove backing before materials may be recycled. Two-sided fabrics designed in constructions that traditionally require back coating and fabrics that cannot contain back coating, such as blankets or tabletops, may be made with the improved yarns of the present invention.
Air jet—technique for bulking filament yarns by treating them with pressurized air from a miniature spout;
Chenille—a fuzzy yarn whose pile resembles a caterpillar; used mainly for decorative fabrics, embroidery, and rugs; sometimes used broadly to define a fabric woven from chenille yarns;
Coated Fabrics—fabrics that have been coated with a substance to make them longer lasting, or impervious to water or other liquids; coating substances or materials include oil, pyroxylin, rubber, resins, melamines, plastics, and acrylic films; coated fabrics include oilcloth, imitation leathers, Koroseal, and others;
Core Yarn—one in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped around another which serves as a core; often used to make stretch fabrics where the core is spandex or rubber and the outer shell is a texturized man-made fiber such as polyester or nylon; some core yarns are made for strength rather than stretch;
Denier—a weight-per-unit-length measure of any linear material; approximately the weight in grams of 9.000 meters of the material; denier is a direct numbering system in which the low numbers represent the finer sizes and the higher numbers the coarser sizes; in the U.S. the denier is used for numbering filament yarns (except glass), man-made fiber staple (but not spun yarns), and tow; in most countries outside the U.S. the denier system has been replaced by the tex system;
Drawing-In—the actual drawing in of warp ends from the warp beam, through the needle eyes on the harness frames, and then through the reed splits of the reed of the loom; a plan may be followed so that the actual weave from design paper will be produced in the woven cloth;
End—one thread of the warp; one thread of yarn;
Effect—1. one in which one type of fiber is twisted or wrapped (effect) around another that serves as the core; 2. the component which in the Chenille is the “pile”; 3. the end in air jet textured yarn and in novelty yarns which is overfed to form bulkiness or loops, or any other textural effect;
Fabric—any woven, knitted, plaited, braided, felted, or non-woven material made of fibers or yarns; may be knitted, made on a loom, needled, or constructed in another fashion; the industry distinguishes three classes of fabrics-apparel, decorative, and industrial;
False Twist—the major process used in texturizing thermoplastic filament yarns; a rotating spindle twists the yarn, which is then set in a heater-box or tube, after which it is untwisted; called by this name since the twist inserted does not become permanent, however it does remain in part because of the so-called “memory” of the twist that was inserted in the processing; the yarn gains torque (the movement of forces that cause rotation or twisting as in the instance of twisting cord, wire or yarn), or stretch, as well as bulkiness; to remove stretch the yarn is subjected to a second heat treatment which affords stabilization but, at the same time, retains bulkiness;
Feeder Yarn—a roll, godet or other technique that supply yarn into a machine under controlled speed and tension;
Fiber—the fundamental unit comprising a textile raw material such as cotton, wool, etc.; may be elongated single celled seed hairs like cotton; elongated multicellular structures such as wool; an aggregation of elongated cells like flax; or man-made filaments like nylon, polyester, rayon; in order to be spun into a yarn, a fiber must possess sufficient length, strength, pliability, and cohesiveness; now used in a broad sense to include filament yarns, monofilaments, and tow.
Filament—1. a fiber of indefinite length, such as filament acetate, rayon, nylon; may be miles long. 2. a single strand of rayon spinning solution as it is exuded from a spinneret orifice and coagulated in an acid bath or other medium; also true of other manmade filaments. 3. the single unit which is extruded by a silkworm in spinning its cocoon;
Loy—low oriented yarn; yarn that has very low orientation due to low spinning speed to be produced by the fiber producer and hence must be finished by a draw twister machine before further processing such as air texturing or Chenille yarn manufacture;
Novelty Yarns—irregular, uneven-in-diameter yarns made for special textured and textural effects; examples include boucle, bug, chenille, Knickerbocker, loop, nub, slub, thick-and-thin, etc.;
Olefin—manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85 percent by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units; regular trademark's include: Herculon (Hercules) and Marvess (Phillips);
Oven—chamber used by garments manufacturers to apply heat to the garment in order to set, or cure, a durable press finish on the article;
Poy—partially oriented yarns; yarns that have been only partially drawn by the fiber producer and hence must be finished by a throwster before further processing such as texturizing;
Taslan—registered trademark for a textured yarn that is different from spun yarn or continuous filament yarn in that it is made on a bulking process developed by DuPont; its hand, loftiness, covering power, and yarn texture are such that these properties are permanent and do not require special handling or care; the method may be applied to any thermoplastic fiber.
Textured Yarns—made of continuous filaments, there are modifications of these filaments in that the filaments do not lie parallel to one another; fabrics made of these yarns have greater covering power and are softer than materials made from untreated filament yarns;
Twist—yarn or cord has S-twist if, when held in a vertical position, the spiral conforms in slope to the central portion of the letter S; and Z-twist if the spirals conform in slope to the central portion of the letter z. See “S”, and “Z”;
Twist, False—in processing a heat-set stretch yarn it is passed through a “false-twist” spindle and twisting begins at this time; when omitted from the spindle the twist is automatically removed, hence, the term, false-twist; the yarn, however, retains “a memory” of its twisted position or torque and seeks to return to that position; it is therefore wound or taken-up under tension to prevent it from curling; the torque in the yarn is balanced later on in processing by doubling it with another yarn whose “remembered” twist goes in the opposite direction; thus, a yarn with an “S-twist” and “Z-twist”;
Warp—yarns which run vertically or lengthwise in woven goods;
Warping—transferring of the warp yarn from a cheese onto the warp beam which is built up in sections to make the complete warp beam filled with the yarn; full beams may weigh as much as 1,500 pounds;
Yarn—generic term for an assemblage of fibers or filaments, either natural or man-made, twisted together to form a continuous strand which can be used for weaving, knitting, plaiting, braiding, of the manufacture of lace, or otherwise made into a textile material.
In one aspect, the method of producing yarn and fabrics comprises supplying a first yarn, supplying a low melt yarn, wherein the low melt yarn has at least one filament, placing the two yarns adjacent to one another to create a fusion yarn, and winding the fusion yarn onto a bobbin or the equivalent thereof. In another aspect, the method of producing yarns and fabrics further comprises weaving the yarns into a fabric and heating the fabric, wherein heating the fabric heats the low melt yarn, melting at least one filament and adhering the low melt yarn to the first yarn or fabric. In yet another aspect, the method of producing yarns and fabrics further comprises weaving the fusion yarn into a fabric, breaking at least one filament of the low melt yarn, and heating the fusion yarn, wherein heating the fusion yarn melts at least one broken filament of the low melt yarn, thereby adhering the low melt yarn to the first yarn or the fusion yarn to the fabric.
False Twist Textured Fusion Yarn
In certain embodiments, the step of manufacturing of fusion yarn may be accomplished by manufacturing textured fusion yarn.
In a second embodiment as depicted in
Air Jet Textured or Taslan Fusion Yarn
In another embodiment, one or more ends of fully drawn yarn, false twist textured yarn or a combination of both are fed to a traditional air texturing machine, with rolls or shafts controlling the feeding speed of the yarns. In the feeding device, a low melt yarn is merged with fully drawn, false twist textured or a combination yarn. The resulting yarn is then fed into a texturing jet, which further intermingles and textures the resulting yarn to create a fusion yarn. This fusion yarn is removed from the jet and wound into cones or bobbins in preparation for further use. The denier (measurement of the weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn) may increase to approximately the total of the denier of the two yarns if they were textured independently.
In other embodiments, the step of manufacturing of fusion yarn may be accomplished by manufacturing Taslan or air jet textured yarn.
In one embodiment, air jet texturing produces a “parallel” yarn. In another embodiment, air jet texturing produces a “core effect” yarn. In an embodiment wherein the present invention is a method for producing parallel air jet textured yarns, one or more yarn ends are fed into an air texturing jet using for all ends exactly the same overfeed. Generally, overfeeds depend on the end use for the yarns and may be between approximately 5% and 30%. Parallel yarns may be used for apparel and cut pile plush fabrics in the automotive sector.
In another embodiment, the present invention is a method for producing core effect yarns. In this embodiment, the core effect yarns have two components: the core yarn and the effect yarn. Both yarns may be either single or multiple ends. The core yarn overfeed, however, is lower than the overfeed of the effect yarn. In some embodiments, the core overfeed is very different then the effect yarn overfeed. In another embodiment, the normal core yarn overfeed is between 5 and 40%. Effect yarns may be overfed (depending on the end use of the final yarn up) to around 400%.
Core-effect air textured yarn is used widely when high bulk and volume is required. For example, core-effect air textured yarn may be used in manufacturing upholstery, furniture and soft luggage. However, fine denier yarn is also processed as core-effect yarn. For example, fine denier yarn may be processed as core-effect yarn for sports wear. In one embodiment, the core yarn overfeed to the jet could be from about 5 to 15% and the effect yarn overfeed may be from about 15 to about 400%. Jet manufacturers provide different jets for high and low overfeeds. The final denier also influences the jet design. The percentage of increase of denier will be the same amount of low melt yarn multiplied by its percentage of overfeeding, being is as core or effect. The appropriate jet to use will become apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art.
Chenille Fusion Yarn
Chenille yarn consists of short lengths of spun yarn or filaments that are held together by two or more ends of highly twisted fine strong yarn. The short lengths are called “the pile” and the highly twisted yarns are called “the core”. Chenille yarn may be made from many different types of fibers and yarns. For example, chenille yarn may be from cotton, viscose (rayon), acrylic, and polypropylene (olefin). In each embodiment, one type of fiber or yarn is matched to combine or meld with one type of low melt yarn.
Chenille yarn may be made in many different sizes, ranging from as heavy as approximately Nm 0.2 to as fine as approximately Nm 12.0. Traditionally, Chenille yarn is manufactured on a machine that is designed to bring the pile yarns and core yarns together. During manufacture, the pile yarns are wrapped around a short step of polished metal, called a caliper, through which a blade passes to cut the pile yarns into short lengths. The core yarns are pressed onto the short lengths with a rotating metal wheel. The resulting yarn is then fed onto a traditional ring-twisted take-up mechanism. In the twisting process, the two ends of core yarn twist and trap the short ends of pile. The size of the caliper determines the diameter of the resulting yarn. The size and number of the pile yarns and how much of them are fed onto the core determines the count of the yarn.
In one embodiment of the method of producing Chenille yarn and fabric of the present invention as depicted in
In certain other embodiments, the yarn produced will be used in high speed looms, such as a negative rapier loom. In these embodiments, an additional step will be necessary. The method therefore further comprises activating the low melt yarn in an oven 70, heated tunnel, or equivalent thereof, so that the binder yarn melts and the pile is tied. This extra step avoids the loss of pile or effect in the Chenille yarn and/or stops in the loom due to of breaks of the yarn. Activating the low melt yarn before wave in the loom does not reduce the effectiveness of the fusion yarn of the present invention. The increase in denier will be the addition of the total amount of the denier of low melt yarn.
Novelty or Fancy Fusion Yarns
Novelty yarns and fancy yarns are special yarns made of continuous filament or to improve handle, spun yarns. Novelty and fancy yarns are traditionally made twisting and winding, sometimes adding a continuous filament as a binder to “fix” the arrangement of loops and knots on the yarn. In one aspect, the production of novelty yarns begins with distributing the yarns and arranging the yarns to be fed into a twisting or winding device. The twisting or winding device has a series of shafts running at different speed ratios, in such a way to feed at least one end of a core yarn. One or more yarns will be fed by another shaft at different speeds than the previous one so that the ratio of speeds between the two shafts will be the ratio of overfeeding the yarns respective to the core. The arrangement of the yarns is passed inside a hollow spindle that contains a third arrangement of yarn. This third arrangement of yarn holds a binder yarn.
In any of the three yarns used (core, effect or binder), a low melt yarn may be added or substituted to create a fancy or novelty fusion yarn. In one embodiment, the low melt yarn is, or is added to, the core yarn. In another embodiment, the low melt yarn is, or is added to, the effect yarn. In these embodiments, the low melt yarn will be pulled into the structure of the yarn.
In certain aspects and embodiments, the low melt yarn is chosen so that it has affinity to the other yarns used, and adheres to it. For example, the low melt yarn may be polyethylene, polyamide copolymer or terpolymer (i.e. a polymer of three different molecules), low melt nylon 11 or copolyester. The melting point of the other yarns used will determine the correct corresponding low melt yarn to select. For example, a polyolefin such as polypropylene might be paired with a polyethylene copolymer, because the polyethylene copolymer's melting point is approximately 90-120° C.
The range of deniers for binders of low melt yarn to be used will depend on the anticipated final denier. Generally, the range of deniers for binders will be in the range of about 5 to 40% in weight of the total denier anticipated.
Average results from typical textile tests of the fusion yarns give the following results: dynamic seam fatigue of less than 3 mm separation at 5000 cycles; seam slippage greater than 60 pounds; tensile strength greater than 120 pounds; seam strength of greater than 95 pounds; and Wyzenbeck abrasion measure showed no apparent wear after 15000 cycles.
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|International Classification||D02G3/40, D02G3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10T428/2933, D02G3/402|
|Oct 27, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: PLIANA HOLDING, S.A. DE C.V., MEXICO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LARDIZABAL, GILBERTO;PELAEZ, FILEMON;PEREZ, HERMILO;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016953/0554;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050802 TO 20050816