Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20060029603 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/177,648
Publication dateFeb 9, 2006
Filing dateJul 6, 2005
Priority dateDec 22, 2003
Also published asCA2549956A1, CA2549956C, DE602004022871D1, EP1706426A2, EP1711530A2, EP1711530B1, EP2213684A2, EP2213684A3, US7780964, US7988964, US20070065430, US20110054149, US20140147435, WO2005061544A2, WO2005061544A3, WO2005061545A2, WO2005061545A3
Publication number11177648, 177648, US 2006/0029603 A1, US 2006/029603 A1, US 20060029603 A1, US 20060029603A1, US 2006029603 A1, US 2006029603A1, US-A1-20060029603, US-A1-2006029603, US2006/0029603A1, US2006/029603A1, US20060029603 A1, US20060029603A1, US2006029603 A1, US2006029603A1
InventorsJonathan Ellis, Paul Hamblin, Alan Lewis, Paul Wilson
Original AssigneeEllis Jonathan H, Hamblin Paul A, Lewis Alan P, Wilson Paul A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Immunoglobulins
US 20060029603 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to antibodies to NOGO, pharmaceutical formulations containing them and to the use of such antibodies in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of neurological diseases/disorders.
Images(9)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(30)
1. A monoclonal antibody which binds to human NOGO, comprising a heavy chain variable region has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 77 further comprising a number n of substitutions at one or more of positions 12, 20, 38, 40, 48, 67, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 79 and 91; wherein each substituted amino acid residue is replaced with the amino acid residue at the equivalent position in SEQ ID NO 7 and n is a number between 1 and 13.
2. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 1, wherein the antibody comprises the substitution at position 79.
3. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 2, wherein the antibody sequence comprises the substitution at positions 48 and 68.
4. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 2, further comprising a substitution at positions 40 and/or 67.
5. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 4 further comprising a substitution at positions 38 and/or 72 and/or 70.
6. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 5, wherein the antibody further comprises substitutions at one or more of positions 12, 20, 74, 76 or 91.
7. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 1 wherein the heavy chain variable region has a sequence given in SEQ ID NOs: 11-18, 29-33 and 85-91.
8. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 7, wherein the antibody comprises the VH regions provided in SEQ ID NOs 11, 12, 16, 18, 85, 86, 87 or 91.
9. A monoclonal antibody comprising the heavy chain variable region as claimed in claim 1 in combination with a light chain variable region having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 20 optionally further comprising a number of substitutions at one or more of positions 4, 7, 11, 19, 42, 64 and 70; wherein each substituted amino acid residue is replaced with the amino acid residue at the equivalent position in SEQ ID NO. 8 and the number of substitutions is between 0 and 7.
10. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 9, wherein the light chain variable region has a substitution at positions 11 and 19.
11. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 9, wherein the light chain variable region has a substitution at position 4.
12. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 10, wherein the light chain variable region has a substitution at position 42.
13. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 10, wherein the light chain variable region has a substitution positions 7, 64 or 70.
14. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 9, wherein the light chain variable region is SEQ ID NO. 20.
15. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 9, wherein the antibody comprises the VL regions provided in SEQ ID NOs 23 and 25.
16. A monoclonal antibody comprising VH and VL regions selected from the following list: H1L13 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 20), H5L13 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 20), H6L13 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 20), H14L13 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 20), H15L13 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 20), H16L13 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 20), H17L13 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 20), H18L13 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 20), H19L13 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 20), H20L13 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 20), H21L13 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 20), H22L13 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 20), H23L13 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 20), H24L13 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 20), H25L13 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 20), H700L13 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 20), H1L16 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 23), H5L16 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 23), H6L16 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 23), H14L16 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 23), H15L16 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 23), H16L16 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 23), H17L16 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 23), H18L16 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 23), H19L16 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 23), H20L16 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 23), H21L16 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 23), H22L16 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 23), H23L16 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 23), H24L16 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 23), H25L16 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 23), H700L16 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 23), H1L18 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 25), H5L18 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 25), H6L18 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 25), H14L18 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 25), H15L18 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 25), H16L18 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 25), H17L18 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 25), H18L18 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 25), H19L18 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 25), H20L18 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 25), H21L18 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 25), H22L18 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 25), H23L18 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 25), H24L18 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 25), H25L18 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 25), H700L18 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 25).
17. A monoclonal antibody as claimed in claim 16 selected from the following list of full length antibody chains:
Antibody Light Chain Heavy Chain H5L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 26 H6L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 27 H19L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 92 H20L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 93 H21L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 94 H25L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 98 H16L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 31 H19L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 92 H20L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 93 H21L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 94 H25L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 98 H16L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 31 H18L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 33 H19L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 92 H20L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 93 H21L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 94 H25L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 98
18. A pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-NOGO antibody or functional fragment thereof according to claim 1 together with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.
19. A method of treatment or prophylaxis of stroke and other neurological diseases/disorders in a human which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody, according to claim 1 including altered antibodies or a functional fragment thereof.
20. The use of an anti-NOGO antibody according to claim 1, including altered antibodies or a functional fragment thereof in the preparation of a medicament for treatment or prophylaxis of stroke and other neurological diseases/disorders.
21. A method of inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient suffering, or at risk of developing, a stroke or other neurological disease/disorder which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody according to claim 1, including altered antibodies or a functional fragment thereof.
22. The use of an anti-NOGO antibody according to claim 1, including altered antibodies or a functional fragment thereof in the preparation of a medicament for inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient afflicted with, or at risk of developing, a stroke and other neurological disease/disorder.
23. A method of treating or prophylaxis of stroke or other neurological disease/disorder in a human comprising the step of parenteral administration of a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody according to claim 1 to said human.
24. The method of claim 23 wherein the anti-NOGO antibody is administered intravenously.
25. The method of claim 19 wherein the other neurological disease/disorder is selected from the group consisting of;
traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis.
26. A method of promoting axonal sprouting comprising the step of contacting a human axon with an anti-NOGO antibody of claim 1.
27. The method of claim 26 wherein the method is performed in vitro.
28. A method of producing an anti-NOGO antibody of claim 1 which specifically binds to and neutralises the activity of human NOGO-A which method comprises the steps of;
(a) providing a first vector encoding a heavy chain of the antibody;
(b) providing a second vector encoding the light chain of the antibody;
(c) co-transfecting a mammalian host cell with said first and second vectors;
(d) culturing the host cell of step (c) in culture media (preferably serum free) under conditions permissive to the secretion of the antibody from said host cell into said culture media;
(e) recovering the secreted antibody of step (d).
29. A method of producing an anti-NOGO antibody that competitively inhibits the binding of the antibody of claim 1 which method comprises the steps of;
(a) providing a first vector encoding a heavy chain of the antibody;
(b) providing a second vector encoding the light chain of the antibody;
(c) co-transfecting a mammalian host cell with said first and second vectors;
(d) culturing the host cell of step (c) in culture media (preferably serum free) under conditions permissive to the secretion of the antibody from said host cell into said culture media;
(e) recovering the secreted antibody of step (d).
30. A method according to claim 28, wherein the host cell is selected from the group consisting of; NS0 Sp2/o, CHO, COS, a fibroblast cell such as 3T3, particularly CHO.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to immunoglobulins, particularly antibodies that bind to NOGO and neutralise the activity thereof, polynucleotides encoding such antibodies, pharmaceutical formulations containing said antibodies and to the use of such antibodies in the treatment and/or prophylaxis of neurological diseases.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability in the Western World. There is no approved therapy for the treatment of stroke other than tissue plasminogen (t-PA) which has to be administered within 3 hours of onset following a computer tomography (CT) scan to exclude haemorrhage. To date most therapeutic agents directed towards the treatment of acute stroke (i.e. neuroprotection), have predominantly involved targeting glutamate receptors and their down stream signalling pathways known to be involved in acute cell death. However to date these strategies have proved unsuccessful in clinical trials and are often associated with dose-limiting side effects (Hill & Hachinski, The Lancet, 352: (suppl III) 10-14 (1998)). Therefore there is a need for novel approaches directed towards the amelioration of cell death following the cessation of blood flow. Neuroprotection is the ability of a treatment to prevent or ameliorate neuronal cell loss in response to an insult or disease process. This maybe achieved by targeting the neurons directly or indirectly by preventing glial (including oligodendrocyte) cell loss.
  • [0003]
    Following the onset of stroke, some degree of spontaneous functional recovery is observed in many patients, suggesting that the brain has the (albeit limited) ability to repair and/or remodel following injury. Agents that have the potential to enhance this recovery may therefore allow intervention to be made much later (potentially days) following the onset of cerebral ischaemia. Agents which are able to offer both acute neuroprotection and enhance functional recovery may provide significant advantages over current potential neuroprotective strategies.
  • [0004]
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterised by the presence of two diagnostic features of pathology. These are amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of aggregated beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ40 and Aβ42) and hyperphosphorylated tau respectively (Dawbarn & Allen 2001 Neurobiology of Alzheimer's Disease OUP).
  • [0005]
    A comprehensive study has shown a strong link in patients between beta-amyloid accumulation and cognitive decline (Naslund et al, JAMA, Mar. 22/29, 2000, Vol. 283, No; 12, page 1571-1577). This is consistent with genetic and epidemiological studies that suggest that some mutations in APP and presenilin genes can predispose to early onset AD, which mutations also enhance the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide, including the ratio thereof.
  • [0006]
    Cleavage of the type I transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP) by two distinct proteases designated beta- and gamma-secretase is necessary for the formation of beta-amyloid peptide. The molecular identity of beta-secretase as the aspartyl-protease Asp2/BACE1 has been confirmed (Hussain et al Mol. Cell. NeuroSci. 16, 609-619 (2000); Vassar et al, Science (1999), Oct. 22; 286 (5440):735-741). The nature of gamma-secretase remains the source of some debate and is likely to consist of a high molecular weight complex consisting of at least the following proteins: presenilins, Aph1, Pen2 and nicastrin (reviewed in Medina & Dotti Cell Signalling 2003 15(9):829-41).
  • [0007]
    The processing of APP within the CNS is likely to occur within a number of cell-types including neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. While the overall rate of APP processing in these cells will be influenced by the relative level of expression of APP, BACE1/Asp2, presenilin-1 and -2, Aph1, Pen2 and nicastrin.
  • [0008]
    Furthermore, additional factors regulating the subcellular location of APP can also influence its processing as shown by the finding that mutation of the YENP motif in the APP cytoplasmic domain which blocks its endocytosis reduces beta-amyloid production (Perez et al 1999 J Biol Chem 274 (27) 18851-6). Retention of the APP-beta-CTF in the ER by the addition of the KKQN retention motif is sufficient to reduce amyloid production in transfected cells (Maltese et al 2001 J Biol Chem 276 (23) 20267-20279). Conversely, elevation of endocytosis, by overexpression of Rab5 is sufficient to elevate amyloid secretion from transfected cells (Grbovic et al 2003 J Biol Chem 278 (33) 31261-31268).
  • [0009]
    Consistent with these findings further studies have shown that reduction of cellular cholesterol levels (a well known risk factor for AD) reduced beta-amyloid formation. This change was dependent on altered endocytosis as demonstrated by the use of the dominant negative dynamin mutants (K44A) and overexpression of the Rab5 GTPase activating protein RN-Tre (Ehehalt et al 2003 J Cell Biol 160 (1) 113-123).
  • [0010]
    Cholesterol rich microdomains or rafts are also an important cellular site of beta-amyloid production and APP, BACE1 and components of the gamma-secretase complex have all been shown to transiently reside within rafts. Antibody cross-linking of APP and BACE1 towards cholesterol rich rafts was able to elevate beta-amyloid production (Ehehalt et al 2003 J Cell Biol 160 (1) 113-123). Expression of GPI-anchored BACE1, which is exclusively targeted to lipid rafts, is similarly able to elevate APP cleavage and beta-amyloid production (Cordy et al 2003 PNAS 100(20) 11735-11740).
  • [0011]
    The mechanisms underlying functional recovery are currently unknown. The sprouting of injured or non-injured axons has been proposed as one possible mechanism. However, although in vivo studies have shown that treatment of spinal cord injury or stroke with neurotrophic factors results in enhanced functional recovery and a degree of axonal sprouting, these do not prove a direct link between the degree of axonal sprouting and extent of functional recovery (Jakeman, et al. 1998, Exp. Neurol. 154: 170-184, Kawamata et al. 1997, Proc Natl Acad. Sci. USA., 94:8179-8184, Ribotta, et al. 2000, J. Neurosci. 20: 5144-5152). Furthermore, axonal sprouting requires a viable neuron. In diseases such as stroke which is associated with extensive cell death, enhancement of functional recovery offered by a given agent post stroke may therefore be through mechanisms other than axonal sprouting such as differentiation of endogenous stem cells, activation of redundant pathways, changes in receptor distribution or excitability of neurons or glia (Fawcett & Asher, 1999, Brain Res. Bulletin, 49: 377-391, Horner & Gage, 2000, Nature 407 963-970).
  • [0012]
    The limited ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to repair following injury is thought in part to be due to molecules within the CNS environment that have an inhibitory effect on axonal sprouting (neurite outgrowth). CNS myelin is thought to contain inhibitory molecules (Schwab M E and Caroni P (1988) J. Neurosci. 8, 2381-2193). Two myelin proteins, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and NOGO have been cloned and identified as putative inhibitors of neurite outgrowth (Sato S. et al (1989) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 163, 1473-1480; McKerracher L et al (1994) Neuron 13, 805-811; Mukhopadhyay G et al (1994) Neuron 13, 757-767; Torigoe K and Lundborg G (1997) Exp. Neurology 150, 254-262; Schafer et al (1996) Neuron 16, 1107-1113; WO9522344; WO9701352; Prinjha R et al (2000) Nature 403, 383-384; Chen M S et al (2000) Nature 403, 434-439; GrandPre T et al (2000) Nature 403, 439-444; US005250414A; WO200005364A1; WO0031235).
  • [0013]
    Three forms of human NOGO have been identified: NOGO-A having 1192 amino acid residues (GenBank accession no. AJ251383); NOGO-B, a splice variant which lacks residues 186 to 1004 in the putative extracellular domain (GenBank accession no. AJ251384) and a shorter splice variant, NOGO-C, which also lacks residues 186 to 1004 and also has smaller, alternative amino terminal domain (GenBank accession no. AJ251385) (Prinjha et al (2000) supra).
  • [0014]
    Inhibition of the CNS inhibitory proteins such as NOGO may provide a therapeutic means to ameliorate neuronal damage and promote neuronal repair and growth thereby potentially assisting recovery from neuronal injury such as that sustained in stroke. Examples of such NOGO inhibitors may include small molecules, peptides and antibodies.
  • [0015]
    Antibodies typically comprise two heavy chains linked together by disulphide bonds and two light chains. Each light chain is linked to a respective heavy chain by disulphide bonds. Each heavy chain has at one end a variable domain followed by a number of constant domains. Each light chain has a variable domain at one end and a constant domain at its other end. The light chain variable domain is aligned with the variable domain of the heavy chain. The light chain constant domain is aligned with the first constant domain of the heavy chain. The constant domains in the light and heavy chains are not involved directly in binding the antibody to antigen.
  • [0016]
    The variable domains of each pair of light and heavy chains form the antigen binding site. The variable domains on the light and heavy chains have the same general structure and each domain comprises a framework of four regions, whose sequences are relatively conserved, connected by three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) often referred to as hypervariable regions. The four framework regions largely adopt a beta-sheet conformation and the CDRs form loops connecting, and in some cases forming part of, the beta-sheet structure. The CDRs are held in close proximity by the framework regions and, with the CDRs from the other domain, contribute to the formation of the antigen binding site. CDRs and framework regions of antibodies may be determined by reference to Kabat et al (“Sequences of proteins of immunological interest” US Dept. of Health and Human Services, US Government Printing Office, 1987).
  • [0017]
    It has been reported that a murine monoclonal antibody, IN-1, that was raised against NI-220/250, a myelin protein which is a potent inhibitor of neurite growth (and subsequently shown to be fragment of NOGO-A), promotes axonal regeneration (Caroni, P and Schwab, M E (1988) Neuron 1 85-96; Schnell, L and Schwab, M E (1990) Nature 343 269-272; Bregman, B S et al (1995) Nature 378 498-501 and Thallmair, M et al (1998) Nature Neuroscience 1 124-131). It has also been reported that NOGO-A is the antigen for IN-1 (Chen et al (2000) Nature 403 434-439). Administration of IN-1 Fab fragment or humanised IN-1 to rats that have undergone spinal cord transection, enhanced recovery (Fiedler, M et al (2002) Protein Eng 15 931-941; Brosamle, C et al (2000) J. Neuroscience 20 8061-8068). However to date there is no evidence in the literature to suggest that IN-1, or its humanised form, can bind and inhibit human NOGO-A, a necessary requirement for a monoclonal antibody to be useful in the therapeutic treatment of NOGO-mediated diseases and disorders such as stroke and neurodegenerative diseases in humans.
  • [0018]
    Monoclonal antibodies which bind to NOGO are described in WO 04/052932 and WO2005028508. WO 04/052932 discloses a murine antibody 11C7 which binds to certain forms of human NOGO with high affinity.
  • [0019]
    It is desirable to isolate and develop further therapeutically useful monoclonal antibodies that bind to, and inhibit the activity of, human NOGO. The process of neurodegeneration underlies many neurological diseases/disorders including, but not limited to, acute diseases such as stroke (ischemic or haemorrhagic), traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury as well as chronic diseases including Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Schizophrenia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and inclusion body myositis. Consequently an anti-NOGO monoclonal antibody may be useful in the treatment of these diseases/disorders. Such antibodies for the treatment of the above mentioned disease/disorders are provided by the present invention and described in detail below.
  • [0020]
    The unpublished patent application, with the International Patent Application number PCT/GB2004/005325, also discloses high affinity monoclonal antibodies, including a murine monoclonal antibody 2A10, and a humanised variant thereof H1L11.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0021]
    The present invention provides a number of monoclonal antibodies that bind to human NOGO. The present application gives reference to many SEQ ID numbers, which are summarised in Table 12, with the actual sequences following that table towards the end of this document.
  • [0022]
    The murine antibody 2A10 binds to human NOGO with high affinity, and binds to the form of NOGO which is expressed by human cell lines with high affinity. 2A10 has been humanised successfully in the past (H1L11 which comprises the heavy chain variable region H1 (SEQ ID NO. 77) and the light chain variable region L11 (SEQ ID NO. 78)). The present invention provides additional humanised monoclonal antibodies which retain a high proportion of the affinity of the donor antibody (2A10) to human NOGO. In particular the antibodies of the present invention have a high affinity to human NOGO both in recombinant form as expressed in bacterial cells (such as E. Coli), and also in the form that it is expressed by a human neuroblastoma cell line (for example the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR32).
  • [0023]
    For the purposes of providing humanised variants of 2A10, the present inventors have identified a number of key amino acid residues in the framework sequence of the 2A10 variable regions which are believed to be important in optimal retention of binding affinity to human NOGO. The 2A10 heavy chain variable region (VH) is provided in SEQ ID NO.7; the 2A10 light chain variable region (VL) is provided in SEQ ID NO. 8. Chimeric heavy and light chains comprising the murine variable regions and human constant regions are provided in SEQ ID NOs 9 and 10 respectively (the combination of the two chimeric chains is termed HcLc). The skilled reader will understand that SEQ ID NOs 9 and 10 represent the heavy chain or light chains prior to any processing (e.g. host cell mediated processing) for removal of a signal sequence. Typically the processed forms of the antibody chains will begin at position 20 (after the removal of the signal sequence (residues 1-19) which corresponds to SEQ ID NO. 75).
    TABLE 1
    CDRs of the 2A10 heavy chain are:
    CDR According to Kabat
    H1 SYWMH (SEQ ID NO:1)
    H2 NINPSNGGTNYNEKFKS (SEQ ID NO:2)
    H3 GQGY (SEQ ID NO:3)
  • [0024]
    TABLE 2
    CDRs of 2A10 light chain:
    CDR According to Kabat
    L1 RSSKSLLYKDGKTYLN (SEQ ID NO:4)
    L2 LMSTRAS (SEQ ID NO:5)
    L3 QQLVEYPLT (SEQ ID NO:6)
  • [0025]
    The CDRs were identified according to Kabat (Kabat et al. (1991) “Sequences of proteins of immunological interest”; Fifth Edition; US Department of Health and Human Services; NIH publication No 91-3242). CDRs preferably are as defined by Kabat but following the principles of protein structure and folding as defined by Chothia and Lesk, (Chothia et al., (1989) “Conformations of immunoglobulin hypervariable regions”; Nature 342, p 877-883) it will be appreciated that additional residues may also be considered to be part of the antigen binding region and are thus encompassed by the present invention.
  • [0026]
    The VH and VL domains H1 and L11 have been previously described in PCT/GB2004/005325, and are a result of the CDRs mentioned in tables 1 and 2 being grafted into human variable regions with high homology to the 2A10 donor antibody, each grafted construct further comprising back mutations in kabat positions 93 and 94 (for the H1 VH) or 4, 45 and 46 (for L11 VL).
  • [0027]
    The 2A10 antibody is capable of binding to human NOGO, and also binds to Marmoset and Rat NOGO, and it is believed that the new humanised antibodies of the present invention will retain that property. The sequence of Marmoset NOGO-A fragment is given in SEQ ID NO. 113.
  • [0028]
    Heavy Chain Variable Region (VH)
  • [0029]
    In one aspect of the present invention the antibodies comprise a heavy chain variable region having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 77 (H1 variable region) further comprising a number of substitutions at one or more of positions 12, 20, 38, 40, 48, 67, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 79 and 91; wherein each substituted amino acid residue is replaced with the amino acid residue at the equivalent position in SEQ ID NO 7 (the heavy chain variable region of the donor antibody 2A10) and the number of substitutions is between 1 and 13. In other embodiments the number of substitutions is 1, or 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, or 6, or 7, or 8, or 9, or 10, or 11, or 12, or 13. In other embodiments the number of substitutions is between 2 and 13, or 3 and 13, or 4 and 13, or 5 and 13, or 6 and 13, or 7 and 13, or 8 and 13, or 9 and 13, or 10 and 13 or 11 and 13, or 12 and 13.
  • [0030]
    In this context the substitutions that are described are equivalent in concept to “back-mutations” where the human framework amino acid residues in specific positions within the H1 sequence are back-mutated to the amino acid residues in the equivalent position within the 2A10 donor antibody sequence.
  • [0031]
    Unless specifically stated otherwise, when a numerical position of an amino acid residue found within a specific sequence is mentioned in this document, for example “position 12”, it is intended that the skilled reader assigns the first amino acid in the sequence the position “1” and counts from position one and identifies the amino acid which is in the desired position, in this example the twelth amino acid residue in the sequence. The skilled reader will notice that this numbering system does not correspond with the Kabat numbering system which is often used for amino acid positions within antibody sequences. The following table (Table 3) illustrates the substitutions/back-mutations of the present invention and gives their numerical positions and the Kabat number for that numerical position:
    TABLE 3
    Kabat
    Human framework number of Corresponding residue
    residue of H1 (SEQ Numerical that numerical in murine 2A10 (SEQ
    ID NO 77) Position position ID NO 7)
    K 12 12 V
    V 20 20 L
    R 38 38 K
    A 40 40 R
    M 48 48 I
    R 67 66 K
    V 68 67 A
    M 70 69 L
    R 72 71 V
    T 74 73 K
    T 76 75 S
    V 79 78 A
    T 91 87 S
  • [0032]
    With reference to Table 3, in one embodiment the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention comprise the substitution/backmutation at position 79 to form antibodies of “Class A”.
  • [0033]
    For optimal binding affinity, it has been found that the pair of amino acid residues in positions 48 and 68, should be I and A respectively (as they exist in 2A10) or M and V respectively (as they exist in H1). Accordingly, again with reference to Table 3, in another embodiment, “Class B”, the monoclonal antibody comprises the substitution at positions 79, 48 and 68.
  • [0034]
    In another embodiment (“Class C”) the monoclonal antibodies of “Class A” or “Class B” further comprise a substitution at positions 40 and/or 67.
  • [0035]
    In another embodiment the “Class C” monoclonal antibodies of the present invention further comprise a substitution at positions 38, 72 or 70 to form “Class D” antibodies.
  • [0036]
    In another embodiment the “Class D” monoclonal antibodies further comprise substitutions at one or more of positions 12, 20, 74, 76 or 91 (“Class E”).
  • [0037]
    The following table includes details of 20 different heavy chain variable (VH) regions which may form part of the antibodies of the present invention. Each of the disclosed VH is based on the H1 VH (SEQ ID NO. 77) further comprising the substitutions mentioned in the table (Table 4) where the H1 residue at the relevant position is substituted with the 2A10 residue at that position (in the table, “-” means that there is no substitution in that position, and so the residue remains as in the sequence of H1):
    TABLE 4
    Numerical Residue No. 12 20 38 40 48 67 68 70 72 74 76 79 91
    New VH Kabat No. 12 20 38 40 48 66 67 69 71 73 75 78 87
    (SEQ ID 2A10 V L K R I K A L V K S A S
    NO. X) H1 K V R A M R V M R T T V T
    H5 (11) A
    H6 (12) I A A
    H700 (13) I A L V K A
    H8 I A L V A
    H9 L I A L V K A
    H10 L K I A L V K A
    H12 I A L K
    H13 I A V A
    H14 (14) V L K I A L A
    H15 (15) V L K R I K A L V S A S
    H16 (16) K R I K A L V K A
    H17 (17) V L K R I K A L V K A
    H18 (18) V L K R I K A L V K S A S
    H19 (85) R I A A
    H20 (86) I K A A
    H21 (87) R I K A A
    H22 (88) K R I K A A
    H23 (89) K R I K A V A
    H24 (90) K R I K A L V A
    H25 (91) R A
  • [0038]
    Accordingly there is provided a monoclonal antibody comprising the heavy chain variable region having a sequence given in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 11-18 or 85-91. In another embodiment there is provided a monoclonal antibody comprising a heavy chain having a sequence given in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 26-33 or 92-98.
  • [0039]
    In a particular embodiment the antibody comprises the VH regions provided in SEQ ID NOs 11, 12, 16, 18, 85, 86, 87 or 91 or the heavy chains provided in SEQ ID NOs 26, 27, 31, 33, 92, 93, 94 or 98.
  • [0040]
    Light Chain Variable Region
  • [0041]
    In one aspect of the present invention the antibodies comprise a light chain variable region having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 20 (L13 variable region) optionally further comprising a number of substitutions at one or more of positions 4, 7, 11, 19, 42, 64 and 70; wherein each substituted amino acid residue is replaced with the amino acid residue at the equivalent position in SEQ ID NO. 8 (the light chain variable region of the donor antibody 2A10) and the number of substitutions is between 0 and 7. In other embodiments the number of substitutions is 1, or 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, or 6, or 7. In other embodiments the number of substitutions is between 2 and 7, or 3 and 7, or 4 and 7, or 5 and 7, or 6 and 7.
  • [0042]
    The following table (Table 5) illustrates the substitutions/back-mutations of the present invention and gives their numerical positions and the Kabat number for that numerical position:
    TABLE 5
    Human framework Corresponding residue
    residue of L13 Numerical Kabat in murine 2A10
    (SEQ ID NO 20) Position number (SEQ ID NO 8)
    M 4 4 I
    S 7 7 D
    L 11 11 N
    A 19 19 V
    Q 42 37 L
    P 64 59 S
    G 70 65 S
  • [0043]
    With reference to Table 5, in another embodiment, “Class X”, the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention comprise a VL region having the substitution/backmutation at positions 11 and 19. In another embodiment “Class Y” the monoclonal antibodies of “Class X” further comprise the substitution in position 42. In a further embodiment the monoclonal antibodies of “Class X” or “Class Y” further comprise a back mutation in positions 7, 64 or 70 to form “Class Z”.
  • [0044]
    Again with reference to Table 5, in another embodiment the monoclonal antibodies of the present invention comprise a VL region having a substitution at position 4 (corresponding to L11 (SEQ ID NO.78).
  • [0045]
    The following table (Table 6) includes details of seven different light chain variable (VL) regions which may form part of the antibodies of the present invention. Each of the disclosed VL is, or is based on, the L13 VL (SEQ ID NO. 20) optionally further comprising the substitutions mentioned in the table where the L13 residue at the relevant position is substituted with the 2A10 residue at that position (in the table, “-” means that there is no substitution in that position, and so the residue remains as in the sequence of L13):
    TABLE 6
    Numerical Residue No. 4 7 11 19 42 64 70
    New VL Kabat No. 4 7 11 19 37 59 65
    (SEQ ID 2A10 I D N V L S S
    NO. X) L13 M S L A Q P G
    L11 (78) I
    L13 (20)
    L14 (21) L
    L15 (22) L S
    L16 (23) N V L
    L17 (24) D S S
    L18 (25) D N V L S S
  • [0046]
    Accordingly there is provided a monoclonal antibody comprising the light chain variable region having a sequence given in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 20-25 or 78. In another embodiment there is provided a monoclonal antibody comprising a light chain having a sequence given in any one of SEQ ID NOs: 35-40 or 80.
  • [0047]
    Alternatively there is provided a monoclonal antibody comprising the light chain variable region having the sequence given in SEQ ID NO. 19, or a light chain having the sequence given in SEQ ID NO. 34.
  • [0048]
    In a particular embodiment the antibody comprises the VL regions provided in SEQ ID NOs 20, 23 and 25 or the light chains provided in SEQ ID NOs 35, 38 and 40.
  • [0000]
    Specific Combinations of Heavy and Light Chain Variable Regions
  • [0049]
    The antibodies of the present invention comprise a heavy chain variable region and a light chain variable region.
  • [0050]
    In one embodiment the antibody comprises:
      • (a) A heavy chain variable region having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO. 77 (H1 variable region) further comprising a number of substitutions at one or more of positions 12, 20, 38, 40, 48, 67, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76, 79 and 91; wherein each substituted amino acid residue is replaced with the amino acid residue at the equivalent position in SEQ ID NO 7 (the heavy chain variable region of the donor antibody 2A10) and the number of substitutions is between 1 and 13. In other embodiments the number of substitutions is 1, or 2, or 3, or 4, or 5, or 6, or 7, or 8, or 9, or 10, or 11, or 12, or 13; and
      • (b) a light chain variable region selected from SEQ ID NOs 20-25 or 78.
  • [0053]
    Particular embodiments are antibodies comprising the following combinations of heavy and light chain variable regions: H1L13 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 20), H5L13 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 20), H6L13 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 20), H14L13 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 20), H15L13 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 20), H16L13 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 20), H17L13 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 20), H18L13 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 20), H19L13 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 20), H20L13 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 20), H21L13 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 20), H22L13 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 20), H23L13 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 20), H24L13 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 20), H25L13 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 20), H700L13 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 20), H1L16 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 23), H5L16 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 23), H6L16 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 23), H14L16 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 23), H15L16 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 23), H16L16 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 23), H17L16 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 23), H18L16 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 23), H19L16 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 23), H20L16 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 23), H21L16 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 23), H22L16 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 23), H23L16 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 23), H24L16 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 23), H25L16 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 23), H700L16 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 23), H1L18 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 25), H5L18 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 25), H6L18 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 25), H14L18 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 25), H15L18 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 25), H16L18 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 25), H17L18 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 25), H18L18 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 25), H19L18 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 25), H20L18 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 25), H21L18 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 25), H22L18 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 25), H23L18 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 25), H24L18 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 25), H25L18 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 25), H700L18 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 25).
  • [0054]
    Other embodiments are antibodies comprising the following combinations of heavy and light chain variable regions: H1L14 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 21), H5L14 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 21), H6L14 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 21), H14L14 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 21), H15L14 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 21), H16L14 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 21), H17L14 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 21), H18L14 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 21), H19L14 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 21), H20L14 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 21), H21L14 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 21), H22L14 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 21), H23L14 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 21), H24L14 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 21), H25L14 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 21), H700L14 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 21), H1L15 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 22), H5L15 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 22), H6L15 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 22), H14L15 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 22), H15L15 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 22), H16L15 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 22), H17L15 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 22), H18L15 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 22), H19L15 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 22), H20L15 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 22), H21L15 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 22), H22L15 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 22), H23L15 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 22), H24L15 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 22), H25L15 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 22), H700L15 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 22), H1L17 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 24), H5L17 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 24), H6L17 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 24), H14L17 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 24), H15L17 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 24), H16L17 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 24), H17L17 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 24), H18L17 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 24), H19L17 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 24), H20L17 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 24), H21L17 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 24), H22L17 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 24), H23L17 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 24), H24L17 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 24), H25L17 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 24), H700L17 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 24).
  • [0055]
    Further embodiments are antibodies comprising the following combinations of heavy and light chain variable regions: H1L6 (SEQ ID 77+SEQ ID 19), H5L6 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 19), H6L6 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 19), H14L6 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 19), H15L6 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 19), H16L6 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 19), H17L6 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 19), H18L6 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 19), H19L6 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 19), H20L6 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 19), H21L6 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 19), H22L6 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 19), H23L6 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 19), H24L6 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 19), H25L6 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 19), H700L6 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 19), H5L11 (SEQ ID 11+SEQ ID 78), H6L11 (SEQ ID 12+SEQ ID 78), H14L11 (SEQ ID 14+SEQ ID 78), H15L11 (SEQ ID 15+SEQ ID 78), H16L11 (SEQ ID 16+SEQ ID 78), H17L11 (SEQ ID 17+SEQ ID 78), H18L11 (SEQ ID 18+SEQ ID 78), H19L11 (SEQ ID 85+SEQ ID 78), H20L11 (SEQ ID 86+SEQ ID 78), H21L11 (SEQ ID 87+SEQ ID 78), H22L11 (SEQ ID 88+SEQ ID 78), H23L11 (SEQ ID 89+SEQ ID 78), H24L11 (SEQ ID 90+SEQ ID 78), H25L11 (SEQ ID 91+SEQ ID 78), H700L11 (SEQ ID 13+SEQ ID 78).
  • [0056]
    Whole Antibodies
  • [0057]
    Further, the invention also provides a humanised antibody which binds to and neutralises NOGO, preferably human NOGO, more preferably human NOGO-A. More specifically there is provided a humanised antibody comprising a heavy chain variable region as described herein and a light chain variable region as described herein.
  • [0058]
    The humanised antibodies of the present invention bind to human NOGO with a comparable affinity to that of the murine donor antibody 2A10. In one embodiment the binding of the antibody of the present invention to NOGO has an affinity constant (KD, as measured by BiaCore techniques) within 10 fold of 2A10, and in another embodiment the affinity constant is within three or two fold of 2A10. In another embodiment the affinity constant is within three or two fold of that of 2A10 and the off-rate (kd) is within 10 fold, or three fold, or two fold of 2A10. The method of measuring the affinity constant and the off-rate of the antibody should be clear to the skilled reader, however the kinetic analysis BiaCore method given in Example 5 of this document is illustrative in this regard. For example, the affinity constant and the off-rate of 2A10 as measured by BiaCore kinetic analysis is about commonly in the region of 1 nM and 1.84×10−3 (kd 1/s) respectively; in the same assay the antibodies of one embodiment of the present invention will have an affinity constant of less than 8-10 nM and 1.84×10−2.
  • [0059]
    In typical embodiments, the antibodies of the invention are of the IgG class, more typically human IgG1 or IgG4, with a K type human light chain.
  • [0060]
    A further aspect of the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising an anti-NOGO antibody of the present invention or functional fragment thereof together with a pharmaceutically acceptable diluent or carrier.
  • [0061]
    In a further aspect, the present invention provides a method of treatment or prophylaxis of stroke (particularly ischemic stroke) and other neurological diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease, in a human which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody of the invention or functional fragments thereof.
  • [0062]
    In another aspect, the invention provides the use of an anti-NOGO antibody of the invention or a functional fragment thereof in the preparation of a medicament for treatment or prophylaxis of stroke (particularly ischemic stroke) and other neurological diseases, in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0063]
    In a further aspect, the present invention provides a method of inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient afflicted with, or at risk of developing, a stroke (particularly ischemic stroke) or other neurological disease, in particular Alzheimer's disease, which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody of the invention or a functional fragment thereof.
  • [0064]
    In a yet further aspect, the invention provides the use of an anti-NOGO antibody of the invention or a functional fragment thereof in the preparation of a medicament for inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient afflicted with, or at risk of developing, a stroke and other neurological disease, in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0065]
    Other aspects and advantages of the present invention are described further in the detailed description and the preferred embodiments thereof.
  • [0066]
    In one embodiment the full length antibodies are those comprising the light chains of SEQ ID NOs 34-40 and the heavy chains of SEQ ID NOs 92-98; and in particular the light chains of SEQ ID NOs 35, 38 or 40 and heavy chains of SEQ ID NOs 92, 93, 94 or 98. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that all of the sequences given for the full length antibody chains in Table 7 and 12 (and appended sequences) represent the heavy chain or light chains prior to any processing (e.g. host cell mediated processing) for removal of a signal sequence. Typically the processed forms of the antibody chains will begin at position 20 (after the removal of the signal sequence (residues 1-19) which corresponds to SEQ ID NO. 75). The present invention provides the antibodies having the polypeptide sequences listed (after removal of the first 19 amino acids of the signal sequence), and also provides the antibodies in the form in which they are produced and purified from host cells expressing the polynucleotides encoding the heavy and light chain.
    TABLE 7
    Specific full length antibodies include:
    Antibody Light Chain Heavy Chain
    H5L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 26
    H6L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 27
    H19L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 92
    H20L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 93
    H21L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 94
    H25L13 FL SEQ ID NO. 35 SEQ ID NO. 98
    H16L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 31
    H19L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 92
    H20L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 93
    H21L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 94
    H25L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 98
    H16L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 31
    H18L16 FL SEQ ID NO. 38 SEQ ID NO. 33
    H19L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 92
    H20L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 93
    H21L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 94
    H25L18 FL SEQ ID NO. 40 SEQ ID NO. 98
  • [0067]
    Alternatively the substitutions mentioned above, being the back mutations to the exact amino residue found in the equivalent position within the donor 2A10 murine sequence, may be any substitution to an amino acid which is a conservative substitution of the exact residue found in the equivalent position within the donor 2A10 murine sequence. The term “conservative substitution” is clear to the skilled reader, and includes for instance a substitution of an amino acid with another amino acid residue having a similar physical, chemical or structural property such as pH, charge, hydrophobicity, aromaticity etc.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0068]
    FIGS. 1 A and B, ELISA data for monoclonal antibody supernatants binding to recombinant human NOGO.
  • [0069]
    FIGS. 2 A and B, ELISA data for purified monoclonal antibody binding to recombinant human NOGO.
  • [0070]
    FIGS. 3 A and B, ELISA data for monoclonal antibody supernatants binding to recombinant human NOGO.
  • [0071]
    FIGS. 4 A and B, ELISA data for monoclonal antibody supernatants binding to recombinant human NOGO.
  • [0072]
    FIGS. 5 A and B, ELISA data for monoclonal antibody supernatants binding to recombinant human NOGO.
  • [0073]
    FIG. 6, A to F, FACS data for purified antibody binding to human NOGO expressed by human neuroblastoma cells.
  • [0074]
    FIG. 7, Competition ELISA results
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0075]
    Antibodies of the invention typically have the structure of a natural antibody or functional fragment thereof. The antibody may therefore comprise a full length antibody, a (Fab)2 fragment, a Fab fragment, a light chain dimer or a heavy chain dimer. The antibody may be an IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, or IgG4; or IgM; IgA, IgE or IgD or a modified variant thereof. The constant domain of the antibody heavy chain may be selected accordingly. The light chain constant domain may be a kappa or lambda constant domain. Furthermore, the antibody may comprise modifications of all classes eg. IgG dimers, Fc mutants that no longer bind Fc receptors or mediate Clq binding. The antibody may also be a chimeric antibody of the type described in WO86/01533 which comprises an antigen binding region and a non-immunoglobulin region. The antigen binding region is an antibody light chain variable domain or heavy chain variable domain. Typically the antigen binding region comprises both light and heavy chain variable domains. The non-immunoglobulin region is fused at its C terminus to the antigen binding region. The non-immunoglobulin region is typically a non-immunoglobulin protein and may be an enzyme, a toxin or protein having known binding specificity. The two regions of this type of chimeric antibody may be connected via a cleavable linker sequence. Immunoadhesins having the CDRs as hereinbefore described are also contemplated in the present invention.
  • [0076]
    The constant region is selected according to the functionality required. Normally an IgG1 will demonstrate lytic ability through binding to complement and/or will mediate ADCC (antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity). An IgG4 will be preferred if a non-cytotoxic blocking antibody is required. However, IgG4 antibodies can demonstrate instability in production and therefore it may be more preferable to modify the generally more stable IgG1. Suggested modifications are described in EP0307434 preferred modifications include at positions 235 and 237. The invention therefore provides a lytic or a non-lytic form of an antibody according to the invention.
  • [0077]
    In one embodiment the antibody of the invention is a full length (i.e. a tetramer comprising two heavy and two light chains) non-lytic IgG1 antibody having the VH or VL sequences described supra. In another embodiment we provide a full length non-lytic IgG1 antibody having the VHs of SEQ ID NOs 11, 12, 16, 18 or 85, 86, 87 or 91; and VLs of SEQ ID NOs 20, 23 or 25.
  • [0078]
    In a further aspect, the invention provides polynucleotides encoding the disclosed heavy or light chains or variable regions. For example the invention provides polynucleotides encoding VH having the sequence contained in SEQ ID NOs 45-52, 99-105 and VL regions having the sequence contained in SEQ ID NOs 53-59.
  • [0079]
    “NOGO” refers to any NOGO polypeptide, including variant forms. This includes, but is not limited to, NOGO-A having 1192 amino acid residues (GenBank accession no. AJ251383); NOGO-B, a splice variant which lacks residues 186 to 1004 in the putative extracellular domain (GenBank accession no. AJ251384) and a shorter splice variant, NOGO-C, which also lacks residues 186 to 1004 and also has smaller, alternative amino terminal domain (GenBank accession no. AJ251385) (Prinjha et al (2000) supra). All references to “NOGO” herein is understood to include any and all variant forms of NOGO such as NOGO-A and the splice variants described, unless a specific form is indicated.
  • [0080]
    “Neutralising” and grammatical variations thereof refers to inhibition, either total or partial, of NOGO function including its binding to neurones and inhibition of neurite growth.
  • [0081]
    “Altered antibody” refers to a protein encoded by an altered immunoglobulin coding region, which may be obtained by expression in a selected host cell. Such altered antibodies include engineered antibodies (e.g., chimeric, reshaped, humanized or vectored antibodies) or antibody fragments lacking all or part of an immunoglobulin constant region, e.g., Fv, Fab, or F(ab)2 and the like.
  • [0082]
    “Altered immunoglobulin coding region” refers to a nucleic acid sequence encoding altered antibody. When the altered antibody is a CDR-grafted or humanized antibody, the sequences that encode the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from a non-human immunoglobulin are inserted into a first immunoglobulin partner comprising human variable framework sequences. Optionally, the first immunoglobulin partner is operatively linked to a second immunoglobulin partner.
  • [0083]
    The terms Fv, Fc, Fd, Fab, or F(ab)2 are used with their standard meanings (see, e.g., Harlow et al., Antibodies A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, (1988)).
  • [0084]
    As used herein, an “engineered antibody” describes a type of altered antibody, i.e., a full-length synthetic antibody (e.g., a chimeric, reshaped or humanized antibody as opposed to an antibody fragment) in which a portion of the light and/or heavy chain variable domains of a selected acceptor antibody are replaced by analogous parts from one or more donor antibodies which have specificity for the selected epitope. For example, such molecules may include antibodies characterized by a humanized heavy chain associated with an unmodified light chain (or chimeric light chain), or vice versa. Engineered antibodies may also be characterized by alteration of the nucleic acid sequences encoding the acceptor antibody light and/or heavy variable domain framework regions in order to retain donor antibody binding specificity. These antibodies can comprise replacement of one or more CDRs (preferably all) from the acceptor antibody with CDRs from a donor antibody described herein.
  • [0085]
    A “chimeric antibody” refers to a type of engineered antibody which contains a naturally-occurring variable region (light chain and heavy chains) derived from a donor antibody in association with light and heavy chain constant regions derived from an acceptor antibody.
  • [0086]
    A “humanized antibody” refers to a type of engineered antibody having its CDRs derived from a non-human donor immunoglobulin, the remaining immunoglobulin-derived parts of the molecule being derived from one (or more) human immunoglobulin(s). In addition, framework support residues may be altered to preserve binding affinity (see, e.g., Queen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA, 86:10029-10032 (1989), Hodgson et al., Bio/Technology, 9:421 (1991)). A suitable human acceptor antibody may be one selected from a conventional database, e.g., the KABAT® database, Los Alamos database, and Swiss Protein database, by homology to the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the donor antibody. A human antibody characterized by a homology to the framework regions of the donor antibody (on an amino acid basis) may be suitable to provide a heavy chain constant region and/or a heavy chain variable framework region for insertion of the donor CDRs. A suitable acceptor antibody capable of donating light chain constant or variable framework regions may be selected in a similar manner. It should be noted that the acceptor antibody heavy and light chains are not required to originate from the same acceptor antibody. The prior art describes several ways of producing such humanised antibodies—see for example EP-A-0239400 and EP-A-054951
  • [0087]
    The term “donor antibody” refers to an antibody (monoclonal, and/or recombinant) which contributes the amino acid sequences of its variable regions, CDRs, or other functional fragments or analogs thereof to a first immunoglobulin partner, so as to provide the altered immunoglobulin coding region and resulting expressed altered antibody with the antigenic specificity and neutralizing activity characteristic of the donor antibody.
  • [0088]
    The term “acceptor antibody” refers to an antibody (monoclonal and/or recombinant) heterologous to the donor antibody, which contributes all (or any portion, but preferably all) of the amino acid sequences encoding its heavy and/or light chain framework regions and/or its heavy and/or light chain constant regions to the first immunoglobulin partner. Preferably a human antibody is the acceptor antibody.
  • [0089]
    “CDRs” are defined as the complementarity determining region amino acid sequences of an antibody which are the hypervariable regions of immunoglobulin heavy and light chains. See, e.g., Kabat et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 4th Ed., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health (1987). There are three heavy chain and three light chain CDRs (or CDR regions) in the variable portion of an immunoglobulin. Thus, “CDRs” as used herein refers to all three heavy chain CDRs, or all three light chain CDRs (or both all heavy and all light chain CDRs, if appropriate). The structure and protein folding of the antibody may mean that other residues are considered part of the antigen binding region and would be understood to be so by a skilled person. See for example Chothia et al., (1989) Conformations of immunoglobulin hypervariable regions; Nature 342, p 877-883.
  • [0090]
    CDRs provide the majority of contact residues for the binding of the antibody to the antigen or epitope. CDRs of interest in this invention are derived from donor antibody variable heavy and light chain sequences, and include analogs of the naturally occurring CDRs, which analogs also share or retain the same antigen binding specificity and/or neutralizing ability as the donor antibody from which they were derived.
  • [0091]
    A “functional fragment” is a partial heavy or light chain variable sequence (e.g., minor deletions at the amino or carboxy terminus of the immunoglobulin variable region) which retains the same antigen binding specificity and the same or similar neutralizing ability as the antibody from which the fragment was derived.
  • [0092]
    An “analog” is an amino acid sequence modified by at least one amino acid, wherein said modification can be chemical or a substitution or a rearrangement of a few amino acids (i.e., no more than 10), which modification permits the amino acid sequence to retain the biological characteristics, e.g., antigen specificity and high affinity, of the unmodified sequence.
  • [0093]
    Analogs may also arise as allelic variations. An “allelic variation or modification” is an alteration in the nucleic acid sequence. Such variations or modifications may be due to degeneracy in the genetic code or may be deliberately engineered to provide desired characteristics. These variations or modifications may or may not result in alterations in any encoded amino acid sequence.
  • [0094]
    The present invention also includes the use of Fab fragments or F(ab′)2 fragments derived from mAbs of the present invention directed against NOGO. A Fab fragment contains the entire light chain and amino terminal portion of the heavy chain; and an F(ab′)2 fragment is the fragment formed by two Fab fragments bound by disulfide bonds. Fab fragments and F(ab′)2 fragments can be obtained by conventional means, e.g., cleavage of mAb with the appropriate proteolytic enzymes, papain and/or pepsin, or by recombinant methods. The Fab and F(ab′)2 fragments are useful themselves as therapeutic or prophylactic, and as donors of sequences including the variable regions and CDR sequences useful in the formation of recombinant or humanized antibodies as described herein.
  • [0095]
    Altered immunoglobulin molecules can encode altered antibodies which include engineered antibodies such as chimeric antibodies and humanized antibodies. A desired altered immunoglobulin coding region contains CDR-encoding regions that encode peptides having the antigen specificity of an anti-NOGO antibody, preferably a high affinity antibody, inserted into a first immunoglobulin partner (a human framework or human immunoglobulin variable region).
  • [0096]
    Preferably, the first immunoglobulin partner is operatively linked to a second immunoglobulin partner. The second immunoglobulin partner is defined above, and may include a sequence encoding a second antibody region of interest, for example an Fc region. Second immunoglobulin partners may also include sequences encoding another immunoglobulin to which the light or heavy chain constant region is fused in frame or by means of a linker sequence. Engineered antibodies directed against functional fragments or analogs of NOGO may be designed to elicit enhanced binding.
  • [0097]
    The second immunoglobulin partner may also be associated with effector agents as defined above, including non-protein carrier molecules, to which the second immunoglobulin partner may be operatively linked by conventional means.
  • [0098]
    Fusion or linkage between the second immunoglobulin partners, e.g., antibody sequences, and the effector agent may be by any suitable means, e.g., by conventional covalent or ionic bonds, protein fusions, or hetero-bifunctional cross-linkers, e.g., carbodiimide, glutaraldehyde, and the like. Such techniques are known in the art and readily described in conventional chemistry and biochemistry texts.
  • [0099]
    Additionally, conventional linker sequences which simply provide for a desired amount of space between the second immunoglobulin partner and the effector agent may also be constructed into the altered immunoglobulin coding region. The design of such linkers is well known to those of skill in the art. In further aspects of the invention we provide diabodies (bivalent or bispecific), triabodies, tetrabodies and other multivalent scFV protein species having one or more CDRs as described supra that bind to and neutralise NOGO function.
  • [0100]
    In still a further embodiment, the antibody of the invention may have attached to it an additional agent. For example, the procedure of recombinant DNA technology may be used to produce an engineered antibody of the invention in which the Fc fragment or CH2-CH3 domain of a full length antibody molecule has been replaced by an enzyme or other detectable molecule (i.e., a polypeptide effector or reporter molecule).
  • [0101]
    The second immunoglobulin partner may also be operatively linked to a non-immunoglobulin peptide, protein or fragment thereof heterologous to the CDR-containing sequence having the antigen specificity of anti-NOGO antibody. The resulting protein may exhibit both anti-NOGO antigen specificity and characteristics of the non-immunoglobulin upon expression. That fusion partner characteristic may be, e.g., a functional characteristic such as another binding or receptor domain, or a therapeutic characteristic if the fusion partner is itself a therapeutic protein, or additional antigenic characteristics.
  • [0102]
    Another desirable protein of this invention may comprise a full length antibody molecule, having full length heavy and light chains, or any discrete fragment thereof, such as the Fab or F(ab′)2 fragments, a heavy chain dimer, or any minimal recombinant fragments thereof such as an Fv or a single-chain antibody (SCA) or any other molecule with the same specificity as the selected donor mAb. Such protein may be used in the form of an altered antibody, or may be used in its unfused form.
  • [0103]
    Whenever the second immunoglobulin partner is derived from an antibody different from the donor antibody, e.g. any isotype or class of immunoglobulin framework or constant regions, an engineered antibody results. Engineered antibodies can comprise immunoglobulin (Ig) constant regions and variable framework regions from one source, e.g., the acceptor antibody, and one or more (preferably all) CDRs from the donor antibody. In addition, alterations, e.g., deletions, substitutions, or additions, of the acceptor mAb light and/or heavy variable domain framework region at the nucleic acid or amino acid levels, or the donor CDR regions may be made in order to retain donor antibody antigen binding specificity.
  • [0104]
    Such engineered antibodies are designed to employ one (or both) of the variable heavy and/or light chains of the anti-NOGO mAb or one or more of the heavy or light chain CDRs. The engineered antibodies may be neutralising, as above defined.
  • [0105]
    In addition, the constant region may be altered to enhance or decrease selective properties of the molecules of the instant invention. For example, dimerization, binding to Fc receptors, or the ability to bind and activate complement (see, e.g., Angal et al., Mol. Immunol, 30:105-108 (1993), Xu et al., J. Biol. Chem, 269:3469-3474 (1994), Winter et al., EP 307,434-B).
  • [0106]
    The antibodies of the present invention may be produced by making a conventional expression vector or recombinant plasmid by placing these coding sequences for the antibody in operative association with conventional regulatory control sequences capable of controlling the replication and expression in, and/or secretion from, a host cell. Regulatory sequences include promoter sequences, e.g., CMV promoter, and signal sequences, which can be derived from other known antibodies. Similarly, a second expression vector can be produced having a DNA sequence which encodes a complementary antibody light or heavy chain. Preferably this second expression vector is identical to the first except insofar as the coding sequences and selectable markers are concerned, so to ensure as far as possible that each polypeptide chain is functionally expressed. Alternatively, the heavy and light chain coding sequences for the altered antibody may reside on a single vector.
  • [0107]
    A selected host cell is co-transfected by conventional techniques with both the first and second vectors (or simply transfected by a single vector) to create the transfected host cell of the invention comprising both the recombinant or synthetic light and heavy chains. The transfected cell is then cultured by conventional techniques to produce the engineered antibody of the invention. The antibody which includes the association of both the recombinant heavy chain and/or light chain is screened from culture by appropriate assay, such as ELISA or RIA. Similar conventional techniques may be employed to construct other altered antibodies and molecules.
  • [0108]
    Suitable vectors for the cloning and subcloning steps employed in the methods and construction of the compositions of this invention may be selected by one of skill in the art. For example, the conventional pUC series of cloning vectors may be used. One vector, pUC19, is commercially available from supply houses, such as Amersham (Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom) or Pharmacia (Uppsala, Swedeny. Additionally, any vector which is capable of replicating readily, has an abundance of cloning sites and selectable genes (e.g., antibiotic resistance), and is easily manipulated may be used for cloning. Thus, the selection of the cloning vector is not a limiting factor in this invention.
  • [0109]
    Similarly, the vectors employed for expression of the antibodies may be selected by one of skill in the art from any conventional vector. The vectors also contain selected regulatory sequences (such as CMV or RSV promoters) which direct the replication and expression of heterologous DNA sequences in selected host cells. These vectors contain the above described DNA sequences which code for the antibody or altered immunoglobulin coding region. In addition, the vectors may incorporate the selected immunoglobulin sequences modified by the insertion of desirable restriction sites for ready manipulation.
  • [0110]
    The expression vectors may also be characterized by genes suitable for amplifying expression of the heterologous DNA sequences, e.g., the mammalian dihydrofolate reductase gene (DHFR). Other preferable vector sequences include a poly A signal sequence, such as from bovine growth hormone (BGH) and the betaglobin promoter sequence (betaglopro). The expression vectors useful herein may be synthesized by techniques well known to those skilled in this art.
  • [0111]
    The components of such vectors, e.g. replicons, selection genes, enhancers, promoters, signal sequences and the like, may be obtained from commercial or natural sources or synthesized by known procedures for use in directing the expression and/or secretion of the product of the recombinant DNA in a selected host. Other appropriate expression vectors of which numerous types are known in the art for mammalian, bacterial, insect, yeast, and fungal expression may also be selected for this purpose.
  • [0112]
    The present invention also encompasses a cell line transfected with a recombinant plasmid containing the coding sequences of the antibodies or altered immunoglobulin molecules thereof. Host cells useful for the cloning and other manipulations of these cloning vectors are also conventional. However, most desirably, cells from various strains of E. coli are used for replication of the cloning vectors and other steps in the construction of altered antibodies of this invention.
  • [0113]
    Suitable host cells or cell lines for the expression of the antibody of the invention are preferably mammalian cells such as NS0, Sp2/0, CHO (e.g. DG44), COS, a fibroblast cell (e.g., 3T3), and myeloma cells, and more preferably a CHO or a myeloma cell. Human cells may be used, thus enabling the molecule to be modified with human glycosylation patterns. Alternatively, other eukaryotic cell lines may be employed. The selection of suitable mammalian host cells and methods for transformation, culture, amplification, screening and product production and purification are known in the art. See, e.g., Sambrook et al., cited above.
  • [0114]
    Bacterial cells may prove useful as host cells suitable for the expression of the recombinant Fabs of the present invention (see, e.g., Pluckthun, A., Immunol. Rev., 130:151-188 (1992)). However, due to the tendency of proteins expressed in bacterial cells to be in an unfolded or improperly folded form or in a non-glycosylated form, any recombinant Fab produced in a bacterial cell would have to be screened for retention of antigen binding ability. If the molecule expressed by the bacterial cell was produced in a properly folded form, that bacterial cell would be a desirable host. For example, various strains of E. coli used for expression are well-known as host cells in the field of biotechnology. Various strains of B. subtilis, Streptomyces, other bacilli and the like may also be employed in this method.
  • [0115]
    Where desired, strains of yeast cells known to those skilled in the art are also available as host cells, as well as insect cells, e.g. Drosophila and Lepidoptera and viral expression systems. See, e.g. Miller et al., Genetic Engineering, 8:277-298, Plenum Press (1986) and references cited therein.
  • [0116]
    The general methods by which the vectors may be constructed, the transfection methods required to produce the host cells of the invention, and culture methods necessary to produce the antibody of the invention from such host cell are all conventional techniques. Typically, the culture method of the present invention is a serum-free culture method, usually by culturing cells serum-free in suspension. Likewise, once produced, the antibodies of the invention may be purified from the cell culture contents according to standard procedures of the art, including ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity columns, column chromatography, gel electrophoresis and the like. Such techniques are within the skill of the art and do not limit this invention. For example, preparation of altered antibodies are described in WO 99/58679 and WO 96/16990.
  • [0117]
    Yet another method of expression of the antibodies may utilize expression in a transgenic animal, such as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,873,316. This relates to an expression system using the animal's casein promoter which when transgenically incorporated into a mammal permits the female to produce the desired recombinant protein in its milk.
  • [0118]
    In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of producing an antibody of the invention which method comprises the step of culturing a host cell transformed or transfected with a vector encoding the light and/or heavy chain of the antibody of the invention and recovering the antibody thereby produced.
  • [0119]
    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a method of producing an anti-NOGO antibody which specifically binds to and neutralises the activity of human NOGO-A which method comprises the steps of;
      • (a) providing a first vector encoding a heavy chain of the antibody;
      • (b) providing a second vector encoding the light chain of the antibody;
      • (c) tranforming a mammalian host cell (e.g. CHO) with said first and second vectors;
      • (d) culturing the host cell of step (c) under conditions conducive to the secretion of the antibody from said host cell into said culture media;
      • (e) recovering the secreted antibody of step (d).
  • [0125]
    Once expressed by the desired method, the antibody is then examined for in vitro activity by use of an appropriate assay. Presently conventional ELISA assay formats are employed to assess qualitative and quantitative binding of the antibody to NOGO. Additionally, other in vitro assays may also be used to verify neutralizing efficacy prior to subsequent human clinical studies performed to evaluate the persistence of the antibody in the body despite the usual clearance mechanisms.
  • [0126]
    The therapeutic agents of this invention may be administered as a prophylactic or following the stroke event/on-set of clinical symptoms, or as otherwise needed. The dose and duration of treatment relates to the relative duration of the molecules of the present invention in the human circulation, and can be adjusted by one of skill in the art depending upon the condition being treated and the general health of the patient. It is envisaged that repeated dosing (e.g. once a week or once every two weeks) over an extended time period (e.g. four to six months) maybe required to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy.
  • [0127]
    The mode of administration of the therapeutic agent of the invention may be any suitable route which delivers the agent to the host. The antagonists and antibodies, and pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are particularly useful for parenteral administration, i.e., subcutaneously, intrathecally, intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, intravenously, or intranasally, of which intravenously is particularly preferred.
  • [0128]
    Therapeutic agents of the invention may be prepared as pharmaceutical compositions containing an effective amount of the antagonist or antibody of the invention as an active ingredient in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In the prophylactic agent of the invention, an aqueous suspension or solution containing the engineered antibody, preferably buffered at physiological pH, in a form ready for injection is preferred. The compositions for parenteral administration will commonly comprise a solution of the antagonist or antibody of the invention or a cocktail thereof dissolved in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, preferably an aqueous carrier. A variety of aqueous carriers may be employed, e.g., 0.9% saline, 0.3% glycine, and the like. These solutions are sterile and generally free of particulate matter. These solutions may be sterilized by conventional, well known sterilization techniques (e.g., filtration). The compositions may contain pharmaceutically acceptable auxiliary substances as required to approximate physiological conditions such as pH adjusting and buffering agents, etc. The concentration of the antagonist or antibody of the invention in such pharmaceutical formulation can vary widely, i.e., from less than about 0.5%, usually at or at least about 1% to as much as 15 or 20% by weight and will be selected primarily based on fluid volumes, viscosities, etc., according to the particular mode of administration selected.
  • [0129]
    Thus, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention for intramuscular injection could be prepared to contain 1 mL sterile buffered water, and between about 1 ng to about 100 mg, e.g. about 50 ng to about 30 mg or more preferably, about 5 mg to about 25 mg, of an antagonist or antibody of the invention. Similarly, a pharmaceutical composition of the invention for intravenous infusion could be made up to contain about 250 ml of sterile Ringer's solution, and about 1 to about 30 and preferably 5 mg to about 25 mg of an engineered antibody of the invention. Actual methods for preparing parenterally administrable compositions are well known or will be apparent to those skilled in the art and are described in more detail in, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Science, 15th ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa. For the preparation of intravenously administrable antibody formulations of the invention see Lasmar U and Parkins D “The formulation of Biopharmaceutical products”, Pharma. Sci. Tech. today, page 129-137, Vol. 3 (3 Apr. 2000), Wang, W “Instability, stabilisation and formulation of liquid protein pharmaceuticals”, Int. J. Pharm 185 (1999) 129-188, Stability of Protein Pharmaceuticals Part A and B ed Ahern T. J., Manning M. C., New York, N.Y.: Plenum Press (1992), Akers, M. J. “Excipient-Drug interactions in Parenteral Formulations”, J. Pharm Sci 91 (2002) 2283-2300, Imamura, K et al “Effects of types of sugar on stabilization of Protein in the dried state”, J Pharm Sci 92 (2003) 266-274, Izutsu, Kkojima, S. “Excipient crystalinity and its protein-structure-stabilizing effect during freeze-drying”, J. Pharm. Pharmacol, 54 (2002) 1033-1039, Johnson, R, “Mannitol-sucrose mixtures-versatile formulations for protein lyophilization”, J. Pharm. Sci, 91 (2002) 914-922.
  • [0130]
    Ha, E Wang W, Wang Y. j. “Peroxide formation in polysorbate 80 and protein stability”, J. Pharm Sci, 91, 2252-2264, (2002) the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference and to which the reader is specifically referred.
  • [0131]
    It is preferred that the therapeutic agent of the invention, when in a pharmaceutical preparation, be present in unit dose forms. The appropriate therapeutically effective dose can be determined readily by those of skill in the art. To effectively treat stroke and other neurological diseases in a human, one dose of up to 700 mg per 70 kg body weight of an antagonist or antibody of this invention should be administered parenterally, preferably i.v. or i.m. (intramuscularly). Such dose may, if necessary, be repeated at appropriate time intervals selected as appropriate by a physician. As disclosed in the examples, the present inventors have been able to demonstrate a positive effect on functional recovery in the rat model therein when antibodies of the invention were administered intravenously.
  • [0132]
    The antibodies described herein can be lyophilized for storage and reconstituted in a suitable carrier prior to use. This technique has been shown to be effective with conventional immunoglobulins and art-known lyophilization and reconstitution techniques can be employed.
  • [0133]
    Antibodies of the invention may also be used in combination (i.e. simultaneously, sequentially or separately) with a neurotrophic factor such as nerve growth factor (NGF), for example brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids, and/or tPA. Combinations of a NOGO antibody of the invention and e.g. tPA maybe assessed in the MCAO model set forth in the examples below.
  • [0134]
    In another aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising anti-NOGO antibody of the present invention or a functional fragment thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for treatment or prophylaxis of stroke and other neurological diseases.
  • [0135]
    In a yet further aspect, the invention provides a pharmaceutical composition comprising the anti-NOGO antibody of the present invention or a functional fragment thereof and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier for inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient suffering, or at risk of developing, a stroke or other neurological disease.
  • [0136]
    The invention further provides a method of treatment or prophylaxis of stroke (particularly ischemic stroke) and other neurological diseases/disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease, in a human which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody or a functional fragment thereof. Antibodies of the invention may be used in methods of treatment to slow or halt the progression and/or onset of Alzheimer's disease in addition to (or as an alternative to) treating established disease in a human patient.
  • [0137]
    Further the invention provides the use of an anti-NOGO antibody, or a functional fragment thereof, in the preparation of a medicament for treatment or prophylaxis of stroke and other neurological diseases/disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0138]
    The invention also provides a method of inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient suffering, or at risk of developing, a stroke or other neurological disease/disorder, in particular Alzheimer's disease, which comprises administering to said human in need thereof an effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody or a functional fragment thereof.
  • [0139]
    In addition the invention provides the use of an anti-NOGO antibody or a functional fragment thereof in the preparation of a medicament for inhibiting neurodegeneration and/or promoting functional recovery in a human patient afflicted with, or at risk of developing, a stroke and other neurological disease/disorder, in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0140]
    The invention further provides a method of treating or prophylaxis of stroke or other neurological disease/disorder, in particular Alzheimer's disease, in a human comprising the step of parenteral administration of a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody. Preferably the anti-NOGO antibody is administered intravenously.
  • [0141]
    Neurological diseases or disorders as used hereinabove includes, but is not limited to traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0142]
    The invention also provides a method of promoting axonal sprouting comprising the step of contacting a human axon with an anti-NOGO antibody. This method may be performed in-vitro or in-vivo, preferably the method is performed in-vivo.
  • [0143]
    In a further aspect therefore there is provided the use of an anti-NOGO antibody or functional fragment thereof of the invention comprising CDR's of table 1 and 2; CDR's of Table 3 and 4; or CDR's of table 5 and 6 in intravenously administrable form in the manufacture of a medicament for the treatment of stroke (particularly ischemic stroke), brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease in a human patient.
  • [0144]
    In a further aspect therefore there is provided a method of treating stroke (particularly ischemic stroke), brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease in a human patient which method comprises the intravenous administration of a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody of the invention.
  • [0145]
    In a further aspect of the present invention there is provided a method of promoting axon sprouting of neurons within the central nervous system of a human subject (e.g. patient) which method comprises administering (e.g. intravenously administering) a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody (e.g. an anti-NOGO antibody comprising CDRs as set forth herein).
  • [0146]
    In a further aspect of the present invention there is provided the use of an anti-NOGO antibody (e.g. an anti-NOGO antibody comprising the CDRs set forth herein) in the manufacture of an intravenously administrable medicament for the treatment of stroke (particularly ischemic stroke), brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease in a human patient.
  • [0147]
    In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of regenerating axon processes in neurons of the central nervous system in a human patient afflicted with (or susceptible to) stroke (particularly ischemic stroke), brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease which method comprises the step of administering (e.g. intravenously) a therapeutically effective amount of an anti-NOGO antibody (e.g. an anti-NOGO antibody having the CDRs set forth herein).
  • [0148]
    In a further aspect of the invention there is provided the use of an anti-NOGO antibody (e.g. an anti-NOGO antibody having the CDRs set forth herein) in the manufacture of an intravenously administrable pharmaceutical composition for regenerating axon processes in neurons of the central nervous system in a human patient afflicted with (or susceptible to) stroke (particularly ischemic stroke), brain injury, spinal cord injury, fronto-temporal dementias (tauopathies), peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and in particular Alzheimer's disease.
  • [0149]
    In a further aspect of the invention there is provided a method of modulating the production of an amyloidogenic peptide comprising contacting a cell which is expressing the precursor from which the amyloidogenic peptide is derived and a NOGO polypeptide (e.g. human NOGO-A) with an anti-NOGO antibody (e.g. an anti-NOGO antibody comprising the CDRs set forth herein, particularly 2A10 and fully human or humanised versions thereof). In typical embodiments, the precursor is APP. In further typical embodiments the amyloidogenic peptide is Aβ, most preferably Aβ40, Aβ42 or a combination of both.
  • [0150]
    As used herein, the term “functional recovery” refers to a motor and/or sensory and/or behavioural improvement in a subject following e.g. an ischemic event or injury or on-set of clinical symptoms. Functional recovery in humans may be evaluated by instruments designed to measure elemental neurological functions such as motor strength, sensation and coordination, cognitive functions such as memory, language and the ability to follow directions, and functional capacities such as basic activities of daily living or instrumental activities. Recovery of elemental neurological function can be measured with instruments such as the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), recovery of cognitive function can be measured with neuropsychological tests such as Boston Naming Test, Trail-making Tests, and California Verbal Learning Test, and activities of daily living may be measured with instruments such as the ADCS/ADL (Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Studies/Activities of Daily Living) scale or the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale, all tests and scales known in the art.
  • EXAMPLE 1 Construction and Expression of Humanised Anti-NOGO Antibodies
  • [0151]
    Murine and Humanised VH and VL constructs were prepared de novo by build up of overlapping oligonucleotides including restriction sites for cloning into Rld and Rln mammalian expression vectors as well as a human signal sequence. Hind III and Spe I restriction sites were introduced to frame the VH domain containing the CAM PATH-1H signal sequence for cloning into Rld containing the human γ1 mutated constant region. Hind III and BsiWI restriction sites were introduced to frame the VL domain containing the CAM PATH-1H signal sequence for cloning into Rln containing the human kappa constant region. CAMPATH-1H signal sequence: MGWSCIILFLVATATGVHS (SEQ.I.D.NO:82)
  • [0152]
    In parallel a chimeric version of 11C7 was generated (see WO04/052932). The variable heavy domain sequence (derived from WO04/052932 Seq ID 43) and variable light domain sequence (derived from WO04/052932 Seq ID 44) were prepared de novo by build up of overlapping oligonucleotides. Hind III and SpeI restriction sites were introduced to frame the VH domain for cloning into Rld containing the human γ1 mutated constant region. HindIII and BsiWI restriction sites were introduced to frame the VL domain for cloning into Rln containing the human kappa constant region.
  • EXAMPLE 2 Antibody Expression in CHO Cells
  • [0153]
    Rld and Rln plasmids encoding the heavy and light chains respectively were transiently co-transfected into CHO cells and expressed at small scale or large scale to produce antibody. Alternatively the same plasmids were co-transfected into CHO cells by electroporation and a stable polyclonal population of cells expressing the appropriate antibody were selected using a nucleoside-free media. Recombinant antibody was recovered and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein A sepharose.
  • EXAMPLE 3 Humanised Anti-NOGO Antibody Binds to NOGO
  • [0154]
    GST-human NOGO-A56 (SEQ ID: 76) at 1 μg/ml in PBS was coated onto Nunc Immunosorp plates (100 μl per well) at 4° C. overnight. Wells were rinsed once with TBS+0.05% Tween (TBST) then incubated with 2% BSA in TBST to block non-specific binding sites at room temperature for 1 hour. Antibodies were diluted in TBST+2% BSA to 10 μg/ml and 1/2 dilutions made from this. Antibodies were added to wells in duplicate and incubated at room temperature for 1 hour. Wells were washed three times with TBST then incubated with anti-human kappa peroxidase conjugate (1:2000) for 1 hour. The wells were washed three times with TBST and then incubated with 100 μl OPD peroxidase substrate (Sigma) per well for 10 minutes. The colour reaction was stopped by the addition of 25 μl concentrated H2SO4. Optical density at 490 nm was measured using a plate reader. Background values read from wells with no antibody were subtracted.
  • [0155]
    FIGS. 1-5 illustrate the dose-dependent binding of humanised antibodies in comparison with the chimera (termed HcLc which is the chimera of 2A10 (comprising the 2A10 murine VH (SEQ ID NO. 7) and VL (SEQ ID NO.8) and human IgG constant regions)) to human NOGO-A56 (see Example 6 for details) in an ELISA assay. The Y-axis shows the measured optical density (OD) at 490 nm, a quantitative measure of antibody captured in the wells. The X-axis shows the concentration of antibody used (mcg/ml) per well at each data point.
  • [0156]
    The antibody material used in FIGS. 1, 3, 4 and 5 was generated from small scale transient transfections. Human IgG levels in the supernatant are quantified by ELISA (Example 4). For FIG. 2, the material used is purified antibody generated by either the polyclonal expression system or large scale transient transfections. In these cases, IgG levels were quantified by ELISA and optical density.
  • [0157]
    In another experiment, antibody material was generated from small scale transient transfections (in triplicate) for the following humanised antibodies: H16L16, H17L16, H18L16, H16L18 and the chimeric antibody HcLc. The results from this experiment are consistent with the data presented in FIGS. 1-5 with the exception of H17L16 which performed less well than shown in FIG. 1A and FIG. 2. Whilst this observation cannot be explained it should be noted that the conclusions are contradicted by another experiment with supernatant material (see FIG. 1A) and an experiment using purified H17L16 material (FIG. 2), both experiments indicated that H17L16 shows comparable binding to the other optimised variants.
  • EXAMPLE 4 Antibody Quantification Protocol
  • [0158]
    Nunc Immunosorp plates were coated with capture antibody H19 (goat anti-human IgG chain, Sigma #13382) at 2 μg/ml in Bicarbonate buffer (Sigma #C3041) and incubated overnight at 4° C. The plates were washed twice with TBS containing 0.05% Tween20 (TBST) and blocked with 200 μl TBST containing 2% BSA (block buffer) for 1 hr at room temperature. The plates were washed twice with TBST. Tissue culture supernatants containing antibody were titrated across the plate in 2-fold dilution steps into block buffer and incubated at room temperature for 1 hr. The plates were washed three times with TBST. HRP conjugated antibody H23 (goat anti-human kappa chain, Sigma #A7164) was diluted 1:2000 in TBST and 100 μl added to each well. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 1 hr. The plates were washed three times with TBST and developed with 100 μl of Fast-OPD substrate (Sigma #P9187). Colour was allowed to develop for 5-10 mins after which time the ELISA was stopped with 25 μl 3M H2SO4. The absorbance at 490 nM was read plate and antibody concentration determined by reference to a standard curve.
  • EXAMPLE 5 Antibody Competition ELISA Protocol
  • [0159]
    GST-human NOGO-A56 (SEQ ID: 76) at 0.1-1.0 μg/ml in PBS was coated onto Nunc Immunosorp plates (100 μl per well) at 4° C. overnight or at 37° C. for 1 hour. Wells were rinsed three times with PBS then incubated with 1% BSA in PBS (block buffer) to block non-specific binding sites at room temperature for 2 hours. In parallel, a 50:50 mix of antibodies was made. Murine antibody 2A10 was added to a final concentration of either 0.5 or 1.0 mcg/ml in block buffer. Chimeric antibodies (mouse variable regions cloned onto a human IgG1 Fc mutated constant region) were added to a final concentration of 0-25 mcg/ml in block buffer. The block buffer was removed from the plates and 100 μl of the 50:50 mix of antibodies was added for 1 hour at room temperature. Wells were washed three times with PBS then incubated with 100 μl of rabbit polyclonal anti-mouse immunoglobulins peroxidase conjugate (diluted 1:2000 in block buffer, DakoCytomation #P0260) for 1 hour at room temperature. The wells were washed three times with PBS and then incubated with 100 μl OPD peroxidase substrate (Sigma #P9187) or TMB substrate (Sigma #T8665) per well for 10-30 minutes. The colour reaction was stopped by the addition of 25 μl concentrated H2SO4. Optical density at 490 nm (OPD) or 450 nm (TMB) was measured using a plate reader.
  • [0160]
    In the first experiment (FIG. 7A), plates were coated with GST-human NOGO-A56 at 0.5 μg/ml in PBS overnight at 4° C. and the plates were developed with TMB substrate. In this experiment, the murine antibody 2A10 was assessed in combination with HcLc (the chimeric form of 2A10), 11C7, an isotype control chimeric antibody and a blank control. In the second experiment (FIG. 7B), plates were coated with GST-human NOGO-A56 at 0.5 μg/ml in PBS at 37° C. for 1 hour and the plates were developed with OPD substrate. In this experiment, the murine antibody 2A10 was assessed in combination with HcLc, 11C7, an isotype control and H16L18.
  • EXAMPLE 6 Production of NOGO-A Fragment (NOGO-A56, SEQ.I.D.NO:76)
  • [0161]
    A cDNA sequence encoding amino acids 586-785 (MQESLYPAAQLCPSFEESEATPSPVLPDIVMEAPLNSAVPSAGASVIQPSSSPLEASS VNYESIKHEPENPPPYEEAMSVSLKKVSGIKEEIKEPENINAALQETEAPYISIACDL IKETKLSAEPAPDFSDYSEMAKVEQPVPDHSELVEDSSPDSEPVDLEFSDDSIPDVPQK QDETVMLVKESLTETSFESMIEYENKE—SEQ.I.D.NO:76) of human NOGO-A was cloned into the BamHI-XhoI sites of pGEX-6P1 to generate a GST-tagged fusion protein designated NOGO-A56. Plasmid was expressed in BL21 cells in 2×TY medium with 100 μg/ml ampicillin following induction with IPTG to 0.5 mM at 37 C for 3 hours. Cell pellets were lysed by sonication and the fusion protein purified using Glutathione-sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia) following manufacturers instructions. Purified protein was eluted using reduced glutathione and extensively dialysed against PBS, quantitated using BSA standards and a BioRad coomassie based protein assay and then stored in aliquots at −80 C.
  • EXAMPLE 7 BiaCore Analysis of Humanised Anti NOGO Monoclonal Antibodies
  • [0162]
    The binding kinetics of the anti-NOGO monoclonal antibody (mAb) to recombinantly expressed human NOGO-A (GST-human NOGO-A56) was analysed using the Biacore3000 biosensor. The hNOGO-A chip was prepared as follows:
  • [0000]
    Method
  • [0163]
    hNOGO (GST-human NOGO-A56) was immobilised to a CM5 chip by primary amine coupling using the Biacore Wizard program designed for targeted immobilisation levels. The CM5 sensor surface was activated by passing a solution of 50 mM N-hydroxy-succinimide (NHS) and 200 mM N-ethyl-N′-dimethylaminopropyl carbonide (EDC). Then hNOGO in sodium acetate buffer, pH5.0 or pH 4.5, was passed over the chip and immobilised. After immobilisation was complete any still activated esters were blocked by an injection of 1M ethanolamine hydrochloride, pH8.5.
  • [0164]
    The anti-NOGO mAbs were diluted down in HBS-EP (10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, and 0.005% P-20 surfactant) and binding studies were carried out at range of defined antibody concentrations. All runs were referenced against a blanked sensor surface (one that had been activated and blocked as described earlier but had no addition of ligand). Analysis of binding was carried out using the BIAevaluation kinetic analysis software version 4.1. Biacore analysis of other antibodies of the invention essentially followed the same protocol as described herein.
    TABLE 8
    Results
    Mean (+/−standard deviation) of four separate experiments
    Antibody ka (1/Ms) kd (1/s) KD (nM)
    HcLc 2.70e6 (2.7e5) 3.78e−3 (7.0e−4) 1.41 (0.3)
    H6L13 1.82e6 (3.5e5) 1.37e−2 (2.0e−3) 7.68 (1.2)
    H16L16 4.37e6 (4.5e5) 5.54e−3 (1.4e−3) 1.26 (0.2)
    H16L18 4.18e6 (4.1e5) 5.52e−3 (9.0e−4) 1.33 (0.2)
    H17L16 3.38e6 (1.3e5) 6.10e−3 (1.3e−3) 1.82 (0.4)
    H18L16 3.64e6 (3.5e5) 5.86e−3 (9.0e−4) 1.62 (0.3)
    H1L11 1.73e6 (1.7e5) 3.14e−2 (4.2e−3) 18.6 (3.7)
  • [0165]
    TABLE 9
    Results
    Results shown are from a single experiment with the exception of HcLc
    and H6Lc where the values shown are the mean (+/−standard deviation)
    of two separate experiments
    Antibody
    (number of
    independent
    runs) ka (1/Ms) kd (1/s) KD (nM)
    HcLc (2) 3.52e6 (2.8e5) 3.46e−3 (7.9e−4) 0.995 (0.3)
    HcL11 3.78e6 1.34e−2 3.55
    H6Lc (2) 2.17e6 (3.8e5) 2.84e−3 (1.5e−3)  2.21 (0.3)
    HcL13  4.8e6 9.38e−3 1.98
    H6L13 2.95e6 2.33e−2 7.9
    H6L6  1.2e6 2.54e−2 21.4
    H10L13 1.64e6 2.12e−2 12.95
    H700L11 1.19e6 2.33e−2 19.45
    H5L6  1.5e6  4.7e−2 30.3
    11C7 1.44e6 8.25e−5 0.057
  • [0166]
    TABLE 10
    Results
    Results shown are from a single experiment
    Antibody ka (1/Ms) kd (1/s) KD (nM)
    H6L13 1.77e6  1.3e−2 7.3
    H16L16 5.47e6 5.69e−3 1.0
    H14L16 2.05e6 7.39e−3 3.6
    H14L18 2.41e6 8.69e−3 3.6
    H1L11 1.33e6 2.84e−2 21.3
    HcLc 2.62e6 4.12e−3 1.6
  • EXAMPLE 8 BiaCore Analysis of Humanised Anti NOGO Monoclonal Antibodies Using Off-Rate Ranking
  • [0167]
    The hNOGO chip was prepared as for kinetic analysis. Cell supernatants where taken directly from transient transfections of CHO-K1 cells. These were passed directly over the sensor surface and the interaction measured. A mock transfected cell supernatant was used for double referencing to remove any artefacts due to the tissue culture media. All runs were referenced against a blanked sensor surface (one that had been activated and blocked as described earlier but had no addition of ligand). Analysis of binding was carried out using the BIAevaluation kinetic analysis software version 4.1.
    TABLE 11
    Results
    Results shown are from a single experiment with the exception of H6L13,
    H16L16, H16L18, H1L11, HcLc and H18L16 where the values shown
    are the mean (+/−standard deviation) of two or three separate experiments
    Antibody (number of
    independent runs) kd (1/s)
    H14L13 1.38e−2
    H15L13 9.65e−3
    H16L13 9.07e−3
    H17L13 9.31e−3
    H18L13 9.07e−3
    H6L13 (×3) 1.73e−2 (4.8e−3)
    H16L16 (×3) 6.64e−3 (9.2e−4)
    H16L18 (×3) 6.09e−3 (7.4e−4)
    H1L11 (×3) 4.03e−2 (1.8e−2)
    HcLc (×2) 3.76e−3 (7.1e−4)
    H15L16 6.04e−3
    H14L16  8.9e−3
    H18L16 (×2) 6.87e−3 (7.5e−4)
    H14L18 8.35e−3
    H15L18 5.94e−3
    H18L18  5.8e−3
    H6L17 1.58e−2
    H6L18 1.06e−2
    H6L14 4.57e−2
    H6L15 2.11e−2
    H6L16 1.14e−2
  • EXAMPLE 9 FACS Analysis of Humanised Anti NOGO Monoclonal Antibodies
  • [0168]
    IMR32 human neuroblastoma cells were re-suspended in FACS staining buffer (PBS+4% heat inactivated FCS) at a density of 106 cells per ml. 100 μl of this suspension was transferred to wells of a 96 well round bottomed microplate. 100 μl of “Fix & Perm” Medium A (Caltag Laboratories, GAS001S-100) was added to each well and the plate incubated at room temperature for 15 mins. The cells were pelleted was washed twice in FACS staining buffer. Following washing, the cells were re-suspended in 50 μl of a solution of the anti-NOGO antibodies or an isotype matched control antibody at a concentration of 2× the final concentration (0-200 μg/ml in FACS staining buffer). 50 μl of “Fix & Perm” Medium B (Caltag Laboratories GAS002S-100) was added and the plate incubated on ice for 1 hour. Cells were washed twice in FACS staining buffer before being re-suspended in 100 μl of a solution of a PE conjugated anti human γ1 specific goat F(ab′)2 (Sigma P-8047) at a dilution of 1/50. Cells incubated for 1 hour on ice. The cells were pelleted and washed 3 times in FACs staining buffer and cells re-suspended in 100 μl the same buffer. 100 μl of “Fix & Perm” Medium B was added to fix the cells. The degree of staining was determined by flow cytometry using a Becton Dickinson FACScan flow cytometer. The isotype matched controls were used as reference.
  • [0169]
    Results are shown in FIG. 6 A to F. The totality of the data shown illustrates that the HcLc antibody (of 2A10) gives a strong signal in this FACS assay, which indicates strong binding to human cell expressed NOGO. The data also shows that humanised versions of this chimera can retain this property. The 2A10 chimeric antibody, and the best humanised versions, thereof consistently outperform 11C7 in this assay.
    TABLE 12
    NOGO antibody sequences Summary
    Sequence identifier
    (SEQ.I.D.NO)
    amino acid Polynucleotide
    Description sequence sequence
    2A10, CDR-H1 1
    2A10, CDR-H2 2
    2A10, CDR-H3 3
    2A10, CDR-L1 4
    2A10, CDR-L2 5
    2A10, CDR-L3 6
    2A10, VH (murine) 7 41
    2A10, VL (murine) 8 42
    Chimeric heavy chain Hc 9 43
    Chimeric light chain Lc 10 44
    2A10 VH humanised construct H5 11 45
    2A10 VH humanised construct H6 12 46
    2A10 VH humanised construct H700 13 47
    2A10 VH humanised construct H14 14 48
    2A10 VH humanised construct H15 15 49
    2A10 VH humanised construct H16 16 50
    2A10 VH humanised construct H17 17 51
    2A10 VH humanised construct H18 18 52
    2A10 VL humanised construct L6 19 53
    2A10 VL humanised construct L13 20 54
    2A10 VL humanised construct L14 21 55
    2A10 VL humanised construct L15 22 56
    2A10 VL humanised construct L16 23 57
    2A10 VL humanised construct L17 24 58
    2A10 VL humanised construct L18 25 59
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct H5 26 60
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct H6 27 61
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 28 62
    H700
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 29 63
    H14
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 30 64
    H15
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 31 65
    H16
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 32 66
    H17
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 33 67
    H18
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L6 34 68
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L13 35 69
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L14 36 70
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L15 37 71
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L16 38 72
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L17 39 73
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L18 40 74
    Campath leader sequence 75
    Amino acids 586-785 of human NOGO A 76
    (NOGO-A56)
    2A10 VH humanised construct H1 77 81
    2A10 VL humanised construct L11 78 82
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct H1 79 83
    2A10 light chain humanised construct L11 80 84
    2A10 VH humanised construct H19 85 99
    2A10 VH humanised construct H20 86 100
    2A10 VH humanised construct H21 87 101
    2A10 VH humanised construct H22 88 102
    2A10 VH humanised construct H23 89 103
    2A10 VH humanised construct H24 90 104
    2A10 VH humanised construct H25 91 105
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 92 106
    H19
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 93 107
    H20
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 94 108
    H21
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 95 109
    H22
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 96 110
    H23
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 97 111
    H24
    2A10 heavy chain humanised construct 98 112
    H25
  • [0170]
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3935074 *Dec 17, 1973Jan 27, 1976Syva CompanyAntibody steric hindrance immunoassay with two antibodies
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8455626Nov 26, 2007Jun 4, 2013Abbott LaboratoriesAβ conformer selective anti-aβ globulomer monoclonal antibodies
US8497072Nov 30, 2006Jul 30, 2013Abbott LaboratoriesAmyloid-beta globulomer antibodies
US8691224Nov 30, 2006Apr 8, 2014Abbvie Inc.Anti-Aβ globulomer 5F7 antibodies
US8877190May 6, 2011Nov 4, 2014Abbvie Inc.Aβ conformer selective anti-Aβ globulomer monoclonal antibodies
US8895004Feb 27, 2008Nov 25, 2014AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KGMethod for the treatment of amyloidoses
US8987419Apr 13, 2011Mar 24, 2015AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KGAmyloid-beta binding proteins
US9062101Aug 12, 2011Jun 23, 2015AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KGAmyloid-beta binding proteins
US9176150Aug 1, 2011Nov 3, 2015AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KGAmyloid beta(1-42) oligomers, derivatives thereof and antibodies thereto, methods of preparation thereof and use thereof
US9359430Apr 15, 2013Jun 7, 2016Abbvie Inc.Abeta conformer selective anti-Abeta globulomer monoclonal antibodies
US9394360Oct 14, 2014Jul 19, 2016Abbvie Inc.Aβ conformer selective anti-Aβ globulomer monoclonal antibodies
US9540432May 14, 2013Jan 10, 2017AbbVie Deutschland GmbH & Co. KGAnti-Aβ globulomer 7C6 antibodies
US20090035307 *Nov 26, 2007Feb 5, 2009Stefan BarghornAbeta CONFORMER SELECTIVE ANTI-Abeta GLOBULOMER MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
US20090191190 *Nov 30, 2006Jul 30, 2009Stefan BarghornAnti-ABeta Globulomer Antibodies, Antigen-Binding Moieties Thereof, Corresponding Hybridomas, Nucleic Acids, Vectors, Host Cells, Methods of Producing Said Antibodies, Compositions Comprising Said Antibodies, Uses Of Said Antibodies And Methods Of Using Said Antibodies
US20090238831 *Nov 30, 2006Sep 24, 2009Hinz HillenMonoclonal antibodies and uses thereof
US20110130549 *Feb 27, 2008Jun 2, 2011Abbott Gmbh & Co. KgMethod for the treatment of amyloidoses
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/143.1, 530/388.22
International ClassificationC12N5/079, C07K16/28, C07K16/22, C07K16/18, A61K39/395, C07K14/475
Cooperative ClassificationC07K2317/76, C07K2317/24, C12N2501/998, C12N5/0618, C07K2317/56, C07K16/18, C12N2501/70, C07K16/22, A61K2039/505
European ClassificationC12N5/06B8, C07K16/22, C07K16/18
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Sep 28, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: GLAXO GROUP LIMITED, ENGLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ELLIS, JONATHAN HENRY;HAMBLIN, PAUL ANDREW;LEWIS, ALAN PETER;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:016845/0395;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050823 TO 20050830
Owner name: GLAXO GROUP LIMITED, ENGLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ELLIS, JONATHAN HENRY;HAMBLIN, PAUL ANDREW;LEWIS, ALAN PETER;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050823 TO 20050830;REEL/FRAME:016845/0395
Jan 28, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4