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Publication numberUS20060037108 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/228,875
Publication dateFeb 16, 2006
Filing dateSep 16, 2005
Priority dateAug 1, 1997
Also published asCA2495219A1, CA2495219C, CN1694962A, CN1694962B, DE60335381D1, EP1534842A2, EP1534842B1, US7262338, US20040010821, US20060021092, US20060031966, US20090293156, WO2004020642A2, WO2004020642A3
Publication number11228875, 228875, US 2006/0037108 A1, US 2006/037108 A1, US 20060037108 A1, US 20060037108A1, US 2006037108 A1, US 2006037108A1, US-A1-20060037108, US-A1-2006037108, US2006/0037108A1, US2006/037108A1, US20060037108 A1, US20060037108A1, US2006037108 A1, US2006037108A1
InventorsPeter Mccourt, Majid Ghassemian, Sean Cutler, Dario Bonetta
Original AssigneePeter Mccourt, Majid Ghassemian, Sean Cutler, Dario Bonetta
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stress tolerance and delayed senescence in plants
US 20060037108 A1
Abstract
The novel constructs and methods of this invention improve tolerance in plants to environmental stresses and senescence. Nucleic acids encoding a plant farnesyl transferase are described, as are transgenic plants and seeds incorporating these nucleic acids and proteins. Also provided are inhibitors of naturally-occurring farnesyl transferase which, when expressed, will enhance drought tolerance in the plants, improve resistance to senescence and modify growth habit.
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Claims(10)
1. A method of producing a drought-tolerant plant, the plant selected from the group consisting of Brassica, corn, soybean and Arabidopsis, comprising:
a) providing a nucleic acid construct comprising a promoter operably-linked to an antisense nucleic acid of an nucleic acid sequence encoding a beta subunit of a farnesyl transferase polypeptide or fragment thereof
b) inserting said nucleic acid construct into a vector;
c) transforming a plant, tissue culture, or a plant cell with the vector and
d) growing the plant or regenerating a plant from the tissue culture or plant cell;
wherein a drought-tolerant plant is produced.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said antisense nucleic acid comprises 467 or more consecutive nucleic acids complementary to SEQ ID NO:14
3. The method of claim 1, wherein said antisense nucleic acid comprises 200 or more consecutive nucleic acids complementary to SEQ ID NO:14
4. The method of claim 1, wherein said antisense nucleic acid comprises a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to SEQ ID NO:14.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein said promoter is a guard cell specific promoter.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein said promoter is an era-1 promoter comprising the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:3.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein said promoter is an inducible promoter.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein said promoter is a RD29AP promoter.
9. A drought tolerant transgenic plant produced by the method of claim 1.
10. A transgenic seed produced by the transgenic plant of claim 9, wherein said transgenic seed produces a drought tolerant plant.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a Continuation of U.S. Ser. No. 10/229,541, filed Aug. 27, 2002 which is a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/160,764, filed May 31, 2002 which claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. No. 60/294,766, filed May 31, 2001 and U.S. Ser. No. 60/348,909, filed Oct. 22, 2001 and a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/210,760, filed Aug. 1, 2002 which claims the benefit of U.S. Ser. No. 60/309,396, filed Aug. 1, 2001 and U.S. Ser. No. 60/337,084, filed Dec. 4, 2001 and a Continuation-in-Part of U.S. Ser. No. 09/191,687, filed Nov. 13, 1998 which claims priority to PCT Application No. PCT/US 98/15664, filed Jul. 29, 1998, and U.S. Ser. No. 09/124,867, filed Jul. 30, 1998 both of which claim the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/054,474, filed Aug. 1, 1997, the contents of all of these applications which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Most higher plants encounter at least transient decreases in relative water content at some stage of their life cycle and, as a result, have evolved a number of desiccation protection mechanisms. If however, the change in water deficit is prolonged the effects on the plant's growth and development can be profound. Decreased water content due to drought, cold or salt stresses can irreparably damage plant cells which in turn limits plant growth and crop productivity in agriculture.

Plants respond to adverse conditions of drought, salinity and cold with a variety of morphological and physiological changes. Although our understanding of plant tolerance mechanisms to these stresses is fragmentary, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been proposed to be an essential mediator between environmental stimulus and plant responses. ABA levels increase in response to water deficits and exogenously applied ABA mimics many of the responses normally induced by water stress. Once ABA is synthesized it causes the closure of the leaf stomata thereby decreasing water loss through transpiration.

The identification of genes that transduce ABA into a cellular response opens the possibility of exploiting these regulators to enhance desiccation tolerance in crop species. In principle, these ABA signalling genes can be coupled with the appropriate controlling elements to allow optimal plant growth and development. Thus, not only would these genes allow the genetic tailoring of crops to withstand transitory environmental insults, they should also broaden the environments where traditional crops can be grown.

In addition, little is known of the genetic mechanisms which control plant growth and development. Genes which further affect other metabolic processes such as senescence and growth habits of plants can be useful in a wide variety of crop and horticultural plants.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to isolated nucleic acids which encode a farnesyl transferase comprising SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:172. Nucleic acids also encompassed by this invention are such hybridizing sequences which encode the functional equivalent or fragment thereof of SEQ ID NO:1 or SEQ ID NO:172. The present invention also relates to a method for enhancing the drought tolerance of plants using inhibitors of the products encoded by these nucleic acids. Further, this invention relates to the control of regulatory functions in photosynthetic organisms; for example, in the control of growth habit, flowering, seed production, seed germination, and senescence in such organisms.

This invention also relates to a method for enhancing the drought or stress tolerance of plants by means of alterations in isolated or recombinant nucleic acids encoding a farnesyl transferase (Ftase) protein or fragment thereof or its functional equivalent. Nucleic acids which hybridize to the Ftase-encoding gene (ERA1) are also encompassed by this invention when such hybridizing sequences encode the functional equivalent of the Ftase protein. The present invention also relates to a method for enhancing the drought tolerance of plants through the genetic manipulation of ERA1 gene and its functional equivalents to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. Loss of ERA1 gene function confers enhanced tolerance to drought at the level of the mature plant. The nature of an era1 mutant with loss of Ftase activity, for example, demonstrates that inhibition of farnesylation enhances ABA responses in a plant.

Further, this invention relates to inhibition of senescence in photosynthetic organisms through inhibition of farnesyl transferase activity. The resulting photosynthetic organisms stay green and tissue viability is maintained for a longer period of time. Thus, methods to provide greener plants and a reduction in senescence are part of this invention.

In yet another embodiment, methods are provided to modify the growth habit and flower induction of plants. Loss of ERA1 gene function under particular environmental conditions results in a reduction in the number of lateral branches produced on a plant and an increase in the number of flowers per inflorescence.

The invention also provides method of producing a transgenic plant, which has an altered phenotype such as increased tolerance to stress (e.g., water deficit, increased biomass, increased yield), delayed senescence or increased ABA sensitivity by introducing into a plant cell a compound that inhibits farnesylation of a polypeptide comprising a CaaX motif. By inhibit Farnesylation is meant to include that the compound inhibits one or more steps in the three step process of farnesylation. In one aspect the compound inhibits farnesyltransferase, prenylprotease or prenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase expression or activity. Alternatively, the compound is a anti-sense farnesyl transferase nucleic acid or a farnesyl transferase double stranded RNA-inhibition hair pin nucleic acid. In some aspects the nucleic acid is operably linked to a promoter such as a constitutive promoter, an ABA inducible promoter, tissue specific promoters or a guard cell-specific promoter.

Exemplary anti-antisense nucleic acids are 20 or more consecutive nucleic acids complementary to SEQ ID NO: 1, 14, 40, 43, 80-85 or 172. Alternatively the anti-sense nucleic acids includes SEQ ID NO: 36, 41, 44 or 54-64.

In various aspects the compound is a nucleic acid encoding a farnesyltransferase, prenylprotease or prenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide of fragment thereof. Alternatively, the compound is a nucleic acid encoding a mutated farnesyltransferase, prenylprotease or prenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide of fragment thereof. By mutated is meant that the polypeptide lacks at least on activity of the wild type polypeptide such as for example, subunit interaction, substrate binding or enzyme catalysis. A mutated polypeptide forms a dimer, such as a heterodimer. For example, a mutated farnesytransferase beta polypeptide forms a dimer with a farnesyltransferase alpha polypeptide. Preferably, the polypeptide is less than 400, 350, 314, 300 or 200 amino acids in length. For example, the compound includes SEQ ID NO: 1, 14, 40, 43, 80-85 or 172.

In a further aspect the compound is a nucleic acid encoding a CaaX motif or a nucleic acid encoding a CaaX motif operably linked to a promoter.

Also included in the invention are the plants produced by the methods of the invention and the seed produced by the plants which produce a plant that has an altered phenotype.

This invention also relates to a regulatory sequence useful for genetic engineering of plant cells to provide a method of controlling the tissue pattern of expression of DNA sequences linked to this novel regulatory sequence.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1A-1C show the nucleic acid sequence of the ERA1 gene (SEQ ID NO:1) in which the introns are underlined and the start codon (ATG) is at nucleotide positions 1-3.

FIG. 2 is the amino acid sequence of the ERA1 protein (SEQ ID NO:2).

FIGS. 3A-3B show the nucleic acid sequence of the ERA1 promoter (SEQ ID NO:3).

FIG. 4 is the amino acid sequence of the β subunit farnesylation domain from Arabidopsis (Arab.) (SEQ ID NO:2) aligned with the β subunit farnesylation domains from pea (SEQ ID NO:4), yeast (SEQ ID NO:5) and rat (SEQ ID NO:6). Residues that are identical to the Arabidopsis sequence are indicated with a dot. A dash indicates a blank. The amino acid positions of the Arabidopsis gene are indicated on the right-hand side.

FIG. 5 is a photograph of an era1-transformed Arabidopsis plant (right) compared to the wild-type (control; i.e., naturally-occurring) plant (left) under extremely dry conditions.

FIG. 6 is a graph comparing the water content of Arabidopsis plants with inactivated or mutant Ftase activity (M. Columbia, era 1-2) and controls (M.C. control, era 1-2 control).

FIG. 7 is a graph comparing the rate of water loss for the Arabidopsis plants with inactivated or mutant Ftase activity (M. Columbia, era 1-2) and controls (M.C. control, era 1-2 control).

FIGS. 8A-8E are comparisons of aging leaves from control (wild-type) and era-2 mutant plants.

FIGS. 9A-9C are comparisons of transcript levels in aging leaves from control (wild-type) and era-2 mutant plants.

FIG. 10 is an illustration depicting the pBI121 antisense FTA vector construct.

FIG. 11 is an illustration of genomic Southern hybridization analysis of anti-FTA transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

FIG. 12 is an illustration of Northern analysis of five 35S-anti-FTA Arabidopsis thaliana lines (T3 plants).

FIG. 13 shows a Western expression analysis using anti-FTA antibodies to detect the FTA polypeptides.

FIG. 14 is a set of photographs showing ABA effects on seedling growth and development. FTA antisense transgenic seedlings exhibit enhanced ABA sensitivity.

FIG. 15 shows the effect of ABA on seedling growth and development.

FIG. 16 shows photographs of wild type Columbia (A) and four antisense FTA transgenic lines (B, C, D, E) of Arabidopsis thaliana after 8 days without watering.

FIG. 17 is an illustration of the homology among FTA nucleic acid (A) and amino acid (B) sequences from various plant species based on ClustalW analysis (percent identity shown).

FIG. 18 is an illustration of the homology among FTB nucleic acid and amino acid sequences from various plant species based on ClustalW analysis (percent identity shown).

FIG. 19 is an illustration of transgenic performance during water stress.

FIG. 20 is an illustration of shoot fresh weight, or biomass accumulation, after 6 days of water stress treatment and 6 days recovery time.

FIG. 21 is an illustration of seed yield (grams) obtained under optimal conditions or following a 6 day water stress treatment.

FIG. 22 is an illustration of vegetative growth under optimal conditions, shown is shoot fresh weight 6 days after the first flower opened.

FIG. 23 is an illustration of the effect of a biotic stress coupled with drought stress treatment on seed yield.

FIG. 24 is a representative illustration of gel electrophoresis analysis of PCR products in an assay to detect transgenic lines of Brassica napus.

FIG. 25. is a schematic representation of the vector constructs; A) pBI121-AtCPP, B) pBI121-antisense-AtCPP, C) pBI121-HP-AtCPP.

FIG. 26. is an illustration of (A) nucleic acid and (B) amino acid sequence identities as determined by ClustalW analysis.

FIG. 27. is a scan of a typical Southern blot of transgenic Arabidopsis T1 lines carrying the pBI121-AtCPP construct.

FIG. 28. is a scan of a typical Southern blot of transgenic Arabidopsis T3 lines carrying the pBI121-HP-AtCPP construct.

FIG. 29. is a scan of a typical Southern blot of transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying the pRD29A-AtCPP construct.

FIG. 30. is a scan of a typical Southern blot of transgenic Arabidopsis lines carrying the pRD29A-HP-AtCPP construct.

FIG. 31 is an illustration showing the relative expression of AtCPP mRNA transcript (solid bars) and AtCPP protein levels (stippled bars) in several pBI121-AtCPP transgenic lines.

FIG. 32. is a histogram showing the percentage of lines which were categorized as ABA sensitive, moderately ABA sensitive or ABA insensitive. Seedlings were assessed on agar plates containing 1 μM ABA and scored at 21 days growth. Thirty-six lines of the pBI121-AtCPP over-expression construct were assessed at 21 days by leaf and seedling development. Thirty-two lines of the 35S-HP-AtCPP down-regulation construct were assessed at 21 days for leaf and seedling development. Each line was assessed by plating approximately 100 seeds per plate and the seedlings scored and recorded as the percent insensitive seedlings per plate. Each line was then expressed as a percent of wild type (Wt). Lines were categorized as sensitive (less than 1% of Wt) solid bars, intermediate (1-50% of Wt) diagonally lined or insensitive (greater than 50% of Wt) stippled, based on their relationship to Wt and the percentage of each category plotted as a histogram.

FIG. 33. is an illustration showing the response of wild type and a pRD29A-HP-AtCPP transgenic line to various concentrations of ABA in two week old seedlings.

FIG. 34. is a histogram showing the analysis of transgenic plants containing the pBI121-AtCPP over-expression construct, (SEQ ID NO:4). Water loss per gram shoot dry weight after four days of water stress treatment. Lines that are marked with a star are those which were strongly ABA sensitive. Lines marked with a triangle are moderately ABA sensitive. Bars represent means of eight replicates. Lines marked with a filled dot above the bar represents lines which were significantly different from control at a p=0.05 value.

FIG. 35. is a histogram showing seed yield in grams of transgenic Arabidopsis lines of pBI121-AtCPP grown under optimal water conditions

FIG. 36. is a bar chart showing growth and yield of transgenic Arabidopsis lines of pBI121-AtCPP grown under optimal watering conditions plus a biotic stress condition. Tields as a % of wild type, rosette leaf number, rosette leaf fresh weight and shoot dry weight are plotted.

FIG. 37. are photographs showing growth of transgenic Arabidopsis lines of pBI121-AtCPP grown on agar plates. Changes to root growth visible.

FIG. 38. is a bar chart showing growth of transgenic Arabidopsis lines of pRD29A-HP-AtCPP grown under optimal watering conditions. Rosette leaf number, rosette leaf dry weight and shoot dry weight are plotted.

FIG. 39. is an photograph showing Northern blot of ΔN90AtFTB arabidopsis plants

The foregoing and other objects, features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following more particular description of preferred embodiments of the invention, as illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the different views. The drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to transgenic plants that display an altered phenotype, e.g., increased tolerance to stress, delayed senescence, increased ABA sensitivity, increased yield, increased productivity and increased biomass and methods of producing the plants by introducing to a plant cell a compound that inhibits farnesylation of a polypeptide comprising a CaaX motif

Protein farnesylation, the addition of a C-terminal, 15 carbon chain to protein and subsequent processing is a three step enzymatic reaction including farnesylation, proteolytic cleavage and methylation. First, a farnesyltransferase adds the C-terminal 15 carbon chain to a conserved cysteine residue of the CaaX terminal motif, where “C” is a Cystine, “a” is an aliphatic amino acid and “X” is any amino acid. Second, the last three amino acid residues (aaX) are cleaved by a prenyl protease. Lastly, the modified cysteine is methylated by a methylase to create the final active product of the protein farnesylation pathway. The Applicant's have shown that over expression and down-regulation of the alpha or the beta farnesyl transferase gene in plant cells (i.e., the first step in farnesylation) results in plants with an altered phenotype such as but not limited to drought tolerance and delayed senescence. Applicants have also shown that over expression and down-regulation of the prenyl protease gene (i.e., the second step in farnesylation) in plant cells also results in a plant displaying an altered phenotype including for example but not limited to drought tolerance and increased resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. These results taken together support the hypothesis that modification of the expression of any of the enzymes in the farnesylation pathway (farnesytransferase, prenylprotease or prenycysteine carboxyl methytransferase in a plant cell will result in a plant displaying an altered phenotype

The present invention also provides novel farnesytransferase (i.e., alpha and beta), (Ftase) and CaaX prenyl protease (CPP) nucleic acid sequences isolated from for example Arabidopsis thaliana (At) Brassica napus (Bn) and Glycine Max (Gm). The invention also provides farnesytransferase and CaaX prenyl protease antisense nucleic acids and constructs comprising these nucleic acids. The sequences are collectively referred to as “PPI nucleic acids”, PPI polynucleotides” or “PPI antisense nucleic acids” and the corresponding encoded polypeptide is referred to as a “PPI polypeptide” or “PPI protein”. Unless indicated otherwise, “PPI” is meant to refer to any of the novel sequences disclosed herein. Table A below summarizes the nucleic acids and polypeptides according to the invention

TABLE A
SEQ ID
PPI Sequence Description NO:
eral (FTB) 1
eral (FTB) 2
ERa1 promoter 3
FTB pea 4
FTB yeast 5
FTB rat 6
At FTA 7
At FTA 8
At FTA 9
pBI121-35S-anti-AtFTA 10
At FTA 11
Bn FTA 12
Bn FTA 13
Bn FTB 14
Bn FTB 15
primer 16
primer 17
primer 18
primer 19
primer 20
primer 21
primer 22
primer 23
primer 24
primer 25
primer 26
primer 27
primer 28
primer 29
primer 30
primer 31
primer 32
primer 33
primer 34
Bn FTA 35
Bn FTB 36
G max FTA 37
G max FTA 38
G max FTA 39
G max FTB 40
G max FTB 41
G max FTB 42
Zea maize FTB 43
Zea maize FTB 44
Zea maize FTB 45
pBI121-35S-AtFTA 46
pBI121-rd29A-anti-AtFTA 47
pBI121-35S-DA-AtFTA 48
pBI121-RD29A-DA-AtFTA 49
MuA-anti-GmFTA 50
RD29A-anti-GmFTA 51
MuA-HP-GmFTA-Nos-Term 52
RD29AP-HP-GmFTA-Nos-Term 53
pBI121-35S-Anti-AtFTB 54
pBI121-RD29AP-Anti-AtFTB 55
pBI121-35S-HP-AtFTB 56
pBI121-RD29AP-HP-AtFTB 57
pBI121-35S-AtFTB 58
MuA-anti-GmFTB-Nos-Term 59
RD29AP-anti-GmFTB-Nos-Term 60
MuA-HP-GmFTB-Nos-Term 61
RD29AP-HP-GmFTB-Nos-Term 62
MuA-anti-Zea maizeFTB-Nos- 63
Term
MuA-HP-Zea maizeFTB-Nos- 64
Term
Pea-FT-A 65
Tomato-FTA 66
Rice-FT-A 67
Zea mays-FT-A 68
Soy1-Ft-A 69
Soy2-FT-A 70
Triticum-FT-A 71
Pea-FT-A 72
Tomato-FTA 73
Rice-FT-A 74
Zea mays-FT-A 75
Soy1-Ft-A 76
Soy2-FT-A 77
Triticum-FT-A 78
N90AtFTB truncated FTB vector 79
Wiggum (FTB) 80
Dup-Soy-FTB 81
Dup-Corn-FTB 82
Pea-FT-B 83
Tomato-FTB 84
Tobacco-FTB 85
Primer SacI forward 86
Wiggum (FTB) 87
Dup-Soy-FTB 88
Dup-Corn-FTB 89
Pea-FT-B 90
Tomato-FTB 91
Tobacco-FTB 92
Consensus FTA 93
Consensus FTB 94
Consensus FTA 95
Consensus FTB 96
AtCPP 97
AtCPP 98
At-AFC1
pBI121-AtCPP 99
pBI121-HP-AtCPP 100
AtCPP BamFW 101
AtCPP SmaRV 102
AtCPP-HP-SacFW 103
AtCPP-HP-SacRV 104
pBI121-AtCPP Forward 105
pBI121-antiAtCPP-SmaFW 106
pBI121-antiAtCPP-BamRV 107
p35S-HP-AtCPP Reverse 108
BnCPP 109
BnCPP 110
BnCPP antisense 111
GmCPP 112
GmCPP 113
GmCPP antisense 114
AtCPP antisense 115
BASF-AT1 116
BASF-AT1 117
BASF-AT2 118
BASF-AT2 119
BASF-Corn 120
BASF-Corn 121
BASF-Soy 122
BASF-Soy 123
AFC1 124
AFC1 125
AT4g01320 126
AT4g01320 127
AF007269 128
AF007269 129
pBI121-antisense-AtCPP 130
pRD29A-AtCPP 131
pRD29A-HP-AtCPP 132
pRD29A-antisense-AtCPP 133
MuA-AtCPP 134
MuA-GmCPP 135
pBI121-GmCPP 136
pBI121-HP-GmCPP 137
pBI121-antisense-GmCPP 138
pRD29A-GmCPP 139
pRD29A-HP-GmCPP 140
pRD29A-antisense-GmCPP 141
pBI121-BnCPP 142
pBI121-HP-BnCPP 143
pBI121-antisense-BnCPP 144
pRD29A-BnCPP 145
pRD29A-HP-BnCPP 146
pRD29A-antisense-BnCPP 147
MuA-BnCPP 148
GmCPP SmaFW 149
GmCPP SacRV 150
BnCPP-anti-SmaFW 151
BnCPP-anti-BamRV 152
BnCPP-HP-Sac-FW 153
BnCPP-HP-Sac-RV 154
BnCPP-HP-BamFW 155
BnCPP-HP-XbaRV 156
GmCPP-HP-Sac-FW 157
GmCPP-HP-Sac-RV 158
GmCPP-HP-BamFW 159
GmCPP-HP-XbaRV 160
pRD29AP 161
Nosterm-RV 162
Consensus-BASF 163
Consensus-BASF 164
Consensus-Generic 165
Consensus-Generic 166
Consensus-PPI 167
Consensus-PPI 168
Consensus-PPI/Generic 169
Consensus-PPI/Genreric 170
Primer BamHI REV 171
Full Length AtFTB 172
pBI121-AtFTB full length 173
pimer 174
primer 175
isoprenylcysteine carboxyl 176
methyltransferase
Full Length AtFTB 177

This invention also relates to isolated nucleic acids and proteins encoded by these nucleic acids which modify the growth, reproduction and senescence of plants. In particular, the constructs of this invention include an isolated nucleic acid encoding a farnesyl transferase (Ftase) polypeptide comprising SEQ ID NO:1 or 172 or its functional equivalent or fragment thereof, and the Ftase polypeptides or proteins of fragments thereof encoded by these nucleic acids. In particular, this invention relates to a protein wherein the sequence is SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177.

Further included in this invention are nucleic acid constructs which comprise a promoter (ERA1 promoter) operably-linked to isolated nucleic acid comprising SEQ ID NO:1 or 172 or its functional equivalent or a complement of either. When incorporated into a plant, the ERA1 promoter is regulated in the guard cells of the plant and can affect water loss through the stomates. This promoter consists of a nucleic acid comprising SEQ ID NO:3 (FIG. 3).

Transgenic plants, seeds, plant cell and tissues incorporating these constructs are also part of this invention. Accordingly, in one aspect of this invention, a method is provided for producing a gene product under the control of a promoter which operates primarily in guard cells through expression of a gene encoding the gene product in the cell of a plant comprising the steps of: transforming a plant cell with a DNA construct comprising a) a regulatory region comprising SEQ ID NO:3 or a functional portion thereof, DNA comprising a structural gene encoding a gene product, and a 3′ untranslated region containing a polyadenylated region; regenerating a plant, photosynthetic organism or tissue culture from the cell; and placing the plant, photosynthetic organisms or tissue culture under conditions so that the promoter induces transcription of the structural gene and the gene product is expressed.

In the context of this disclosure, the terms “regulatory region” or “promoter” refer to a sequence of DNA, usually upstream (5′) to the coding sequence of a structural gene, which controls the expression of the coding region by providing recognition and binding sites for RNA polymerase and/or other factors required for transcription to start at the correct site. The term “functional portion” or “functional fragment” refers to a truncated sequence of a promoter of this invention which maintains the capability of inducing transcription of an ERA structural gene under the conditions described for activity of an Ftase protein.

The constructs and methods described herein can be applied to all types of plants and other photosynthetic organisms, including, but not limited to: angiosperms (monocots and dicots), gymnosperms, spore-bearing or vegetatively-reproducing plants and the algae, including the cyanophyta (blue-green algae). Particularly preferred plants are those plants which provide commercially-valuable crops, such as corn, wheat, cotton, rice, canola, sugar cane, sugar beet, sunflowers, potatoes, tomatoes, broccoli, carrots, lettuce, apple, plum, orange, lemon, rose, and the like.

Further, the constructs and methods of this invention can be adapted to any plant part, protoplast, or tissue culture wherein the tissue is derived from a photosynthetic organism. The term “plant part” is meant to include a portion of a plant capable of producing a regenerated plant. Preferable plant parts include roots and shoots and meristematic portions thereof. Other plant parts encompassed by this invention are: leaves, flowers, seeds, epicotyls, hypocotyls, cotyledons, cotyledonary nodes, explants, pollen, ovules, meristematic or embryonic tissue, protoplasts, and the like. Transgenic plants can be regenerated from any of these plant parts, including tissue culture or protoplasts, and also from explants. Methods will vary according to the species of plant.

This invention relates to compositions and constructs comprising isolated nucleic acids (both DNA and RNA) encoding an Ftase and portions thereof of photosynthetic organisms. This invention further relates to compositions and constructs comprising isolated nucleic acids encoding an Ftase promoter. In particular, the ERA1 gene encoding the β subunit of Ftase from Arabidopsis and a regulatory sequence which regulates the transcription of the ERA1 gene have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleic acids which encode Ftases from photosynthetic organisms, and homologues or analogs of these nucleic acids, are encompassed by this invention.

The invention further relates to methods using isolated and/or recombinant nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that are characterized by their ability to hybridize to (a) a nucleic acid encoding an Ftase protein or polypeptide, such as a nucleic acid having the sequences of SEQ ID NO:1 or 172 or (b) a portion of the foregoing (e.g., a portion comprising the minimum nucleotides required to encode a functional Ftase protein; or by the ability to encode a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of an Ftase (e.g., SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177, or to encode functional equivalents thereof; e.g., a polypeptide having at least 80% sequence similarity to SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177, which when incorporated into a plant cell, facilitates the growth habit, seed germination, and metabolism in a photosynthetic organism in the same manner as SEQ ID NO:1 or 172). A functional equivalent of an Ftase therefore, would have at least an 80% similar amino acid sequence and similar characteristics to, or perform in substantially the same way as, the polypeptide encoded by SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177. A nucleic acid which hybridizes to a nucleic acid encoding an Ftase polypeptide such as SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177 can be double- or single-stranded. Hybridization to DNA such as DNA having the sequence SEQ ID NO:1 or 172, includes hybridization to the strand shown or its complementary strand.

In one embodiment, the percent amino acid sequence similarity between an Ftase polypeptide such as SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177, and functional equivalents thereof is at least about 60% (≧60%). In a preferred embodiment, the percent amino acid sequence similarity between an Ftase polypeptide and its functional equivalents is at least about 75% (≧75%). More preferably, the percent amino acid sequence similarity between an Ftase polypeptide and its functional equivalents is at least about 80%, and still more preferably, at least about 90%, when consecutive amino acids are compared.

Isolated and/or recombinant nucleic acids meeting these criteria comprise nucleic acids having sequences identical to sequences of naturally occurring ERA1 genes and portions thereof, or variants of the naturally occurring genes. Such variants include mutants differing by the addition, deletion or substitution of one or more nucleotides, modified nucleic acids in which one or more nucleotides are modified (e.g., DNA or RNA analogs), and mutants comprising one or more modified nucleotides.

Such nucleic acids, including DNA or RNA, can be detected and isolated by hybridization under high stringency conditions or moderate stringency conditions, for example, which are chosen so as to not permit the hybridization of nucleic acids having non-complementary sequences. “Stringency conditions” for hybridizations is a term of art which refers to the conditions of temperature and buffer concentration which permit hybridization of a particular nucleic acid to another nucleic acid in which the first nucleic acid may be perfectly complementary to the second, or the first and second may share some degree of complementarity which is less than perfect. For example, certain high stringency conditions can be used which distinguish perfectly complementary nucleic acids from those of less complementarity. “High stringency conditions” and “moderate stringency conditions” for nucleic acid hybridizations are explained on pages 2.10.1-2.10.16 (see particularly 2.10.8-11) and pages 6.3.1-6 in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (Ausubel, F. M. et al., eds., Vol. 1, containing supplements up through Supplement 29, 1995), the teachings of which are hereby incorporated by reference. The exact conditions which determine the stringency of hybridization depend not only on ionic strength, temperature and the concentration of destabilizing agents such as formamide, but also on factors such as the length of the nucleic acid sequence, base composition, percent mismatch between hybridizing sequences and the frequency of occurrence of subsets of that sequence within other non-identical sequences. Thus, high or moderate stringency conditions can be determined empirically.

High stringency hybridization procedures can (1) employ low ionic strength and high temperature for washing, such as 0.015 M NaCl/0.0015 M sodium citrate, pH 7.0 (0.1×SSC) with 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 50° C.; (2) employ during hybridization 50% (vol/vol) formamide with 5× Denhardt's solution (0.1% weight/volume highly purified bovine serum albumin/0.1% wt/vol Ficoll/0.1% wt/vol polyvinylpyrrolidone), 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 and 5×SSC at 42° C.; or (3) employ hybridization with 50% formamide, 5×SSC, 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), 0.1% sodium pyrophosphate, 5× Denhardt's solution, sonicated salmon sperm DNA (50 μg/ml), 0.1% SDS, and 10% dextran sulfate at 42° C., with washes at 42° C. in 0.2×SSC and 0.1% SDS. Moderate stringency conditions would be similar except that hybridization would employ 25% formamide in place of 50% formamide.

By varying hybridization conditions from a level of stringency at which no hybridization occurs to a level at which hybridization is first observed, conditions which will allow a given sequence to hybridize with the most similar sequences in the sample can be determined.

Exemplary conditions are described in Krause, M. H. and S. A. Aaronson (1991) Methods in Enzymology, 200:546-556. Also, see especially page 2.10.11 in Current Protocols in Molecular Biology (supra), which describes how to determine washing conditions for moderate or low stringency conditions. Washing is the step in which conditions are usually set so as to determine a minimum level of complementarity of the hybrids. Generally, from the lowest temperature at which only homologous hybridization occurs, a 1% mismatch between hybridizing nucleic acids results in a 1° C. decrease in the melting temperature Tm, for any chosen SSC concentration. Generally, doubling the concentration of SSC results in an increase in Tm of ≈17° C. Using these guidelines, the washing temperature can be determined empirically for moderate or low stringency, depending on the level of mismatch sought.

Isolated and/or recombinant nucleic acids that are characterized by their ability to hybridize to (a) a nucleic acid encoding an Ftase polypeptide, such as the nucleic acids depicted as SEQ ID NO:1 or 172, (b) the complement of SEQ ID NO:1 or 172, (c) or a portion of (a) or (b) (e.g. under high or moderate stringency conditions), may further encode a protein or polypeptide having at least one functional characteristic of an Ftase polypeptide, such as regulation of lateral branching under diurnal light cycles, or regulation of the response to ABA, or regulation of senescence.

Enzymatic assays, complementation tests, or other suitable methods can also be used in procedures for the identification and/or isolation of nucleic acids which encode a polypeptide such as a polypeptide of the amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177 or a functional equivalent or fragment thereof of this polypeptide. The antigenic properties of proteins or polypeptides encoded by hybridizing nucleic acids can be determined by immunological methods employing antibodies that bind to an Ftase polypeptide such as immunoblot, immunoprecipitation and radioimmunoassay. PCR methodology, including RAGE (Rapid Amplification of Genomic DNA Ends), can also be used to screen for and detect the presence of nucleic acids which encode Ftase-like proteins and polypeptides, and to assist in cloning such nucleic acids from genomic DNA. PCR methods for these purposes can be found in Innis, M. A., et al. (1990) PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, Calif., incorporated herein by reference.

The nucleic acids described herein are used in the methods of the present invention for production of proteins or polypeptides which are incorporated into cells, tissues, plant parts, plants and other photosynthetic organisms. In one embodiment, DNA containing all or part of the coding sequence for an Ftase polypeptide, or DNA which hybridizes to DNA having the sequence SEQ ID NO:2 or SEQ ID NO:177 is incorporated into a vector for expression of the encoded polypeptide in suitable host cells. The encoded polypeptide consisting of an Ftase subunit or its functional equivalent is capable of farnesyl transferase activity. The term “vector” as used herein refers to a nucleic acid molecule capable of transporting another nucleic acid to which it has been linked.

Primers and probes consisting of 20 or more contiguous nucleotides of the above-described nucleic acids are also included as part of this invention. Thus, one nucleic acid of this invention comprises a specific sequence of about 20 to about 200 or more nucleotides which are identical or complementary to a specific sequence of nucleotides of the Ftase protein-encoding DNA or transcribed mRNA. These probes and primers can be used to identify and isolate Ftase-encoding nucleic acid from other photosynthetic organisms.

Nucleic acids referred to herein as “isolated” are nucleic acids separated away from the nucleic acids of the genomic DNA or cellular RNA of their source of origin (e.g., as it exists in cells or in a mixture of nucleic acids such as a library), and may have undergone further processing. “Isolated” nucleic acids include nucleic acids obtained by methods described herein, similar methods or other suitable methods, including essentially pure nucleic acids, nucleic acids produced by chemical synthesis, by combinations of biological and chemical methods, and recombinant nucleic acids which are isolated. Nucleic acids referred to herein as “recombinant” are nucleic acids which have been produced by recombinant DNA methodology, including those nucleic acids that are generated by procedures which rely upon a method of artificial recombination, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or cloning into a vector using restriction enzymes. “Recombinant” nucleic acids are also those that result from recombination events that occur through the natural mechanisms of cells, but are selected for after the introduction to the cells of nucleic acids designed to allow or make probable a desired recombination event. Portions of the isolated nucleic acids which code for polypeptides having a certain function can be identified and isolated by, for example, the method of Jasin, M., et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,952,501.

A further embodiment of the invention is antisense nucleic acids or oligonucleotides which are complementary, in whole or in part, to a target molecule comprising a sense strand, and can hybridize with the target molecule. The target can be DNA, or its RNA counterpart (i.e., wherein T residues of the DNA are U residues in the RNA counterpart). When introduced into a cell, antisense nucleic acids or oligonucleotides can inhibit the expression of the gene encoded by the sense strand or the mRNA transcribed from the sense strand. Antisense nucleic acids can be produced by standard techniques. See, for example, Shewmaker, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,107,065.

In a particular embodiment, an antisense nucleic acid or oligonucleotide is wholly or partially complementary to and can hybridize with a target nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA), wherein the target nucleic acid can hybridize to a nucleic acid having the sequence of the complement of the strand in SEQ ID NO:1 or 172. For example, an antisense nucleic acid or oligonucleotide can be complementary to a target nucleic acid having the sequence shown as the strand of the open reading frame of SEQ ID NO:1 or 172, or nucleic acid encoding a functional equivalent or fragment thereof of Ftase, or to a portion of these nucleic acids sufficient to allow hybridization. A portion, for example, a sequence of 16 nucleotides could be sufficient to inhibit expression of the protein. Fragments comprising 25 or more consecutive nucleotides complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or 172 could also be used. Or, an antisense nucleic acid or oligonucleotide complementary to 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions, or overlapping the translation initiation codon (5′ untranslated and translated regions), of the ERA1 gene, or a gene encoding a functional equivalent or fragment thereof can also be effective. In another embodiment, the antisense nucleic acid is wholly or partially complementary to and can hybridize with a target nucleic acid which encodes an Ftase polypeptide.

In addition to the antisense nucleic acids of the invention, oligonucleotides can be constructed which will bind to duplex nucleic acid either in the gene or the DNA: RNA complex of transcription, to form a stable triple helix-containing or triplex nucleic acid to inhibit transcription and/or expression of a gene encoding an Ftase polypeptide or its functional equivalent. Frank-Kamenetskii, M. D. and Mirkin, S. M. (1995) Ann. Rev. Biochem. 64:65-95. Such oligonucleotides of the invention are constructed using the base-pairing rules of triple helix formation and the nucleotide sequence of the gene or mRNA for Ftase. These oligonucleotides can block Ftase-type activity in a number of ways, including prevention of transcription of the ERA1 gene or by binding to mRNA as it is transcribed by the gene.

Another aspect of the invention pertains to the use of post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) to repress gene expression. Double stranded RNA can initiate the sequence specific repression of gene expression in plants and animals. Double stranded RNA is processed to short duplex oligomers of 21-23 nucleotides in length. These small interfering RNA's suppress the expression of endogenous and heterologous genes in a sequence specific manner (Fire et al. Nature 391:806-811, Carthew, Curr. Opin. in Cell Biol., 13:244-248, Elbashir et al., Nature 411:494-498). A RNAi suppressing construct can be designed in a number of ways, for example, transcription of a inverted repeat which can form a long hair pin molecule, inverted repeats separated by a spacer sequence that could be an unrelated sequence such as GUS or an intron sequence. Transcription of sense and antisense strands by opposing promoters or cotranscription of sense and antisense genes.

Another aspect of the invention pertains to the use of post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) to repress gene expression. Double stranded RNA can initiate the sequence specific repression of gene expression in plants and animals. Double stranded RNA is processed to short duplex oligomers of 21-23 nucleotides in length. These small interfering RNA's suppress the expression of endogenous and heterologous genes in a sequence specific manner (Fire et al. Nature 391:806-811, Carthew, Curr. Opin. in Cell Biol., 13:244-248, Elbashir et al., Nature 411:494-498). A RNAi suppressing construct can be designed in a number of ways, for example, transcription of a inverted repeat which can form a long hair pin molecule, inverted repeats separated by a spacer sequence that could be an unrelated sequence such as GUS or an intron sequence. Transcription of sense and antisense strands by opposing promoters or cotranscription of sense and antisense genes.

Another aspect of the invention pertains to the use of the dominant-negative genetic approach. Briefly the presence of a dominant trait, i.e. the expression of a transgene, results in a reduction of enzyme activity or reduced production of the enzymatic end-product. It has been demonstrated that FT is a heterodimer formed by α- and β-subunits. FT activity relies on the proper dimerization between these subunits to form functional enzyme. Expression of a non-functional subunit will interact with the second subunit to produce a non-functional enzyme and hence reduced enzymatic activity. The non-functional aspect may be in respect to, but not limited to, subunit interaction, substrate binding or enzyme catalysis, for example. Alternatively the expressed trait may produce a substrate analogue which competes with native substrate, the end result being decreased farnesylation of biologically active substrate.

The invention also relates to proteins or polypeptides encoded by the novel nucleic acids described herein. The proteins and polypeptides of this invention can be isolated and/or recombinant. Proteins or polypeptides referred to herein as “isolated” are proteins or polypeptides purified to a state beyond that in which they exist in cells. In a preferred embodiment, they are at least 10% pure; i.e., substantially purified. “Isolated” proteins or polypeptides include proteins or polypeptides obtained by methods described infra, similar methods or other suitable methods, and include essentially pure proteins or polypeptides, proteins or polypeptides produced by chemical synthesis or by combinations of biological and chemical methods, and recombinant proteins or polypeptides which are isolated. Proteins or polypeptides referred to herein as “recombinant” are proteins or polypeptides produced by the expression of recombinant nucleic acids.

In a preferred embodiment, the protein or portion thereof has at least one function characteristic of an Ftase; for example, catalytic activity affecting, e.g., normal lateral branching, florets/inflorescence, seed germination, or stomatal opening, and binding function, and/or antigenic function (e.g., binding of antibodies that also bind to naturally occurring Ftase). As such, these proteins are referred to as Ftases of plant origin, and include, for example, naturally occurring Ftase, variants (e.g. mutants) of those proteins and/or portions thereof. Such variants include mutants differing by the addition, deletion or substitution of one or more amino acid residues, or modified polypeptides in which one or more residues are modified, and mutants comprising one or more modified residues.

The invention also relates to isolated and/or recombinant portions of an Ftase as described above, especially the β subunit of an Ftase protein. Portions of the enzyme can be made which have full or partial function on their own, or which when mixed together (though fully, partially, or nonfunctional alone), spontaneously assemble with one or more other polypeptides to reconstitute a functional protein having at least one functional characteristic of an Ftase of this invention.

A number of genes have been identified that are induced by ABA. This suggests that ABA-induced tolerance to adverse environmental conditions is a complex multigenic event. Thus, identification and transfer of single genes into crop plants which improves the viability of the plant under different environmental conditions due to increased responsiveness to ABA is novel and extremely useful.

To identify genes that could be more global controllers of ABA-regulated plant processes, genetic screens were applied in a number of plant species to isolate mutations that alter the response of the plant to the hormone.

Mutations that confer enhanced response to ABA (era) in Arabidopsis seeds were identified by their ability to prevent seed germination with low concentrations of ABA that normally permit wild-type (controls, i.e., naturally-occurring) seed germination. Of these, the era1 mutant class, which includes one transferred DNA (T-DNA) line (era 1-1, ecotype Wassilewskija) and two neutron-generated mutants (era1-2 and era1-3, ecotype Columbia), was of added interest because this class showed decreased germination efficiency under normal postimbibition. Mutations that enhance ABA responsiveness should, in principle, be more dormant. Dormancy in era1 alleles was alleviated by a 4-day chilling period; the efficiency of era1 germination increased with the length of time the seeds are chilled. In many plant species, breaking dormancy to allow germination requires vernalization and exposure to moist, low-temperature environments for an extended period (Baskin and Baskin, 1971). The germination profile of era mutants could reflect an increased state of ABA-induced dormancy; consequently, these seeds require longer vernalization to germinate. Support for this contention came from construction of double mutants of era1 with both ABA biosynthetic (aba1-1) and insensitive mutants (abi1-1 and abi3-6). In all cases, the double mutants had reduced dormancy as compared with era 1, indicating that the increased dormancy observed in era1 seed was dependent on ABA synthesis or sensitivity.

Aside from broadening the spectrum of new ABA response mutants, supersensitivity screens were also used to identify negative regulators of ABA sensitivity. That is, inhibition of these gene functions enhances the ABA response. One of these genes (ERA1) has been cloned and demonstrated to encode the β-subunit of a heterodimeric protein farnesyl transferase (Ftase) (Cutler et al., 1996). The era1-1 mutation, which is due to a T-DNA insertion, allowed the isolation of plant genomic regions flanking the insertions. Using the flanking regions as probes, the wild-type cDNA and genomic clones were isolated. Sequence analysis of these described a gene encompassing 3.5 kb of genomic DNA. The gene contains 13 introns which are underlined in FIGS. 1A-1C and the T-DNA insertion site in era1 -1 is in intron 8. Southern (DNA) analysis of wild-type DNA, era1-2, and era1-3 probed with Era1 cDNA revealed that both fast-neutron alleles contain deletions spanning the ERA1 locus. Fast-neutron mutagenesis induced small deletions in Arabidopsis (Shirley et al., 1992), and subsequent genomic analysis with a 14-kb probe that spans the ERA1 locus determined the size of the era1-2 deletion to be about 7.5 kb and the era1-3 deletion to be slightly larger. Thus all three era1 alleles contained DNA disruptions at the same locus, confirming the identity of the ERA locus.

Conceptual translation of the longest open reading frame (404 amino acids) in the ERA1 gene produced a protein (FIGS. 2 and 4) with a high sequence similarity to yeast, pea, and mammalian protein farnesyl transferase β subunit genes (Goodman et al., 1988; Chen et al., 1991; Yang et al., 1993). Farnesyl transferases consist of α and β subunits that dimerize, forming an enzyme that catalyzes the attachment of farnesyl pyrophosphate (15 carbons) to proteins containing a COOH-terminal CaaX motif (Schafer and Rine, 1992), where C designates cysteine residue, aa is usually aliphatic amino acids, and X may designate a cysteine, serine, methionine, or glutamine residue. Both plant β subunit genes contain a region of about 50 amino acids near their COOH-terminus that is absent in yeast and animal β subunit genes.

In yeast and mammalian systems, Ftases modify several signal transduction proteins for membrane localization. This is achieved by the attachment of the lipophilic farnesyl sidechain to the protein target via the Ftase. The attachment of the farnesyl group causes a change in the overall hydrophobicity of the target allowing the protein to anchor itself into the membrane where it usually interacts with other signal transduction molecules. That the loss of farnesylation activity in the era1 mutant leads to an enhanced response of the seed to ABA suggests a target protein in Arabidopsis must be localized to the membrane to attenuate the ABA signal. Thus farnesylation in Arabidopsis, appears to be required for the normal function of a negative regulator of ABA sensitivity.

Subsequent work has shown that loss of ERA1 gene function in Arabidopsis confers an enhanced tolerance to environmental stresses at the level of the mature plant. For example, a comparison of wild-type plants and era1 mutant plants grown in soil under standard laboratory conditions (24 hr light, 150 μE m-2sec-1, 30% humidity) showed that the mutants did not require water as frequently as the wild-type plants in order to maintain viability (FIG. 5). When mutant and wild-type plants were grown until flowering occurred, watering was stopped and the plants were observed each subsequent day for signs of stress. Water loss was significantly reduced in the mutant plants compared to the wild-type plants (FIGS. 6 and 7).

To determine if the observed increased drought tolerance of era mutants was related to ERA1 gene function, transgenic plants containing a ERA1 promoter fusion to a reporter GUS gene (made by inserting a 5 Kb fragment of the ERA1 promoter into a promoterless GUS T-DNA plasmid), were constructed. Analysis of the transgenic plants showed that ERA1 is transcriptionally expressed in the epidermal tissue of Arabidopsis and that this expression is guard-cell specific. Expression of ERA1 was also noted in the meristematic tissue of the plants and in root hairs. The guard cell expression of ERA1 is consistent with the drought tolerance of the mutant as these cells are the major regulators of water transpiration through the plant. It would be expected that ERA1-regulated stomatal conductance would require expression of the ERA1 gene in the guard cells. Hence loss of ERA1 gene function results in guard cells which are more responsive to ABA which, in turn, leads to more drought responsive guard cell regulation. Therefore, modification of Ftase expression or activity in higher plants, especially crop plants, will have profound effects on stomatal conductance and transpiration rates in the plants.

The nature of the era1 mutation in Arabidopsis demonstrates that inhibition of farnesylation will enhance ABA responses in a plant and alteration of this enzyme activity in crop species. Inhibition of Ftase activity in crop plants can be achieved via a number of methods. For example, antisense technology of cognate ERA1 genes in a variety of crop species can be used to reduce Ftase activity, thus increasing drought tolerance. By specifically producing ERA1 antisense RNA in guard cells, the amount of Ftase synthesized can be reduced to a level which would mimic era mutant phenotypes. The ERA1 promoter is regulated in a number of different tissues ranging from shoot meristems to root hairs. By determining the elements of the ERA1 promoter which allow expression in specific tissues, it is possible to tailor the expression of antisense ERA1 to only one tissue or cell type, such as guard cells.

Another method to inhibit Ftase activity in plants is the production of specific peptide inhibitors of farnesylation in transgenic plants. In mammalian and yeast systems, the carboxyl terminal target sequence (CaaX, where C=cysteine, x=aliphatic, X=any amino acid) which allows the attachment of the farnesyl group to specific proteins has been clearly defined. Peptides which mimic these target sequences have been made and shown to inhibit farnesylation of the endogenous target proteins in these systems. Moreover, CAIM is farnesylated in vivo in Arabidopsis. Thus, similar inhibitors can be applied to higher plants to competitively inhibit Ftase in vivo. Again, this can be done through expression of inhibitor peptides in transgenic plants by synthesizing the DNA sequence for a CaaX peptide and fusing it to a guard cell-specific promoter. In both methods, using the appropriate promoters, antisense Ftase or peptide inhibitors can be specifically targeted and controlled.

Also included in the invention are methods of producing a transgenic plant. The method includes introducing into one or more plant cells a compound that alters, e.g., inhibits farnesylation of a polypeptide having a carboxyl terminal CaaX motif in the plant to generate a transgenic plant cell and regenerating a transgenic plant from the transgenic cell. In some aspects the compound alters, e.g., increases or decreases CaaX prenyl protease expression or activity. Alternatively, the compound alters farnesyltransferase expression or activity. In other aspects the compound alters isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase expression or activity. The compound can be, e.g., (i) a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide; (ii) a nucleic acid encoding a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide; (iii) a nucleic acid that increases expression of a nucleic acid that encodes a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide; (iv) a nucleic acid that decreases the expression of a nucleic acid that encodes a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide; (v) a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase antisense nucleic acid and derivatives, fragments, analogs and homologs thereof. A nucleic acid that increases expression of a nucleic acid that encodes a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide includes, e.g., promoters, enhancers. The nucleic acid can be either endogenous or exogenous. Preferably, the compound is a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide or a nucleic acid encoding a CaaX prenyl protease, farnesyltransferase or isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase polypeptide.

Included in the invention are methods of producing a transgenic plant that has increased stress resistance, delayed senesense or increased sensitivity to ABA. The method includes introducing into one or more plant cells a compound that alters farnesyl transferase expression (i.e. farnesyl transferase alpha or beta) or activity in the plant. The compound can be, e.g., (i) a farnesyl transferase polypeptide inhibitor; (ii) a nucleic acid encoding a farnesyl transferase polypeptide inhibitor; (iii) a nucleic acid that decreases expression of a nucleic acid that encodes a farnesyl transferase polypeptide and, derivatives, fragments, analogs and homologs thereof; (iv) an antisense farnesyl transferase nucleic acid. A nucleic acid that decreases expression of a nucleic acid that encodes a farnesyl transferase polypeptide includes, e.g., antisense nucleic acids or RNA inhibitory nucleic acids. The nucleic acid can be either endogenous or exogenous. Preferably the compound is a farnesyl transferase polypeptide or a nucleic acid encoding a farnesyl transferase polypeptide. More preferably the compound is a nucleic acid complementary to a nucleic acid encoding a farnesyl transferase polypeptide. For example an anti-sense nucleic acid molecule.

Alternatively the compound is a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a mutated farnesyl transferase, isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methytransferase or CaaX prenyl protease polypeptide. By mutated is meant that the polypeptide lacks one or more function of a wild-type polypeptide. For example, a mutated farnesyltransferase beta polypeptide is a polypeptide has less amino acids than a full length wild type polypeptide by still retains the ability to dimerize with an alpha subunit. For example a mutated farnesytransferase beta polypeptide is less than 314 amino acids in length. Preferably, the mutated farnesytransferase beta polypeptide comprises the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:1 or a fragment thereof.

In another aspect the compound is a nucleic acid encoding a CaaX motif. Alternatively, the CaaX motif is operably liked to a promoter.

Also included in the invention is a plant where a mutation has been introduced in the gene encoding farnesyl transferase (i.e. alpha or beta) which results in a plant that has decreased farnesyl transferase activity and increased tolerance to stress as compared to a wild type plant. The mutation may be introduced by chemical or mechanical means.

In various aspects the transgenic plant has an altered phenotype as compared to a wild type plant (i.e., untransformed). By altered phenotype is meant that the plant has a one or more characteristic that is different from the wild type plant. For example, the transgenic plant has an increased resistance to stress. Increased stress resistance is meant that the transgenic plant can grow under stress conditions (e.g., high salt, decreased water, low temperatures, high temperatures) or under conditions that normally inhibit the growth of an untransformed. Stresses include, for example, chilling stress, heat stress, heat shock, salt stress, water stress (i.e., drought), nutritional stress, disease, grazing pests, wound healing, pathogens such as for example fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses or parasitic weed and herbicides. Methodologies to determine plant growth or response to stress include for example, height measurements, weight or biomass measurements, leaf area or number, ability to flower, water use, transpiration rates and yield. Alternatively, the transformed plant has an increased (i.e., enhanced) ABA sensitivity. The enhanced ABA sensitivity is at the seedling growth stage. Alternatively, the enhanced ABA sensitivity is at the mature plant stage. Additional altered phenotypes include for example, enhanced vegetative growth (e.g., increased leaf number, thickness and overall biomass), delayed reproductive growth (e.g., flowering later); enhanced seedling vigor (e.g., increased root biomass and length), enhanced lateral root formation and therefore soil penetration more extensive vascular system resulting in an enhanced transport system.

The plant can be any plant type including, for example, species from the genera Cucurbita, Rosa, Vitis, Juglans, Fragaria, Lotus, Medicago, Onobrychis, Trifolium, Trigonella, Vigna, Citrus, Linum, Geranium, Manihot, Daucus, Arabidopsis, Brassica, Raphanus, Sinapis, Atropa, Capsicum, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Lycopersicon, Nicotiana, Solanum, Petunia, Digitalis, Majorana, Ciahorium, Helianthus, Lactuca, Bromus, Asparagus, Antirrhinum, Heterocallis, Nemesis, Pelargonium, Panieum, Pennisetum, Ranunculus, Senecio, Salpiglossis, Cucumis, Browaalia, Glycine, Pisum, Phaseolus, Lolium, Oryza, Zea, Avena, Hordeum, Secale, Triticum, Sorghum, Gossypium, Picea, Caco, and Populus.

This invention provides a method of producing drought-tolerant plants comprising: preparing a nucleic acid construct which comprises a promoter operably-linked to a nucleic acid comprising or encoding antisense to SEQ ID NO: 1, 14, 40, 43, 80-85 or 172, or nucleic acid comprising a functional equivalent or fragment thereof of the antisense; inserting the nucleic acid construct into a vector; transforming a plant, tissue culture, or plant cells with the vector; and growing the plant or regenerating a plant from the tissue culture or plant cells; wherein drought-tolerant plants are produced. This method can be used wherein the nucleic acid is selected from the group consisting of 25-200 or more consecutive nucleotides complementary to SEQ ID NO: 1, 14, 40, 43, 80-85 or 172, oligonucleotides consisting of 25 or more consecutive nucleotides of SEQ ID NO: 1, 14, 40, 43, 80-85 or 172 or its complement, or nucleic acid encoding a peptide inhibitor of farnesyl transferase

In addition to stomatal regulation which is extremely sensitive to ABA, era plants also demonstrate delayed senescence under drought conditions, indicating that farnesylation negatively regulates a number of drought-induced responses in Arabidopsis. The era plants grown under normal laboratory conditions take longer to turn yellow. The mutant plants remained green and viable long after the wild-type had senesced and died. Detached leaves of an era mutant plant do not yellow as quickly as detached leaves of wild-type plants (FIG. 8). Similar-sized leaves which were developmentally identical were taken from wild-type and era plants and placed on agar-containing petri plates (See Example 7). Normally, a wild-type leaf begins to lose chlorophyll about five days later and eventually bleachs. The leaves of the mutant plants remained green for twice as long. Because the leaves were in constant contact with the agar they were not drought stressed, indicating the reduced senescence of the era1 mutant is not a drought-induced phenomenon.

Moreover, under a 10 hr day/16 hr night cycle, the plant life cycle can be doubled versus the wild-type plants (3 months). It appears therefore, that chlorophyll turnover and senescence signals are altered in the era1 mutant. For example, wild-type and mutant plants were grown in pots under well-watered conditions to stages of development where the wild-type plant leaves would begin to senesce (about the time of flower development). At this time, developmentally-similar leaves were assayed for senescence-induced marker genes by northern blot analysis (Example 8). Two genes, SAG12 and SAG13, in which transcription is normally induced during senescence in wild-type plants, were not induced in the era1 mutant (FIG. 9). Further, CAB transcription is maintained (FIG. 9). Taken together, these results indicate the senescence induction program in era1 mutants is delayed compared to wild-type plants, showing that loss of farnesylation activity causes a retardation of the induction of senescence in the plant even under conditions wherein water stress is not an environmental factor.

In addition to effects on senescence and water loss, the era1 mutants show a difference in branching and flowering habit when grown under diurnal light cycles. Under continuous (24 hours light/day) light, the branching pattern of mutants does not differ from that of wild-type plants. However, when given a dark period, the mutants do not produce as many lateral branches as wild-type plants. When measured, plants with loss of farnesylation activity produced only 2.4 branches per plant compared to 3.6 lateral branches per wild-type plant. This represents a 30% decrease in lateral branches per plant.

Flowering is affected by loss of Ftase activity as well. Plants lacking Ftase activity produce more flowers per plant (25-30 buds/inflorescence) than wild-type plants (10-15 buds/inflorescence). Thus, on average there are twice as many flower buds are present on the mutants than on the wild-type plants.

These pleiotrophic effects of the era1 loss of function mutants on whole plant development indicate that the ERA1 gene can be a coordinate regulator of a collection of plant developmental functions.

Until now, there was no known function for farnesylation in higher plants, including a role in ABA signal transduction. Ftases have been found in a number of higher plants such as tomato and pea, so it is clear that this enzyme has functions across species boundaries. Furthermore, overproduction of farnesyl transferase target peptides or the use of farnesylation inhibitors completely inactivates Ftase in mammalian and yeast systems. Thus, similar inhibitors can be applied to higher plants to inactivate Ftase in vivo. In both cases with the appropriate promoters, antisense Ftase or peptide inhibitors can be specifically targeted and controlled.

The farnesylation deficient mutants are also supersensitive to exogenous auxin. That these mutants show reduced branching and minor alterations in meristem organization, can be explained by altered auxin regulation. Thus other hormone functions are affected in this mutant, which indicates that, in addition to ABA pathways, other hormone regulated pathways are controlled by Ftase activity. These results demonstrate that the ERA1 gene provides a molecular mechanism to coordinate regulation of different hormone signaling molecules.

In accordance with the present invention, the plants included within the scope of this invention are higher and lower plants of the plant kingdom. Mature plants, seedlings and seeds are included in the scope of the invention. A mature plant includes a plant at any stage in development beyond the seedling. A seedling is a very young, immature plant in the early stages of development. Plant parts, protoplasts and tissue culture are also provided by this invention.

Transgenic plants are included within the scope of the present invention which have the phenotype characterized by the era1 mutation. Seed of transgenic plants are provided by this invention and can be used to propagate more plants containing the constructs of this invention.

ERA1 function in a number of crop plants can be inhibited to enhance the plant's response to adverse environmental conditions that require ABA-mediated signaling. Control of farnesylation in higher plants regulates both embryonic and vegetative tissue response to this hormone (Cutler, et al., 1996). The increased sensitivity translates into a faster response of the tissue to stress conditions which in turn confers increased protection of the plant to the environmental stress. Because this only requires the control of a single gene, ERA1, it should be possible to control farnesylation in a variety of plants by controlling the synthesis or activity of this enzyme. Furthermore, the work described herein clearly indicates that altering the ABA signal transduction pathway by manipulating the genes that control the ABA response makes it possible to improve the plant's response to adverse water stress conditions.

To produce transgenic plants of this invention, a construct comprising the gene encoding Ftase, or nucleic acid encoding its functional equivalent, and a promoter are incorporated into a vector through methods known and used by those of skill in the art. The promoter can comprise all or part of SEQ ID NO:3. The construct can also include any other necessary regulators such as terminators or the like, operably linked to the coding sequence. It can also be beneficial to include a 5′ leader sequence, such as the untranslated leader from the coat protein mRNA of alfalfa mosaic virus (Jobling, S. A. and Gehrke, L. (1987) Nature 325:622-625) or the maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) leader (Lommel, S. A., et al. (1991) Virology 81:382-385). Those of skill in the art will recognize the applicability of other leader sequences for various purposes. Exemplary constructs include SEQ ID NO: 54-64.

Targeting sequences are also useful and can be incorporated into the constructs of this invention. A targeting sequence is usually translated into a peptide which directs the polypeptide product of the coding nucleic acid sequence to a desired location within the cell, such as to the plastid, and becomes separated from the peptide after transit of the peptide is complete or concurrently with transit. Examples of targeting sequences useful in this invention include, but are not limited to, the yeast mitochondrial presequence (Schmitz, et al. (1989) Plant Cell 1:783-791), the targeting sequence from the pathogenesis-related gene (PR-1) of tobacco (Cornellisen, et al. (1986) EMBO J. 5:37-40), vacuole targeting signals (Chrispeels, M. J. and Raikhel, N. V. (1992) Cell 68:613-616), secretory pathway sequences such as those of the ER or Golgi (Chrispeels, M. J. (1991)Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 42:21-53). Intraorganellar sequences may also be useful for internal sites, e.g., thylakoids in chloroplasts. Theg, S. M. and Scott, S. V. (1993) Trends in Cell Biol. 3:186-190.

In addition to 5′ leader sequences, terminator sequences are usually incorporated into the construct. In plant constructs, a 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) is generally part of the expression plasmid and contains a polyA termination sequence. The termination region which is employed will generally be one of convenience, since termination regions appear to be relatively interchangeable. The octopine synthase and nopaline synthase termination regions, derived from the Ti-plasmid of A. tumefaciens, are suitable for such use in the constructs of this invention.

Any suitable technique can be used to introduce the nucleic acids and constructs of this invention to produce transgenic plants with an altered genome. For grasses such as maize, microprojectile bombardment (see for example, Sanford, J. C., et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,100,792 (1992) can be used. In this embodiment, a nucleotide construct or a vector containing the construct is coated onto small particles which are then introduced into the targeted tissue (cells) via high velocity ballistic penetration. The vector can be any vector which permits the expression of the exogenous DNA in plant cells into which the vector is introduced. The transformed cells are then cultivated under conditions appropriate for the regeneration of plants, resulting in production of transgenic plants.

Transgenic plants carrying the construct are examined for the desired phenotype using a variety of methods including but not limited to an appropriate phenotypic marker, such as antibiotic resistance or herbicide resistance, or visual observation of the time of floral induction compared to naturally-occurring plants.

Other known methods of inserting nucleic acid constructs into plants include Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (see for example Smith, R. H., et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,310 (1992)), electroporation (see for example, Calvin, N., U.S. Pat. No. 5,098,843 (1992)), introduction using laser beams (see for example, Kasuya, T., et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,013,660 (1991)) or introduction using agents such as polyethylene glycol (see for example Golds, T. et al. (1993) Biotechnology, 11:95-97), and the like. In general, plant cells may be transformed with a variety of vectors, such as viral, episomal vectors, Ti plasmid vectors and the like, in accordance with well known procedures. The method of introduction of the nucleic acid into the plant cell is not critical to this invention.

The methods of this invention can be used with in planta or seed transformation techniques which do not require culture or regeneration. Examples of these techniques are described in Bechtold, N., et al. (1993) CR Acad. Sci. Paris/Life Sciences 316:118-93; Chang, S. S., et al. (1990) Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, Vienna, p. 28; Feldmann, K. A. and Marks, D. M (1987) Mol. Gen. Genet. 208:1-9; Ledoux, L., et al. (1985) Arabidopsis Inf. Serv. 22:1-11; Feldmann, K. A. (1992) In: Methods in Arabidopsis Research (Eds. Koncz, C., Chua, N-H, Schell, J.) pp. 274-289; Chee, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,376,543.

The transcriptional initiation region may provide for constitutive expression or regulated expression. In addition to the ERA1 promoter, many promoters are available which are functional in plants.

Constitutive promoters for plant gene expression include, but are not limited to, the octopine synthase, nopaline synthase, or mannopine synthase promoters from Agrobacterium, the cauliflower mosaic virus (35S) promoter, the figwort mosaic virus (FMV) promoter, and the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) promoter. Constitutive gene expression in plants can also be provided by the glutamine synthase promoter (Edwards, et al. (1990) PNAS 87:3459-3463), the maize sucrose synthetase 1 promoter (Yang, et al. (1990) PNAS 87:4144-4148), the promoter from the Rol-C gene of the TLDNA of Ri plasmid (Sagaya, et al. (1989) Plant Cell Physiol. 30:649-654), and the phloem-specific region of the pRVC-S-3A promoter (Aoyagi, et al. (1988) Mol. Gen. Genet. 213:179-185).

Heat-shock promoters, the ribulose-1,6-bisphosphate (RUBP) carboxylase small subunit (ssu) promoter, tissue specific promoters, and the like can be used for regulated expression of plant genes. Developmentally-regulated, stress-induced, wound-induced or pathogen-induced promoters are also useful.

The regulatory region may be responsive to a physical stimulus, such as light, as with the RUBP carboxylase ssu promoter, differentiation signals, or metabolites. The time and level of expression of the sense or antisense orientation can have a definite effect on the phenotype produced. Therefore, the promoters chosen, coupled with the orientation of the exogenous DNA, and site of integration of a vector in the genome, will determine the effect of the introduced gene.

Specific examples of regulated promoters also include, but are not limited to, the low temperature Kin1 and cor6.6 promoters (Wang, et al. (1995) Plant Mol. Biol. 28:605; Wang, et al. (1995) Plant Mol. Biol. 28:619-634), the ABA inducible promoter (Marcotte Jr., et al. (1989) Plant Cell 1:969-976), heat shock promoters, such as the inducible hsp70 heat shock promoter of Drosphilia melanogaster (Freeling, M., et al. (1985) Ann. Rev. of Genetics 19: 297-323), the cold inducible promoter from B. napus (White, T. C., et al. (1994) Plant Physiol. 106:917), the alcohol dehydrogenase promoter which is induced by ethanol (Nagao, R. T., et al., Miflin, B. J., Ed. Oxford Surveys of Plant Molecular and Cell Biology, Vol. 3, p 384-438, Oxford University Press, Oxford 1986), the phloem-specific sucrose synthase ASUS1 promoter from Arabidopsis (Martin, et al. (1993) Plant J. 4:367-377), the ACS1 promoter (Rodrigues-Pousada, et al. (1993) Plant Cell 5:897-911), the 22 kDa zein protein promoter from maize (Unger, et al. (1993) Plant Cell 5:831-841), the ps1 lectin promoter of pea (de Pater, et al. (1993) Plant Cell 5:877-886), the phase promoter from Phaseolus vulgaris (Frisch, et al. (1995) Plant J. 7:503-512), the lea promoter (Thomas, T. L. (1993) Plant Cell 5:1401-1410), the E8 gene promoter from tomato (Cordes, et al. (1989) Plant Cell 1:1025-1034), the PCNA promoter (Kosugi, et al. (1995) Plant J. 7:877-886), the NTP303 promoter (Weterings, et al. (1995) Plant J. 8:55-63), the OSEM promoter (Hattori, et al. (1995) Plant J. 7:913-925), the ADP GP promoter from potato (Muller-Rober, et al. (1994) Plant Cell 6:601-604), the Myb promoter from barley (Wissenbach, et al. (1993) Plant J. 4:411-422), and the plastocyanin promoter from Arabidopsis (Vorst, et al. (1993) Plant J. 4:933-945).

The vector can be introduced into cells by a method appropriate to the type of host cells (e.g., transformation, electroporation, transfection). For the purposes of this disclosure, the terms “transformed with”, “transformant”, “transformation”, “transfect with”, and “transfection” all refer to the introduction of a nucleic acid into a cell by one of the numerous methods known to persons skilled in the art. Transformation of prokaryotic cells, for example, is commonly achieved by treating the cells with calcium chloride so as to render them “competent” to take up exogenous DNA, and then mixing such DNA with the competent cells. Prokaryotic cells can also be infected with a recombinant bacteriophage vector.

Nucleic acids can be introduced into cells of higher organisms by viral infection, bacteria-mediated transfer (e.g., Agrobacterium T-DNA delivery system), electroporation, calcium phosphate co-precipitation, microinjection, lipofection, bombardment with nucleic-acid coated particles or other techniques, depending on the particular cell type. For grasses such as corn and sorghum, microprojectile bombardment as described, for example, in Sanford, J. C., et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,100,792 (1992) can be used. Other useful protocols for the transformation of plant cells are provided in Gelvin et al., 1992. Suitable protocols for transforming and transfecting cells are also found in Sambrook et al., 1989. The nucleic acid constructs of this invention can also be incorporated into specific plant parts such as those described supra through the transformation and transfection techniques described herein.

To aid in identification of transformed plant cells, the constructs of this invention are further manipulated to include genes coding for plant selectable markers. Useful selectable markers include enzymes which provide for resistance to an antibiotic such as gentamycin, hygromycin, kanamycin, or the like. Similarly, enzymes providing for production of a compound identifiable by color change such as GUS (β-glucuronidase), or by luminescence, such as luciferase, are useful.

For example, antisense Ftase can be produced by integrating a complement of the ERA1 gene linked to DNA comprising SEQ ID NO:3 into the genome of a virus that enters the host cells. By infection of the host cells, the components of a system which permits the transcription of the antisense present in the host cells.

When cells or protoplasts containing the antisense gene driven by a promoter of the present invention are obtained, the cells or protoplasts are regenerated into whole plants. The transformed cells are then cultivated under conditions appropriate for the regeneration of plants, resulting in production of transgenic plants. Choice of methodology for the regeneration step is not critical, with suitable protocols being available for many varieties of plants, tissues and other photosynthetic organisms. See, e.g., Gelvin S. B. and Schilperoort R. A., eds. Plant Molecular Biology Manual, Second Edition, Suppl. 1 (1995) Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston Mass., U.S.A.

Transgenic plants carrying the construct are examined for the desired phenotype using a variety of methods including but not limited to an appropriate phenotypic marker, such as antibiotic resistance or herbicide resistance as described supra, or visual observation of their growth compared to the growth of the naturally-occurring plants under the same conditions.

As used herein, the term transgenic plants includes plants that contain either DNA or RNA which does not naturally occur in the wild type (native) plant or known variants, or additional or inverted copies of the naturally-occurring DNA and which is introduced as described herein. Transgenic plants include those into which isolated nucleic acids have been introduced and their descendants, produced from seed, vegetative propagation, cell, tissue or protoplast culture, or the like wherein such alteration is maintained.

Such transgenic plants include, in one embodiment, transgenic plants which are angiosperms, both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Transgenic plants include those into which DNA has been introduced and their progeny, produced from seed, vegetative propagation, cell, tissue or protoplast culture, or the like.

Seed can be obtained from the regenerated plant or from a cross between the regenerated plant and a suitable plant of the same species. Alternatively, the plant can be vegetatively propagated by culturing plant parts under conditions suitable for the regeneration of such plant parts.

In yet another aspect of this invention are provided plant tissue culture and protoplasts which contain DNA comprising antisense or an altered ERA1 nucleic acid operably linked to an ERA1 promoter, which alters the response of the tissue culture or protoplasts to varying environmental conditions.

The methods of this invention can also be used with in planta or seed transformation techniques which do not require culture or regeneration. Examples of these techniques are described in Bechtold, N., et al. (1993) CR Acad. Sci. Paris/Life Sciences 316:118-93; Chang, S. S., et al. (1990) Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, Vienna, p. 28; Feldmann, K. A. and Marks, D. M (1987) Mol. Gen. Genet. 208:1-9; Ledoux, L., et al. (1985) Arabidopsis Inf. Serv. 22:1-11; Feldmann, K. A. (1992) In: Methods in Arabidopsis Research (Eds. Koncz, C., Chua, N-H, Schell, J.) pp. 274-289; Chee, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,376,543.

The isolated nucleic acid molecules of the invention can be used to express PPI protein (e.g., via a recombinant expression vector in a host cell), to detect PPI mRNA (e.g., in a biological sample) or a genetic lesion in a PPI gene, and to modulate PPI activity, as described further, below. In addition, the PPI proteins can be used to screen compounds that modulate the PPI protein activity or expression. In addition, the anti-PPI antibodies of the invention can be used to detect and isolate PPI proteins and modulate PPI activity.

The invention provides a method (also referred to herein as a “screening assay”) for identifying modulators, i.e., candidate or test compounds or agents (e.g., peptides, peptidomimetics, small molecules or other drugs) that bind to PPI proteins or have a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on, e.g., PPI protein expression or PPI protein activity. The invention also includes compounds identified in the screening assays described herein.

In one embodiment, the invention provides assays for screening candidate or test compounds which bind to a PPI protein or polypeptide or biologically-active portion thereof. The test compounds of the invention can be obtained using any of the numerous approaches in combinatorial library methods known in the art, including: biological libraries; spatially addressable parallel solid phase or solution phase libraries; synthetic library methods requiring deconvolution; the “one-bead one-compound” library method; and synthetic library methods using affinity chromatography selection. The biological library approach is limited to peptide libraries, while the other four approaches are applicable to peptide, non-peptide oligomer or small molecule libraries of compounds. See, e.g., Lam, 1997. Anticancer Drug Design 12: 145. A “small molecule” as used herein, is meant to refer to a composition that has a molecular weight of less than about 5 kD and most preferably less than about 4 kD. Small molecules can be, e.g., nucleic acids, peptides, polypeptides, peptidomimetics, carbohydrates, lipids or other organic or inorganic molecules. Libraries of chemical and/or biological mixtures, such as fungal, bacterial, or algal extracts, are known in the art and can be screened with any of the assays of the invention.

Examples of methods for the synthesis of molecular libraries can be found in the art, for example in: DeWitt, et al., 1993. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90: 6909; Erb, et al., 1994. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91: 11422; Zuckermann, et al., 1994. J. Med. Chem. 37: 2678; Cho, et al., 1993. Science 261: 1303; Carrell, et al., 1994. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 33: 2059; Carell, et al., 1994. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 33: 2061; and Gallop, et al., 1994. J. Med. Chem. 37: 1233.

Libraries of compounds may be presented in solution (e.g., Houghten, 1992. Biotechniques 13: 412-421), or on beads (Lam, 1991. Nature 354: 82-84), on chips (Fodor, 1993. Nature 364: 555-556), bacteria (Ladner, U.S. Pat. No. 5,223,409), spores (Ladner, U.S. Pat. No. 5,233,409), plasmids (Cull, et al., 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1865-1869) or on phage (Scott and Smith, 1990. Science 249: 386-390; Devlin, 1990. Science 249: 404-406; Cwirla, et al., 1990. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87: 6378-6382; Felici, 1991. J. Mol. Biol. 222: 301-310; Ladner, U.S. Pat. No. 5,233,409.).

In one embodiment, an assay is a cell-based assay in which a cell which expresses a PPI protein, or a biologically-active portion thereof, is contacted with a test compound and the ability of the test compound to bind to a PPI protein determined. The cell, for example, can be of mammalian origin, plant cell or a yeast cell. Determining the ability of the test compound to bind to the PPI protein can be accomplished, for example, by coupling the test compound with a radioisotope or enzymatic label such that binding of the test compound to the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof can be determined by detecting the labeled compound in a complex. For example, test compounds can be labeled with 125I, 35S, 14C, or 3H, either directly or indirectly, and the radioisotope detected by direct counting of radioemission or by scintillation counting. Alternatively, test compounds can be enzymatically-labeled with, for example, horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, or luciferase, and the enzymatic label detected by determination of conversion of an appropriate substrate to product. In one embodiment, the assay comprises contacting a cell which expresses a PPI protein, or a biologically-active portion thereof, with a known compound which binds PPI to form an assay mixture, contacting the assay mixture with a test compound, and determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein, wherein determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein comprises determining the ability of the test compound to preferentially bind to PPI protein or a biologically-active portion thereof as compared to the known compound.

In another embodiment, an assay is a cell-based assay comprising contacting a cell expressing a PPI protein, or a biologically-active portion thereof, with a test compound and determining the ability of the test compound to modulate (e.g., stimulate or inhibit) the activity of the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof. Determining the ability of the test compound to modulate the activity of PPI or a biologically-active portion thereof can be accomplished, for example, by determining the ability of the PPI protein to bind to or interact with a PPI target molecule. As used herein, a “target molecule” is a molecule with which a PPI protein binds or interacts in nature, for example, a molecule on the surface of a cell which expresses a PPI interacting protein, a molecule on the surface of a second cell, a molecule in the extracellular milieu, a molecule associated with the internal surface of a cell membrane or a cytoplasmic molecule. A PPI target molecule can be a non-PPI molecule or a PPI protein or polypeptide of the invention. In one embodiment, a PPI target molecule is a component of a signal transduction pathway that facilitates transduction of an extracellular signal (e.g. a signal generated by binding of a compound to a membrane-bound molecule) through the cell membrane and into the cell. The target, for example, can be a second intercellular protein that has catalytic activity or a protein that facilitates the association of downstream signaling molecules with PPI.

Determining the ability of the PPI protein to bind to or interact with a PPI target molecule can be accomplished by one of the methods described above for determining direct binding. In one embodiment, determining the ability of the PPI protein to bind to or interact with a PPI target molecule can be accomplished by determining the activity of the target molecule. For example, the activity of the target molecule can be determined by detecting induction of a cellular second messenger of the target (i.e. intracellular Ca2+, diacylglycerol, IP3, etc.), detecting catalytic/enzymatic activity of the target an appropriate substrate, detecting the induction of a reporter gene (comprising a PPI-responsive regulatory element operatively linked to a nucleic acid encoding a detectable marker, e.g., luciferase), or detecting a cellular response, for example, cell survival, cellular differentiation, or cell proliferation.

In yet another embodiment, an assay of the invention is a cell-free assay comprising contacting a PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof with a test compound and determining the ability of the test compound to bind to the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof. Binding of the test compound to the PPI protein can be determined either directly or indirectly as described above. In one such embodiment, the assay comprises contacting the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof with a known compound which binds PPI to form an assay mixture, contacting the assay mixture with a test compound, and determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein, wherein determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein comprises determining the ability of the test compound to preferentially bind to PPI or biologically-active portion thereof as compared to the known compound.

In still another embodiment, an assay is a cell-free assay comprising contacting PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof with a test compound and determining the ability of the test compound to modulate (e.g. stimulate or inhibit) the activity of the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof. Determining the ability of the test compound to modulate the activity of PPI can be accomplished, for example, by determining the ability of the PPI protein to bind to a PPI target molecule by one of the methods described above for determining direct binding. In an alternative embodiment, determining the ability of the test compound to modulate the activity of PPI protein can be accomplished by determining the ability of the PPI protein further modulate a PPI target molecule. For example, the catalytic/enzymatic activity of the target molecule on an appropriate substrate can be determined as described above.

In yet another embodiment, the cell-free assay comprises contacting the PPI protein or biologically-active portion thereof with a known compound which binds PPI protein to form an assay mixture, contacting the assay mixture with a test compound, and determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein, wherein determining the ability of the test compound to interact with a PPI protein comprises determining the ability of the PPI protein to preferentially bind to or modulate the activity of a PPI target molecule.

The cell-free assays of the invention are amenable to use of both the soluble form or the membrane-bound form of PPI protein. In the case of cell-free assays comprising the membrane-bound form of PPI protein, it may be desirable to utilize a solubilizing agent such that the membrane-bound form of PPI protein is maintained in solution. Examples of such solubilizing agents include non-ionic detergents such as n-octylglucoside, n-dodecylglucoside, n-dodecylmaltoside, octanoyl-N-methylglucamide, decanoyl-N-methylglucamide, Triton® X-100, Triton® X-114, Thesit®, Isotridecypoly(ethylene glycol ether)n, N-dodecyl--N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate, 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylamino-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPS), or 3-(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylamino-2-hydroxy-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO).

In more than one embodiment of the above assay methods of the invention, it may be desirable to immobilize either PPI protein or its target molecule to facilitate separation of complexed from uncomplexed forms of one or both of the proteins, as well as to accommodate automation of the assay. Binding of a test compound to PPI protein, or interaction of PPI protein with a target molecule in the presence and absence of a candidate compound, can be accomplished in any vessel suitable for containing the reactants. Examples of such vessels include microtiter plates, test tubes, and micro-centrifuge tubes. In one embodiment, a fusion protein can be provided that adds a domain that allows one or both of the proteins to be bound to a matrix. For example, GST-PPI fusion proteins or GST-target fusion proteins can be adsorbed onto glutathione sepharose beads (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, Mo.) or glutathione derivatized microtiter plates, that are then combined with the test compound or the test compound and either the non-adsorbed target protein or PPI protein, and the mixture is incubated under conditions conducive to complex formation (e.g., at physiological conditions for salt and pH). Following incubation, the beads or microtiter plate wells are washed to remove any unbound components, the matrix immobilized in the case of beads, complex determined either directly or indirectly, for example, as described, supra. Alternatively, the complexes can be dissociated from the matrix, and the level of PPI protein binding or activity determined using standard techniques.

Other techniques for immobilizing proteins on matrices can also be used in the screening assays of the invention. For example, either the PPI protein or its target molecule can be immobilized utilizing conjugation of biotin and streptavidin. Biotinylated PPI protein or target molecules can be prepared from biotin-NHS (N-hydroxy-succinimide) using techniques well-known within the art (e.g., biotinylation kit, Pierce Chemicals, Rockford, Ill.), and immobilized in the wells of streptavidin-coated 96 well plates (Pierce Chemical). Alternatively, antibodies reactive with PPI protein or target molecules, but which do not interfere with binding of the PPI protein to its target molecule, can be derivatized to the wells of the plate, and unbound target or PPI protein trapped in the wells by antibody conjugation. Methods for detecting such complexes, in addition to those described above for the GST-immobilized complexes, include immunodetection of complexes using antibodies reactive with the PPI protein or target molecule, as well as enzyme-linked assays that rely on detecting an enzymatic activity associated with the PPI protein or target molecule.

In another embodiment, modulators of PPI protein expression are identified in a method wherein a cell is contacted with a candidate compound and the expression of PPI mRNA or protein in the cell is determined. The level of expression of PPI mRNA or protein in the presence of the candidate compound is compared to the level of expression of PPI mRNA or protein in the absence of the candidate compound. The candidate compound can then be identified as a modulator of PPI mRNA or protein expression based upon this comparison. For example, when expression of PPI mRNA or protein is greater (i.e., statistically significantly greater) in the presence of the candidate compound than in its absence, the candidate compound is identified as a stimulator of PPI mRNA or protein expression. Alternatively, when expression of PPI mRNA or protein is less (statistically significantly less) in the presence of the candidate compound than in its absence, the candidate compound is identified as an inhibitor of PPI mRNA or protein expression. The level of PPI mRNA or protein expression in the cells can be determined by methods described herein for detecting PPI mRNA or protein.

In yet another aspect of the invention, the PPI proteins can be used as “bait proteins” in a two-hybrid assay or three hybrid assay (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,283,317; Zervos, et al., 1993. Cell 72: 223-232; Madura, et al., 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268: 12046-12054; Bartel, et al., 1993. Biotechniques 14: 920-924; Iwabuchi, et al., 1993. Oncogene 8: 1693-1696; and Brent WO 94/10300), to identify other proteins that bind to or interact with PPI (“PPI-binding proteins” or “PPI-bp”) and modulate PPI activity. Such PPI-binding proteins are also likely to be involved in the propagation of signals by the PPI proteins as, for example, upstream or downstream elements of the PPI pathway.

The two-hybrid system is based on the modular nature of most transcription factors, which consist of separable DNA-binding and activation domains. Briefly, the assay utilizes two different DNA constructs. In one construct, the gene that codes for PPI is fused to a gene encoding the DNA binding domain of a known transcription factor (e.g., GAL-4). In the other construct, a DNA sequence, from a library of DNA sequences, that encodes an unidentified protein (“prey” or “sample”) is fused to a gene that codes for the activation domain of the known transcription factor. If the “bait” and the “prey” proteins are able to interact, in vivo, forming a PPI-dependent complex, the DNA-binding and activation domains of the transcription factor are brought into close proximity. This proximity allows transcription of a reporter gene (e.g., LacZ) that is operably linked to a transcriptional regulatory site responsive to the transcription factor. Expression of the reporter gene can be detected and cell colonies containing the functional transcription factor can be isolated and used to obtain the cloned gene that encodes the protein which interacts with PPI.

In yet another aspect of the invention are methods which utilize the transgenic plants of the invention to identify PPI-interacting components via genetic-screening protocols. These components can be for example, regulatory elements which modify PPI-gene expression, interacting proteins which directly modify PPI activity or interacting proteins which modify components of the same signal transduction pathway and thereby exert an effect on the expression or activity of PPI. Briefly, genetic screening protocols are applied to the transgenic plants of the invention and in so doing identify related genes which are not identified using a wild type background for the screen. For example an activation tagged library (Weigel, et al., 2000. Plant Physiol. 122: 1003-1013), can be produced using the transgenic plants of the invention as the genetic background. Plants are then screened for altered phenotypes from that displayed by the parent plants. Alternative methods of generating libraries from the transgenic plants of the invention can be used, for example, chemical or irradiation induced mutations, insertional inactivation or insertional activation methods.

The invention further pertains to novel agents identified by the aforementioned screening assays and uses thereof.

Recombinant Expression Vectors and Host Cells

Another aspect of the invention pertains to vectors, preferably expression vectors, containing a nucleic acid encoding a PPI protein, or derivatives, fragments, analogs or homologs thereof. As used herein, the term “vector” refers to a nucleic acid molecule capable of transporting another nucleic acid to which it has been linked. Exemplary expression vector constructs include for example the constructs of SEQ ID NO: 54-64. One type of vector is a “plasmid”, which refers to a circular double stranded DNA loop into which additional DNA segments can be ligated. Another type of vector is a viral vector, wherein additional DNA segments can be ligated into the viral genome. Certain vectors are capable of autonomous replication in a host cell into which they are introduced (e.g., bacterial vectors having a bacterial origin of replication). Other vectors are integrated into the genome of a host cell upon introduction into the host cell, and thereby are replicated along with the host genome. Moreover, certain vectors are capable of directing the expression of genes to which they are operatively-linked. Such vectors are referred to herein as “expression vectors”. In general, expression vectors of utility in recombinant DNA techniques are often in the form of plasmids. In the present specification, “plasmid” and “vector” can be used interchangeably as the plasmid is the most commonly used form of vector. However, the invention is intended to include such other forms of expression vectors, such as viral vectors or plant transformation vectors, binary or otherwise, which serve equivalent functions.

The recombinant expression vectors of the invention comprise a nucleic acid of the invention in a form suitable for expression of the nucleic acid in a host cell, which means that the recombinant expression vectors include one or more regulatory sequences, selected on the basis of the host cells to be used for expression, that is operatively-linked to the nucleic acid sequence to be expressed. Within a recombinant expression vector, “operably-linked” is intended to mean that the nucleotide sequence of interest is linked to the regulatory sequence(s) in a manner that allows for expression of the nucleotide sequence (e.g., in an in vitro transcription/translation system or in a host cell when the vector is introduced into the host cell).

The term “regulatory sequence” is intended to includes promoters, enhancers and other expression control elements (e.g., polyadenylation signals). Such regulatory sequences are described, for example, in Goeddel, GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY: METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY 185, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990). Regulatory sequences include those that direct constitutive expression of a nucleotide sequence in many types of host cell and those that direct expression of the nucleotide sequence only in certain host cells (e.g., tissue-specific regulatory sequences). Examples of suitable promoters include for example constitutive promoters, ABA inducible promoters, tissue specific promoters or guard cell specific promoters. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the design of the expression vector can depend on such factors as the choice of the host cell to be transformed, the level of expression of protein desired, etc. The expression vectors of the invention can be introduced into host cells to thereby produce proteins or peptides, including fusion proteins or peptides, encoded by nucleic acids as described herein (e.g., PPI proteins, mutant forms of PPI proteins, fusion proteins, etc.).

The recombinant expression vectors of the invention can be designed for expression of PPI proteins in prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells. For example, PPI proteins can be expressed in bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli, insect cells (using baculovirus expression vectors) yeast cells, plant cells or mammalian cells. Suitable host cells are discussed further in Goeddel, GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY: METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY 185, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990). Alternatively, the recombinant expression vector can be transcribed and translated in vitro, for example using T7 promoter regulatory sequences and T7 polymerase.

Expression of proteins in prokaryotes is most often carried out in Escherichia coli with vectors containing constitutive or inducible promoters directing the expression of either fusion or non-fusion proteins. Fusion vectors add a number of amino acids to a protein encoded therein, usually to the amino terminus of the recombinant protein. Such fusion vectors typically serve three purposes: (i) to increase expression of recombinant protein; (ii) to increase the solubility of the recombinant protein; and (iii) to aid in the purification of the recombinant protein by acting as a ligand in affinity purification. Often, in fusion expression vectors, a proteolytic cleavage site is introduced at the junction of the fusion moiety and the recombinant protein to enable separation of the recombinant protein from the fusion moiety subsequent to purification of the fusion protein. Such enzymes, and their cognate recognition sequences, include Factor Xa, thrombin and enterokinase. Typical fusion expression vectors include pGEX (Pharmacia Biotech Inc; Smith and Johnson, 1988. Gene 67: 31-40), pMAL (New England Biolabs, Beverly, Mass.) and pRIT5 (Pharmacia, Piscataway, N.J.) that fuse glutathione S-transferase (GST), maltose E binding protein, or protein A, respectively, to the target recombinant protein.

Examples of suitable inducible non-fusion E. coli expression vectors include pTRC (Amrann et al., (1988) Gene 69:301-315) and pET 11d (Studier et al., GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY: METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY 185, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990) 60-89).

One strategy to maximize recombinant protein expression in E. coli is to express the protein in a host bacteria with an impaired capacity to proteolytically cleave the recombinant protein. See, e.g., Gottesman, GENE EXPRESSION TECHNOLOGY: METHODS IN ENZYMOLOGY 185, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990) 119-128. Another strategy is to alter the nucleic acid sequence of the nucleic acid to be inserted into an expression vector so that the individual codons for each amino acid are those preferentially utilized in E. coli (see, e.g., Wada, et al., 1992. Nucl. Acids Res. 20: 2111-2118). Such alteration of nucleic acid sequences of the invention can be carried out by standard DNA synthesis techniques.

In another embodiment, the PPI expression vector is a yeast expression vector. Examples of vectors for expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerivisae include pYepSec1 (Baldari, et al., 1987. EMBO J. 6: 229-234), pMFa (Kuijan and Herskowitz, 1982. Cell 30: 933-943), pJRY88 (Schultz et al., 1987. Gene 54: 113-123), pYES2 (Invitrogen Corporation, San Diego, Calif.), and picZ (Invitrogen Corp, San Diego, Calif.).

Alternatively, PPI can be expressed in insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors. Baculovirus vectors available for expression of proteins in cultured insect cells (e.g., SF9 cells) include the pAc series (Smith, et al., 1983. Mol. Cell. Biol. 3: 2156-2165) and the pVL series (Lucklow and Summers, 1989. Virology 170: 31-39).

In yet another embodiment, a nucleic acid of the invention is expressed in mammalian cells using a mammalian expression vector. Examples of mammalian expression vectors include pCDM8 (Seed, 1987. Nature 329: 840) and pMT2PC (Kaufmnan, et al., 1987. EMBO J. 6: 187-195). When used in mammalian cells, the expression vector's control functions are often provided by viral regulatory elements. For example, commonly used promoters are derived from polyoma, adenovirus 2, cytomegalovirus, and simian virus 40. For other suitable expression systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells see, e.g., Chapters 16 and 17 of Sambrook, et al., MOLECULAR CLONING: A LABORATORY MANUAL. 2nd ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 1989.

In yet another embodiment, a nucleic acid of the invention is expressed in plants cells using a plant expression vector. Examples of plant expression vectors systems include tumor inducing (Ti) plasmid or portion thereof found in Agrobacterium, cauliflower mosaic virus (CAMV) DNA and vectors such as pBI121.

For expression in plants, the recombinant expression cassette will contain in addition to the PPI nucleic acids, a plant promoter region, a transcription initiation site (if the coding sequence to transcribed lacks one), and a transcription termination/polyadenylation sequence. The termination/polyadenylation region may be obtained from the same gene as the promoter sequence or may be obtained from different genes. Unique restriction enzyme sites at the 5′ and 3′ ends of the cassette are typically included to allow for easy insertion into a pre-existing vector. Examples of suitable promoters include promoters from plant viruses such as the 35S promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Odell, et al., Nature, 313: 810-812 (1985). and promoters from genes such as rice actin (McElroy, et al., Plant Cell, 163-171 (1990)); ubiquitin (Christensen, et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 12: 619-632 (1992); and Christensen, et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 18: 675-689 (1992)); pEMU (Last, et al., Theor. Appl. Genet., 81: 581-588 (1991)); MAS (Velten, et al., EMBO J., 3: 2723-2730 (1984)); maize H3 histone (Lepetit, et al., Mol. Gen. Genet., 231: 276-285 (1992); and Atanassvoa, et al., Plant Journal, 2(3): 291-300 (1992)), the 5′- or 3′-promoter derived from T-DNA of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the Smas promoter, the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase promoter (U.S. Pat. No. 5,683,439), the Nos promoter, the rubisco promoter, the GRP1-8 promoter, ALS promoter, (WO 96/30530), a synthetic promoter, such as, Rsyn7, SCP and UCP promoters, ribulose-1,3-diphosphate carboxylase, fruit-specific promoters, heat shock promoters, seed-specific promoters and other transcription initiation regions from various plant genes, for example, include the various opine initiation regions, such as for example, octopine, mannopine, and nopaline.

Additional regulatory elements that may be connected to a PPI encoding nucleic acid sequence for expression in plant cells include terminators, polyadenylation sequences, and nucleic acid sequences encoding signal peptides that permit localization within a plant cell or secretion of the protein from the cell. Such regulatory elements and methods for adding or exchanging these elements with the regulatory elements PPI gene are known, and include, but are not limited to, 3′ termination and/or polyadenylation regions such as those of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (nos) gene (Bevan, et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 12: 369-385 (1983)); the potato proteinase inhibitor II (PINII) gene (Keil, et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 14: 5641-5650 (1986) and hereby incorporated by reference); and An,, et al., Plant Cell, 1: 115-122 (1989)); and the CaMV 19S gene (Mogen, et al., Plant Cell, 2: 1261-1272 (1990)).

Plant signal sequences, including, but not limited to, signal-peptide encoding DNA/RNA sequences which target proteins to the extracellular matrix of the plant cell (Dratewka-Kos, et al., J. Biol. Chem., 264: 4896-4900 (1989)) and the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia extension gene (DeLoose, et al., Gene, 99: 95-100 (1991)), or signal peptides which target proteins to the vacuole like the sweet potato sporamin gene (Matsuka, et al., Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci. (USA), 88: 834 (1991)) and the barley lectin gene (Wilkins, et al., Plant Cell, 2: 301-313 (1990)), or signals which cause proteins to be secreted such as that of PRIb (Lind, et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 18: 47-53 (1992)), or those which target proteins to the plastids such as that of rapeseed enoyl-ACP reductase (Verwaert, et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 26: 189-202 (1994)) are useful in the invention.

In another embodiment, the recombinant expression vector is capable of directing expression of the nucleic acid preferentially in a particular cell type (e.g., tissue-specific regulatory elements are used to express the nucleic acid). Tissue-specific regulatory elements are known in the art. Especially useful in connection with the nucleic acids of the present invention are expression systems which are operable in plants. These include systems which are under control of a tissue-specific promoter, as well as those which involve promoters that are operable in all plant tissues.

Organ-specific promoters are also well known. For example, the patatin class I promoter is transcriptionally activated only in the potato tuber and can be used to target gene expression in the tuber (Bevan, M., 1986, Nucleic Acids Research 14:4625-4636). Another potato-specific promoter is the granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) promoter (Visser, R. G. R, et al., 1991, Plant Molecular Biology 17:691-699).

Other organ-specific promoters appropriate for a desired target organ can be isolated using known procedures. These control sequences are generally associated with genes uniquely expressed in the desired organ. In a typical higher plant, each organ has thousands of mRNAs that are absent from other organ systems (reviewed in Goldberg, P., 1986, Trans. R. Soc. London B314:343).

For in situ production of the antisense mRNA of GST, those regions of the GST gene which are transcribed into GST mRNA, including the untranslated regions thereof, are inserted into the expression vector under control of the promoter system in a reverse orientation. The resulting transcribed mRNA is then complementary to that normally produced by the plant.

The resulting expression system or cassette is ligated into or otherwise constructed to be included in a recombinant vector which is appropriate for plant transformation. The vector may also contain a selectable marker gene by which transformed plant cells can be identified in culture. Usually, the marker gene will encode antibiotic resistance. These markers include resistance to G418, hygromycin, bleomycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin. After transforming the plant cells, those cells having the vector will be identified by their ability to grow on a medium containing the particular antibiotic. Replication sequences, of bacterial or viral origin, are generally also included to allow the vector to be cloned in a bacterial or phage host, preferably a broad host range prokaryotic origin of replication is included. A selectable marker for bacteria should also be included to allow selection of bacterial cells bearing the desired construct. Suitable prokaryotic selectable markers also include resistance to antibiotics such as kanamycin or tetracycline.

Other DNA sequences encoding additional functions may also be present in the vector, as is known in the art. For instance, in the case of Agrobacterium transformations, T-DNA sequences will also be included for subsequent transfer to plant chromosomes.

Another aspect of the invention pertains to host cells into which a recombinant expression vector of the invention has been introduced. The terms “host cell” and “recombinant host cell” are used interchangeably herein. It is understood that such terms refer not only to the particular subject cell but also to the progeny or potential progeny of such a cell. Because certain modifications may occur in succeeding generations due to either mutation or environmental influences, such progeny may not, in fact, be identical to the parent cell, but are still included within the scope of the term as used herein.

Vector DNA can be introduced into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells via conventional transformation or transfection techniques. As used herein, the terms “transformation” and “transfection” are intended to refer to a variety of art-recognized techniques for introducing foreign nucleic acid (e.g., DNA) into a host cell.

A host cell of the invention, such as a prokaryotic or eukaryotic host cell in culture, can be used to produce (i.e., express) a polypeptide of the invention encoded in a an open reading frame of a polynucleotide of the invention. Accordingly, the invention further provides methods for producing a polypeptide using the host cells of the invention. In one embodiment, the method comprises culturing the host cell of invention (into which a recombinant expression vector encoding a polypeptide of the invention has been introduced) in a suitable medium such that the polypeptide is produced. In another embodiment, the method further comprises isolating the polypeptide from the medium or the host cell.

A number of types of cells may act as suitable host cells for expression of a polypeptide encoded by an open reading frame in a polynucleotide of the invention. Plant host cells include, for example, plant cells that could function as suitable hosts for the expression of a polynucleotide of the invention include epidermal cells, mesophyll and other ground tissues, and vascular tissues in leaves, stems, floral organs, and roots from a variety of plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, Brassica napus, Zea mays, Oryza sativa, Gossypium hirsutum and Glycine max.

Alternatively, it may be possible to produce a polypeptide in lower eukaryotes such as yeast or in prokaryotes such as bacteria. Potentially suitable yeast strains include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Kluyveromyces strains, Candida, or any yeast strain capable of expressing heterologous proteins. Potentially suitable bacterial strains include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, or any bacterial strain capable of expressing heterologous polypeptides. If the polypeptide is made in yeast or bacteria, it may be necessary to modify the polypeptide produced therein, for example by phosphorylation or glycosylation of the appropriate sites, in order to obtain a functional polypeptide, if the polypeptide is of sufficient length and conformation to have activity. Such covalent attachments may be accomplished using known chemical or enzymatic methods.

A polypeptide may be prepared by culturing transformed host cells under culture conditions suitable to express the recombinant protein. The resulting expressed polypeptide or protein may then be purified from such culture (e.g., from culture medium or cell extracts) using known purification processes, such as gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The purification of the polypeptide or protein may also include an affinity column containing agents which will bind to the protein; one or more column steps over such affinity resins as concanavalin A-agarose, heparin-toyopearl® or Cibacrom blue 3GA Sepharose®; one or more steps involving hydrophobic interaction chromatography using such resins as phenyl ether, butyl ether, or propyl ether; or immunoaffinity chromatography.

Alternatively, a polypeptide or protein may also be expressed in a form which will facilitate purification. For example, it may be expressed as a fusion protein containing a six-residue histidine tag. The histidine-tagged protein will then bind to a Ni-affinity column. After elution of all other proteins, the histidine-tagged protein can be eluted to achieve rapid and efficient purification. One or more reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) steps employing hydrophobic RP-HPLC media, e.g., silica gel having pendant methyl or other aliphatic groups, can be employed to further purify a polypeptide. Some or all of the foregoing purification steps, in various combinations, can also be employed to provide a substantially homogeneous isolated recombinant polypeptide. The protein or polypeptide thus purified is substantially free of other plant proteins or polypeptides and is defined in accordance with the present invention as “isolated.”

Transformed Plants Cells and Transgenic Plants

The invention includes protoplast, plants cells, plant tissue and plants (e.g., monocots and dicots transformed with a PPI nucleic acid (i.e., sense or antisense), a vector containing a PPI nucleic acid (i.e., sense or antisense)or an expression vector containing a PPI nucleic acid (i.e. sense or antisense). As used herein, “plant” is meant to include not only a whole plant but also a portion thereof (i.e., cells, and tissues, including for example, leaves, stems, shoots, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds).

The plant can be any plant type including, for example, species from the genera Cucurbita, Rosa, Vitis, Juglans, Fragaria, Lotus, Medicago, Onobrychis, Trifolium, Trigonella, Vigna, Citrus, Linum, Geranium, Manihot, Daucus, Arabidopsis, Brassica, Raphanus, Sinapis, Atropa, Capsicum, Datura, Hyoscyamus, Lycopersicon, Nicotiana, Solanum, Petunia, Digitalis, Majorana, Ciahorium, Helianthus, Lactuca, Bromus, Asparagus, Antirrhinum, Heterocallis, Nemesis, Pelargonium, Panieum, Pennisetum, Ranunculus, Senecio, Salpiglossis, Cucumis, Browaalia, Glycine, Pisum, Phaseolus, Lolium, Oryza, Zea, Avena, Hordeum, Secale, Triticum, Sorghum, Gossypium, Picea, Caco, and Populus.

In some aspects of the invention, the transformed plant is resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, e.g., chilling stress, salt stress, water stress (e.g., drought), disease, grazing pests and wound healing. Additionally, the invention also includes a transgenic plant that is resistant to pathogens such as for example fungi, bacteria, nematodes, viruses and parasitic weeds. Alternatively, the transgenic plant is resistant to herbicides or has delayed senescence. The transgenic plant has an increase in yield, productivity, biomass or ABA sensitivity. By resistant is meant the plant grows under stress conditions (e.g., high salt, decreased water, low temperatures) or under conditions that normally inhibit, to some degree, the growth of an untransformed plant. Methodologies to determine plant growth or response to stress include for example, height measurements, weight measurements, leaf area, ability to flower, water use, transpiration rates and yield.

The invention also includes cells, tissues, including for example, leaves, stems, shoots, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds and the progeny derived from the transformed plant.

Numerous methods for introducing foreign genes into plants are known and can be used to insert a gene into a plant host, including biological and physical plant transformation protocols. See, for example, Miki et al., (1993) “Procedure for Introducing Foreign DNA into Plants”, In: Methods in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Glick and Thompson, eds., CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, pages 67-88 and Andrew Bent in, Clough S J and Bent A F, 1998. Floral dipping: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. The methods chosen vary with the host plant, and include chemical transfection methods such as calcium phosphate, polyethylene glycol (PEG) transformation, microorganism-mediated gene transfer such as Agrobacterium (Horsch, et al., Science, 227: 1229-31 (1985)), electroporation, protoplast transformation, micro-injection, flower dipping and biolistic bombardment.

Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation

The most widely utilized method for introducing an expression vector into plants is based on the natural transformation system of Agrobacterium. A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes are plant pathogenic soil bacteria which genetically transform plant cells. The Ti and Ri plasmids of A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, respectfully, carry genes responsible for genetic transformation of plants. See, for example, Kado, Crit. Rev. Plant Sci., 10: 1-32 (1991). Descriptions of the Agrobacterium vector systems and methods for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer are provided in Gruber et al., supra; and Moloney, et al, Plant Cell Reports, 8: 238-242 (1989).

Transgenic Arabidopsis plants can be produced easily by the method of dipping flowering plants into an Agrobacterium culture, based on the method of Andrew Bent in, Clough S J and Bent A F, 1998. Floral dipping: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Wild type plants are grown until the plant has both developing flowers and open flowers. The plant are inverted for 1 minute into a solution of Agrobacterium culture carrying the appropriate gene construct. Plants are then left horizontal in a tray and kept covered for two days to maintain humidity and then righted and bagged to continue growth and seed development. Mature seed is bulk harvested.

Direct Gene Transfer

A generally applicable method of plant transformation is microprojectile-mediated transformation, where DNA is carried on the surface of microprojectiles measuring about 1 to 4 mu.m. The expression vector is introduced into plant tissues with a biolistic device that accelerates the microprojectiles to speeds of 300 to 600 m/s which is sufficient to penetrate the plant cell walls and membranes. (Sanford, et al., Part. Sci. Technol., 5: 27-37 (1987); Sanford, Trends Biotech, 6: 299-302 (1988); Sanford, Physiol. Plant, 79: 206-209 (1990); Klein, et al., Biotechnology, 10: 286-291 (1992)).

Another method for physical delivery of DNA to plants is sonication of target cells as described in Zang, et al., BioTechnology, 9: 996-996 (1991). Alternatively, liposome or spheroplast fusions have been used to introduce expression vectors into plants. See, for example, Deshayes, et al., EMBO J., 4: 2731-2737 (1985); and Christou, et al., Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. (USA), 84: 3962-3966 (1987). Direct uptake of DNA into protoplasts using CaCl.sub.2 precipitation, polyvinyl alcohol or poly-L-ornithine have also been reported. See, for example, Hain, et al., Mol. Gen. Genet., 199: 161 (1985); and Draper, et al., Plant Cell Physiol., 23: 451-458 (1982).

Electroporation of protoplasts and whole cells and tissues has also been described. See, for example, Donn, et al., (1990) In: Abstracts of the VIIth Int;l. Congress on Plant Cell and Tissue Culture IAPTC, A2-38, page 53; D'Halluin et al., Plant Cell, 4: 1495-1505 (1992); and Spencer et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 24: 51-61 (1994).

Particle Wounding/Agrobacterium Delivery

Another useful basic transformation protocol involves a combination of wounding by particle bombardment, followed by use of Agrobacterium for DNA delivery, as described by Bidney, et al., Plant Mol. Biol., 18: 301-31 (1992). Useful plasmids for plant transformation include Bin 19. See Bevan, Nucleic Acids Research, 12: 8711-8721 (1984), and hereby incorporated by reference.

In general, the intact meristem transformation method involves imbibing seed for 24 hours in the dark, removing the cotyledons and root radical, followed by culturing of the meristem explants. Twenty-four hours later, the primary leaves are removed to expose the apical meristem. The explants are placed apical dome side up and bombarded, e.g., twice with particles, followed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. To start the co-cultivation for intact meristems, Agrobacterium is placed on the meristem. After about a 3-day co-cultivation period the meristems are transferred to culture medium with cefotaxime plus kanamycin for the NPTII selection.

The split meristem method involves imbibing seed, breaking of the cotyledons to produce a clean fracture at the plane of the embryonic axis, excising the root tip and then bisecting the explants longitudinally between the primordial leaves. The two halves are placed cut surface up on the medium then bombarded twice with particles, followed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium. For split meristems, after bombardment, the meristems are placed in an Agrobacterium suspension for 30 minutes. They are then removed from the suspension onto solid culture medium for three day co-cultivation. After this period, the meristems are transferred to fresh medium with cefotaxime plus kanamycin for selection.

Transfer by Plant Breeding

Alternatively, once a single transformed plant has been obtained by the foregoing recombinant DNA method, conventional plant breeding methods can be used to transfer the gene and associated regulatory sequences via crossing and backcrossing. Such intermediate methods will comprise the further steps of: (1) sexually crossing the transgenic plant with a plant from a second taxon; (2) recovering reproductive material from the progeny of the cross; and (3) growing transgenic plants from the reproductive material. Where desirable or necessary, the agronomic characteristics of the second taxon can be substantially preserved by expanding this method to include the further steps of repetitively: (1) backcrossing the transgenic progeny with non-transgenic plants from the second taxon; and (2) selecting for expression of an associated marker gene among the progeny of the backcross, until the desired percentage of the characteristics of the second taxon are present in the progeny along with the gene or genes imparting marker gene trait.

By the term “taxon” herein is meant a unit of botanical classification. It thus includes, genus, species, cultivars, varieties, variants and other minor taxonomic groups which lack a consistent nomenclature.

Regeneration of Transformants

The development or regeneration of plants from either single plant protoplasts or various explants is well known in the art (Weissbach and Weissbach, 1988). This regeneration and growth process typically includes the steps of selection of transformed cells, culturing those individualized cells through the usual stages of embryonic development through the rooted plantlet stage. Transgenic embryos and seeds are similarly regenerated. The resulting transgenic rooted shoots are thereafter planted in an appropriate plant growth medium such as soil.

The development or regeneration of plants containing the foreign, exogenous gene that encodes a polypeptide of interest introduced by Agrobacterium from leaf explants can be achieved by methods well known in the art such as described (Horsch et al., 1985). In this procedure, transformants are cultured in the presence of a selection agent and in a medium that induces the regeneration of shoots in the plant strain being transformed as described (Fraley et al., 1983). In particular, U.S. Pat. No. 5,349,124 (specification incorporated herein by reference) details the creation of genetically transformed lettuce cells and plants resulting therefrom which express hybrid crystal proteins conferring insecticidal activity against Lepidopteran larvae to such plants.

This procedure typically produces shoots within two to four months and those shoots are then transferred to an appropriate root-inducing medium containing the selective agent and an antibiotic to prevent bacterial growth. Shoots that rooted in the presence of the selective agent to form plantlets are then transplanted to soil or other media to allow the production of roots. These procedures vary depending upon the particular plant strain employed, such variations being well known in the art.

Preferably, the regenerated plants are self-pollinated to provide homozygous transgenic plants, or pollen obtained from the regenerated plants is crossed to seed-grown plants of agronomically important, preferably inbred lines. Conversely, pollen from plants of those important lines is used to pollinate regenerated plants. A transgenic plant of the present invention containing a desired polypeptide is cultivated using methods well known to one skilled in the art.

A preferred transgenic plant is an independent segregant and can transmit the gene and its activity to its progeny. A more preferred transgenic plant is homozygous for the gene, and transmits that gene to all of its offspring on sexual mating. Seed from a transgenic plant may be grown in the field or greenhouse, and resulting sexually mature transgenic plants are self-pollinated to generate true breeding plants. The progeny from these plants become true breeding lines that are evaluated for increased expression of the transgene.

Embodiments

The constructs and methods of this invention have numerous applications of commercial value, especially in the prevention of desiccation of plant tissues under periods of water stress. Genetic manipulation of crop plants incorporating inhibitors of Ftase or inactivation of the gene encoding endogenous plant Ftase would allow such plants to withstand transitory environmental stress and can broaden the environments where these plants can be grown. Thus, improving tolerance of crop plants to cold, salt and drought stress, can improve the yield of the plants under such adverse conditions.

The technology described herein can also be used to alter harvesting time and harvest quality of plants. For example, overexpression of Ftase could lead to faster drying times of crops, such as corn and other grasses. Drying corn involves the use of large amounts of propane gas. Drying times of crops such as hay, which dry naturally in the fields, could be shortened, making it less likely that rain would deteriorate the crop.

In addition, inhibition of farnesylation in plants can also be used to control the senescence program of the plants so that leaves can be maintained in a green state longer and fruits can be kept immature. For example, if an antisense construct of ERA1 or CaaX box inhibitor protein construct was placed under the control of a senescence-induced promoter, the plant would induce an inhibitor of farnesylation as the senescence program was initiated, which would in turn inhibit senescence. The result would be a plant which remains green or fruits which remain immature. Thus, the plant could be kept producing a product, such as a vegetative part, flower or fruit much longer. Thus, horticulturalists could produce plants which stayed green and continued to grow even though a wild-type plant of the same variety would senesce under the same conditions. Cut flowers could be maintained longer. Or a fruit could be kept immature, an important product for the vegetable industry where produce lifetime to market is extremely important.

Further, the inhibition of Ftase in fruits and vegetables can reduce wilting. Thus, wilting of produce during transport and shipping could be reduced. Fruits and vegetables on the grocery shelf would also require less misting to keep them fresh and flavorful, and there would be less need to wax produce such as cucumber, apples and oranges to keep them from drying out.

Less watering would also mean that fungal and bacterial attacks on the crops, or fruits and vegetables would be reduced. For example, plant diseases in the field which result from splashing of plant pathogens from the soil to the plant leaves and fruits could be inhibited.

In the field of horticulture, many drought-resistant varieties could be produced for landscaping and for use as ornamental house plants. Especially valuable would be varieties of plants which are used for potting, as ornamentals inside or outside homes and offices, and which can survive infrequent water. This would be a considerable boon for gardeners, especially during the droughty summer months where forgotten plants dry out quickly in the sun. Further, plants grown under trees and in other shady areas often experience drought conditions and limited light. The technology provided herein can provide plant varieties which can better survive under these conditions.

In a further embodiment, horticulturalists could find many uses for plants wherein lateral branching and/or flower numbers can be regulated with light/dark cycles. Examples of plants in which longer, unbranched stems would confer marketable advantage include roses, carnations, lilies, and the like. The ability to increase the number of flowers or florets on the plant is also a highly valuable asset. These traits could also be useful for many agricultural crops in that yields can be increased in a manner which also made harvesting of the crop easier.

Another benefit of the constructs and methods provided herein is that the ERA1 promoter is active in the guard cells of leaves. A portion of the ERA1 gene promoter can be fused to antisense nucleic acid to the ERA1 gene so Ftase activity is diminished only in the guard cells.

A further embodiment is the use of the drought-resistant trait as a selectable marker of transformation in plants, plant cells and plant tissues. One method of detecting transformation in plants consists of: (a) incorporating a nucleic acid construct comprising a promoter operably-linked to nucleic acid comprising antisense to SEQ ID NO:1 or nucleic acid comprising a functional equivalent or fragment thereof of the antisense; (b) inserting the nucleic acid construct into a plant, plant cell or plant tissue; (c) growing the plant, or regenerating a plant from the plant cell or plant tissue until stomates are formed; and (d) placing the plant or regenerated plant under conditions wherein the plant is drought stressed, wherein survival of the plant under drought conditions compared to untransformed plants is indicative of transformation. Thus, this technology can be used as a selectable genetic marker, i.e., a visual marker especially when combined with plant selection and transformation schemes.

In addition, without resorting to stressing a transgenic plant, the branching and/or flowering habit of plants with loss of Ftase function differs substantially from that of wild-type plants and can be used as a marker for successful transformation. This method would be especially useful where in planta transformation techniques have been applied. Under diurnal light conditions, shoots of transgenic plants will demonstrate less lateral branching than that of untransformed shoots, thus indicating effective loss of Ftase activity without the use of selective antibiotic markers.

EXEMPLIFICATION Example 1 Mutagenesis Conditions

Arabidopsis plants used in this study were grown under continuous light in soil- or agar-containing petri plates as described elsewhere (Haughn and Somerville 1986). Two distinct wild-types of Arabidopsis were used: Meyerowitz's Colombia (MCol) (Lelhe Seeds, Dripping Springs, Tex.) and Wassilewskija (Ws) (ABRC, Ohio State University). T-DNA mutagenized seeds were screened and mutants were isolated in the Wassilewskija background. These were obtained from the Ohio State Arabidopsis seed stock collection (ABRC stock numbers CS2606-2654). The T-DNA seed collection was comprised of 49 pools of 1200 fourth generation (T4) offspring derived from 100 mutagenized parents. A mutagenized parent was obtained by incubating wild-type (T1) seeds overnight in a saturating Agrobacterium culture containing a T-DNA plasmid carrying a gene conferring kanamycin resistance. The seeds were then washed in water and planted into pots. T2 generation seed were obtained from each plant and tested for kanamycin resistance. Kanamycin-resistant plants were advanced to the T3 generation. T4 generation plants were given to the stock center. Each pool was screened separately.

Fast neutron-irradiated seeds were screened and mutants were isolated in Meyerowitz's Columbia background. Mutagenized wild-type seeds (N1) were irradiated with 60 Gy of fast neutrons and grown to the next generation. The N2 seeds were obtained as pools of approximately 11,000 seeds generated from 1387 N1 parents. Ten of these pools were screened separately for ABA supersensitive mutations. In the initial screen, all seeds had been stored at 4° C. and were plated without imbibing. For all subsequent screens, seeds were imbibed at 4° C. for one week on 0.3 μM ABA and scored for cotyledon emergence after 5-7 days at 22° C. in the light.

Example 2 Genetic Analysis

Mutant lines were backcrossed to wild type three times. T-DNA mutations were backcrossed to Ws and fast neutron mutants to MCol. Segregation of the era phenotype was followed by plating F2 seeds on both 0.3 μM ABA and imbibing four days at 4° C. Following imbibition, plates were transferred to room temperature in the light. Germination was measured as the presence or absence of expanded cotyledons in seedlings one week after imbibition. Double mutants were constructed by crossing lines homozygous for each mutation following segregation and identifying lines that carried one of the mutant phenotypes. The abi3 allele used in this study is abi3-6 (Nambara et al., 1994) and the abi1 allele is abi1-1 (Koornneef et al., 1982). The era1-2 allele was used as the era parent. Segregation analysis suggested era I partially suppressed the insensitivity of abi1 to ABA, so F2 plants were first screened for insensitivity to 3 mM ABA, and F3 seed from these plants were scored for sensitivity to 0.3 μM ABA. Putative era1 abi1 double mutants were progeny-tested in the F4 generation and verified by DNA polymorphism analysis for both Era 1 and Abi1. For era1 abi3 double mutants, F2 seeds were screened for insensitivity to 3 μM ABA, and mature plants were scored for protruding carpels and immature green seeds (Nambara et al., 1994). Putative double mutant lines were also verified by DNA polymorphism analysis for both Era1 and Abi3.

Example 3 DNA and RNA Analysis

The methods employed for DNA (Dellaporta et al., 1983) and RNA (Verwoerd et al., 1989) extractions were as described elsewhere. High stringency Southern blots were carried out at 65° C. according to standard protocols described elsewhere (Sambrook et al., 1989). All genomic and cDNA library screening was done on Gelman BioTrace NT membranes according to the manufacturer's specifications (Gelman Sciences). To clone insertion junctions between T-DNA and genomic DNA in the era1-1 mutant (isolated from T12W DNA) a library of T12W DNA was made in γ-ZAPII (Stratagene). Genomic Southern blots of T12W DNA digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and probed with right border (RB) T-DNA produced three bands (13.0 Kb, 7.0 Kb and 8.0 Kb). Subsequent analysis with additional restriction enzymes verified that the 7.0 and 8.0 Kb bands contained the insertion junctions between T-DNA and flanking plant DNA. These fragments were cloned by digesting genomic DNA with EcoR I, fractionating the digested DNA using a Prep Cell (Pharmacia), and identifying the fractions containing the 7.0 and 8.0 Kb by Southern blot analysis using the RB as a probe. Pooled fractions containing both the 7.0 and 8.0 Kb fragments were then ligated to the γ-ZAPII vector arms according to the manufacturer's instructions (Stratagene). A library containing approximately 40,000 individual recombinant bacteriophage was screened. Five positive plaques were identified and excised plasmid forms of the cloned inserts were isolated according to the manufacturer's instructions (Stratagene). Two plasmids which hybridized to the RB probe were designated pL4B and pL7 and selected for further characterization. A 2.3 kB EcoR I-BamH I restriction fragment from clone pL4B was subcloned into the plasmid pBluescript and designated pSC10. A 1.3 Kb Hind III-BamH I restriction fragment from clone pL7 was also subcloned into pBluescript and designated pSC11. Each of these plasmids contains approximately 1.2 Kb of T-DNA attached to the flanking plant genomic DNA. pSC10 was used as a probe to screen an Arabidopsis cDNA library called PRL2 λ-ZipLox (ABRC, Stock CD4-7). This screen identified five positive cDNAs, and the longest cDNA insert, clone pZL23, was used to screen an additional 200,000 recombinant PRL2 phage. Subsequently a longer cDNA insert, clone pZL51, which contained an insert of 1.35 Kb, was isolated. Both cDNA clones pZL23 and pZL51 were sequenced and used to screen 30,000 γ-ZAPII plaques made from wild-type Columbia genomic DNA partially digested with EcoR I. Construction of this library was as described above except the digested DNA was not size-fractionated. This screen identified four positive clones. The inserts were excised and excised plasmid forms of the cloned inserts were isolated according to the manufacturer's instructions. A 6 Kb region encompassing the entire pZL51 clone was completely sequenced. This genomic insert and a 14 Kb genomic insert isolated by screening a λ-FIX genomic library from Lansberg erecta via similar methods (ABRC Stock CD4-8) were used as probes to analyze deletion size in the fast neutron mutants era1-2 and era1-3.

Example 4 Protein Farnesyl Transferase Assay

Farnesyl transferase (Ftase) assays were performed using Ftase from cell-free extracts of wild-type and mutant plants and synthetic heptapeptides as substrate for the reaction. Peptides were purchased from Genemed Biotechnologies, Inc. The peptide sequences used were based on the data of Randall et al. (1993): GGCCAIM (-CAIM) and GGCCAIL (-CAIL). Solutions of peptides were prepared in 100% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing 10 mM dithiotreitol (DTT) and diluted in 10 mM DTT without DMSO. The cell-free extracts contained soluble protein isolated from the buds of three week old plants, either wild-type or mutant strains. First 1 g of fresh buds was collected and homogenized in a buffer containing 50 mM Hepes (pH 7.5), 1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 5 mM DTT, 2 μg/ml leupeptin, 2 μg/ml aprotinin, and 1 mM PMSF. Next, cellular debris and membranes were removed by centrifugation at 4° C. at 10,000×g for 10 minutes and 100,000×g for 30 minutes. Following the second centrifugation, the supernatant was decanted and total soluble protein was quantified by the method of Bradford (1976). Soluble protein extracts were incubated at 30° C. with a peptide substrate and radio-labeled 3H-farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) (Amersham) for 40 minutes. Each reaction mixture contained the following components in a final volume of 25 μl: 50 mM Hepes (pH 7.5), 5 mM MgCl2, 5 mM DTT, 50 μM peptide, 0.5 μM [3H]FPP, and 100 μg of soluble protein extract. One control reaction contained soluble protein extracts that had been boiled for 5 minutes to irreversibly denature all protein. Reactions were terminated by adding EDTA to a final concentration of 50 mM and then spotted onto Silica Gel 60 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates (Millipore). TLC plates were developed with n-propanol and water (7:3 v/v) for 4-5 hours. The plates were dried, sprayed with En3Hance (New England Nuclear), and exposed to Kodak X-OMAT AR film at −70° C. for 4 days.

Example 5 ERA1-β-glucuronidase Gene Constructs and Transgenic Plants

ERA1-β-glucuronidase (ERA1-GUS) fusion constructs were made by inserting a 5 Kb EcoR I-Hind III genomic fragment of the ERA1 promoter into a promoterless GUS T-DNA plasmid pBI121 containing a gene conferring resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. This construct was then transformed into Agrobacterium strain LB4404. The Agrobacterium was grown to a density of 0.8 O.D. units (measured at 595 nm). The cells were then washed extensively in water, resuspended in sterile 10% glycerol and purified plasmid DNA encoding the ERA1-GUS fusion construct was added. Finally, the mixture of cells and DNA was pulsed in an electroporator at 200 Ohms 25 μF, 2.5 kvolts. Cells were then plated on Luria Broth agar plates containing 100 μg/ml ampicillin and grown for 2 days at 28° C. Ampicillin-resistant transformants were cultured and plasmid DNA isolated from the cultures by standard techniques was used in subsequent plant transformation experiments.

Transgenic plants were made by vacuum infiltrating plants with a saturated Agrobacterium culture grown to a density of 0.8 O.D. units as measured at 595 nm. Wild-type plants were grown under standard laboratory conditions (at 25° C., 150 μE m2 sec−1, humidity, constant light) until they produced their first bolts at approximately 5 weeks. Next, plant stems were removed and the plants were submerged in a solution of Agrobacterium and placed under a 20 mBar vacuum for 5 minutes. After the vacuum was broken, the plants were transferred to soil and allowed to recover under standard laboratory conditions as described above. After two months, the plants produced new flowers and seed which was harvested and allowed to dry for 2 weeks. Seed from individual plants were planted onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) minimal medium plates containing 50 μg/ml kananycin. Green kanamycin-resistant plantlets were identified and transferred to soil after 2 weeks and allowed to grow for seed. These seeds were germinated and the seedlings were tested for GUS activity using the fluorescent GUS substrate Imagene Green (Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.). GUS activity was assayed by suspending seedlings in GUS buffer (50 mM Sodium phosphate, pH 7.0, 10 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton X-100, 0.1% Sodium sarcosyl, 4 mM Imagene Green) for 2-4 hours in the dark at room temperature. Seedlings were viewed under a microscope at 25× magnification using blue light to generate a positive fluorescent signal. When this mixture is treated with blue light, GUS activity will produce yellow light in a background of red auto-fluorescence generated by red chlorophyll.

Example 6 Drought Experiments

Six wild-type and six era1-2 seedlings were grown for four weeks in constant light with constant watering (25° C., 150 μE m−2 sec−1, 70% humidity, constant light). The plant and pot were weighed and the pots were then covered with aluminum foil to retard soil evaporation. At this time, plants were no longer watered and each pot was weighed daily. At the end of the experiment plants were removed from the pots, which were allowed to dry for another two weeks, when they were weighed to determine the weight of the dry soil and pot. This weight was subtracted from each sample.

Example 7 Age-Related Changes in Detached Leaves

The chlorophyll content in adult rosette leaves in wild-type Columbia and era1-2 mutants were compared after detachment from plants. The plants were grown under constant light and temperature (150 μE/m2·sec, 22° C.) to a similar developmental age of 3 weeks after germination. At this time, the fifth leaves of several plants which had emerged after germination were removed and placed on petri plates containing 0.8% agar with minimal salts. The plates were sealed and placed at 22° C. under constant light (50 μE/m2·sec) for 12 days. Photographs were taken and color comparisons made at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days.

Example 8 Determination of Transcript Levels for Selected Genes in Aging Leaves

Mutant (era1-2) and wild-type plants were grown under constant light and temperature (150 μE/m2·sec, 22° C.) to a similar developmental age of 4 weeks after germination. At that time, the fifth rosette leaf which had emerged following germination was removed from all plants. These leaves were assayed for expression levels of three genes: Arabidopsis chlorophyll binding protein (CAB) and senescence-activated genes 12 and 13 (SAG12 and SAG13). mRNA transcript levels were assayed by Northern blot analysis at 0, 4, 8 days after the plants bolted. The CAB gene encodes the Arabidopsis chlorophyll binding protein which is involved in capturing light for photosynthesis. It is required for the green color of the leaf and is a good marker of chlorophyll turnover in the plant. CAB in wild-type plants shows transcript level reduction upon induction of senescence. No transcript level reduction was observed in aging leaves of era1-2 mutants. SAG12 and SAG13 are Arabidopsis genes cloned by differential expression during senescence (SAG stands for senescence activated gene). Transcription of both genes is induced during the onset of senescence in wild-type Arabidopsis plants. These genes were not induced under the same developmental conditions in the era1-2 mutants.

Example 9 Cloning of Arabidopsis thaliana FTA and Construction of Transformation Vector

The Arabidopsis thaliana FTA sequence was obtained by RT-PCR from total RNA isolated from leaf tissue using primers corresponding to SEQ ID NO:17 and SEQ ID NO:18. The resulting fragment was digested with BamHI and SmaI and cloned into the plasmid pCR2.1 The Clonetech vector pBI121 was used as the backbone for the antisense construct. The GUS gene was removed by BamHI and Eco1CRI digestion and replaced with the FTA insert that was cut from pCR2.1-FTA using SmaI and BamHI and ligated into the vector SEQ ID NO:10.

TABLE 1
5′- AAAGGATCCTCAAATTGCTGCCACTG SEQ ID NO:17
TAAT -3′:
5′- AAACCCGGGATGAATTTCGACGAGAA SEQ ID NO:18
CGTG -3′:

Example 10 Cloning of Non-Full Length Brassica napus FTA and FTB Nucleic Acid Sequences

RNA was isolated from leaf and root tissue using the Qiagen RNeasy kit. RT-PCR was performed by known techniques using the primers shown in Table 2. The FTA sequence was obtained using the primer pair SEQ ID NO:25 and SEQ ID NO:26. The FTB sequence was obtained using the primer pair SEQ ID NO:27 and SEQ ID NO:28.

TABLE 2
5′-GGATCCATGGATTACTTCCGTGCGATTTACTTCT SEQ ID NO:25
CC-3′:
5′-AAAAAGCTTCCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTATT SEQ ID NO:26
GGATC- 3′:
5′-AAAAAGCTTTGGCTTTGTTACTGGATTCTTCATT SEQ ID NO:27
CAAT-3′:
5′-AAATCTAGAAGCTTCATAATACCGATCCAAGACA SEQ ID NO:28
ATGTT- 3′:

PCR products were separated from the RT-PCR reaction mixture using the Qiagen PCR column spin kit and ligated into the cloning vector pBluescript KS+. The vector was digested with EcoRV and treated with Taq polymerase in the presence of dTTP to produce a 3′ overhang for ligation with the PCR products. The ligation products were transformed into E. coli DH5α cells, positive colonies were selected and the resulting inserts sequenced.

Example 11 Cloning of Non-Full Length FTA and FTB Nucleic Acid Sequences from Glycine max and Zea maize

RNA was isolated from leaf and root tissue using the Qiagen RNeasy kit. RT-PCR was performed by known techniques using the primers shown in Table 3. The Glycine max FTA sequence was obtained using the primer pair SEQ ID NO:29 and SEQ ID NO:30. The Glycine max FTB sequence was obtained using the primer pair SEQ ID NO:31 and SEQ ID NO:32. The Zea maize FTB sequence was obtained using the primer pair SEQ ID NO:33 and SEQ ID NO:34

TABLE 3
5′-AAAGGATCCATGGAATCTGGGTCTAGCGA-3′: SEQ ID NO:29
5′-AAATCTAGAAGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGC-3′: SEQ ID NO:30
5′-AAATCTAGAGCCACCATTCCTCGCAACG-3′: SEQ ID NO:31
5′-AAAGAGCTCGTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGC-3′: SEQ ID NO:32
5′-GGCGGATCCCGACCTACCGAGG-3′: SEQ ID NO:33
5′-AAAGAGCTCGTGGATGGATTGGCTCCAGC- 3′: SEQ ID NO:34

PCR products were separated from the RT-PCR reaction mixture using the Qiagen PCR column spin kit and ligated into the cloning vector pBluescript KS+. The vector was digested with EcoRV and treated with Taq polymerase in the presence of dTTP to produce a 3′ overhang for ligation with the PCR products. The ligation products were transformed into E. coli DH5α cells, positive colonies were selected and the resulting inserts sequenced.

Example 12 Sequence Analysis

Arabidopsis thaliana FTA

A disclosed nucleic acid of 999 nucleotides (also referred to as FT1) is shown in Table 4A. The primers used in the PCR are depicted in bold.

TABLE 4A
FT1 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:7)
Aaacccgggatgaatttcgacgagaccgtgccactgagccaacgattgga
gtggtcagacgtggtcccattgactcaggacgatggtccgaatccagtgg
tgccaattgcctacaaggaagagttccgcgagactatggattacttccgt
gcgatttacttttccgacgagcgatctcctcgcgcactacgactcacgga
agaaaccctcctcttaaactccggcaactacacagtgtggcatttcaggc
gcctagtactcgaggcccttaatcacgacttgtttgaagaactcgagttc
atcgaacgcattgctgaggataactctaagaactaccaactgtggcatca
tcggcgatgggttgcagagaaactgggtcctgatgttgcagggagagaac
ttgaatttacccgtagagtactttcacttgatgccaaacattatcatgct
tggtcacataggcagtggacactacgggcattaggaggatgggaagatga
gctcgattactgtcacgagctccttgaagctgacgtctttaacaattccg
cctggaatcagaggtattatgtcatcacccaatctcctttgttgggaggc
ctagaagccatgagagaatctgaagtaagctacacaatcaaagccatttt
aaccaatcctgcaaacgagagctcatggcgatacctaaaagcgctttaca
aagacgacaaagaatcctggattagtgatccaagtgtttcctcagtctgt
ttgaatgttctatcccgcacagattgcttccatggattcgctctgagcac
ccttttggatcttctatgtgatggactgagaccaaccaacgagcataaag
actcagtgagagctctagctaatgaagaaccagagactaacttggccaat
ttggtgtgtactattcttggtcgtgtagatcctataagagctaactattg
ggcatggaggaagagcaagattacagtggcagcaatttgaggatccttt.

A disclosed FT1 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:11) encoded by SEQ ID NO:7 has 326 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 4B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 4B
Encoded FT1 protein sequence
(SEQ ID NO:11)
MNFDETVPLSQRLEWSDVVPLTQDDGPNPVVPIAYKEEFRETMDYFRAIY
FSDERSPRALRLTEETLLLNSGNYTVWHFRRLVLEALNHDLFEELEFIER
IAEDNSKNYQLWHHRRWVAEKLGPDVAGRELEFTRRVLSLDAKHYHAWSH
RQWTLRALGGWEDELDYCHELLEADVFNNSAWNQRYYVITQSPLLGGLEA
MRESEVSYTIKAILTNPANESSWRYLKALYKDDKESWISDPSVSSVCLNV
LSRTDCFHGFALSTLLDLLCDGLRPTNEHKDSVRALANEEPETNLANLVC
TILGRVDPIRANYWAWRKSKITVAAI.

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented does not contain any 5′ or 3′ non-translated sequence. Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques. The percent identity of the Arabidopsis thaliana nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of published sequences is shown in FIG. 17.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Arabidopsis thaliana farnesyl transferase alpha subunit of SEQ ID NO:7. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:8. The nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:9 shows the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8 that has been prepared for ligation into an expression vector.

SEQ ID NO:8
aaaggatcctcaaattgctgccactgtaatcttgctcttcctccatgccc
aatagttagctcttataggatctacacgaccaagaatagtacacaccaaa
ttggccaagttagtctctggttcttcattagctagagctctcactgagtc
tttatgctcgttggttggtctcagtccatcacatagaagatccaaaaggg
tgctcagagcgaatccatggaagcaatctgtgcgggatagaacattcaaa
cagactgaggaaacacttggatcactaatccaggattctttgtcgtcttt
gtaaagcgcttttaggtatcgccatgagctctcgtttgcaggattggtta
aaatggctttgattgtgtagcttacttcagattctctcatggcttctagg
cctcccaacaaaggagattgggtgatgacataatacctctgattccaggc
ggaattgttaaagacgtcagcttcaaggagctcgtgacagtaatcgagct
catcttcccatcctcctaatgcccgtagtgtccactgcctatgtgaccaa
gcatgataatgtttggcatcaagtgaaagtactctacgggtaaattcaag
ttctctccctgcaacatcaggacccagtttctctgcaacccatcgccgat
gatgccacagttggtagttcttagagttatcctcagcaatgcgttcgatg
aactcgagttcttcaaacaagtcgtgattaagggcctcgagtactaggcg
cctgaaatgccacactgtgtagttgccggagtttaagaggagggtttctt
ccgtgagtcgtagtgcgcgaggagatcgctcgtcggaaaagtaaatcgca
cggaagtaatccatagtctcgcggaactcttccttgtaggcaattggcac
cactggattcggaccatcgtcctgagtcaatgggaccacgtctgaccact
ccaatcgttggctcagtggcacggtctcgtcgaaattcatcccgggttt

SEQ ID NO:9
tcaaattgctgccactgtaatcttgctcttcctccatgcccaata
gttagctcttataggatctacacgaccaagaatagtacacaccaaattgg
ccaagttagtctctggttcttcattagctagagctctcactgagtcttta
tgctcgttggttggtctcagtccatcacatagaagatccaaaagggtgct
cagagcgaatccatggaagcaatctgtgcgggatagaacattcaaacaga
ctgaggaaacacttggatcactaatccaggattctttgtcgtctttgtaa
agcgcttttaggtatcgccatgagctctcgtttgcaggattggttaaaat
ggctttgattgtgtagcttacttcagattctctcatggcttctaggcctc
ccaacaaaggagattgggtgatgacataatacctctgattccaggcggaa
ttgttaaagacgtcagcttcaaggagctcgtgacagtaatcgagctcatc
ttcccatcctcctaatgcccgtagtgtccactgcctatgtgaccaagcat
gataatgtttggcatcaagtgaaagtactctacgggtaaattcaagttct
ctccctgcaacatcaggacccagtttctctgcaacccatcgccgatgatg
ccacagttggtagttcttagagttatcctcagcaatgcgttcgatgaact
cgagttcttcaaacaagtcgtgattaagggcctcgagtactaggcgcctg
aaatgccacactgtgtagttgccggagtttaagaggagggtttcttccgt
gagtcgtagtgcgcgaggagatcgctcgtcggaaaagtaaatcgcacgga
agtaatccatagtctcgcggaactcttccttgtaggcaattggcaccact
ggattcggaccatcgtcctgagtcaatgggaccacgtctgaccactccaa
tcgttggctcagtggcacggtctcgtcgaaattcatccc

Brassica napus FTA

A disclosed nucleic acid of 822 nucleotides (also referred to as FT2) is shown in Table 5A.

TABLE 5A
FT2 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:12)
ATGGATTACTTCCGTGCGATTTACTTCTCCGACGAGCGTTCTGCTCGCGC
GCTGCGACTCACGGAAGAAGCTCTCCGCTTAAACTCGGGCAACTACACCG
TGTGGCACTTCGGGCGCTTAGTACTCGAGGAGCTTAATAACGACTTGTAT
GAAGAGCTCAAGTTCATCGAAAGCATTGCTGAGGATAACTCTAAGAACTA
CCAGTTGTGGCATCATCGACGATGGGTCGCAGAGAAACTGGGTCCTGATG
TTGCAGGAAAGGAACTTGAGTTTACTCGGAGGGTACTATCACTTGATGCC
AAGCATTATCATGCTTGGTCACATAGGCAGTGGGCGCTACAAGCATTAGG
AGGATGGGAAAATGAGCTTAACTACTGCCACGAGCTCCTTGAAGCTGACG
TCTTTAACAACTCTGCATGGAATCAGAGGTATTACGTTATAACTAGATCA
CCTTCGTTGGGAGGCCTAGAAGCCATGAGAGAATCTGAAGTAAGCTACAC
AGTCAAAGCCATTTTAGCAAATCCCGGGAACGAGAGCTCTTGGAGGTACC
TGAAAGCCCTTTACAAAGACGACACAGAGTCTTGGATTAGTGATCCAAGT
GTTTCCTCAGTCTGTTTGAAAGTTCTCTCACGCGCGGACTGCTTCCATGG
ATTCGCTCTGAGCACCCTTTTGGATCTTCTGTGCGATGGGTTGAGACCAA
CCAACGAGCATAGAGACTCGGTGAAAGCTCTAGCTAATGAAGAACCAGAG
ACTAACTTGGCCAATTTGGTGTGTACCATTCTGTGTCGTGTTGATCCAAT
AAGAGCTAACTATTGGGCATGG.

A disclosed FT2 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:13) encoded by SEQ ID NO:12 has 274 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 5B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 5B
Encoded FT2 protein sequence
(SEQ ID NO:13)
MDYFRAIYFSDERSARALRLTEEALRLNSGNYTVWHFGRLVLEELNNDLY
EELKFIESIAEDNSKNYQLWHHRRWVAEKLGPDVAGLEKEFTRRVLSLDA
KHYHAWSHRQWALQALGGWENELNYCHELLEADVFNNSAWNQRYYVITRS
PSLGGLEAMRESEVSYTVKAILANPGNESSWRYLKALYKDDTESWISDPS
VSSVCLKVLSRADCFHGFALSTLLDLLCDGLRPTNEHRDSVKALANEEPE
TNLANLVCTILCRVDPIRANYWAWKL.

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length. Compared to the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence there are 42 amino acids missing from the amino terminus and 10 amino acids from the carboxy terminus. The percent identity of the Brassica napus nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of published sequences is shown in FIG. 17.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA-or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Brassica napsus farnesyl transferase alpha subunit of SEQ ID NO:12. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:35.

SEQ ID NO:35
CCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTATTGGATCAACACGACACAGAATGGTAC
ACACCAAATTGGCCAAGTTAGTCTCTGGTTCTTCATTAGCTAGAGCTTTC
ACCGAGTCTCTATGCTCGTTGGTTGGTCTCAACCCATCGCACAGAAGATC
CAAAAGGGTGCTCAGAGCGAATCCATGGAAGCAGTCCGCGCGTGAGAGAA
CTTTCAAACAGACTGAGGAAACACTTGGATCACTAATCCAAGACTCTGTG
TCGTCTTTGTAAAGGGCTTTCAGGTACCTCCAAGAGCTCTCGTTCCCGGG
ATTTGCTAAAATGGCTTTGACTGTGTAGCTTACTTCAGATTCTCTCATGG
CTTCTAGGCCTCCCAACGAAGGTGATCTAGTTATAACGTAATACCTCTGA
TTCCATGCAGAGTTGTTAAAGACGTCAGCTTCAAGGAGCTCGTGGCAGTA
GTTAAGCTCATTTTCCCATCCTCCTAATGCTTGTAGCGCCCACTGCCTAT
GTGACCAAGCATGATAATGCTTGGCATCAAGTGATAGTACCCTCCGAGTA
AACTCAAGTTCCTTTCCTGCAACATCAGGACCCAGTTTCTCTGCGACCCA
TCGTCGATGATGCCACAACTGGTAGTTCTTAGAGTTATCCTCAGCAATGC
TTTCGATGAACTTGAGCTCTTCATACAAGTCGTTATTAAGCTCCTCGAGT
ACTAAGCGCCCGAAGTGCCACACGGTGTAGTTGCCCGAGTTTAAGCGGAG
AGCTTCTTCCGTGAGTCGCAGCGCGCGAGCAGAACGCTCGTCGGAGAAGT
AAATCGCACGGAAGTAATCCAT

Brassica napus FTB

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1110 nucleotides (also referred to as FT3) is shown in Table 6A.

TABLE 6A
FT3 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:14)
TGGCTTTGTTACTGGATTCTTCATTCAATTGCTTTGCTTGGGGAGTCTGT
GGATGATGACTTAGAAAACAATGCAATCGATTTTCTTGGACGTTGCCAGG
GTTCTGATGGTGGATATGGTGGTGGTCCTGGCCAACTTCCACATCTTGCA
ACAAGTTATGCTGCAGTGAATACACTTGTTACTTTAGGAGGTGAGAAAGC
CTTCTCTTCAATTAACAGAGAACAAATGGCTTGTTTCTTAAGACGAATGA
AGGATACAAATGGAGGTTTCAGGATGCATAATATGGGAGAAATAGATGTG
CGAGCGTGCTACACTGCGATTTTGATTGCAAGCATCCTGAACATTGTGGA
TGATGAACTCACCCGCGGCTTAGGAGATTACATTTTGAGTTGCCAAACTT
ATGAAGGTGGCATTGGAGGGGAACCTGGCTCCGAAGCTCATGGTGGGTAC
ACGTACTGTGGGTTGGCTACTATGATTTTAATCAATGAAGTCGACCGCTT
GAATTTGGATTCGTTAATGAATTGGGTTGTACATCGACAAGGAGTAGAAA
TGGGATTCCAAGGTAGGACGAACAAATTGGTCGACGGTTGCTACACGTTT
TGGCAGGCAGCCCCCTGTGTTCTACTACAGCGATTTTTTTCATCCCAGGA
TATGGCACCTCATGGATCATCATCACATATGTCACAAGGGACAGATGAAG
ATCACGAGGAACATGGTCATGATGAAGATGATCCTGAAGACAGTGATGAA
GATGATTCTGATGAGGATAGCGATGAAGATTCAGGGAATGGTCACCAAGT
TCATCATACGTCTACCTACATTGACAGGAGAATTCAACCTGTTTTTGATA
GCCTCGGCTTGCAAAGATATGTGCTCTTGTGCTCTCAGGTTGCTGATGGT
GGATTCAGAGACAAGCTGAGGAAACCCCGTGACTTCTACCACACATGTTA
CTGCCTAAGCGGTCTTTCCGTGGCTCAACACGCTTGGTCAAAAGACGAGG
ACACTCCTCCTTTGACTCGTGACATTTTGGGTGGCTACGCAAACCACCTT
GAACCTGTTCACCTCCTCCACAACATTGTCTTGGATCGGTATTATGAAGC
TTCTAGATTT

A disclosed FT3 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:15) encoded by SEQ ID NO:13 has 370 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 6B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 6B
Encoded FT3 protein sequence
(SEQ ID NO:15)
WLCYWILHSIALLGESVDDDLENNAIDFLGRCQGSDGGYGGGPGQLPHLA
TSYAAVNTLVTLGGEKAFSSINREQMACFLRRMKDTNGGFRMHNMGEIDV
RACYTAILIASILNIVDDELTRGLGDYILSCQTYEGGIGGEPGSEAHGGY
TYCGLATMILINEVDRLNLDSLMNWVVHRQGVEMGFQGRTNKLVDGCYTF
WQAAPCVLLQRFFSSQDMAPHGSSSHMSQGTDEDHEEHGHDEDDPEDSDE
DDSDEDSDEDSGNGHQVHHTSTYIDRRIQPVFDSLGLQRYVLLCSQVADG
GFRDKLRKPRDFYHTCYCLSGLSVAQHAWSKDEDTPPLTRDILGGYANHL
EPVHLLHNILVDRYYEASRF.

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length. Compared to the Arabidopsis thaliana sequence there are 31 amino acids missing from the amino terminus and 5 amino acids from the carboxy terminus. The percent identity of the Brassica napus nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of published sequences is shown in FIG. 18.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques. Sequence comparisons have been performed and percent identities are shown in FIG. 17 and FIG. 18.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Brassica napsus farnesyl transferase beta subunit of SEQ ID NO:14. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:36.

SEQ ID NO:36
AAATCTAGAAGCTTCATAATACCGATCCAAGACAATGTTGTGGAGGAGGT
GAACAGGTTCAAGGTGGTTTGCGTAGCCACCCAAAATGTCACGAGTCAAA
GGAGGAGTGTCCTCGTCTTTTGACCAAGCGTGTTGAGCCACGGAAAGACC
GCTTAGGCAGTAACATGTGTGGTAGAAGTCACGGGGTTTCCTCAGCTTGT
CTCTGAATCCACCATCAGCAACCTGAGAGCACAAGAGCACATATCTTTGC
AAGCCGAGGCTATCAAAAACAGGTTGAATTCTCCTGTCAATGTAGGTAGA
CGTATGATGAACTTGGTGACCATTCCCTGAATCTTCATCGCTATCCTCAT
CAGAATCATCTTCATCACTGTCTTCAGGATCATCTTCATCATGACCATGT
TCCTCGTGATCTTCATCTGTCCCTTGTGACATATGTGATGATGATCCATG
AGGTGCCATATCCTGGGATGAAAAAAATCGCTGTAGTAGAACACAGGGGG
CTGCCTGCCAAAACGTGTAGCAACCGTCGACCAATTTGTTCGTCCTACCT
TGGAATCCCATTTCTACTCCTTGTCGATGTACAACCCAATTCATTAACGA
ATCCAAATTCAAGCGGTCGACTTCATTGATTAAAATCATAGTAGCCAACC
CACAGTACGTGTACCCACCATGAGCTTCGGAGCCAGGTTCCCCTCCAATG
CCACCTTCATAAGTTTGGCAACTCAAAATGTAATCTCCTAAGCCGCGGGT
GAGTTCATCATCCACAATGTTCAGGATGCTTGCAATCAAAATCGCAGTGT
AGCACGCTCGCACATCTATTTCTCCCATATTATGCATCCTGAAACCTCCA
TTTGTATCCTTCATTCGTCTTAAGAAACAAGCCATTTGTTCTCTGTTAAT
TGAAGAGAAGGCTTTCTCACCTCCTAAAGTAACAAGTGTATTCACTGCAG
CATAACTTGTTGCAAGATGTGGAAGTTGGCCAGGACCACCACCATATCCA
CCATCAGAACCCTGGCAACGTCCAAGAAAATCGATTGCATTGTTTTCTAA
GTCATCATCCACAGACTCCCCAAGCAAAGCAATTGAATGAAGAATCCAGT
AACAAAGCCA

Glycine max FTA

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1041 nucleotides (also referred to as FT4) is shown in Table 7A.

TABLE 7A
FT4 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:37)
ATGGAATCTGGGTCTAGCGAAGGAGAAGAGGTGCAGCAACGCGTGCCGTT
GAGGGAGAGAGTGGAGTGGTCAGATGTTACTCCGGTTCCTCAAAACGACG
GCCCTAACCCTGTCGTTCCGATCCAGTACACTGAAGAGTTTTCCGAAGTT
ATGGATTACTTTCGCGCCGTTTACCTCACCGATGAACGCTCCCCTCGCGC
CCTCGCTCTCACAGCCGAAGCCGTTCAATTCAACTCCGGCAACTACACTG
TGTGGCATTTCCGACGGTTGTTACTTGAGTCGCTAAAAGTCGACTTGAAC
GATGAACTGGAGTTTGTGGAGCGTATGGCCGCTGGAAATTCTAAAAATTA
TCAGATGTGnATGTTCTGTAGGCATCCTAGACGATGGGTTGCCGAGAAGT
TAGGTCCTGAAGCTAGAAACAATGAGCTCGAGTTCACCAAAAAGATACTG
TCCGTTGATGCCAAACATTATCATGCATGGTCTCATAGACAGTGGGCTCT
TCAAACACTAGGAGGATGGGAAGATGAACTTAATTATTGCACAGAACTAC
TTAAAGAAGACATTTTTAACAATTCTGCTTGGAATCAGAGATATTTTGTC
ATAACAAGGTCTCCTTTCTTGGGGGGCCTAAAAGCTATGAGAGAGTCTGA
AGTGCTTTACACCATCGAAGCCATTATAGCCTACCCTGAAAATGAAAGCT
CGTGGAGATATCTACGAGGACTTTATAAAGGTGAAACTACTTCATGGGTA
AATGATCCTCAAGTTTCTTCAGTATGCTTAAAGATTTTGAGAACTAAGAG
CAACTACGTGTTTGCTCTTAGCACTATTTTAGATCTTATATGCTTTGGTT
ATCAACCAAATGAAGACATTAGAGATGCCATTGACGCCTTAAAGACCGCA
GATATGGATAAACAAGATTTAGATGATGATGAGAAAGGGGAACAACAAAA
TTTAAATATAGCACGAAATATTTGTTCTATCCTAAAACAAGTTGATCCAA
TTAGAACCAACTATTGGATTTGGCGCAAGAGCAGACTTCCT.

A disclosed FT4 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:39) encoded by SEQ ID NO:37 has 347 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 7B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 7B
Encoded FT4 protein sequence
(SEQ ID NO:39)
MESGSSEGEEVQQRVPLRERVEWSDVTPVPQNDGPNPVVPIQYTEEFSEV
MDYFRAVYLTDERSPRALALTAEAVQFNSGNYTVWHFRRLLLESLKVDLN
DELEFVERMAAGNSKNYQMXMFCRHPRRWVAEKLGPEARNNELEFTKKIL
SVDAKHYHAWSHRQWALQTLGGWEDELNYCTELLKEDIFNNSAWNQRYFV
ITRSPFLGGLKAMRESEVLYTIEAIIAYPENESSWRYLRGLYKGETTSWV
NDPQVSSVCLKILRTKSNYVFALSTILDLICFGYQPNEDIRDAIDALKTA
DMDKQDLDDDEKGEQQNLNIARNICSILKQVDPIRTNYWIWRKSRLP

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length. The percent identity of the Glycine max nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other sequences is shown in FIG. 17.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Glycine max alpha subunit of SEQ ID NO:37. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:38.

SEQ ID NO:38
AGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGCCAAATCCAATAGTTGGTTCTAATTGGATCAA
CTTGTTTTAGGATAGAACAAATATTTCGTGCTATATTTAAATTTTGTTGT
TCCCCTTTCTCATCATCATCTAAATCTTGTTTATCCATATCTGCGGTCTT
TAAGGCGTCAATGGCATCTCTAATGTCTTCATTTGGTTGATAACCAAAGC
ATATAAGATCTAAAATAGTGCTAAGAGCAAACACGTAGTTGCTCTTAGTT
CTCAAAATCTTTAAGCATACTGAAGAAACTTGAGGATCATTTACCCATGA
AGTAGTTTCACCTTTATAAAGTCCTCGTAGATATCTCCACGAGCTTTCAT
TTTCAGGGTAGGCTATAATGGCTTCGATGGTGTAAAGCACTTCAGACTCT
CTCATAGCTTTTAGGCCCCCCAAGAAAGGAGACCTTGTTATGACAAAATA
TCTCTGATTCCAAGCAGAATTGTTAAAAATGTCTTCTTTAAGTAGTTCTG
TGCAATAATTAAGTTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAGTGTTTGAAGAGCCCAC
TGTCTATGAGACCATGCATGATAATGTTTGGCATCAACGGACAGTATCTT
TTTGGTGAACTCGAGCTCATTGTTTCTAGCTTCAGGACCTAACTTCTCGG
CAACCCATCGTCTAGGATGCCTACAGAACATNCACATCTGATAATTTTTA
GAATTTCCAGCGGCCATACGCTCCACAAACTCCAGTTCATCGTTCAAGTC
GACTTTTAGCGACTCAAGTAACAACCGTCGGAAATGCCACACAGTGTAGT
TGCCGGAGTTGAATTGAACGGCTTCGGCTGTGAGAGCGAGGGCGCGAGGG
GAGCGTTCATCGGTGAGGTAAACGGCGCGAAAGTAATCCATAACTTCGGA
AAACTCTTCAGTGTACTGGATCGGAACGACAGGGTTAGGGCCGTCGTTTT
GAGGAACCGGAGTAACATCTGACCACTCCACTCTCTCCCTCAACGGCACG
CGTTGCTGCACCTCTTCTCCTTCGCTAGACCCAGATTCCAT

Glycine max FTB

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1035 nucleotides (also referred to as FT5) is shown in Table 8A.

TABLE 8A
FT5 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:40)
GCCACCATTCCTCGCAACGCCCAAACCCTCATGTTGGAGCTTCAACGCGA
TAATCACATGCAGTATGTCTCCAAAGGCCTTCGCCATCTCAGTTCCGCAT
TTTCCGTTTTGGACGCTAATCGACCCTGGCTCTGCTACTGGATCTTCCAC
TCCATTGCTTTGTTGGGAGAATCCGTCGATGATGAACTCGAAGATAACGC
TATCGATTTTCTTAACCGTTGCCAGGATCCGAATGGTGGATATGCCGGGG
GACCAGGCCAGATGCCTCATATTGCCACAACTTATGCTGCTGTTAATTCA
CTTATTACTTTGGGTGGTGAGAAATCCCTGGCATCAATTAATAGAGATAA
ACTGTATGGGTTTCTGCGGCGGATGAAGCAACCAAATGGTGGATTCAGGA
TGCATGATGAAGGTGAAATTGATGTTCGAGCTTGCTACACTGCCATTTCT
GTTGCAAGTGTTTTGAACATTTTGGATGATGAGCTGATCCAGAATGTTGG
AGACTACATTATAAGCTGTCAAACATATGAGGGTGGCATTGCTGGTGAGC
CTGGTTCTGAGGCTCATGGTGGGTACACCTTTTGTGGATTAGCTACAATG
ATTCTGATTGGTGAGGTTAATCACTTGGATCTGCCTCGATTAGTTGACTG
GGTGGTATTCCGACAAGGTAAGGAATGTGGATTCCAGGGGAGAACAAATA
AACTGGTGGATGGATGCTATTCCTTTTGGCAGGGAGGTGCTGTTGCTCTA
TTGCAAAGATTATCTTCTATTATCAACAAACAGATGGAAGAGACATCACA
GATTTTTGCGGTATCTTATGTATCTGAAGCAAAAGAAAGTTTGGATGGAA
CCTCTAGTCATGCAACATGCCGTGGTGAGCATGAAGGCACCAGTGAATCC
AGTTCATCTGATTTTAAAAATATTGCCTATAAATTTATTAATGAGTGGAG
AGCACAAGAACCACTTTTTCACAGTATTGCTTTACAGCAATATATTCTCT
TATGTGCACAGGAGCAAGAGGGTGGACTGAGAGACAAACCGGGTAAACGT
AGAGATCATTATCACACATGTTACTGTTTAAGTGGACTCTCATTGTGCCA
GTATAGTTGGTCAAAGCACCCAGATTCTCCACCAC.

A disclosed FT5 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:42) encoded by SEQ ID NO:40 has 378 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 8B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 8B
Encoded FT5 protein sequence
(SEQ ID NO:42)
ATIPRNAQTLMLELQRDNHMQYVSKGLRHLSSAFSVLDANRPWLCYWIFH
SIALLGESVDDELEDNAIDFLNRCQDPNGGYAGGPGQMPHIATTYAAVNS
LITLGGEKSLASINRDKLYGFLRRMKQPNGGFRMHDEGEIDVRACYTAIS
VASVLNILDDELIQNVGDYIISCQTYEGGIAGEPGSEAHGGYTFCGLATM
ILIGEVNHLDLPRLVDWVVFRQGKECGFQGRTNKLVDGCYSFWQGGAVAL
LQRLSSIINKQMEETSQIFAVSYVSEAKESLDGTSSHATCRGEHEGTSES
SSSDFKNIAYKFINEWPAQEPLFHSIALQQYILLCAQEQEGGLRDKPGKR
RDHYHTCYCLSGLSLCQYSWSKHPDSPP

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length. The percent identity of the Glycine max nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other sequences is shown in FIG. 17.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Glycine max beta subunit of SEQ ID NO:40. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:41.

SEQ ID NO:41
GTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGCTTTGACCAACTATACTGGCACAATGAGAGT
CCACTTAAACAGTAACATGTGTGATAATGATCTCTACGTTTACCCGGTTT
GTCTCTCAGTCCACCCTCTTGCTCCTGTGCACATAAGAGAATATATTGCT
GTAAAGCAATACTGTGAAAAAGTGGTTCTTGTGCTCTCCACTCATTAATA
AATTTATAGGCAATATTTTTAAAATCAGATGAACTGGATTCACTGGTGCC
TTCATGCTCACCACGGCATGTTGCATGACTAGAGGTTCCATCCAAACTTT
CTTTTGCTTCAGATACATAAGATACCGCAAAAATCTGTGATGTCTCTTCC
ATCTGTTTGTTGATAATAGAAGATAATCTTTGCAATAGAGCAACAGCACC
TCCCTGCCAAAAGGAATAGCATCCATCCACCAGTTTATTTGTTCTCCCCT
GGAATCCACATTCCTTACCTTGTCGGAATACCACCCAGTCAACTAATCGA
GGCAGATCCAAGTGATTAACCTCACCAATCAGAATCATTGTAGCTAATCC
ACAAAAGGTGTACCCACCATGAGCCTCAGAACCAGGCTCACCAGCAATGC
CACCCTCATATGTTTGACAGCTTATAATGTAGTCTCCAACATTCTGGATC
AGCTCATCATCCAAAATGTTCAAAACACTTGCAACAGAAATGGCAGTGTA
GCAAGCTCGAACATCAATTTCACCTTCATCATGCATCCTGAATCCACCAT
TTGGTTGCTTCATCCGCCGCAGAAACCCATACAGTTTATCTCTATTAATT
GATGCCAGGGATTTCTCACCACCCAAAGTAATAAGTGAATTAACAGCAGC
ATAAGTTGTGGCAATATGAGGCATCTGGCCTGGTCCCCCGGCATATCCAC
CATTCGGATCCTGGCAACGGTTAAGAAAATCGATAGCGTTATCTTCGAGT
TCATCATCGACGGATTCTCCCAACAAAGCAATGGAGTGGAAGATCCAGTA
GCAGAGCCAGGGTCGATTAGCGTCCAAAACGGAAAATGCGGAACTGAGAT
GGCGAAGGCCTTTGGAGACATACTGCATGTGATTATCGCGTTGAAGCTCC
AACATGAGGGTTTGGGCGTTGCGAGGAATGGTGGC

Zea maize FTB

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1235 nucleotides (also referred to as FT6) is shown in Table 9A.

TABLE 9A
FT6 Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:43)
GGCGGATCCCGACCTACCGAGGCTCACGGTGACGCAGGTGGAGCAGATGA
AGGTGGAGGCCAGGGTTGGCGACATCTACCGCTCCCTCTTCGGGGCCGCG
CCCAACACGAAATCCATCATGCTAGAGCTGTGGCGTGATCAGCATATCGA
GTATCTGACGCCTGGGCTGAGGCATATGGGACCAGCCTTTCATGTTCTAG
ATGCCAATCGCCCTTGGCTATGCTACTGGATGGTTCATCCACTTGCTTTG
CTGGATGAAGCACTTGATGATGATCTTGAGAATGATATCATAGACTTCTT
AGCTCGATGTCAGGATAAAGATGGTGGATATAGTGGTGGACCTGGACAGT
TGCCTCACCTAGCTACGACTTATGCTGCTGTAAATACACTTGTGACAATA
GGGAGCGAAAGAGCATTGTCATCAATCAATAGGGGCAACCTGTACAATTT
TATGCTGCAGATGAAAGATGTATCAGGTGCTTTCAGAATGCATGATGGTG
GCGAAATTGATGTCCGTGCTTCCTACACCGCTATATCGGTTGCCAGCCTT
GTGAATATTCTTGATTTTAAACTGGCAAAAGGTGTAGGCGACTACATAGC
AAGATGTCAAACTTATGAAGGTGGTATTGCTGGGGAGCCTTATGCTGAAG
CACATGGTGGGTATACATTCTGTGGATTGGCTGCTTTGATCCTGCTTAAT
GAGGCAGAGAAAGTTGACTTGCCTAGTTTGATTGGCTGGGTGGCTTTTCG
TCAAGGAGTGGAATGCGGATTTCAAGGACGAACTAATAAATTGGTTGATG
GTTGCTACTCCTTTTGGCAGGGAGCTGCCATTGCTTTCACACAAAAGTTA
ATTACGATTGTTGATAAGCAATTGAGGTCCTCGTATTCCTGCAAAAGGCC
ATCAGGAGAGGATGCCTGCAGCACCAGTTCATATGGGTGCACCGCGAATA
AGTCTTCCTCTGCTGTGGACTATGCGAAGTTTGGATTTGATTTTATACAA
CAGAGCAACCAAATTGGCCCACTCTTCCATAACATTGCCCTGCAACAATA
CATCCTACTTTGTTCTCAGGTACTAGAGGGAGGCTTGAGGGATAAGCCTG
GAAAGAACAGAGATCACTATCATTCATGCTACTGCCTCAGTGGCCTCGCA
GTTAGCCAGTACAGTGCCATGACTGATACTGGTTCGTGCCCATTACCTCA
GCATGTGCTTGGACCGTACTCTAATTTGCTGGAGCCAATCCATCC.

A disclosed FT6 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:45) encoded by SEQ ID NO:43 has 414 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 9B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 9B
Encoded FT6 protein sequence (SEQ ID NO: 45).
ADPDLPRLTVTQVEQMKVEARVGDIYRSLFGAAPNTKSIMLELWRDQHIEYLTP
GLRHMGPAFHVLDANRPWLCYWMVHPLALLDEALDDDLENDIIDFLARCQDKDG
GYSGGPGQLPHLATTYAAVNTLVTIGSERALSSINRGNLYNFMLQMKDVSGAFR
MHDGGEIDVRASYTAISVASLVNILDFKLAKGVGDYIARCQTYEGGIAGEPYAE
AHGGYTFCGLAALILLNEAEKVDLPSLIGWVAFRQGVECGFQGRTNKLVDGCYS
FWQGAAIAFTQKLITIVDKQLRSSYSCKRPSGEDACSTSSYGCTANKSSSAVDY
AKFGFDFIQQSNQIGPLFHNIALQQYILLCSQVLEGGLRDKPGKNRDHYHSCYC
LSGLLAVSQYSAMTDTGSCPLPQHVLGPYSNLLEPIH

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length. The percent identity of the Glycine max nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other sequences is shown in FIG. 17.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Zea maize beta subunit of SEQ ID NO:43. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:44.

GGATGGATTGGCTCCAGCAAATTAGAGTACGGTCCAAGCACATGCTGAGGTAATGGGCACGAAC SEQ ID NO: 44
CAGTATCAGTCATGGCACTGTACTGGCTAACTGCGAGGCCACTGAGGCAGTAGCATGAATGATA
GTGATCTCTGTTCTTTCCAGGCTTATCCCTCAAGCCTCCCTCTAGTACCTGAGAACAAAGTAGG
ATGTATTGTTGCAGGGCAATGTTATGGAAGAGTGGGCCAATTTGGTTGCTCTGTTGTATAAAAT
CAAATCCAAACTTCGCATAGTCCACAGCAGAGGAAGACTTATTCGCGGTGCACCCATATGAACT
GGTGCTGCAGGCATCCTCTCCTGATGGCCTTTTGCAGGAATACGAGGACCTCAATTGCTTATCA
ACAATCGTAATTAACTTTTGTGTGAAAGCAATGGCAGCTCCCTGCCAAAAGGAGTAGCAACCAT
CAACCAATTTATTAGTTCGTCCTTGAAATCCGCATTCCACTCCTTGACGAAAAGCCACCCAGCC
AATCAAACTAGGCAAGTCAACTTTCTCTGCCTCATTAAGCAGGATCAAAGCAGCCAATCCACAG
AATGTATACCCACCATGTGCTTCAGCATAAGGCTCCCCAGCAATACCACCTTCATAAGTTTGAC
ATCTTGCTATGTAGTCGCCTACACCTTTTGCCAGTTTAAAATCAAGAATATTCACAAGGCTGGC
AACCGATATAGCGGTGTAGGAAGCACGGACATCAATTTCGCCACCATCATGCATTCTGAAAGCA
CCTGATACATCTTTCATCTGCAGCATAAAATTGTACAGGTTGCCCCTATTGATTGATGACAATG
CTCTTTCGCTCCCTATTGTCACAAGTGTATTTACAGCAGCATAAGTCGTAGCTAGGTGAGGCAA
CTGTCCAGGTCCACCACTATATCCACCATCTTTATCCTGACATCGAGCTAAGAAGTCTATGATA
TCATTCTCAAGATCATCATCAAGTGCTTCATCCAGCAAAGCAAGTGGATGAACCATCCAGTAGC
ATAGCCAAGGGCGATTGGCATCTAGAACATGAAAGGCTGGTCCCATATGCCTCAGCCCAGGCGT
CAGATACTCGATATGCTGATCACGCCACAGCTCTAGCATGATGGATTTCGTGTTGGGCGCGGCC
CCGAAGAGGGAGCGGTAGATGTCGCCAACCCTGGCCTCCACCTTCATCTGCTCCACCTGCGTCA
CCGTGAGCCTCGGTAGGTCGGGATCCGCC

The FTA and FTB nucleic acids and amino acids disclosed above have homology to other members of the FT protein family (GenBank ID NOs: U63298, U83707, and U73203; WO 00/14207; Cutler et al., Science 273(5279):1239-41, 1996; Ziegelhoffer et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(13):7633-8, 2000). The homology between these and other sequences is shown graphically in the ClustalW analysis shown in Tables 10A-10D. In the ClustalW alignment, the black outlined amino acid residues indicate regions of conserved sequence (i.e., regions that may be required to preserve structural or functional properties), whereas non-highlighted amino acid residues are less conserved and can potentially be altered to a much broader extent without altering protein structure or function.

Also included in the invention is the farnesyl transferase alpha consensus sequence of SEQ ID NO:93 and the farnesyl transferase beta consensus sequence of SEQ ID NO:94. To generate the consensus sequence, the farnesyl transferase alpha and farnesyl transferase beta sequences of the invention were aligned using the program BioEdit. The homology between the farnesyl transferase alpha (FTA) polypeptide sequences of the invention is shown graphically in the ClustalW analysis shown in Table 10E. The homology between the farnesyl transferase beta (FTB) polypeptide sequences of the invention is shown graphically in the ClustalW analysis shown in Table 10F.

Also included in the invention is the farnesyl transferase alpha consensus sequence of SEQ ID NO:95 and the farnesyl transferase beta consensus sequence of SEQ ID NO:96. To generate the consensus sequence, the farnesyl transferase alpha and farnesyl transferase beta sequences if the invention were aligned using the program BioEdit. The homology between the farnesyl transferase alpha (FTA) nucleic acid sequences of the invention is shown graphically in the ClustalW analysis shown in Table 10G. The homology between the farnesyl transferase beta (FTB) nucleic acid sequences of the invention is shown graphically in the ClustalW analysis shown in Table 10H.

Example 13 Vector Constructs for Transformation

The FTA or FTB sequences have be used to produce constructs suitable for transformation into plants and under the control of appropriate regulatory sequences. The gene sequences were in either the sense orientation for over-expression or the antisense orientation for down-regulation. Portions of these sequences have been used to construct a double-stranded-RNA-inhibition (dsRNAi) construct. A sequence of preferably not less than 21 nt was cloned as an inverse repeat separated by a linker that when expressed results in down-regulation of the target gene. Double antisense (DA) vectors have been created in which a direct repeat of an antisense sequence is separated by a spacer sequence such as GUS. Promoters have been used for constitutive expression such as the 35S CaMV promoter, the MuA Zea maize promoter or inducible by specific environmental or cellular cues such as the ABA levels or drought conditions which induce expression of the RD29A promoter. Alternatively, tissue or organelle specific promoters such as the HIC or CUT1 promoter can be used. Such constructs have been transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica, Zea maize, Glycine max. Other species can be transformed as desired. Each species to be transformed may make use of specific regulatory sequences as appropriate for those particular species. Transformed plants have be selected and their phenotypic properties analyzed. The transgenic plants were assessed for characteristics such as increased tolerance to drought, altered biomass accumulation, yield, nutritional requirements such as minerals or micro-nutrients, biotic stress such as fungal, bacterial, or other such pathogen infection or attack or any other such physical or biochemical characteristic.

Example 14 Plant Transformation

Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic plants were made by flower dipping method into an Agrobacterium culture. Wild type plants were grown under standard conditions until they began flowering. The plant was inverted for 2 min into a solution of Agrobacterium culture. Plants were then bagged for two days to maintain humidity and then uncovered to continue growth and seed development. Mature seed was bulk harvested.

Transformed T1 plants were selected by germination and growth on MS plates containing 50 μg/ml kanamycin. Green, kanamycin resistant seedlings were identified after 2 weeks growth and transplanted to soil. Plants were bagged to ensure self fertilization and the T2 seed of each plant harvested separately. During growth of T1 plants leaf samples were harvested, DNA extracted and Southern analysis performed.

T2 seeds were analyzed for KanR segregation. From those lines that showed a 3:1 resistant phenotype surviving T2 plants were grown, bagged during seed set, and T3 seed harvested from each line. T3 seed was again used for KanR segregation analysis and those lines showing 100% KanR phenotype were selected as homozygous lines. Further analysis was done using T3 seed.

Transgenic Brassica napus plants were produced using Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cotyledon petiole tissue. Seeds were sterilized as follows. Seeds were wetted with 95% ethanol for a short period of time such as 15 seconds. Approximately 30 ml of sterilizing solution I was added (70% Javex, 100 μl Tween20) and left for approximately 15 minutes. Solution I was removed and replaced with 30 ml of solution II (0.25% mercuric chloride, 100 μl Tween20) and incubated for about 10 minutes. Seeds were rinsed with at least 500 ml double distilled sterile water and stored in a sterile dish. Seeds were germinated on plates of ½ MS medium, pH 5.8, supplemented with 1% sucrose and 0.7% agar. Fully expanded cotyledons were harvested and placed on Medium I (Murashige minimal organics (MMO), 3% sucrose, 4.5 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA), 0.7% phytoagar, pH5.8). An Agrobacterium culture containing the nucleic acid construct of interest was grown for 2 days in AB Minimal media. The cotyledon explants were dipped such that only the cut portion of the petiole is contacted by the Agrobacterium solution. The explants were then embedded in Medium I and maintained for 5 days at 24° C., with 16, 8 hr light dark cycles. Explants were transferred to Medium II (Medium I, 300 mg/L timentin) for a further 7 days and then to Medium III (Medium II, 20 mg/L kanamycin). Any root or shoot tissue which had developed at this time was dissected away. Transfer explants to fresh plates of Medium III after 14-21 days. When regenerated shoot tissue developed the regenerated tissue was transferred to Medium IV (MMO, 3% sucrose, 1.0% phytoagar, 300 mg/L timentin, 20 mg/L 20 mg/L kanamycin). Once healthy shoot tissue developed shoot tissue dissected from any callus tissue was dipped in 10× IBA and transferred to Medium V (Murashige and Skooge (MS), 3% sucrose, 0.2 mg/L indole butyric acid (IBA), 0.7% agar, 300 mg/L timentin, 20 mg/L 20 mg/L kanamycin) for rooting. Healthy plantlets were transferred to soil.

Transgenic Glycine max, Zea maize and cotton can be produced using Agrobacterium-based methods which are known to one of skill in the art. Alternatively one can use a particle or non-particle biolistic bombardment transformation method. An example of non-particle biolistic transformation is given in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 20010026941. Viable plants are propagated and homozygous lines are generated. Plants are tested for the presence of drought tolerance, physiological and biochemical phenotypes as described elsewhere.

The following table identifies the constructs and the species which they have been transformed.

TABLE 11
SEQ ID
NO: SEQ Species Transformed
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-anti-AtFTA Arabidopsis
NO: 10 thaliana
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-AtFTA Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 46 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-rd29A-anti-AtFTA Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 47 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-DA-AtFTA Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 48 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-RD29A-DA-AtFTA Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 49 thaliana napus
SEQ ID MuA-anti-GmFTA Glycine
NO: 50 max
SEQ ID RD29A-anti-GmFTA Glycine
NO: 51 max
SEQ ID MuA-HP-GmFTA-Nos-Term Glycine
NO: 52 max
SEQ ID RD29AP-HP-GmFTA-Nos- Glycine
NO: 53 Term max
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-Anti-AtFTB Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 54 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-RD29AP-Anti-AtFTB Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 55 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-HP-AtFTB Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 56 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-RD29AP-HP-AtFTB Arabidopsis Brassica
NO: 57 thaliana napus
SEQ ID pBI121-35S-AtFTB Arabidopsis
NO: 58 thaliana
SEQ ID MuA-anti-GmFTB-Nos-Term Glycine
NO: 59 max
SEQ ID RD29AP-anti-GmFTB-Nos- Glycine
NO: 60 Term max
SEQ ID MuA-HP-GmFTB-Nos-Term Glycine
NO: 61 max
SEQ ID RD29AP-HP-GmFTB-Nos- Glycine
NO: 62 Term max
SEQ ID MuA-anti-Zea maizeFTB-Nos- Zea
NO: 63 Term maize
SEQ ID MuA-HP-Zea maizeFTB-Nos- Zea
NO: 64 Term maize

Non-limiting examples of vector constructs suitable for plant transformation are given in SEQ ID NO: 10, 46-64.

aaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatctgatcatgagcgg SEQ ID NO: 10
agaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccgttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccg
caacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggagtttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgc
gcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcactatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaa
ttcccctcggtatccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgca
tgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggctatgactgggcacaa
cagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggggcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccga
cctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggcagcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcg
cagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactgaagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctg
tcatctcaccttgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccggc
tacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaagccggtcttgtcgatc
aggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgttcgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgac
ggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgcttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggatt
catcgactgtggccggctgggtgtggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagc
ttggcggcgaatgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttctat
cgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgacgcccaacctgccatca
cgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcggaatcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgat
cctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcgcccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgata
tcattacgacagcaacggccgacaagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatc
aacggcgtcggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcgtgga
gttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttg
ccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacg
ttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcg
cgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggc
tctggtggtggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctctgaggg
aggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacgctaataagggggctatga
ccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaaacttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgct
gctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggccttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaa
ttcccaaatggctcaagtcggtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctcc
ctcaatcggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccgattcat
taatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaattaatgtgagttagctcac
tcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtatgttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttc
acacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgccaagcttgcatgcctgcag cccacagatggttagagaggcttacgc
agcaggtctcatcaagacgatctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatg
cagtcaaaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtactattcca
gtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtctctaaaaaggtagttcccac
tgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaacagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttca
tacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaagaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactcc
aaaaatatcaaagatacagtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacct
cctcggattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctcctacaaatgcc
atcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtcccaaagatggacccccacccacg
aggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaaagcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgt
aagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttcgcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaa
cacgggg gactctagaggatcctcaaattgctgccactgtaatcttgctcttcctccatgcccaatagttagctctt
ataggatctacacgaccaagaatagtacacaccaaattggccaagttagtctctggttcttcattagctagagctct
cactgagtctttatgctcgttggttggtctcagtccatcacatagaagatccaaaagggtgctcagagcgaatccat
ggaagcaatctgtgcgggatagaacattcaaacagactgaggaaacacttggatcactaatccaggattctttgtcg
tctttgtaaagcgcttttaggtatcgccatgagctctcgtttgcaggattggttaaaatggctttgattgtgtagct
tacttcagattctctcatggcttctaggcctcccaacaaaggagattgggtgatgacataatacctctgattccagg
cggaattgttaaagacgtcagcttcaaggagctcgtgacagtaatcgagctcatcttcccatcctcctaatgcccgt
agtgtccactgcctatgtgaccaagcatgataatgtttggcatcaagtgaaagtactctacgggtaaattcaagttc
tctccctgcaacatcaggacccagtttctctgcaacccatcgccgatgatgccacagttggtagttcttagagttat
cctcagcaatgcgttcgatgaactcgagttcttcaaacaagtcgtgattaagggcctcgagtactaggcgcctgaaa
tgccacactgtgtagttgccggagtttaagaggagggtttcttccgtgagtcgtagtgcgcgaggagatcgctcgtc
ggaaaagtaaatcgcacggaagtaatccatagtctcgcggaactcttccttgtaggcaattggcaccactggattcg
gaccatcgtcctgagtcaatgggaccacgtctgaccactccaatcgttggctcagtggcacggtctcgtcgaaattc
atcccctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgc
gatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatga
gatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactag
gataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgact
gggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagag
gcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttc
tcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacgg
cacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgccc
tttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggct
attcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaacca
gcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaa
agaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaattt
gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 46
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatccatgaatttcgacgagaccgtgccactgagccaacgattggagtggtcagacgtggtccc
attgactcaggacgatggtccgaatccagtggtgccaattgcctacaaggaagagttccgcgag
actatggattacttccgtgcgatttacttttccgacgagcgatctcctcgcgcactacgactca
cggaagaaaccctcctcttaaactccggcaactacacagtgtggcatttcaggcgcctagtact
cgaggcccttaatcacgacttgtttgaagaactcgagttcatcgaacgcattgctgaggataac
tctaagaactaccaactgtggcatcatcggcgatgggttgcagagaaactgggtcctgatgttg
cagggagagaacttgaatttacccgtagagtactttcacttgatgccaaacattatcatgcttg
gtcacataggcagtggacactacgggcattaggaggatgggaagatgagctcgattactgtcac
gagctccttgaagctgacgtctttaacaattccgcctggaatcagaggtattatgtcatcaccc
aatctcctttgttgggaggcctagaagccatgagagaatctgaagtaagctacacaatcaaagc
cattttaaccaatcctgcaaacgagagctcatggcgatacctaaaagctctttacaaagacgac
aaagaatcctggattagtgatccaagtgtttcctcagtctgtttgaatgttctatcccgcacag
attgcttccatggattcgctctgagcacccttttggatcttctatgtgatggactgagaccaac
caacgagcataaagactcagtgagagctctagctaatgaagaaccagagactaacttggccaat
ttggtgtgtactattcttggtcgtgtagatcctgtaagagctaactattgggcatggaggaaga
gcaagattacagtggcagcaatttgactcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaa
gtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaatta
cgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgatt
agagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggata
aattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaac
gtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgc
cagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaat
ggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaa
gctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaa
aacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgcccttt
gacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccct
atctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacagga
ttttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtg
aagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaac
gtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:10 is the nucleic acid sequence of pBI121-antisense-FTA vector construct used to transform Arabidopsis plants. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats (1-24, 5226-5230). Underlined sequence is the 35S promoter (2515-3318). Bold sequence is the anti-sense Farnesyl transferase alpha sequence (3334-4317).

(Underlined Seq: 35S promoter, Bold AtFTA)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 47
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaagactctagaggatcc
tcaaattgctgccactgtaatcttgctcttcctccatgcccaatagttagctcttataggatct
acacgaccaagaatagtacacaccaaattggccaagttagtctctggttcttcattagctagag
ctctcactgagtctttatgctcgttggttggtctcagtccatcacatagaagatccaaaagggt
gctcagagcgaatccatggaagcaatctgtgcgggatagaacattcaaacagactgaggaaaca
cttggatcactaatccaggattctttgtcgtctttgtaaagcgcttttaggtatcgccatgagc
tctcgtttgcaggattggttaaaatggctttgattgtgtagcttacttcagattctctcatggc
ttctaggcctcccaacaaaggagattgggtgatgacataatacctctgattccaggcggaattg
ttaaagacgtcagcttcaaggagctcgtgacagtaatcgagctcatcttcccatcctcctaatg
cccgtagtgtccactgcctatgtgaccaagcatgataatgtttggcatcaagtgaaagtactct
acgggtaaattcaagttctctccctgcaacatcaggacccagtttctctgcaacccatcgccga
tgatgccacagttggtagttcttagagttatcctcagcaatgcgttcgatgaactcgagttctt
caaacaagtcgtgattaagggcctcgagtactaggcgcctgaaatgccacactgtgtagttgcc
ggagtttaagaggagggtttcttccgtgagtcgtagtgcgcgaggagatcgctcgtcggaaaag
taaatcgcacggaagtaatccatagtctcgcggaactcttccttgtaggcaattggcaccactg
gattcggaccatcgtcctgagtcaatgggaccacgtctgaccactccaatcgttggctcagtgg
cacggtctcgtcgaaattcatcccctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagt
ttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacg
ttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattag
agtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaa
ttatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgt
cgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgcca
gctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatgg
cgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagc
tctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaa
cttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgccctttga
cgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctat
ctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggatt
ttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaa
gggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgt
ccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca
(Underlined Seq: RD29A promoter; Bold: Anti-sense-AtFTA)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 48
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatcctcGCTCTTCCTCCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTACAGGATCTACACGACCAAGAATAGT
ACACACCAAATTGGCCAAGTTAGTCTCTGGTTCTTCATTAGCTAGAGCTCTCACTGAGTCTTTA
TGCTCGTTGGTTGGTCTCAGTCCATCACATAGAAGATCCAAAAGGGTGCTCAGAGCGAATCCAT
GGAAGCAATCTGTGCGGGATAGAACATTCAAACAGACTGAGGAAACACTTGGATCACTAATCCA
GGATTCTTTGTCGTCTTTGTAAAGAGCTTTTAGGTATCGCCATGAGCTCTCGTTTGCAGGATTG
GTTAAAATGGCTTTGATTGTGTAGCTTACTTCAGATTCTCTCATGGCTTCTAGGCCTCCCAACA
AAGGAGATTGGGTGATGACATAATACCTCTGATTCCAGGCGGAATTGTTAAAGACGTCAGCTTC
AAGGAGCTCGTGACAGTAATCGAGCTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAATGCCCGgaggatccccATC
TACCCGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTGGCAGTGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATTAACCACA
AACCGTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTCATGAAGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAGGATTCGA
TAACGTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATTAATGGACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTACCGTACC
TCGCATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTCGACTGGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTGGTGATTG
ATGAAACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCTCTTTAGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCAACAAGCC
GAAAGAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAACGGGGAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACAGGCGATT
AAAGAGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCACCCAAGCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCCAACGAAC
CGGATACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAATATTTCGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGCGTAAACT
CGACCCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAATGTAATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGATACCATC
AGCGATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAACCGTTATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGCGGCGATT
TGGAAACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAGAACTTCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGTACACCGA
CATGTGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATGGCTGGATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGATCGCGTC
AGCGCCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAATTTCGCCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGCATATTGC
GCGTTGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCACTCGCGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGGCTTTTCT
GCTGCAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTTCGGTGAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAAACAATGA
ATCAACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCGGCTACAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAGCTCGCTC
TTCCTCCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTACAGGATCTACACGACCAAGAATAGTACACACCAAAT
TGGCCAAGTTAGTCTCTGGTTCTTCATTAGCTAGAGCTCTCACTGAGTCTTTATGCTCGTTGGT
TGGTCTCAGTCCATCACATAGAAGATCCAAkAGGGTGCTCAGAGCGAATCCATGGAAGCAATCT
GTGCGGGATAGAACATTCAAACAGACTGAGGAAACACTTGGATCACTAATCCAGGATTCTTTGT
CGTCTTTGTAAAGAGCTTTTAGGTATCGCCATGAGCTCTCGTTTGCAGGATTGGTTAAAATGGC
TTTGATTGTGTAGCTTACTTCAGATTCTCTCATGGCTTCTAGGCCTCCCAACAAAGGAGATTGG
GTGATGACATAATACCTCTGATTCCAGGCGGAATTGTTAAAGACGTCAGCTTCAAGGAGCTCGT
GACAGTAATCGAGCTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAATGCCCGctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaa
catttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataa
tttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagat
gggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcg
cgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggc
cgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagca
catccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagt
tgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccg
gctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggca
cctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacg
gtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaa
caacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaacc
accatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctc
agggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccacccc
agtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccaca
atatatcctgcca

(Underlined Seq: 35S promoter; Bold: AtFTA anti-sense sequence separated by GUS Seq.)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 49
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaaggactctagaggatc
ctcGCTCTTCCTCCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTACAGGATCTACACGACCAAGAATAGTACAC
ACCAAATTGGCCAAGTTAGTCTCTGGTTCTTCATTAGCTAGAGCTCTCACTGAGTCTTTATGCT
CGTTGGTTGGTCTCAGTCCATCACATAGAAGATCCAAAAGGGTGCTCAGAGCGAATCCATGGAA
GCAATCTGTGCGGGATAGAACATTCAAACAGACTGAGGAAACACTTGGATCACTAATCCAGGAT
TCTTTGTCGTCTTTGTAAAGAGCTTTTAGGTATCGCCATGAGCTCTCGTTTGCAGGATTGGTTA
AAATGGCTTTGATTGTGTAGCTTACTTCAGATTCTCTCATGGCTTCTAGGCCTCCCAACAAAGG
AGATTGGGTGATGACATAATACCTCTGATTCCAGGCGGAATTGTTAAAGACGTCAGCTTCAAGG
AGCTCGTGACAGTAATCGAGCTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAATGCCCGgaggatccccATCTACC
CGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTGGCAGTGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATTAACCACAAACC
GTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTCATGAAGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAGGATTCGATAAC
GTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATTAATGGACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTACCGTACCTCGC
ATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTCGACTGGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTGGTGATTGATGA
AACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCTCTTTAGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCAACAAGCCGAAA
GAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAACGGGGAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACAGGCGATTAAAG
AGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCACCCAAGCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCCAACGAACCGGA
TACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAATATTTCGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGCGTAAACTCGAC
CCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAATGTAATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGATACCATCAGCG
ATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAACCGTTATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGCGGCGATTTGGA
AACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAGAACTTCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGTACACCGACATG
TGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATGGCTGGATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGATCGCGTCAGCG
CCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAATTTCGCCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGCATATTGCGCGT
TGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCACTCGCGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGGCTTTTCTGCTG
CAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTTCGGTGAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAAACAATGAATCA
ACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCGGCTACAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAGCTCGCTCTTCC
TCCATGCCCAATAGTTAGCTCTTACAGGATCTACACGACCAAGAATAGTACACACCAAATTGGC
CAAGTTAGTCTCTGGTTCTTCATTAGCTAGAGCTCTCACTGAGTCTTTATGCTCGTTGGTTGGT
CTCAGTCCATCACATAGAAGATCCAAAAGGGTGCTCAGAGCGAATCCATGGAAGCAATCTGTGC
GGGATAGAACATTCAAACAGACTGAGGAAACACTTGGATCACTAATCCAGGATTCTTTGTCGTC
TTTGTAAAGAGCTTTTAGGTATCGCCATGAGCTCTCGTTTGCAGGATTGGTTAAAATGGCTTTG
ATTGTGTAGCTTACTTCAGATTCTCTCATGGCTTCTAGGCCTCCCAACAAAGGAGATTGGGTGA
TGACATAATACCTCTGATTCCAGGCGGAATTGTTAAAGACGTCAGCTTCAAGGAGCTCGTGACA
GTAATCGAGCTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAATGCCCGctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatt
tggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttc
tgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggt
ttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgca
aactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtc
gttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatc
cccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcg
cagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctt
tccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctc
gaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggttt
ttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaac
actcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccacca
tcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcaggg
ccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagta
cattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatat
atcctgcca

(Underlined Seq: RD29A promoter; Bold, AtFTA anti-sense sequence, separated by GUS Seq.)

GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT SEQ ID NO: 50
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCAGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGCCAAAT
CCAATAGTTGGTTCTAATTGGATCAACTTGTTTTAGGATAGAACAAATATTTCGTGCTATATTT
AAATTTTGTTGTTCCCCTTTCTCATCATCATCTAAATCTTGTTTATCCATATCTGCGGTCTTTA
AGGCGTCAATGGCATCTCTAATGTCTTCATTTGGTTGATAACCAAAGCATATAAGATCTAAAAT
AGTGCTAAGAGCAAACACGTAGTTGCTCTTAGTTCTCAAAATCTTTAAGCATACTGAAGAAACT
TGAGGATCATTTACCCATGAAGTAGTTTCACCTTTATAAAGTCCTCGTAGATATCTCCACGAGC
TTTCATTTTCAGGGTAGGCTATAATGGCTTCGATGGTGTAAAGCACTTCAGACTCTCTCATAGC
TTTTAGGCCCCCCAAGAAAGGAGACCTTGTTATGACAAAATATCTCTGATTCCAAGCAGAATTG
TTAAAAATGTCTTCTTTAAGTAGTTCTGTGCAATAATTAAGTTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAGTG
TTTGAAGAGCCCACTGTCTATGAGACCATGCATGATAATGTTTGGCATCAACGGACAGTATCTT
TTTGGTGAACTCGAGCTgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttct
taagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaa
gcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtc
ccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattat
cgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Underlined MuA Promoter; Bold: Glycine max anti-FTA; lower case: NOS terminater Seq.)

GGAGCCATAGATGCAATTCAATCAAACTGAAATTTCTGCAAGAATCTCAAACACGGAGATCTCA SEQ ID NO: 51
AAGTTTGAAAGAAAATTTATTTCTTCGACTCAAAACAAACTTACGAAATTTAGGTAGAACTTAT
ATACATTATATTGTAATTTTTTGTAACAAAATGTTTTTATTATTATTATAGAATTTTACTGGTT
AAATTAAAAATGAATAGAAAAGGTGAATTAAGAGGAGAGAGGAGGTAAACATTTTCTTCTATTT
TTTCATATTTTCAGGATAAATTATTGTAAAAGTTTACAAGATTTCCATTTGACTAGTGTAAATG
AGGAATATTCTCTAGTAAGATCATTATTTCATCTACTTCTTTTATCTTCTACCAGTAGAGGAAT
AAACAATATTTAGCTCCTTTGTAAATACAAATTAATTTTCCTTCTTGACATCATTCAATTTTAA
TTTTACGTATAAAATAAAAGATCATACCTATTAGAACGATTAAGGAGAAATACAATTCGAATGA
GAAGGATGTGCCGTTTGTTATAATAAACAGCCACACGACGTAAACGTAAAATGACCACATGATG
GGCCAATAGACATGGACCGACTACTAATAATAGTAAGTTACATTTTAGGATGGAATAAATATCA
TACCGACATCAGTTTTGAAAGAAAAGGGAAAAAAAGAAAAAATAAATAAAAGATATACTACCGA
CATGAGTTCCAAAAAGCAAAAAAAAAGATCAAGCCGACACAGACACGCGTAGAGAGCAAAATGA
CTTTGACGTCACACCACGAAAACAGACGCTTCATACGTGTCCCTTTATCTCTCTCAGTCTCTCT
ATAAACTTAGTGAGACCCTCCTCTGTTTTACTCACAAATATGCAAACTAGAAAACAATCATCAG
GAATAAAGGGTTTGATTACTTCTATTGGAAAG AGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGCCAAATCCAATAGT
TGGTTCTAATTGGATCAACTTGTTTTAGGATAGAACAAATATTTCGTGCTATATTTAAATTTTG
TTGTTCCCCTTTCTCATCATCATCTAAATCTTGTTTATCCATATCTGCGGTCTTTAAGGCGTCA
ATGGCATCTCTAATGTCTTCATTTGGTTGATAACCAAAGCATATAAGATCTAAAATAGTGCTAA
GAGCAAACACGTAGTTGCTCTTAGTTCTCAAAATCTTTAAGCATACTGAAGAAACTTGAGGATC
ATTTACCCATGAAGTAGTTTCACCTTTATAAAGTCCTCGTAGATATCTCCACGAGCTTTCATTT
TCAGGGTAGGCTATAATGGCTTCGATGGTGTAAAGCACTTCAGACTCTCTCATAGCTTTTAGGC
CCCCCAAGAAAGGAGACCTTGTTATGACAAAATATCTCTGATTCCAAGCAGAATTGTTAAAAAT
GTCTTCTTTAAGTAGTTCTGTGCAATAATTAAGTTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAGTGTTTGAAGA
GCCCACTGTCTATGAGACCATGCATGATAATGTTTGGCATCAACGGACAGTATCTTTTTGGTGA
ACTCGAGCTgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattg
aatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaa
taattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaatt
atacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcg
gtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Underlined RD29A Promoter, Bold: Glycine max anti-Glycine max FTA; lower case: NOS terminater Seq.)

GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT SEQ ID NO: 52
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCAGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGCCAAAT
CCAATAGTTGGTTCTAATTGGATCAACTTGTTTTAGGATAGAACAAATATTTCGTGCTATATTT
AAATTTTGTTGTTCCCCTTTCTCATCATCATCTAAATCTTGTTTATCCATATCTGCGGTCTTTA
AGGCGTCAATGGCATCTCTAATGTCTTCATTTGGTTGATAACCAAAGCATATAAGATCTAAAAT
AGTGCTAAGAGCAAACACGTAGTTGCTCTTAGTTCTCAAAATCTTTAAGCATACTGAAGAAACT
TGAGGATCATTTACCCATGAAGTAGTTTCACCTTTATAAAGTCCTCGTAGATATCTCCACGAGC
TTTCATTTTCAGGGTAGGCTATAATGGCTTCGATGGTGTAAAGCACTTCAGACTCTCTCATAGC
TTTTAGGCCCCCCAAGAAAGGAGACCTTGTTATGACAAAATATCTCTGATTCCAAGCAGAATTG
TTAAAAATGTCTTCTTTAAGTAGTTCTGTGCAATAATTAAGTTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAGTG
TTTGAAGAGCCCACTGTCTATGAGACCATGCATGATAATGTTTGGCATCAACGGACAGTATCTT
TTTGGTGAACTCGAGCT TAAAGGTGAAACTACTTCATGGGTAAATGATCCTCAAGTTTCTTCAG
TATGCTTAAAGATTTTGAGAACTAAGAGCAACTACGTGTTTGCTCTTAGCACTATTTTAGATCT
TATATGCTTTGGTTATCAACCAAATGAAGACATTAGAGATGCCATTGACGCCTTAAAGACCGCA
GATATGGATAAACAAGATTTAGATGATGATGAGAAAGGGGAACAACAAAATTTAAATATAGCAC
GAAATATTTGTTCTATCCTAAAACAAGTTGATCCAATTAGAACCAACTATTGGATTTGGCGCAA
GAGCAGACTTCCTgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaag
attgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcat
gtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgc
aattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcg
cgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

Underlined: Glycine max FTA Anti-Sense section; Bold: MuA Promoter; Italics: Glycine max FTA Sense section; lower case: NOS terminater Seq.)

ggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatctcaaacacggagatctca SEQ ID NO: 53
aagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacgaaatttaggtagaacttat
atacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattattatagaattttactggtt
aaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggtaaacattttcttctattt
tttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttccatttgactagtgtaaatg
aggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatcttctaccagtagaggaat
aaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttcttgacatcattcaattttaa
ttttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaaggagaaatacaattcgaatga
gaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacgtaaaatgaccacatgatg
ggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacattttaggatggaataaatatca
taccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaataaaagatatactaccga
catgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacacgcgtagagagcaaaatga
ctttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtccctttatctctctcagtctctct
ataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaactagaaaacaatcatcag
gaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaag AGGAAGTCTGCTCTTGCGCCAAATCCAATAGT
TGGTTCTAATTGGATCAACTTGTTTTAGGATAGAACAAATATTTCGTGCTATATTTAAATTTTG
TTGTTCCCCTTTCTCATCATCATCTAAATCTTGTTTATCCATATCTGCGGTCTTTAAGGCGTCA
ATGGCATCTCTAATGTCTTCATTTGGTTGATAACCAAAGCATATAAGATCTAAAATAGTGCTAA
GAGCAAACACGTAGTTGCTCTTAGTTCTCAAAATCTTTAAGCATACTGAAGAAACTTGAGGATC
ATTTACCCATGAAGTAGTTTCACCTTTATAAAGTCCTCGTAGATATCTCCACGAGCTTTCATTT
TCAGGGTAGGCTATAATGGCTTCGATGGTGTAAAGCACTTCAGACTCTCTCATAGCTTTTAGGC
CCCCCAAGAAAGGAGACCTTGTTATGACAAAATATCTCTGATTCCAAGCAGAATTGTTAAAAAT
GTCTTCTTTAAGTAGTTCTGTGCAATAATTAAGTTCATCTTCCCATCCTCCTAGTGTTTGAAGA
GCCCACTGTCTATGAGACCATGCATGATAATGTTTGGCATCAACGGACAGTATCTTTTTGGTGA
ACTCGAGCTTAAAGGTGAAACTACTTCATGGGTAAATGATCCTCAAGTTTCTTCAGTATGCTTA
AAGATTTTGAGAACTAAGAGCAACTACGTGTTTGCTCTTAGCACTATTTTAGATCTTATATGCT
TTGGTTATCAACCAAATGAAGACATTAGAGATGCCATTGACGCCTTAAAGACCGCAGATATGGA
TAAACAAGATTTAGATGATGATGAGAAAGGGGAACAACAAAATTTAAATATAGCACGAAATATT
TGTTCTATCCTAAAACAAGTTGATCCAATTAGAACCAACTATTGGATTTGGCGCAAGAGCAGAC
TTCCTgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatc
ctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataat
taacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatac
atttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgt
catctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Bold lower case: RD29A Promoter; Underline, Upper case: Antisense GmFTA; Upper case: Sense GmFTA; lower case: NOS terminater)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 54
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggg gactctagag
gatccgtccggaattcccgggtcgacccacgcgtccgggagattcagcgagataagcaattgga
ttatctgatgaaaggcttaaggcagcttggtccgcagttttcttccttagatgctaatcgacct
tggctttgttactggattcttcattcaatagctttgcttggggagactgtggatgatgaattag
aaagcaatgccattgacttccttggacgctgccagggctctgaaggtggatacggtggtggtcc
tggccaacttccacatcttgcaactacttatgctgcagtgaatgcacttgttactttaggaggt
gacaaagccctttcttcaattaatagagaaaaaatgtcttgttttttaagacggatgaaggata
caagtggaggtttcaggatgcatgatatgggagaaatggatgttcgtgcatgctacactgcaat
ttcggttgcaagcatcctaaatattatggatgatgaactcacccagggcctaggagattacatc
ttgagttgccaaacttatgaaggtggcattggaggggaacctggctccgaagctcacggtgggt
atacctactgtggtttggctgctatgattttaatcaatgaggtcgaccgtttgaatttggattc
attaatgaattgggctgtacatcgacaaggagtagaaatgggatttcaaggtaggacgaacaaa
ttggtcgatggttgctacacattttggcaggcagccccttgtgttctactacaaagattatatt
caaccaatgatcatgacgttcatggatcatcacatatatcagaagggacaaatgaagaacatca
tgctcatgatgaagatgaccttgaagacagtgatgatgatgatgattctgatgaggacaacgat
gaagattcagtgaatggtcacagaatccatcatacatccacctacattaacaggagaatgcaac
tggtttttgatagcctcggcttgcagagatatgtactcttgtgctctaagatccctgacggtgg
attcagagacaagccgaggaaaccccgtgacttctaccacacatgttactgcctgagcggcttg
tctgtggctcagcacgcttggttaaaagacgaggacactcctcctttgactcgcgacattatgg
gtggctactcgaatctccttgaacctgttcaacttcttcacaacattgtcatggatcagtataa
tgaagctatcgagttcttctttaaagcagcatgactcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttg
gcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctg
ttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggttt
ttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaa
ctaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgt
tttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccc
cctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgca
gcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttc
cccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcga
ccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggttttt
cgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacac
tcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatc
aaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggcc
aggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtaca
ttaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatat
cctgcca

(Underline: 35S promoter; Bold: anti-AtFTB)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 55
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattqgtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaag gactctagaggatc
cgtccggaattcccgggtcgacccacgcgtccgggagattcagcgagataagcaattggattat
ctgatgaaaggcttaaggcagcttggtccgcagttttcttccttagatgctaatcgaccttggc
tttgttactggattcttcattcaatagctttgcttggggagactgtggatgatgaattagaaag
caatgccattgacttccttggacgctgccagggctctgaaggtggatacggtggtggtcctggc
caacttccacatcttgcaactacttatgctgcagtgaatgcacttgttactttaggaggtgaca
aagccctttcttcaattaatagagaaaaaatgtcttgttttttaagacggatgaaggatacaag
tggaggtttcaggatgcatgatatgggagaaatggatgttcgtgcatgctacactgcaatttcg
gttgcaagcatcctaaatattatggatgatgaactcacccagggcctaggagattacatcttga
gttgccaaacttatgaaggtggcattggaggggaacctggctccgaagctcacggtgggtatac
ctactgtggtttggctgctatgattttaatcaatgaggtcgaccgtttgaatttggattcatta
atgaattgggctgtacatcgacaaggagtagaaatgggatttcaaggtaggacgaacaaattgg
tcgatggttgctacacattttggcaggcagccccttgtgttctactacaaagattatattcaac
caatgatcatgacgttcatggatcatcacatatatcagaagggacaaatgaagaacatcatgct
catgatgaagatgaccttgaagacagtgatgatgatgatgattctgatgaggacaacgatgaag
attcagtgaatggtcacagaatccatcatacatccacctacattaacaggagaatgcaactggt
ttttgatagcctcggcttgcagagatatgtactcttgtgctctaagatccctgacggtggattc
agagacaagccgaggaaaccccgtgacttctaccacacatgttactgcctgagcggcttgtctg
tggctcagcacgcttggttaaaagacgaggacactcctcctttgactcgcgacattatgggtgg
ctactcgaatctccttgaacctgttcaacttcttcacaacattgtcatggatcagtataatgaa
gctatcgagttcttctttaaagcagcatgactcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaa
taaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttga
attacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttat
gattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactag
gataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgtttta
caacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctt
tcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcct
gaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccg
tcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgacccc
aaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgcc
ctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaa
ccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaac
aggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggc
ggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaa
aaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctg
cca

(Underline: RD29A Promoter; Bold: anti-AtFTB)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 56
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatcctcCTCCTAGGCCCTGGGTGAGTTCATCATCCATAATATTTAGGATGCTTGCAACCGAAA
TTGCAGTGTAGCATGCACGAACATCCATTTCTCCCATATCATGCATCCTGAAACCTCCACTTGT
ATCCTTCATCCGTCTTAAAAAACAAGACATTTTTTCTCTATTAATTGAAGAAAGGGCTTTGTCA
CCTCCTAAAGTAACAAGTGCATTCACTGCAGCATAAGTAGTTGCAAGATGTGGAAGTTGGCCAG
GACCACCACCGTATCCACCTTCAGAGCCCTGGCAGCGTCCAAGGAAGTCAATGGCATTGCTTTC
TAATTCATCATCCACAGTCTCCCCAAGCAAAGCTATTGAATGAAGAATCCAGTAACAAAGCCAA
GGTCGATTAGCATCTAAGGAAGAAAACTGCGGACCAAGCTGCCTTAAGCCTTTCATCAGATAAT
CCAATTGCTTATCTCGCTGAATCTCCCGGACGCGTGGGTCGACCCGGGAATTCCGGACgaggat
ccccATCTACCCGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTGGCAGTGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATT
AACCACAAACCGTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTCATGAAGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAG
GATTCGATAACGTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATTAATGGACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTA
CCGTACCTCGCATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTCGACTGGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTG
GTGATTGATGAAACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCTCTTTAGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCA
ACAAGCCGAAAGAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAACGGGGAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACA
GGCGATTAAAGAGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCACCCAAGCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCC
AACGAACCGGATACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAATATTTCGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGC
GTAAACTCGACCCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAATGTAATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGA
TACCATCAGCGATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAACCGTTATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGC
GGCGATTTGGAAACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAGAACTTCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGT
ACACCGACATGTGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATGGCTGGATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGA
TCGCGTCAGCGCCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAATTTCGCCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGC
ATATTGCGCGTTGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCACTCGCGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGG
CTTTTCTGCTGCAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTTCGGTGAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAA
ACAATGAATCAACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCGGCTACAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAG
CTC gtccggaattcccgggtcgacccacgcgtccgggagattcagcgagataagcaattggatt
atctgatgaaaggcttaaggcagcttggtccgcagttttcttccttagatgctaatcgaccttg
gctttgttactggattcttcattcaatagctttgcttggggagactgtggatgatgaattagaa
agcaatgccattgacttccttggacgctgccagggctctgaaggtggatacggtggtggtcctg
gccaacttccacatcttgcaactacttatgctgcagtgaatgcacttgttactttaggaggtga
caaagccctttcttcaattaatagagaaaaaatgtcttgttttttaagacggatgaaggataca
agtggaggtttcaggatgcatgatatgggagaaatggatgttcgtgcatgctacactgcaattt
cggttgcaagcatcctaaatattatggatgatgaactcacccagggcctaggag ctcgaatttc
cccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcga
tgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgac
gttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaa
aacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatc
gggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaactta
atcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcg
cccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttct
cgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgattt
agtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccat
cgccctgatagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactctt
gttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttg
ccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgctt
gctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaa
agaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaat
ttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

(Underline: 35S promoter; Bold uppercase: antisense AtFTB; Lower case Bold: sense AtFTB)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 57
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaaggactctagaggatc
ctcCTCCTAGGCCCTGGGTGAGTTCATCATCCATAATATTTAGGATGCTTGCAACCGAAATTGC
AGTGTAGCATGCACGAACATCCATTTCTCCCATATCATGCATCCTGAAACCTCCACTTGTATCC
TTCATCCGTCTTAAAAAACAAGACATTTTTTCTCTATTAATTGAAGAAAGGGCTTTGTCACCTC
CTAAAGTAACAAGTGCATTCACTGCAGCATAAGTAGTTGCAAGATGTGGAAGTTGGCCAGGACC
ACCACCGTATCCACCTTCAGAGCCCTGGCAGCGTCCAAGGAAGTCAATGGCATTGCTTTCTAAT
TCATCATCCACAGTCTCCCCAAGCAAAGCTATTGAATGAAGAATCCAGTAACAAAGCCAAGGTC
GATTAGCATCTAAGGAAGAAAACTGCGGACCAAGCTGCCTTAAGCCTTTCATCAGATAATCCAA
TTGCTTATCTCGCTGAATCTCCCGGACGCGTGGGTCGACCCGGGAATTCCGGACgaggatcccc
ATCTACCCGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTGGCAGTGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATTAACC
ACAAACCGTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTCATGAAGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAGGATT
CGATAACGTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATTAATGGACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTACCGT
ACCTCGCATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTCGACTGGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTGGTGA
TTGATGAAACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCTCTTTAGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCAACAA
GCCGAAAGAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAACGGGGAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACAGGCG
ATTAAAGAGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCACCCAAGCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCCAACG
AACCGGATACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAATATTTCGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGCGTAA
ACTCGACCCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAATGTAATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGATACC
ATCAGCGATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAACCGTTATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGCGGCG
ATTTGGAAACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAGAACTTCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGTACAC
CGACATGTGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATGGCTGGATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGATCGC
GTCAGCGCCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAATTTCGCCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGCATAT
TGCGCGTTGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCACTCGCGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGGCTTT
TCTGCTGCAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTTCGGTGAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAAACAA
TGAATCAACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCGGCTACAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAGCTC g
tccggaattcccgggtcgacccacgcgtccgggagattcagcgagataagcaattggattatct
gatgaaaggcttaaggcagcttggtccgcagttttcttccttagatgctaatcgaccttggctt
tgttactggattcttcattcaatagctttgcttggggagactgtggatgatgaattagaaagca
atgccattgacttccttggacgctgccagggctctgaaggtggatacggtggtggtcctggcca
acttccacatcttgcaactacttatgctgcagtgaatgcacttgttactttaggaggtgacaaa
gccctttcttcaattaatagagaaaaaatgtcttgttttttaagacggatgaaggatacaagtg
gaggtttcaggatgcatgatatgggagaaatggatgttcgtgcatgctacactgcaatttcggt
tgcaagcatcctaaatattatggatgatgaactcacccagggcctaggag ctcgaatttccccg
atcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgat
tatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgtta
tttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaaca
aaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcggga
attcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcg
ccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgccct
tcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgcc
acgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtg
ctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgcc
ctgatagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttc
caaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccga
tttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctg
caactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaa
aaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgt
ttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

(Underline: RD29A promoter; Bold uppercase: antisense AtFTB; Lower case Bold: sense AtFTB)

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 58
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatccatgccagtagtaacccgcttgattcgtttgaagtgtgtagggctcagacttgaccggag
tggactcaatcggcgaatctgtcacggaggacacggggaatcaacgcggcggagagtgatggaa
gagctttcaagcctaaccgtgagtcagcgcgagcaatttctggtggagaacgatgtgttcggga
tctataattacttcgacgccagcgacgtttctactcaaaaatacatgatggagattcagcgaga
taagcaattggattatctgatgaaaggcttaaggcagcttggtccgcagttttcttccttagat
gctaatcgaccttggctttgttactggattcttcattcaatagctttgcttggggagactgtgg
atgatgaattagaaagcaatgccattgacttccttggacgctgccagggctctgaaggtggata
cggtggtggtcctggccaacttccacatcttgcaactacttatgctgcagtgaatgcacttgtt
actttaggaggtgacaaagccctttcttcaattaatagagaaaaaatgtcttgttttttaagac
ggatgaaggatacaagtggaggtttcaggatgcatgatatgggagaaatggatgttcgtgcatg
ctacactgcaatttcggttgcaagcatcctaaatattatggatgatgaactcacccagggccta
ggagattacatcttgagttgccaaacttatgaaggtggcattggaggggaacctggctccgaag
ctcacggtgggtatacctactgtggtttggctgctatgattttaatcaatgaggtcgaccgttt
gaatttggattcattaatgaattgggctgtacatcgacaaggagtagaaatgggatttcaaggt
aggacgaacaaattggtcgatggttgctacacattttggcaggcagccccttgtgttctactac
aaagattatattcaaccaatgatcatgacgttcatggatcatcacatatatcagaagggacaaa
tgaagaacatcatgctcatgatgaagatgaccttgaagacagtgatgatgatgatgattctgat
gaggacaacgatgaagattcagtgaatggtcacagaatccatcatacatccacctacattaaca
ggagaatgcaactggtttttgatagcctcggcttgcagagatatgtactcttgtgctctaagat
ccctgacggtggattcagagacaagccgaggaaaccccgtgacttctaccacacatgttactgc
ctgagcggcttgtctgtggctcagcacgcttggttaaaagacgaggacactcctcctttgactc
gcgacattatgggtggctactcgaatctccttgaacctgttcaacttcttcacaacattgtcat
ggatcagtataatgaagctatcgagttcttctttaaagcagcatgactcgaatttccccgatcg
ttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatc
atataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttattta
tgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaat
atagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc
actggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgcctt
gcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttccc
aacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgt
tcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgcttt
acggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctga
tagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaa
ctggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttc
ggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaac
tctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaac
caccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttac
accacaatatatcctgcca
(Underlined: 35S promoter; Bold: Sense AtFTB)

GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT SEQ ID NO: 59
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCGTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGCTTTG
ACCAACTATACTGGCACAATGAGAGTCCACTTAAACAGTAACATGTGTGATAATGATCTCTACG
TTTACCCGGTTTGTCTCTCAGTCCACCCTCTTGCTCCTGTGCACATAAGAGAATATATTGCTGT
AAAGCAATACTGTGAAAAAGTGGTTCTTGTGCTCTCCACTCATTAATAAATTTATAGGCAATAT
TTTTAAAATCAGATGAACTGGATTCACTGGTGCCTTCATGCTCACCACGGCATGTTGCATGACT
AGAGGTTCCATCCAAACTTTCTTTTGCTTCAGATACATAAGATACCGCAAAAATCTGTGATGTC
TCTTCCATCTGTTTGTTGATAATAGAAGATAATCTTTGCAATAGAGCAACAGCACCTCCCTGCC
AAAAGGAATAGCATCCATCCACCAGTTTATTTGTTCTCCCCTGGAATCCACATTCCTTACCTTG
TCGGAATACCACCCAGTCAACTAATCGAGGCAGATCCAAGTGATTAACCTCACCAATCAGAATC
ATTGTAGCTAATCCACAAAAGGTGTACCCACCATGAGCCTCAGAACCAGGCTCACCAGCAATGC
CACCCTCATATGTTTGACAGCTTATAATGTAGTCTCCAACATTCTGGATCAGCTCATCATCCAA
AATGTTCAAAACACTTGCAACAGAAATGGCAGTGTAGCAAGCTCGAACATCAATTTCACCTTCA
TCATGCATCCTGAATCCACCATTTGGTTGCTTCATCCGCCGCAGAAACCCATACAGTTTATCTC
TATTAATTGATGCCAGGGATTTCTCACCACCCAAAGTAATAAGTGAATTAACAGCAGCATAAGT
TGTGGCAATATGAGGCATCTGGCCTGGTCCCCCGGCATATCCACCATTCGGATCCTGGCAACGG
TTAAGAAAATCGATAGCGTTATCTTCGAGTTCATCATCGACGGATTCTCCCAACAAAGCAATGG
AGTGGAAGATCCAGTAGCAGAGCCAGGGTCGATTAGCGTCCAAAACGGAAAATGCGGAACTGAG
ATGGCGAAGGCCTTTGGAGACATACTGCATGTGATTATCGCGTTGAAGCTCCAACATGAGGGTT
TGGGCGTTGCGAGGAATGGTGGCgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaa
gtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaatta
cgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgatt
agagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggata
aattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Upper Case: MuA Promoter; Underlined: Antisense GmFTB; Lower case: NOS terminater)

GGAGCCATAGATGCAATTCAATCAAACTGAAATTTCTGCAAGAATCTCAAACACGGAGATCTCA SEQ ID NO: 60
AAGTTTGAAAGAAAATTTATTTCTTCGACTCAAAACAAACTTACGAAATTTAGGTAGAACTTAT
ATACATTATATTGTAATTTTTTGTAACAAAATGTTTTTATTATTATTATAGAATTTTACTGGTT
AAATTAAAAATGAATAGAAAAGGTGAATTAAGAGGAGAGAGGAGGTAAACATTTTCTTCTATTT
TTTCATATTTTCAGGATAAATTATTGTAAAAGTTTACAAGATTTCCATTTGACTAGTGTAAATG
AGGAATATTCTCTAGTAAGATCATTATTTCATCTACTTCTTTTATCTTCTACCAGTAGAGGAAT
AAACAATATTTAGCTCCTTTGTAAATACAAATTAATTTTCCTTCTTGACATCATTCAATTTTAA
TTTTACGTATAAAATAAAAGATCATACCTATTAGAACGATTAAGGAGAAATACAATTCGAATGA
GAAGGATGTGCCGTTTGTTATAATAAACAGCCACACGACGTAAACGTAAAATGACCACATGATG
GGCCAATAGACATGGACCGACTACTAATAATAGTAAGTTACATTTTAGGATGGAATAAATATCA
TACCGACATCAGTTTTGAAAGAAAAGGGAAAAAAAGAAAAAATAAATAAAAGATATACTACCGA
CATGAGTTCCAAAAAGCAAAAAAAAAGATCAAGCCGACACAGACACGCGTAGAGAGCAAAATGA
CTTTGACGTCACACCACGAAAACAGACGCTTCATACGTGTCCCTTTATCTCTCTCAGTCTCTCT
ATAAACTTAGTGAGACCCTCCTCTGTTTTACTCACAAATATGCAAACTAGAAAACAATCATCAG
GAATAAAGGGTTTGATTACTTCTATTGGAAAGGTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGCTTTGACCAACTA
TACTGGCACAATGAGAGTCCACTTAAACAGTAACATGTGTGATAATGATCTCTACGTTTACCCG
GTTTGTCTCTCAGTCCACCCTCTTGCTCCTGTGCACATAAGAGAATATATTGCTGTAAAGCAAT
ACTGTGAAAAAGTGGTTCTTGTGCTCTCCACTCATTAATAAATTTATAGGCAATATTTTTAAAA
TCAGATGAACTGGATTCACTGGTGCCTTCATGCTCACCACGGCATGTTGCATGACTAGAGGTTC
CATCCAAACTTTCTTTTGCTTCAGATACATAAGATACCGCAAAAATCTGTGATGTCTCTTCCAT
CTGTTTGTTGATAATAGAAGATAATCTTTGCAATAGAGCAACAGCACCTCCCTGCCAAAAGGAA
TAGCATCCATCCACCAGTTTATTTGTTCTCCCCTGGAATCCACATTCCTTACCTTGTCGGAATA
CCACCCAGTCAACTAATCGAGGCAGATCCAAGTGATTAACCTCACCAATCAGAATCATTGTAGC
TAATCCACAAAAGGTGTACCCACCATGAGCCTCAGAACCAGGCTCACCAGCAATGCCACCCTCA
TATGTTTGACAGCTTATAATGTAGTCTCCAACATTCTGGATCAGCTCATCATCCAAAATGTTCA
AAACACTTGCAACAGAAATGGCAGTGTAGCAAGCTCGAACATCAATTTCACCTTCATCATGCAT
CCTGAATCCACCATTTGGTTGCTTCATCCGCCGCAGAAACCCATACAGTTTATCTCTATTAATT
GATGCCAGGGATTTCTCACCACCCAAAGTAATAAGTGAATTAACAGCAGCATAAGTTGTGGCAA
TATGAGGCATCTGGCCTGGTCCCCCGGCATATCCACCATTCGGATCCTGGCAACGGTTAAGAAA
ATCGATAGCGTTATCTTCGAGTTCATCATCGACGGATTCTCCCAACAAAGCAATGGAGTGGAAG
ATCCAGTAGCAGAGCCAGGGTCGATTAGCGTCCAAAACGGAAAATGCGGAACTGAGATGGCGAA
GGCCTTTGGAGACATACTGCATGTGATTATCGCGTTGAAGCTCCAACATGAGGGTTTGGGCGTT
GCGAGGAATGGTGGCgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctta
agattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagc
atgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtccc
gcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcg
cgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Upper Case: RD29A Promoter; Underlined: Antisense GmFTB; Lower case: NOS) terminater

GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT SEQ ID NO: 61
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCGTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGCTTTG
ACCAACTATACTGGCACAATGAGAGTCCACTTAAACAGTAACATGTGTGATAATGATCTCTACG
TTTACCCGGTTTGTCTCTCAGTCCACCCTCTTGCTCCTGTGCACATAAGAGAATATATTGCTGT
AAAGCAATACTGTGAAAAAGTGGTTCTTGTGCTCTCCACTCATTAATAAATTTATAGGCAATAT
TTTTAAAATCAGATGAACTGGATTCACTGGTGCCTTCATGCTCACCACGGCATGTTGCATGACT
AGAGGTTCCATCCAAACTTTCTTTTGCTTCAGATACATAAGATACCGCAAAAATCTGTGATGTC
TCTTCCATCTGTTTGTTGATAATAGAAGATAATCTTTGCAATAGAGCAACAGCACCTCCCTGCC
AAAAGGAATAGCATCCATCCACCAGTTTATTTGTTCTCCCCTGGAATCCACATTCCTTACCTTG
TCGGAATACCACCCAGTCAACTAATCGAGGCAGATCCAAGTGATTAACCTCACCAATCAGAATC
ATTGTAGCTAATCCACAAAAGGTGTACCCACCATGAGCCTCAGAACCAGGCTCACCAGCAATGC
CACCCTCATATGTTTGACAGCTTATAATGTAGTCTCCAACATTCTGGATCAGCTCATCATCCAA
AATGTTCAAAACACTTGCAACAGAAATGGCAGTGTAGCAAGCTCGAACATCAATTTCACCTTCA
TCATGCATCCTGAATCCACCATTTGGTTGCTTCATCCGCCGCAGAAACCCATACAGTTTATCTC
TATTAATTGATGCCAGGGATTTCTCACCACCCAAAGTAATAAGTGAATTAACAGCAGCATAAGT
TGTGGCAATATGAGGCATCTGGCCTGGTCCCCCGGCATATCCACCATTCGGATCCTGGCAACGG
TTAAGAAAATCGATAGCGTTATCTTCGAGTTCATCATCGACGGATTCTCCCAACAAAGCAATGG
AGTGGAAGATCCAGTAGCAGAGCCAGGGTCGATTAGCGTCCAAAACGGAAAATGCGGAACTGAG
ATGGCGAAGGCCTTTGGAGACATACTGCATGTGATTATCGCGTTGAAGCTCCAACATGAGGGTT
TGGGCGTTGCGAGGAATGGTGGC GGTGAGGTTAATCACTTGGATCTGCCTCGATTAGTTGACTG
GGTGGTATTCCGACAAGGTAAGGAATGTGGATTCCAGGGGAGAACAAATAAACTGGTGGATGGA
TGCTATTCCTTTTGGCAGGGAGGTGCTGTTGCTCTATTGCAAAGATTATCTTCTATTATCAACA
AACAGATGGAAGAGACATCACAGATTTTTGCGGTATCTTATGTATCTGAAGCAAAAGAAAGTTT
GGATGGAACCTCTAGTCATGCAACATGCCGTGGTGAGCATGAAGGCACCAGTGAATCCAGTTCA
TCTGATTTTAAAAATATTGCCTATAAATTTATTAATGAGTGGAGAGCACAAGAACCACTTTTTC
ACAGTATTGCTTTACAGCAATATATTCTCTTATGTGCACAGGAGCAAGAGGGTGGACTGAGAGA
CAAACCGGGTAAACGTAGAGATCATTATCACACATGTTACTGTTTAAGTGGACTCTCATTGTGC
CAGTATAGTTGGTCAAAGCACCCAGATTCTCCACCACgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaa
catttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataa
tttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagat
gggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcg
cgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Upper Case: MuA Promoter; Underlined: Antisense GmFTB; Bold: Sense GmFTB; Lower case: NOS terminater)

GGAGCCATAGATGCAATTCAATCAAACTGAAATTTCTGCAAGAATCTCAAACACGGAGATCTCA SEQ ID NO: 62
AAGTTTGAAAGAAAATTTATTTCTTCGACTCAAAACAAACTTACGAAATTTAGGTAGAACTTAT
ATACATTATATTGTAATTTTTTGTAACAAAATGTTTTTATTATTATTATAGAATTTTACTGGTT
AAATTAAAAATGAATAGAAAAGGTGAATTAAGAGGAGAGAGGAGGTAAACATTTTCTTCTATTT
TTTCATATTTTCAGGATAAATTATTGTAAAAGTTTACAAGATTTCCATTTGACTAGTGTAAATG
AGGAATATTCTCTAGTAAGATCATTATTTCATCTACTTCTTTTATCTTCTACCAGTAGAGGAAT
AAACAATATTTAGCTCCTTTGTAAATACAAATTAATTTTCCTTCTTGACATCATTCAATTTTAA
TTTTACGTATAAAATAAAAGATCATACCTATTAGAACGATTAAGGAGAAATACAATTCGAATGA
GAAGGATGTGCCGTTTGTTATAATAAACAGCCACACGACGTAAACGTAAAATGACCACATGATG
GGCCAATAGACATGGACCGACTACTAATAATAGTAAGTTACATTTTAGGATGGAATAAATATCA
TACCGACATCAGTTTTGAAAGAAAAGGGAAAAAAAGAAAAAATAAATAAAAGATATACTACCGA
CATGAGTTCCAAAAAGCAAAAAAAAAGATCAAGCCGACACAGACACGCGTAGAGAGCAAAATGA
CTTTGACGTCACACCACGAAAACAGACGCTTCATACGTGTCCCTTTATCTCTCTCAGTCTCTCT
ATAAACTTAGTGAGACCCTCCTCTGTTTTACTCACAAATATGCAAACTAGAAAACAATCATCAG
GAATAAAGGGTTTGATTACTTCTATTGGAAAGGTGGTGGAGAATCTGGGTGCTTTGACCAACTA
TACTGGCACAATGAGAGTCCACTTAAACAGTAACATGTGTGATAATGATCTCTACGTTTACCCG
GTTTGTCTCTCAGTCCACCCTCTTGCTCCTGTGCACATAAGAGAATATATTGCTGTAAAGCAAT
ACTGTGAAAAAGTGGTTCTTGTGCTCTCCACTCATTAATAAATTTATAGGCAATATTTTTAAAA
TCAGATGAACTGGATTCACTGGTGCCTTCATGCTCACCACGGCATGTTGCATGACTAGAGGTTC
CATCCAAACTTTCTTTTGCTTCAGATACATAAGATACCGCAAAAATCTGTGATGTCTCTTCCAT
CTGTTTGTTGATAATAGAAGATAATCTTTGCAATAGAGCAACAGCACCTCCCTGCCAAAAGGAA
TAGCATCCATCCACCAGTTTATTTGTTCTCCCCTGGAATCCACATTCCTTACCTTGTCGGAATA
CCACCCAGTCAACTAATCGAGGCAGATCCAAGTGATTAACCTCACCAATCAGAATCATTGTAGC
TAATCCACAAAAGGTGTACCCACCATGAGCCTCAGAACCAGGCTCACCAGCAATGCCACCCTCA
TATGTTTGACAGCTTATAATGTAGTCTCCAACATTCTGGATCAGCTCATCATCCAAAATGTTCA
AAACACTTGCAACAGAAATGGCAGTGTAGCAAGCTCGAACATCAATTTCACCTTCATCATGCAT
CCTGAATCCACCATTTGGTTGCTTCATCCGCCGCAGAAACCCATACAGTTTATCTCTATTAATT
GATGCCAGGGATTTCTCACCACCCAAAGTAATAAGTGAATTAACAGCAGCATAAGTTGTGGCAA
TATGAGGCATCTGGCCTGGTCCCCCGGCATATCCACCATTCGGATCCTGGCAACGGTTAAGAAA
ATCGATAGCGTTATCTTCGAGTTCATCATCGACGGATTCTCCCAACAAAGCAATGGAGTGGAAG
ATCCAGTAGCAGAGCCAGGGTCGATTAGCGTCCAAAACGGAAAATGCGGAACTGAGATGGCGAA
GGCCTTTGGAGACATACTGCATGTGATTATCGCGTTGAAGCTCCAACATGAGGGTTTGGGCGTT
GCGAGGAATGGTGGC GGTGAGGTTAATCACTTGGATCTGCCTCGATTAGTTGACTGGGTGGTAT
TCCGACAAGGTAAGGAATGTGGATTCCAGGGGAGAACAAATAAACTGGTGGATGGATGCTATTC
CTTTTGGCAGGGAGGTGCTGTTGCTCTATTGCAAAGATTATCTTCTATTATCAACAAACAGATG
GAAGAGACATCACAGATTTTTGCGGTATCTTATGTATCTGAAGCAAAAGAAAGTTTGGATGGAA
CCTCTAGTCATGCAACATGCCGTGGTGAGCATGAAGGCACCAGTGAATCCAGTTCATCTGATTT
TAAAAATATTGCCTATAAATTTATTAATGAGTGGAGAGCACAAGAACCACTTTTTCACAGTATT
GCTTTACAGCAATATATTCTCTTATGTGCACAGGAGCAAGAGGGTGGACTGAGAGACAAACCGG
GTAAACGTAGAGATCATTATCACACATGTTACTGTTTAAGTGGACTCTCATTGTGCCAGTATAG
TTGGTCAAAGCACCCAGATTCTCCACCACgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggc
aataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgtt
gaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggttttt
atgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaact
aggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Upper Case: RD29A Promoter; Underlined: Antisense GmFTB; Bold: Sense GmFTB; Lower case: NOS terminater)

SEQ ID NO: 63
GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCGGATGGATTGGCTCCAGCAAATTA
GAGTACGGTCCAAGCACATGCTGAGGTAATGGGCACGAACCAGTATCAGTCATGGCACTGTACT
GGCTAACTGCGAGGCCACTGAGGCAGTAGCATGAATGATAGTGATCTCTGTTCTTTCCAGGCTT
ATCCCTCAAGCCTCCCTCTAGTACCTGAGAACAAAGTAGGATGTATTGTTGCAGGGCAATGTTA
TGGAAGAGTGGGCCAATTTGGTTGCTCTGTTGTATAAAATCAAATCCAAACTTCGCATAGTCCA
CAGCAGAGGAAGACTTATTCGCGGTGCACCCATATGAACTGGTGCTGCAGGCATCCTCTCCTGA
TGGCCTTTTGCAGGAATACGAGGACCTCAATTGCTTATCAACAATCGTAATTAACTTTTGTGTG
AAAGCAATGGCAGCTCCCTGCCAAAAGGAGTAGCAACCATCAACCAATTTATTAGTTCGTCCTT
GAAATCCGCATTCCACTCCTTGACGAAAAGCCACCCAGCCAATCAAACTAGGCAAGTCAACTTT
CTCTGCCTCATTAAGCAGGATCAAAGCAGCCAATCCACAGAATGTATACCCACCATGTGCTTCA
GCATAAGGCTCCCCAGCAATACCACCTTCATAAGTTTGACATCTTGCTATGTAGTCGCCTACAC
CTTTTGCCAGTTTAAAATCAAGAATATTCACAAGGCTGGCAACCGATATAGCGGTGTAGGAAGC
ACGGACATCAATTTCGCCACCATCATGCATTCTGAAAGCACCTGATACATCTTTCATCTGCAGC
ATAAAATTGTACAGGTTGCCCCTATTGATTGATGACAATGCTCTTTCGCTCCCTATTGTCACAA
GTGTATTTACAGCAGCATAAGTCGTAGCTAGGTGAGGCAACTGTCCAGGTCCACCACTATATCC
ACCATCTTTATCCTGACATCGAGCTAAGAAGTCTATGATATCATTCTCAAGATCATCATCAAGT
GCTTCATCCAGCAAAGCAAGTGGATGAACCATCCAGTAGCATAGCCAAGGGCGATTGGCATCTA
GAACATGAAAGGCTGGTCCCATATGCCTCAGCCCAGGCGTCAGATACTCGATATGCTGATCACG
CCACAGCTCTAGCATGATGGATTTCGTGTTGGGCGCGGCCCCGAAGAGGGAGCGGTAGATGTCG
CCAACCCTGGCCTCCACCTTCATCTGCTCCACCTGCGTCACCGTGAGCCTCGGTAGGTCGGGAT
CCGCCgagctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatc
ctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataat
taacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatac
atttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgt
catctatgttactagatcgggaattc

(Upper Case: MuA Promoter; Underlined: Antisense Zea maize-FTB; Lower case: NOS terminater)

GAATTCAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCTAT SEQ ID NO: 64
CTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGATA
ACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCCCA
TGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGTAG
TATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTATA
TAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGCTCGGATGGATTGGCTCCAGCAAATTA
GAGTACGGTCCAAGCACATGCTGAGGTAATGGGCACGAACCAGTATCAGTCATGGCACTGTACT
GGCTAACTGCGAGGCCACTGAGGCAGTAGCATGAATGATAGTGATCTCTGTTCTTTCCAGGCTT
ATCCCTCAAGCCTCCCTCTAGTACCTGAGAACAAAGTAGGATGTATTGTTGCAGGGCAATGTTA
TGGAAGAGTGGGCCAATTTGGTTGCTCTGTTGTATAAAATCAAATCCAAACTTCGCATAGTCCA
CAGCAGAGGAAGACTTATTCGCGGTGCACCCATATGAACTGGTGCTGCAGGCATCCTCTCCTGA
TGGCCTTTTGCAGGAATACGAGGACCTCAATTGCTTATCAACAATCGTAATTAACTTTTGTGTG
AAAGCAATGGCAGCTCCCTGCCAAAAGGAGTAGCAACCATCAACCAATTTATTAGTTCGTCCTT
GAAATCCGCATTCCACTCCTTGACGAAAAGCCACCCAGCCAATCAAACTAGGCAAGTCAACTTT
CTCTGCCTCATTAAGCAGGATCAAAGCAGCCAATCCACAGAATGTATACCCACCATGTGCTTCA
GCATAAGGCTCCCCAGCAATACCACCTTCATAAGTTTGACATCTTGCTATGTAGTCGCCTACAC
CTTTTGCCAGTTTAAAATCAAGAATATTCACAAGGCTGGCAACCGATATAGCGGTGTAGGAAGC
ACGGACATCAATTTCGCCACCATCATGCATTCTGAAAGCACCTGATACATCTTTCATCTGCAGC
ATAAAATTGTACAGGTTGCCCCTATTGATTGATGACAATGCTCTTTCGCTCCCTATTGTCACAA
GTGTATTTACAGCAGCATAAGTCGTAGCTAGGTGAGGCAACTGTCCAGGTCCACCACTATATCC
ACCATCTTTATCCTGACATCGAGCTAAGAAGTCTATGATATCATTCTCAAGATCATCATCAAGT
GCTTCATCCAGCAAAGCAAGTGGATGAACCATCCAGTAGCATAGCCAAGGGCGATTGGCATCTA
GAACATGAAAGGCTGGTCCCATATGCCTCAGCCCAGGCGTCAGATACTCGATATGCTGATCACG
CCACAGCTCTAGCATGATGGATTTCGTGTTGGGCGCGGCCCCGAAGAGGGAGCGGTAGATGTCG
CCAACCCTGGCCTCCACCTTCATCTGCTCCACCTGCGTCACCGTGAGCCTCGGTAGGTCGGGAT
CCGCCggatcc GCTGGGGAGCCTTATGCTGAAGCACATGGTGGGTATACATTCTGTGGATTGGC
TGCTTTGATCCTGCTTAATGAGGCAGAGAAAGTTGACTTGCCTAGTTTGATTGGCTGGGTGGCT
TTTCGTCAAGGAGTGGAATGCGGATTTCAAGGACGAACTAATAAATTGGTTGATGGTTGCTACT
CCTTTTGGCAGGGAGCTGCCATTGCTTTCACACAAAAGTTAATTACGATTGTTGATAAGCAATT
GAGGTCCTCGTATTCCTGCAAAAGGCCATCAGGAGAGGATGCCTGCAGCACCAGTTCATATGGG
TGCACCGCGAATAAGTCTTCCTCTGCTGTGGACTATGCGAAGTTTGGATTTGATTTTATACAAC
AGAGCAACCAAATTGGCCCACTCTTCCATAACATTGCCCTGCAACAATACATCCTACTTTGTTC
TCAGGTACTAGAGGGAGGCTTGAGGGATAAGCCTGGAAAGAACAGAGATCACTATCATTCATGC
TACTGCCTCAGTGGCCTCGCAGTTAGCCAGTACAGTGCCATGACTGATACTGGTTCGTGCCCAT
TACCTCAGCATGTGCTTGGACCGTACTCTAATTTGCTGGAGCCAATCCATCCaagcttgaattt
ccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcg
atgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatga
cgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgataga
aaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagat
cggaagctt

(Upper Case: MuA Promoter; Underlined: Antisense Zea maize-FTB; Bold: Sense Zea maize-FTB; Lower case: NOS terminater)

Example 15 PCR Analysis of Putative Transgenic Plants

To verify that the putative transgenic plants carried the gene of interest PCR analysis was performed. Genomic DNA was isolated and PCR run according to standard protocols and conditions which are known to one of skill in the art. A typical reaction was performed in a volume of 25 μl and primer pairs used were dependent on the gene and promoter combination of the particular construct (Table 12).

Putative transgenic Brassica napus plants were screened using the primer combinations detailed in the table below. A representative gel showing PCR analysis results is shown in FIG. 24 which represents transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-anti-FTA construct. Transformants were confirmed in an analogous manner for each species and construct transformation done.

TABLE 12
Construct Primer
Name Name Primer Sequence (5′-3′)
35S-antiFTA SEQ ID GCCGACAGTGGTCCCAAAGATGG
NO: 16
SEQ ID AAAGGATCCTCAAATTGCTGCCACTGTAAT
NO: 17
rd29A-antiFTA SEQ ID AAACCCGGGATGAATTTCGACGAGAACGTG
NO: 18
SEQ ID GCAAGACCGGCAACAGGA
NO: 19
rd29B-antiFTA SEQ ID TTTAAGCTTGACAGAAACAGTCAGCGAGAC
NO: 20
SEQ ID AAACCCGGGATGAATTTCGACGAGAACGTG
NO: 17
35S-DA-FTA SEQ ID GCTCTTCCTCCATGCCCA
NO: 21
SEQ ID GCAAGACCGGCAACAGGA
NO: 19
rd29A-DA-FTA SEQ ID TTTAAGCTTGGAGCCATAGATGCAATTCAA
NO: 22
SEQ ID CGGGCATTAGGAGGATGGGAA
NO: 23
35S-HP-FTB SEQ ID GCCGACAGTGGTCCCAAAGATGG
NO: 16
SEQ ID GTCCGGAATTCCCGGGTC
NO: 24
rd29A-HP-FTB SEQ ID TTTAAGCTTGGAGCCATAGATGCAATTCAA
NO: 22
SEQ ID GTCCGGAATTCCCGGGTC
NO: 24

Example 16 Southern Analysis

Genomic Southern analysis of anti-FTA transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The numbers indicate the line numbers. Five micrograms of genomic DNA of T1 plants was digested with HindIII (a unique site in the T-DNA plasmid) and separated in a 0.8% agarose gel. The NPTII coding region was used as the probe for radio-labeling. FIG. 11 shows a typical result from Southern analysis indicating the presence of the transgene.

Example 17 Northern Blots of Antisense FTA Lines

RNA was isolated from developing leaf tissue of five 35S-anti-FTA Arabidopsis thaliana lines (T3 plants). The blot was first probed with P32 labeled, single-stranded sense transcript of FTA (FIG. 3 panel A) which detects antisense transcript, then stripped and re-probed with the single-stranded anti-sense transcript of FTA (FIG. 12 panel B) that detects the sense transcript. FIG. 3 panel C shows the ethidium bromide stained gel for the blot. Approximately 5 μg of total RNA was loaded into each lane. FIG. 3 indicates the accumulation of the transgene anti-sense transcript and a reduction in the sense transcript in transgenic plants.

Example 18 Western Blot Antisense FTA Lines with Anti-FT-α Antibodies

The antibodies produced according to the methods of Example 27 were used to analyze protein extracts from transgenic plants on western blots. Lane 1 of FIG. 13 is a molecular weight standard, lane 2 purified FTA protein, lanes 3-10 are protein extracts from the ERA1 mutant, wild type, and 4 lines of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. FIG. 13 illustrates the reduction of detectable FTA protein in transgenic lines.

Example 19 ABA Sensitivity of Transgenic Seedlings

Seeds of wild type Columbia, era1-2 and T3 homozygous seeds of two antisense, drought tolerant lines of 35S-antisense-FTA were plated on minimum medium (½ MS) supplemented with no ABA (A), 0.3 μM (B), 0.5 μM (C) or 1.0 μM ABA (D). Plates were chilled for 3 days in 4° C. in the dark, and incubated for 11 days at 22° C. with 24 hour continuous light. era1 and transgenic lines were more inhibited in germination than wild type plants. Results are shown in FIG. 14.

Twelve day old seedling phenotypes of wild type Columbia, era1-2 and two drought tolerant 35S-antisense-FTA lines (9.9 & 21.2) in minimum medium without (A) or with (B) 1 μM ABA. FIG. 15 shows the reduced root growth and development of era1 and transgenic lines relative to wild type plants. The 35S-antisense-FTA lines show reduced root growth, similar to the era1 mutant, in response to ABA.

A transgenic Brassica napus line carrying the 35S-antisense-FTA construct was assessed for ABA sensitivity. At about 10 μm an effect was observed showing reduced seedling development and vigor at the cotyledon and first leaf stage, thereby indicating an increased sensitivity to ABA

ABA sensitivity is assessed in all transgenic plants engineered to have reduced or increased FTA or FTB expression or activity by the methods above. The ABA concentration used varies depending upon the species under examination.

Example 20 Drought Experiment

To assess the response of plants under water stress or drought one can expose plants to various situations. For example, the plant can be removed from soil or media and placed on paper towel for a period of time, such as 4 hours, then returned to a plate to continue growth and development. Survival and vigour can be assessed.

Alternatively one can impose a water stress in such a way as to more closely resemble a field situation by withholding water for a period of time, such as up to 6 days. Plants were grown five plants per four inch pot, in a replicated water-stress experiment. All pots were filled with equal amounts of homogeneous premixed and wetted soil. Growth conditions were 16 hour daylight (150-200 μmol/m2/s) at 22° C. and 70% relative humidity. On the day that the first flower opened drought treatment was initiated first by equalizing the soil water content in each pot on a weight basis and then cessation of watering. At the end of the water stress treatment plants were typically either harvested for biomass data or re-watered to complete the life cycle and determination of biomass and yield data. Physiological parameters have been assessed under stressed and optimal conditions, for example, shoot and root biomass accumulation, soil water content, water loss alone or as a function of parameters such as biomass, seed yield, and leaf number and leaf area. FIG. 16 shows photographs of wild type Columbia (A) and four 35S-antisense-FTA transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines (B,C,D,E) after 8 days of water stress treatment. The control plant is visibly stressed and less healthy. This experiment has been conducted on transgenic lines containing vectors described by SEQ ID NO: 10, 46-64.

Drought or water stress tolerance is assessed in all transgenic plants engineered to have reduced or increased FTA or FTB expression or activity by the described methods.

Example 21 Analysis of Water Loss in Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines During Drought Stress

Plants were grown 5 plants per 4 inch pot and 6 pots per line. When the plants had grown to the first flower stage drought treatment was initiated as described in Example 20. Pots were weighed daily and at the end of the 7 day drought treatment all plants were harvested for shoot fresh weight and dry weight determinations. FIG. 10 shows the water loss on a per shoot dry weight basis at 4 days of water stress treatment. Of the 31 lines examined in this experiment 25 showed lower water loss relative to the Columbia wild type, 22 of which were statistically significant. All lines had been assessed for ABA sensitivity as described in Example 14, increased ABA sensitivity (ABAS) also correlated with a decreased water loss during drought treatment. Those lines determined to have wild type ABA sensitivity (ABAWT) were the same 6 lines (lines 2, 36, 69, 29, 24, 21) that did not show a reduced water loss compared to wild type.

The above experiment was repeated using two ABAS lines, one ABAWT line and a Columbia control. Plants were harvested after 2, 4 and 6 days of water stress treatment for shoot dry weight determinations. ABAS transgenics had greater leaf and shoot biomass, greater soil water contents and lower water loss per shoot dry weight when compared to the ABAWT or Columbia controls. Results were consistent at all three harvest stages.

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has also been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar water stress tolerant trends observed. Soil water loss is assessed in all transgenic plants engineered to have reduced or increased FTA or FTB expression or activity by the described methods.

Example 22 Analysis of Shoot Fresh Weight in Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines During Drought Stress

Plants were grown 5 plants per 4 inch pot and 8 pots per line. When the plants had grown to the first flower stage drought treatment was initiated as described in Example 20. Plants were re-watered after 6 days drought treatment and allowed to recover for an additional 6 days. Plants were harvested and shoot fresh weights determined. FIG. 20 shows the shoot fresh weights. This experiment consisted of 25 transgenic lines, 2 of which are ABAWT (line 2 and 69) and a Columbia wild type control. All 23 ABAS transgenic lines had statistically significant greater shoot fresh weights, on average 44% greater.

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar trends observed.

Example 23 Analysis of Seed Yield in Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines During Drought Stress and Under Optimal Conditions

Plants were grown 1 plant per 4 inch pot. When the plants had grown to the first flower stage drought treatment was initiated as described in Example 20. Plants were re-watered after 6 days drought treatment and allowed to grow to maturity. The optimal group was not exposed to the drought treatment.

Yield analysis indicates that although drought treatment results in decreased yields, the transgenics do not suffer as severely as controls and maintain a productivity advantage (FIG. 21) as shown previously in Experiment 22. Comparison of the yields produced by the ABAS transgenics versus the control plants show that a 15% greater yield was obtained under optimal conditions and a 20% increase under drought conditions. In the drought treatment group 8 of 9 transgenic lines showed greater yield than controls. Expression of yield of each line obtained under drought treatment as a percentage of its performance under optimum conditions indicates that 8 of 9 ABAS lines outperformed the control line while 4 of 9 out performed the ABAWT controls.

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar trends observed.

Example 24 Analysis of Vegetative Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines Under Optimum Growth Conditions

Plants were grown 1 plant per 3 inch pot and 8 pots per line. Plants were harvested at three stages and fresh weights determined. Vegetative stage was defined as 14 day old seedlings, bolting stage as the appearance of first flower (19-21 day seedlings) and mid-flowering as 6 days from first flower. At each of the above stages respectively 7, 8 and 10 of the 10 ABAS transgenic lines tested showed statistically greater shoot fresh weight biomass than the control plants (FIG. 22). One Columbia line and an ABAWT (line 2) line were used as the control group. Additionally, there was a statistically significant trend for the transgenic lines to have an increased number of rosette leaves.

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar trends observed.

Example 25 Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines Under Drought Treatment and Biotic Stress

Plants were grown 1 plant per 4 inch pot and 8 pots. When the plants had grown to the first flower stage drought treatment was initiated as described in Example 20. Plants were re-watered after 7 days drought treatment and allowed to grow to maturity. One Columbian control line (col) and one transgenic line were evaluated. Analysis of seed yield indicated less than normal yields, approximately 12% of expected optimal yield. It was determined that the soil used contained a fungal contaminant that was responsible for the reduced yields as the biotic stress could be negated by sterilization of the soil prior to use. This biotic stress was less severe in the transgenic line compared to the control which had a yield 22% of the transgenic line. In the drought treatment groups of plants the biotic stress was reduced however, transgenics outperformed controls by nearly 4.5 fold (FIG. 23).

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar trends observed.

Example 26 Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana pRD29A-DA-FTA Lines for Stomatal Number

The number of stomata on both the upper and lower surface of the leaf was assessed on two transgenic lines and a wild type Columbia control. Nail polish imprints were made of both upper and lower leaf surfaces of the fifth leaf, plants were at the early flowering stage. No differences in stoma density were observed.

The data shown in this example was obtained using transgenic plants carrying the pRD29A-DA-FTA construct. The experiment has been conducted on lines carrying variations of this construct such as 35S-DA-FTA, pRD29A-antisense-FTA or 35S-antisense-FTA, with similar trends observed.

Example 27 Production of Polyclonal Antibodies Against FT-A and FT-B

The isolated Arabidopsis thaliana FT sequences were cloned into the E. coli expression vector derived from pET11D. To generate the Histidine tagged FT-B construct the Arabidopsis thaliana FT-B clone and pET vector were digested with BamHI and ligated together. Restriction digests were performed to verify the orientation of the insert. To produce the FT-A construct the Arabidopsis thaliana FT-A clone and pET vector were digested with BamHI and EcoRI and subsequently ligated together. The resultant plasmids directed the expression of fusion proteins containing 6 consecutive histidine residues at the N-termini of AtFTA and AtFTB. The fusion proteins were expressed in the bacterial host BL21 (DE3) and purified using Hi-Trap chelating chromatography as described by the manufacturer (Pharmacia). The soluble fraction of the crude bacterial extract containing the His-FT fusion proteins were loaded to a Hi-Trap column (1.5 cm×2.0 cm), and the proteins eluted with a 200 ml linear gradient of 0.0 to 0.3 M imidazole in column buffer (25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 1 mM DTT). Fractions containing purified His-FT proteins were pooled, desalted and concentrated with a Centriprep-30 concentrator (Amicon). All purification steps were carried out at 4° C. To generate an antibody, the purified fusion protein was further separated by SDS/PAGE and the Coomassie stained band corresponding to the fusion protein was excised. Protein was eluted from the gel slice by electroelution and then emulsified in Ribi adjuvant (Ribi Immunochem) to a final volume of 1 ml. His-AtFTA or His-AtFTB (250 μg) were injected into a 3 kg New Zealand rabbit on day 1 and booster injections given on day 21 and day 35 with 200 μg of the protein. High-titer antisera were obtained one week after the final injection. These antibodies were used in the western analysis of example 18, FIG. 13.

Example 28 Screening for Related Genes

The transgenic plants of the invention can be used to identify genes which interact with the genes of the present invention. One can make use of the transgenic plants of the invention to screen for related genes, for example, suppressors, enhancers or modulators of gene expression or activity can be identified through genetic screening protocols. By way of example, a mutant library can be generated using the transgenic plants of the invention as the genetic background. Various methods are available and would be known to one of skill in the art. For example, chemical mutagens such as EMS can be used to induce point mutations in the genome, fast neutron irradiation of seeds can result in deletion mutations, T-DNA libraries can be produced that inactivate genes through insertional effects or activation tagging methods can be used to produce libraries with up-regulated genes. Analysis of these types of libraries can identify genes which rescue or modulate the phenotypes observed in the transgenic plants of the present invention.

Example 29 RT-PCR Amplification and Cloning of CaaX Prenyl Proteases

Total RNA was isolated from leaf tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica napus and Glycine max, using the Qiagen RNeasy kit and used as template to amplify the CPP genes by RT-PCR. Reaction conditions were as follows; 1× reaction buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.8, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM KCl), dNTP's at 200 μM, 1 pM AtCPP BamFW and AtCPP SmaRV primers, 2.5 U. Pfu DNA polymerase, and template plus water to a final volume of 100 μL. Reactions were run at 1 minute 94° C., 1 minute 60° C., 1 minute 72° C., for 30 cycles. Primers used to PCR amplify Arabidopsis and Brassica sequences were those identified by SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102. Primers used to PCR amplify the Glycine sequence were those identified by SEQ ID NO:149 and SEQ ID NO:150. PCR products were separated from the RT-PCR reaction mixture using the Qiagen PCR column spin kit and ligated into the prepared cloning vector, pBluescript KS+. The vector had been prepared by digestion with EcoRV and treated with Taq polymerase in the presence of dTTP to produce a 3′ overhand suitable for ligation with the PCR products. The ligation products were transformed into E. coli DH5α cells, positive colonies selected and the resulting inserts sequenced. The above methodology is applicable to obtain homologous sequences and may require alternative primers. Table 13.

TABLE 13
(SEQ ID NO: 101
AtCPP 5′-AAAGGATCCATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGG-3′
BamFW:
(SEQ ID NO: 102)
AtCPP 5′-AAACCCGGGTTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCA-3′
SmaRV:
(SEQ ID NO: 149)
GmCPP 5′-AAACCCGGGATGGCGTTTCCCTACATGGAAGCC-3′
SmaFW:
(SEQ ID NO: 150)
GmCPP 5′-AAAGAGCTCTTAGTCTTCCTTCTTATCCGGTTCG-3′
SacRV:

Example 30 Vector Construction

Construction of the pBI121-AtCPP construct (SEQ ID NO: 99) was prepared as follows. The pBI121 vector was digested with BamHI and SmaI. The AtCPP, 1.4 kb DNA fragment from RT-PCR (SEQ ID NO: 97) was digested with BamHI and SmaI and ligated into the pBI121 vector. The GUS sequence was then removed by digestion with SmaI and Eco1CRI and the vector ligated after purification of the vector from the GUS insert to produce the pBI121-AtCPP vector (FIG. 25A). This construct was used to further generate constructs expressing the CPP gene from Brassica and Glycine. To produce the pBI121-BnCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:142) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:101 and SEQ ID NO:102 are used to PCR amplify the appropriate fragment which is ligated into the prepared parent vector. To produce the pBI121-GmCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:136) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:149 and SEQ ID NO:150 are used to PCR amplify the appropriate fragment which is ligated into the prepared parent vector.

Construction of the pBI121-antisense-AtCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:130). The antisense fragment was produced using PCR amplification with SEQ ID NO:97 as template and primers identified as SEQ ID NO:106 and SEQ ID NO:107, listed in Table 14. This fragment was digested with BamHI and SmaI and used to replace the sense fragment of the pBI121-AtCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:99), to yield SEQ ID NO:130 (FIG. 25B) . This construct, SEQ ID NO:130, was used to further generate constructs expressing the antisense CPP gene from Brassica and Glycine. To produce the pBI121-antisense-BnCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:144) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:151 and SEQ ID NO:152 are used to PCR amplify the appropriate fragment which is ligated into the prepared parent vector. To produce the pBI121-antisense-GmCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:138) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:153 and SEQ ID NO:154 are used to PCR amplify the appropriate fragment which is ligated into the prepared parent vector.

Construction of the pBI121-HP-AtCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:100). The cloning strategy involved truncating the GUS gene of pBI121 and flanking the GUS sequence with a AtCPP fragment in the antisense orientation upstream of the GUS and in the sense orientation on the downstream side of GUS. The pBI121 vector was digested with SmaI and SacI, the GUS sequence and the vector fragments were purified from one another. The isolated GUS fragment was digested using EcoRV and the 1079 bp. blunt ended EcoRV/SacI fragment isolated. This was ligated back into the digested parent vector at the SmaI/SacI sites. This intermediate vector was used in the subsequent production of the hair-pin vectors. The AtCPP fragment to be used as the gene specific hair-pin sequence was isolated by PCR. Primers identified as SEQ ID NO:103 and SEQ ID NO:104, listed in Table 14, were used to generate a 596 bp fragment. Cloning of the sense orientation fragment was achieved by digesting the PCR AtCPP fragment with SacI and ligation into the SacI site at the 3′ end of GUS. To insert the same fragment upstream of GUS, the BamHI site was opened and the ends blunted with Klenow. The PCR amplified AtCPP fragment was digested with Eco1CRI, which is an isoschizomer of SacI but leaves blunt ends, and ligated into the blunted BamHI site of the vector to yield the final construct (FIG. 25C). The intermediate construct used to produce SEQ ID NO:100 above contained only the truncated GUS gene and no CPP sequences this intermediate vector was used to further generate constructs expressing hair-pin CPP gene constructs from Brassica and Glycine. To produce the pBI121-HP-BnCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:143) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:153 and SEQ ID NO:154 are used to PCR amplify the sense fragment and primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:155 and SEQ ID NO:156 are used to PCR amplify the antisense fragment. These fragments are cloned into the prepared intermediate vector described above. To produce the pBI121-HP-GmCPP construct (SEQ ID NO:137) primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:157 and SEQ ID NO:158 are used to PCR amplify the sense fragment and primer pairs identified by SEQ ID NO:159 and SEQ ID NO:160 are used to PCR amplify the antisense fragment. These fragments are cloned into the prepared intermediate vector described above.

The above vector constructs were modified to place the genes under the control of alternative promoters, such as, but not limited to, the RD29A or MuA. This was accomplished by excising the 35S promoter sequence and replacing it with an appropriate promoter sequence. In this way SEQ ID NO's:134 and 135 were generated and SEQ ID NO's:133, 136-148 can be constructed.

TABLE 14
(SEQ ID NO: 103)
AtCPP-HP- 5′-CTGGAGCTCTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCC-3′
SacFW
(SEQ ID NO: 104)
AtCPP-HP- 5′-ATTGAGCTCCCAATGTCCAAGCTCGTGTGCAATA-3′
SacRV
(SEQ ID NO: 106)
AtCPP-an- 5′-AAACCCGGGATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGG-3′
ti-SmaFW
(SEQ ID NO: 107)
AtCPP-an- 5′-AAAGGATCCTTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCA-3′
ti-BamRV
(SEQ ID NO: 151)
BnCPP-an- 5′-AAACCCGGGATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGG-3′
ti-SmaFW
(SEQ ID NO: 152)
BnCPP-an- 5′-AAAGGATCCTTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCC-3′
ti-BamRV
(SEQ ID NO: 153)
BnCPP-HP- 5′-AAAGAGCTCTTCTACCAATGGTGGGACTCG-3′
Sac-FW
(SEQ ID NO: 154)
BnCPP-HP- 5′-AAAGAGCTCCCAGTGTCCCAGCTCGTGTG-3′
Sac-RV
(SEQ ID NO: 155)
BnCPP-HP- 5′-AAAGGATCCTTCTACCAATGGTGGGACTCG-3′
BamFW
(SEQ ID NO: 156)
BnCPP-HP- 5′-AAATCTAGACCAGTGTCCCAGCTCGTGTG-3′
XbaRV
(SEQ ID NO: 157)
GmCPP-HP- 5′-GATGAGCTCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATGCCT-3′
Sac-FW
(SEQ ID NO: 158)
GmCPP-HP- 5′-AAAGAGCTCCCGGTTCGTCCAGCGCGGCC-3′
Sac-RV
(SEQ ID NO: 159)
GmCPP-HP- 5′-GATGGATCCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATGCCT-3′
BamFW
(SEQ ID NO: 160)
GmCPP-HP- 5′-CCTTCTAGACCGGTTCGTCCAGCGCGGCC-3′
XbaRV

Example 31 Sequence Analysis

Arabidopsis thaliana CPP (AtCPP)

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1275 nucleotides (SEQ ID NO:97) and also referred to as AtCPP, is shown in Table 15.

TABLE 15A
AtCPP Nucleotide Sequence (SEQ ID NO: 97).
ATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGGAAACCGTCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAG
ACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCACTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTG
GTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGTTTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAGTCTTGACAAAAGC
TATTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTT
GGGATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAGATGTCTGGAGCTGTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGAT
CCGGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTGGCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAG
ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
AACAAACAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACATGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTC
ATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTTTCATAGTCCAGAAAGGAGGTCCTTAT
CTTGCCATCTATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATAC
CCGGTCTTGATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAATTCACTCCTCTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGG
GAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCCCTAAAGTTTCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTC
GATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATGCTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAA
AGGATTGTTCTTTATGATACGTTGATTCAGCAGTGCAAGAATGAGGATGAAATTGTGGCG
GTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACTCGTTCATTGCA
GTTCAAATCCTTGCCTTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTCTCAGAAACTCCACTGAT
CTCTTCAGGAGTTTCGGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG
CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGCTTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCG
TTTGAGTTTCAGGCTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGACTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCT
GCTCTAGTGAAACTACAGGAAGAGAACTTATCAACAATGAACACTGATCCATTGTACTCA
GCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGCTTCGAGCCACTGATGGAGAAGAC
AAGAAGACAGATTAA

A disclosed CPP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:98) encoded by SEQ ID NO:97 has 424 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 15B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 15B
Encoded CPP protein sequence (SEQ ID NO: 98).
MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVGVISQEKFEKSRAYSLDKS
YFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLAGVMTWSQ
ITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFIVQKGGPY
LAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFPLKKLFVV
DGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNHTTYSFIA
VQILAFLQFGGYTLLRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFGLNLVSRA
FEFQADAFAVKLDYAKDLRPALVKLQEENLSTMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRATDGED
KKTD

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Arabidopsis thaliana CaaX prenyl protease of SEQ ID NO:97. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:115.

TTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCATCAGTGGCTCGAAGCCTTTCAACAAGAGGAGGATGTGAG SEQ ID NO: 115
TAGTGATAAGCTGAGTACAATGGATCAGTGTTCATTGTTGATAAGTTCTCTTCCTGTAGTTTCA
CTAGAGCAGGACGAAGATCTTTTGCATAGTCAAGCTTCACAGCAAAAGCATCAGCCTGAAACTC
AAACGCTCGACTAACGAGGTTCAGGCCAAAGCTTACTAGATGTTGCAGTGGTATTACAGTGTGC
TGAAATATGATCAAACCAATGAGAACAGGCTGTGTATCAAATCCGAAACTCCTGAAGAGATCAG
TGGAGTTTCTGAGAAGAGTGTATCCTCCAAATTGTAAGAAGGCAAGGATTTGAACTGCAATGAA
CGAGTATGTAGTGTGATTCAGTTTCCAATGTCCAAGCTCGTGTGCAATAACCGCCACAATTTCA
TCCTCATTCTTGCACTGCTGAATCAACGTATCATAAAGAACAATCCTTTTGTTCTTAAAGAAAC
CATACATGTAAGCATTGCTATGGCTTGACCTTGTAGATCCATCGACAACAAACAGCTTCTTCAA
AGGAAACTTTAGGGAAGAAGCAAGTTTCTCAATCTTCTCCCGGAGGTCTCCATCTGGAAGAGGA
GTGAATTTGTTGAAGAGCGGTGCTATCAAGACCGGGTATATAGTCATCATCACTAGAGACAGGA
TAAACATGAATGCCCACAGATAGATGGCAAGATAAGGACCTCCTTTCTGGACTATGAAAATTAT
CGCAGCAACAATGGGTGGGCCTAGTATGACAGAGAGGAATGTTCCTTTGATCATGTCCCTAATG
AACATCCATATTGTTTGTTTGTTGAACCCATGCCGAGACTCGATCACGAAAGTTGAGTACAAAG
AAAATGGCAAATCAGTGATCTGTGACCATGTCATAACACCAGCCAAGAATGAAAGAGTATGCAG
TATTTCATTCTCCGGATCAAGGCCCAACCTCGGTAAAACAGCTCCAGACATCTTCCAAAACCAA
GGCAAGATCCCAAAGAACAAAATTGCAGAGTCCATAAGTATAGTTACAAACTCATGAACAAAGT
GAAAATAGCTTTTGTCAAGACTGTATGCTCGTGATTTCTCAAACTTCTCTTGGCTAATTACACC
AACCAAGGTTTTCGGGAGAGTTGGAAGCTTGAGAGCAGTGAGTTGCCTCAGATCCAAATACGTC
TCAAAAATGTACATCACTATCATAAAACCCACGACGGTTTCCATGAAAGGAATCGCCAT

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length but is missing the 5′ and 3′ non-translated regions. The percent identities of the Arabidopsis thaliana nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other CPP sequences as determined by ClustalW analysis are shown in FIG. 26.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

Brassica napus CPP (nCPP)

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1275 nucleotides (SEQ ID NO:109) and also referred to as BnCPP, is shown in Table 16.

TABLE 16A
BnCPP Nucleotide Sequence
(SEQ ID NO:109)
ATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGGAAACCGTCGTTGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTA
CGTTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACATACTGCTCTCAAGCTTC
CCACTCTCCCAAAGACTTTGGTTGGAGTCATTAGCCAAGAGAAGTTTGAG
AAATCTCGAGCTTACAGTCTTGACAAAAGCCATTTTCACTTTGTTCATGA
GTTTGTTACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCGATTCTGTTCTTTGGGATCTTGC
CTTGGTTTTGGAAGATATCTGGCGGCTTTCTACCAATGGTGGGACTCGAT
CCAGAGAATGAAATCCTGCACACTCTTTCATTCTTGGCTGGTCTTATGAC
ATGGTCACAGATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGA
TCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTCAACAAACAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGG
GACATGATCAAAGGAATACTCCTCTCTGTCATACCTGCCCCTCCTATCGT
TGCCGCAATTATTGTTATAGTTCAGAAAGGAGGTCCTTACCTCGCCATCT
ATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATAC
CCTGTTTTGATTGCACCTCTTTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCTCTTCCTGATGG
AGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTTTCCTC
TGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGTAAT
GCTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTCAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTATGACAC
ATTGATTCAGCAGTGCCAGAATGAGAATGAAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCAC
ACGAGCTGGGACACTGGAAGCTGAATCACACTACATACTCGTTCATTGCT
GTTCAAATCCTTGCCTTCTTGCAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAA
CTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTTGGTTTTGATACACAACCAGTTCTCA
TTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAGCACACTGTAATACCACTTCAACACCTAGTA
AGCTTTGACCTCAACCTTGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGGCTGATGC
TTTTGCAGTGAATCTTGGTTATGCAAAGGATCTACGTCCTGCCCTAGTGA
AGCTACAGGAAGAGAACTTATCAGCGATGAACACAGACCCATTGTACTCA
GCTTATCACTACTCACACCCTCCTCTTGTAGAGAGGCTTCGAGCCATTGA
TGGAGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA.

A disclosed CPP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:110) encoded by SEQ ID NO:109 has 424 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 16B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 16B
Encoded CPP protein sequence (SEQ ID NO: 110).
MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYVFETYLDLRQHTALKLPTLPKTLVGVISQEKFEKSRA
YSLDKSHFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKISGGFLPMVGLDPENEILHT
LSFLAGLMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGILLSVIP
APPIVAAIIVIVQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPD
GDLREKIEKLASSLKFPLKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQ
QCQNENEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNHTTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRS
FGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFDLNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVNLGYAKDL
RPALVKLQEENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Brassica napus CaaX prenyl protease of SEQ ID NO:109. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:111.

TTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCATCAATGGCTCGAAGCCTCTCTACAAGAGGAGGGTGTGAG SEQ ID NO: 111
TAGTGATAAGCTGAGTACAATGGGTCTGTGTTCATCGCTGATAAGTTCTCTTCCTGTAGCTTCA
CTAGGGCAGGACGTAGATCCTTTGCATAACCAAGATTCACTGCAAAAGCATCAGCCTGAAACTC
AAACGCTCGACTAACAAGGTTGAGGTCAAAGCTTACTAGGTGTTGAAGTGGTATTACAGTGTGC
TGAAATATGATCAAACCAATGAGAACTGGTTGTGTATCAAAACCAAAACTCCTGAAGAGATCAG
TGGAGTTTCTGACAAGAGTGTATCCTCCAAATTGCAAGAAGGCAAGGATTTGAACAGCAATGAA
CGAGTATGTAGTGTGATTCAGCTTCCAGTGTCCCAGCTCGTGTGCAATAACCGCCACAATTTCA
TTCTCATTCTGGCACTGCTGAATCAATGTGTCATAAAGAACAATCCTTTTGTTCTTGAAGAAAC
CATACATGTAAGCATTACTATGGCTTGACCTTGTAGATCCATCGACAACAAACAGCTTCTTCAG
AGGAAACTTTAGAGAAGAAGCAAGTTTCTCAATCTTCTCCCGGAGGTCTCCATCAGGAAGAGGA
GTGAACTTGTTGAAAAGAGGTGCAATCAAAACAGGGTATATAGTCATCATCACTAGAGACAGGA
TAAACATGAATGCCCACAGATAGATGGCGAGGTAAGGACCTCCTTTCTGAACTATAACAATAAT
TGCGGCAACGATAGGAGGGGCAGGTATGACAGAGAGGAGTATTCCTTTGATCATGTCCCTAATG
AACATCCATATTGTTTGTTTGTTGAACCCATGCCGAGACTCGATCACGAAAGTTGAGTACAAAG
AAAATGGCAAATCAGTGATCTGTGACCATGTCATAAGACCAGCCAAGAATGAAAGAGTGTGCAG
GATTTCATTCTCTGGATCGAGTCCCACCATTGGTAGAAAGCCGCCAGATATCTTCCAAAACCAA
GGCAAGATCCCAAAGAACAGAATCGCAGAGTCCATAAGTATAGTAACAAACTCATGAACAAAGT
GAAAATGGCTTTTGTCAAGACTGTAAGCTCGAGATTTCTCAAACTTCTCTTGGCTAATGACTCC
AACCAAAGTCTTTGGGAGAGTGGGAAGCTTGAGAGCAGTATGTTGCCTCAGATCCAAATACGTC
TCAAAAACGTACATCACTATCATAAAACCAACGACGGTTTCCATGAAAGGAATCGCCAT

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length but is missing the 5′ and 3′ non-translated regions. The percent identities of the Brassica napus nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other CPP sequences as determined by ClustalW analysis are shown in FIG. 26.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

Glycine max CPP (GmCPP)

A disclosed nucleic acid of 1275 nucleotides (SEQ ID NO:112) and also referred to as GmCPP, is shown in Table 17.

TABLE 17A
GmCPP Nucleotide Sequence (SEQ ID NO: 112).
ATGGCGTTTCCCTACATGGAAGCCGTTGTCGGATTTATGATATTAATGTACATT
TTTGAAACTTACTTGGATGTGCGACAACATAGGGCCCTCAAACTTCCTACTCTT
CCAAAGACTTTAGAGGGTGTTATCAGCCAAGAGAAATTTGAGAAATCTAGAGCC
TATAGTCTTGATAAAAGCCACTTCCATTTTGTTCACGAGTTTGTGACAATAGTG
ACAGACTCTACAATTTTGTACTTTGGGGTATTGCCCTGGTTTTGGAAGAAATCA
GGAGATTTTATGACAATAGCTGGTTTCAATGCTGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACC
CTTGCCTTCTTAGCAGGGCTGATGATTTGGTCACAGATAACAGATTTGCCCTTT
TCTCTGTACTCAACTTTTGTGATTGAGGCCCGTCATGGTTTTAATAAGCAAACA
CCATGGTTATTCTTTAGGGACATGCTTAAAGGAATTTTCCTTTCTGTAATAATT
GGTCCACCTATTGTGGCTGCAATCATTGTAATAGTACAGAAAGGAGGTCCATAC
TTGGCCATCTATCTTTGGGTTTTTACGTTTGGTCTTTCTATTGTGATGATGACC
CTTTATCCAGTACTAATAGCTCCACTCTTCAATAAGTTCACTCCACTTCCAGAT
GGTCAACTCAGGGAGAAAATCGAGAAACTTGCTTCCTCCCTCAACTATCCGTTA
AAGAAACTATTTGTTGTCGATGGATCCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATGCCTAT
ATGTATGGATTCTTCAAGAACAAGAGGATTGTCCCTTATGACACATTAATTCAA
CAGTGCAAAGACGATGAGGAAATTGTTGCTGTTATTGCCCATGAGTTGGGACAC
TGGAAGCTCAACCATACTGTGTACACATTTGTTGCTATGCAGATTCTTACACTT
CTACAATTTGGAGGATATACACTAGTGCGAAATTCAGCTGATCTGTATCGAAGC
TTTGGGTTTGATACGCAGCCAGTCCTCATTGGGCTCATCATATTTCAGCATACT
GTAATCCCACTTCAGCAATTGGTCAGCTTTGGTCTGAACCTAGTCAGCCGATCA
TTTGAATTTCAGGCTGATGGCTTTGCCAAGAAGCTTGGATATGCATCTGGATTA
CGCGGTGGTCTTGTGAAACTACAGGAGGAGAATCTGTCAGCTATGAATACAGAT
CCTTGGTACTCTGCTTATCACTATTCTCATCCTCCCCTTGTTGAAAGATTGGCC
GCGCTGGACGAACCGGATAAGAAGGAAGACTAA

A disclosed CPP polypeptide (SEQ ID NO:113) encoded by SEQ ID NO:112 has 424 amino acid residues and is presented in Table 17B using the one-letter amino acid code.

TABLE 17B
Encoded CPP protein sequence (SEQ ID NO: 113).
MAFPYMEAVVGFMILMYIFETYLDVRQHRALKLPTLPKTLEGVISQEKFEKSRAYSLDKS
HFHFVHEFVTIVTDSTILYFGVLPWFWKKSGDFMTIAGFNAENEILHTLAFLAGLMIWSQ
ITDLPFSLYSTFVIEARHGFNKQTPWLFFRDMLKGIFLSVIIGPPIVAAIIVIVQKGGPY
LAIYLWVFTFGLSIVMMTLYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGQLREKIEKLASSLNYPLKKLFVV
DGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVPYDTLIQQCKDDEEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNHTVYTFVA
MQILTLLQFGGYTLVRNSADLYRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQQLVSFGLNLVSRS
FEFQADGFAKKLGYASGLRGGLVKLQEENLSAMNTDPWYSAYHYSHPPLVERLAALDEPD
KKED

The present invention also includes a nucleic acid sequence complimentary to the Glycine max CaaX prenyl protease of SEQ ID NO:112. The disclosed complimentary sequence is shown as SEQ ID NO:114.

TTAGTCTTCCTTCTTATCCGGTTCGTCCAGCGCGGCCAATCTTTCAACAAGGGGAGGATGAGAA SEQ ID NO: 114
TAGTGATAAGCAGAGTACCAAGGATCTGTATTCATAGCTGACAGATTCTCCTCCTGTAGTTTCA
CAAGACCACCGCGTAATCCAGATGCATATCCAAGCTTCTTGGCAAAGCCATCAGCCTGAAATTC
AAATGATCGGCTGACTAGGTTCAGACCAAAGCTGACCAATTGCTGAAGTGGGATTACAGTATGC
TGAAATATGATGAGCCCAATGAGGACTGGCTGCGTATCAAACCCAAAGCTTCGATACAGATCAG
CTGAATTTCGCACTAGTGTATATCCTCCAAATTGTAGAAGTGTAAGAATCTGCATAGCAACAAA
TGTGTACACAGTATGGTTGAGCTTCCAGTGTCCCAACTCATGGGCAATAACAGCAACAATTTCC
TCATCGTCTTTGCACTGTTGAATTAATGTGTCATAAGGGACAATCCTCTTGTTCTTGAAGAATC
CATACATATAGGCATTGCTGTGACTTGATCTTGTGGATCCATCGACAACAAATAGTTTCTTTAA
CGGATAGTTGAGGGAGGAAGCAAGTTTCTCGATTTTCTCCCTGAGTTGACCATCTGGAAGTGGA
GTGAACTTATTGAAGAGTGGAGCTATTAGTACTGGATAAAGGGTCATCATCACAATAGAAAGAC
CAAACGTAAAAACCCAAAGATAGATGGCCAAGTATGGACCTCCTTTCTGTACTATTACAATGAT
TGCAGCCACAATAGGTGGACCAATTATTACAGAAAGGAAAATTCCTTTAAGCATGTCCCTAAAG
AATAACCATGGTGTTTGCTTATTAAAACCATGACGGGCCTCAATCACAAAAGTTGAGTACAGAG
AAAAGGGCAAATCTGTTATCTGTGACCAAATCATCAGCCCTGCTAAGAAGGCAAGGGTATGCAG
TATTTCATTCTCAGCATTGAAACCAGCTATTGTCATAAAATCTCCTGATTTCTTCCAAAACCAG
GGCAATACCCCAAAGTACAAAATTGTAGAGTCTGTCACTATTGTCACAAACTCGTGAACAAAAT
GGAAGTGGCTTTTATCAAGACTATAGGCTCTAGATTTCTCAAATTTCTCTTGGCTGATAACACC
CTCTAAAGTCTTTGGAAGAGTAGGAAGTTTGAGGGCCCTATGTTGTCGCACATCCAAGTAAGTT
TCAAAAATGTACATTAATATCATAAATCCGACAACGGCTTCCATGTAGGGAAACGCCAT

Due to the nature of the cloning strategy the sequence presented is not full length but is missing the 5′ and 3′ non-translated regions. The percent identities of the Glycine max nucleotide sequence and its encoded amino acid sequence to that of other CPP sequences as determined by ClustalW analysis are shown in FIG. 26.

Using the sequences disclosed herein as hybridization probes, one is able to screen and isolate full length sequences from cDNA or genomic libraries or use the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology or other such PCR techniques.

The CPP nucleic acids and amino acids disclosed above have homology to other disclosed CPP sequences (GenBank ID NOs: AL161491 (AT4g01320), AF007269 and AF353722; WO 02/16625 A2). The homology between these and other sequences is shown in the ClustalW alignment analysis shown in Tables 18A-18B.

TABLE 18A
ClustalW Nucleic Acid Analysis of CaaX Prenyl
Protease
 1: PPI-AtCPP SEQ ID NO: 97
 2: PPI-BnCPP SEQ ID NO: 109
 3: PPI-GmCPP SEQ ID NO: 112
 4: BASF_AT1 SEQ ID NO: 116
 5: BASF_AT2 SEQ ID NO: 118
 6: BASF-Corn SEQ ID NO: 120
 7: BASF-Gm SEQ ID NO: 122
 8: AFC1 SEQ ID NO: 124
 9: AT4g01320 SEQ ID NO: 126
10: AF007269 SEQ ID NO: 128

CLUSTAL W (1.81) multiple sequence alignment

PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ATGGCGATTCCTTTCATGGAAACCGTCGTGGGTAAGCTTCAAAACCTTTTTCTGAGACAT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TTTACTATCCTGTTTCACTCATCGTATTTCGTTTTTGTTTGGGTTTTGCTTTCTGTGTTG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TGTGTGTTGAGATTCCATGACTCGTTTGTTTCATATACCATCGTCTCTGCTTCTCGTTTC
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TAAATTTTGTTCTTTTCTAATAGTGCGTACCTTGATCTGAGGTTTTATTACTCCTACTAG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TTTCTTGTCTTACTCGTGCGTTTGATTTGATTTGAGCTTATGTGATTTCATCATCTCTTC
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 CTCGGTTTTAGAATGTACGGAGCTTCTCTGTTAACCAAAATCTAGGATTTGGGAAGAAAA
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 GTCGGAGTCTTTTTTTTCCTCATTCCCGATTGGAAATTGAGAATCTTGAAATTTTTCTTT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm --------------------------------------CTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGC
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 GTTCAAGTCATACAGCTTGAGGTTTTGGGTTTTCTTGTCAGGGTATTATTATGTTCGTGA
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm AAGCAGTGGTAACAACGCAGAGTACGCGGGGGGAGACGCATGGTTCTGAACTAATTGTTA
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 CTGCAACTAGAGTTTTCTGGAGTTTTTTGAAATGGGTTTTGTGTTGTGGAACCGTATGTG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------ -
BASF-Gm TAAATAATACCTAAAATTTTGAGTTGTCCTAAACATTGGGGTTTAAACAAATCCAATCTC
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 AATGTTGCATCAAAACTCTTTCAGTGCTCCAATGTTTCCATCAGTAGTCAGCACAAGAGA
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm TCAATATAAAACCCAATGATCTCACC--CTCACTCCGTTTCTGATTTCTCACTCTTCGTT
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TCTTTTTATATCTGGTTGATCAAAAAAGTAGATGATGTTATTGAATTTTCAGTGATGGAG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ---------------------------------ATGGCGTTTCCC--TACATGGAAGCCG
BASF-Gm TCTCGTTCGGTTCATCAGCGTGTGTCTCAGC-CATGGCGTTTCCC--TACATGGAAGCCG
AT4g01320 ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
AF007269 TATCTGTTGTTGTGGCATTTAGAGTAGATTCGTATTTCATCTTCTGTTTTATTCTTTTTC
PPI-AtCPP ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
BASF_AT2 ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
afc1 ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
BASF_AT1 ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
PPI-BnCPP ---------------------------------ATGGCGATTCCT--TTCATGGAAACCG
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP TTGTCGGATTTATGATATTAATGTACATTTTTGAAACTTACTTGGATGTGCGACAACATA
BASF-Gm TTGTCGGATTTATGATATTAATGTACATTTTTGAAACTTACTTGGATGTGCGACAACATA
AT4g01320 TCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
AF007269 TTACAGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
PPI-AtCPP TCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
BASF_AT2 TCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
afc1 TCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
BASF_AT1 TCGTGGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACATTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACTCA
PPI-BnCPP TCGTTGGTTTTATGATAGTGATGTACGTTTTTGAGACGTATTTGGATCTGAGGCAACATA
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP GGGCCCTCAAACTTCCTACTCTTCCAAAGACTTTAGAGGGTGTTATCAGCCAAGAGAAAT
BASF-Gm GGGCCCTCAAACTTCCTACTCTTCCAAAGACTTTAGAAGGTGTTATCAGCCAAGAGAAAT
AT4g01320 CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
AF007269 CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
PPI-AtCPP CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
BASF_AT2 CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
afc1 CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
BASF_AT1 CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCAACTCTCCCGAAAACCTTGGTTGGTGTAATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
PPI-BnCPP CTGCTCTCAAGCTTCCCACTCTCCCAAAGACTTTGGTTGGAGTCATTAGCCAAGAGAAGT
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP TTGAGAAATCTAGAGCCTATAG--------------------------------------
BASF-Gm TTGAGAAATCTAGAGCCTATAG--------------------------------------
AT4g01320 TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAG--------------------------------------
AF007269 TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAGTCTTGACAAAAGGTTTCGTCTTGATCATATTTATATCA
PPI-AtCPP TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAG--------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAG--------------------------------------
afc1 TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAG--------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 TTGAGAAATCACGAGCATACAG--------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP TTGAGAAATCTCGAGCTTACAG--------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------TCTTGATAAA---AGCCA
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------TCTTGATAAA---AGCCA
AT4g01320 ------------------------GGATATCATCACTGAGAACTTTAATATATGCAGCTA
AF007269 TTTTAGTTTTTTATAATTGCCAGGGGATATCATCACTGAGAACTTTAATATATGCAGCTA
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------TCTTGACAAA---AGCTA
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------TCTTGACAAA---AGCTA
afc1 ------------------------------------------TCTTGACAAA---AGCTA
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------TCTTGACAAA---AGCTA
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------TCTTGACAAA---AGCCA
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP CTTCCATTTTGTTCACGAGTTTGTGACAATAGTGACAGACTCTACAATTTTGTACTTTGG
BASF-Cm CTTCCATTTTGTTCACGAGTTTGTGACAATAGTGACAGACTCTACAATTTTGTACTTTGG
AT4g01320 TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
AF007269 TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
PPI-AtCPP TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
BASF_AT2 TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
afc1 TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
BASF_AT1 TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTAACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCAATTTTGTTCTTTGG
PPI-BnCPP TTTTCACTTTGTTCATGAGTTTGTTACTATACTTATGGACTCTGCGATTCTGTTCTTTGG
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP GGTATTGCCCTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
BASF-Gm GGTATTGCCCTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
AT4g01320 GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
AF007269 GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAGGTACATATCTGGTTTCGGTATACAGTATCTCATTTTGA
PPI-AtCPP GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
afc1 GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP GATCTTGCCTTGGTTTTGGAAG--------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------AAATCAGGAGAT
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------AAATCAGGAGAT
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------ATGTCTGGAGCT
AF007269 ATATAGAGTTGTTACATTACAATTGTAAAGTTTTCATTTTTACCTTAGATGTCTGGAGCT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------ATGTCTGGAGCT
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------ATGTCTGGAGCA
afc1 ------------------------------------------------ATGTCTGGACCT
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------ATGTCTGGAGCT
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------ATATCTGGCGGC
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP TTTATGACAATAGCTGGTTTCAATGCTGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACCCTTGCCTTCTTA
BASF-Gm TTTATGACAATAGCTGGTTTCAATGCTGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACCCTTGCCTTCTTA
AT4g01320 GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCAGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
AF007269 GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCAGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
PPI-AtCPP GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCGGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
BASF_AT2 GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCAGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
afc1 GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCAGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
BASF_AT1 GTTTTACCGAGGTTGGGCCTTGATCCAGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACTCTTTCATTCTTG
PPI-BnCPP TTTCTACCAATGGTGGGACTCGATCCAGAGAATGAAATCCTGCACACTCTTTCATTCTTG
BASF-Corn ------------ACGAGGCTGAGTGCTGAGAATGAGATAATACACACCCTTGCTTTCTTA
                *  *   * * ******** **  * ** ** *** * *****
PPI-GmCPP GCAGGGCTGATGATTTGGTCACAG------------------------------------
BASF-Gm GCAGGGCTGATGATTTGGTCACAG------------------------------------
AT4g01320 GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAG------------------------------------
AF007269 GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAGGTGTTCCAAATAAACCCCTTCATATAGTCCTATACG
PPI-AtCPP GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAG------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAG------------------------------------
afc1 GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAG------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 GCTGGTGTTATGACATGGTCACAC------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP GCTGGTCTTATGACATGGTCACAG------------------------------------
BASF-Corn GCTGGTTCCATGGTTTGGTCGCAG------------------------------------
** **    ***   ***** **
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TTTAGCATCAAAATATCTATTTTCTTAAGATAATAATATTTCTTTTATATTCTGATGCAG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ATAACAGATTTGCCCTTTTCTCTGTACTCAACTTTTGTGATTGAGGCCCGTCATGGTTTT
BASF-Gm ATAACAGATTTGCCCTTTTCTCTGTACTCAACTTTTGTGATTGAGGCCCGTCATGGTTTT
AT4g01320 ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
AF007269 ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
PPI-AtCPP ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
BASF_AT2 ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
afc1 ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
BASF_AT1 ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
PPI-BnCPP ATCACTGATTTGCCATTTTCTTTGTACTCAACTTTCGTGATCGAGTCTCGGCATGGGTTC
BASF-Corn ATTACAGACTTGCCGTTCTCTCTCTATTCAACTTTTGTTATAGAGGCTCGACATGGTTTT
** ** ** ***** ** *** * ** ******** ** ** *** * ** ***** **
PPI-GmCPP AATAAG------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm AATAAG------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 AACAAAGTATGTCGTATTTCCAACACTACCTTGTGACTTACGTTTTTTTATCAGAGATGT
PPI-AtCPP AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
afc1 AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP AACAAA------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn AACAAG------------------------------------------------------
** **
PPI-GmCPP --------------------------------CAAACACCATGGTTATTCTTTAGGGACA
BASF-Gm --------------------------------CAAACACCATGGTTATTCTTTAGGGACA
AT4g01320 --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
AF007269 GGATTAAATTTGCTTCTAAATTCTGTTGACAGCAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
PPI-AtCPP --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
BASF_AT2 --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
afc1 --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
BASF_AT1 --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
PPI-BnCPP --------------------------------CAAACAATATGGATGTTCATTAGGGACA
BASF-Corn --------------------------------CAAACTATATGGCTCTTCATTAGGGATA
                                *****   **** * *** ******* *
PPI-GmCPP TGCTTAAAGGAATTTTCCTTTCTGTAATAATTGGTCCACCTATTGTGGCTGCAATCATTG
BASF-Gm TGCTTAAAGGAATTTTCCTTTCCGTAATAATTGGTCCACCTATTGTGGCTGCAATCATTG
AT4g01320 TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTT
AF007269 TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTT
PPI-AtCPP TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTT
BASF_AT2 TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTT
afc1 TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCTGCGATAATTT
BASF_AT1 TGATCAAAGGAACATTCCTCTCTGTCATACTAGGCCCACCCATTGTTGCCGCGATAATTT
PPI-BnCPP TGATCAAAGGAATACTCCTCTCTGTCATACCTGCCCCTCCTATCGTTGCCGCAATTATTG
BASF-Corn TGATCAAAGGAATTTTACTATCCATGATATTGGGGCCACCAATCGTGGCTGCTATCATCT
** * *******   * ** **  * ***   *  ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **
PPI-GmCPP TAATAGTACAG-------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm TAATAGTACAG-------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 TCATAGTCCAG-------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TCATAGTCCAGGTTTGATGATTCTGGATTCATCTTATTTCTGAGTTTTTCACATGGATGA
PPI-AtCPP TCATAGTCCAG-------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 TCATAGTCCAG-------------------------------------------------
afc1 TCATAGTCCAG-------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 TCATAGTCCAG-------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP TTATAGTTCAG-------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ACATAGTACAG-------------------------------------------------
  ***** ***
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 CTATTCTCCATTGAGTGTGAGCTTCAAAGTTTTTAGTTTTCGTGTTAAAAATTTAAAATT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCATACTTGGCCATC
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCATACTTGGCCATC
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
AF007269 TGCTTCTCTGAGCATGAAGTTTCTATCTTTTTCCAGAAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
afc1 ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTATCTTGCCATC
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------AAAGGAGGTCCTTACCTCGCCATC
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------ATTGGAGGACCTTACCTGGCTATA
                                    *  ***** ** **  * ** **
PPI-GmCPP TATCTTTGGGTTTTTACGTTTGGTCTTTCTATTGTGATGATGACCCTTTATCCAGTACTA
BASF-Gm TATCTTTGGGTTTTTACGTTTGGTCTTTCTATTGTGATGATGACCCTTTATCCAGTACTA
AT4g01320 TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
AF007269 TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
PPI-AtCPP TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
BASF_AT2 TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
afc1 TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
BASF_AT1 TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCGGTCTTG
PPI-BnCPP TATCTGTGGGCATTCATGTTTATCCTGTCTCTAGTGATGATGACTATATACCCTGTTTTG
BASF-Corn TATCTCTGGGGTTTTATGTTTGTATTAGCTCTACTGATGATGACAATATACCCCATTGTG
***** ****  ** * ****    *  ** *  **********  * ** **  *  *
PPI-GmCPP ATAGCTCCACTCTTCAATAAGTTCACTCCA------------------------------
BASF-Gm ATAGCTCCACTCTTCAATAAGTTCACTCCA------------------------------
AT4g01320 ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
AF007269 ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCTGTGTGTATTTCTGTCATGGCCATTTTACAA
PPI-AtCPP ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAATTCACTCCT------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
afc1 ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ATAGCACCGCTCTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ATTGCACCTCTTTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
BASF-Corn ATAGCTCCTCTGTTCAACAAGTTCACTCCT------------------------------
** ** ** ** ***** ** ********
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 TTCACTGCTTGTTTGCATATGTTGTTACCAGACAATATAATCTCCCGCTTTTTTATGGCT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ----CTTCCAGATGGTCAACTCAGGGAGAAAATCGAGAAACTTGCTTCCTCCCTCAACTA
BASF-Gm ----CTTCCAGATGGTCAACTCAGGGAGAAAATCGAGAAACTTGCTTCCTCCCTCAACTA
AT4g01320 ----CTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
AF007269 ATAGCTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
PPI-AtCPP ----CTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCCCTAAAGTT
BASF_AT2 ----CTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
afc1 ----CTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
BASF_AT1 ----CTTCCAGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
PPI-BnCPP ----CTTCCTGATGGAGACCTCCGGGAGAAGATTGAGAAACTTGCTTCTTCTCTAAAGTT
BASF-Corn ----CTTCCTGAAGGAGTCCTCAGGGAAAAAATAGAGAAGCTGGCAGCTTCCCTCAAGTT
    ***** ** **    *** **** ** ** ***** ** **  * ** ** ** *
PPI-GmCPP TCCGTTAAAGAAACTATTTGTTGTCGATGGATCCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATG----
BASF-Gm TCCGTTAAAGAAACTATTTGTTGTCGATGGATCCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATG----
AT4g01320 TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATG----
AF007269 TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATGTGAG
PPI-AtCPP TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATG---
BASF_AT2 TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATG----
afc1 TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATG----
BASF_AT1 TCCTTTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGCAATG----
PPI-BnCPP TCCTCTGAAGAAGCTGTTTGTTGTCGATGGATCTACAAGGTCAAGCCATAGTAATG----
BASF-Corn TCCTTTGAAAAAGCTTTTCGTGGTAGATGGGTCTACCAGATCAAGCCACAGTAATG----
***  * ** ** ** ** ** ** ***** ** ** ** ***** ** ** ****
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 AAGCTTGAGATCTCTTCCTACCTACTTTACTCTAGTTTACCATTAGAAGCTTACGTATCT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ----------------CCTATATGTATGGATTCTTCAAGAACAAGAGGATTGTCCCTTAT
BASF-Gm ----------------CCTATATGTATGGATTCTTCAAGAACAAGAGGATTGTCCTTTAT
AT4g01320 ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
AF007269 TGTTACATCATACAGGCTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
PPI-AtCPP ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
BASF_AT2 ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
afc1 ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
BASF_AT1 ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTTAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
PPI-BnCPP ----------------CTTACATGTATGGTTTCTTCAAGAACAAAAGGATTGTTCTTTAT
BASF-Corn ----------------CCTACATGTATGGTTTTTTCAAGAACAAGCGCATAGTACTCTAT
                * ** ******** ** ** ********  * ** ** *  ***
PPI-GmCPP GACACATTAATTCAACAG------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm GACACATTAATTCAACAG------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 GATACGTTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
AF007269 GATACGTTGATTCAGCAGGTACTGTGACTCTTGATGCTTCAAACGAGCTATACTCACATT
PPI-AtCPP GATACGTTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 GATACGTTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
afc1 GATACGTTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 GATACGTTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP GACACATTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn GACACATTGATTCAGCAG------------------------------------------
** ** ** ***** ***
PPI-GmCPP --------------------------------------------TGCAAAGACGATGAGG
BASF-Gm --------------------------------------------TGCAAAGACGATGAGG
AT4g01320 --------------------------------------------TGCAAGAATGAGGATG
AF007269 TCTGTTTCTGGTTCTGAAACATAACATAATCTTCTATTGTGCAGTGCAAGAATGAGGATG
PPI-AtCPP --------------------------------------------TGCAAGAATGAGGATG
BASF_AT2 --------------------------------------------TGCAAGAATGAGGATG
afc1 --------------------------------------------TGCAAGAATGAGGATG
BASF_AT1 --------------------------------------------TGCAAGAATGAGGATG
PPI-BnCPP --------------------------------------------TGCCAGAATGAGAATG
BASF-Corn --------------------------------------------TGTAGCAATGAGGATG
                                            **     * **  * *
PPI-GmCPP AAATTGTTGCTGTTATTGCCCATGAGTTGGGACACTGGAAGCTCAACCATACTGTGTACA
BASF-Gm AAATTGTTGCTGTTATTGCCCATGAGTTGGGACACTGGAAGCTCAACCATACTGTGTACA
AT4g01320 AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
AF007269 AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
PPI-AtCPP AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
BASF_AT2 AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
afc1 AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
BASF_AT1 AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTTGGACATTGGAAACTGAATCACACTACATACT
PPI-BnCPP AAATTGTGGCGGTTATTGCACACGAGCTGGGACACTGGAAGCTGAATCACACTACATACT
BASF-Corn AGATAGTTTCTGTTATAGCACATGAACTTGGACACTGGAAACTCAATCATACTGTCTATT
* ** **  * ***** ** ** **  * ***** ***** ** ** ** ***   **
PPI-GmCPP CATTTGTTGCTATGCAG-------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm CATTTGTTGCTATGCAG-------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
AF007269 CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAAGTGAGGCTCAACCGACAGTTCAAAAACTTACTCACATCTACAT
PPI-AtCPP CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
afc1 CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 CGTTCATTGCAGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP CGTTCATTGCTGTTCAA-------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn CCTTTGTAGCTGTCCAG-------------------------------------------
* **  * **  * **
PPI-GmCPP ---------------------------------------------------ATTCTTACA
BASF-Gm ---------------------------------------------------ATTCTTACA
AT4g01320 ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
AF007269 TTCACTTAAGAAATCATGTCTTATGACCCTCTCTCAATGTTTTGCTTGCAGATCCTTGCC
PPI-AtCPP ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
BASF_AT2 ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
afc1 ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
BASF_AT1 ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
PPI-BnCPP ---------------------------------------------------ATCCTTGCC
BASF-Corn ---------------------------------------------------CTGCTTATG
                                                    * ***
PPI -GmCPP CTTCTACAATTTGGAGGATATACACTAGTGCGAAATTCAGCTGATCTGTATCGAAGCTTT
BASF-Gm CTTCTACAATTTGGAGGATATACACTAGTGCGAAATTCAGCTGATCTGTATCGAAGCTTT
AT4g01320 TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
AF007269 TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
PPI-AtCPP TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTCTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
BASF_AT2 TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
afc1 TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
BASF_AT1 TTCTTACAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTC
PPI-BnCPP TTCTTGCAATTTGGAGGATACACTCTTGTCAGAAACTCCACTGATCTCTTCAGGAGTTTT
BASF-Corn TTTCTTCAATTTGGAGGATATACTCTAGTAAGGAGCTCCAAAGATCTATTTGGAAGTTTT
 *  * ************** ** **  *  * *  **    ***** *   * ** **
PPI-GmCPP GGGTTTGATACGCAGCCAGTCCTCATTGGGCTCATCATATTTCAG---------------
BASF-Gm GGGTTTGATACGCAGCCAGTCCTCATTGGGCTCATCATATTTCAG---------------
AT4g01320 GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
AF007269 GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAGGTTTGTTATTTTTGC
PPI-AtCPP GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
BASF_AT2 GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
afc1 GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
BASF_AT1 GGATTTGATACACAGCCTGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
PPI-BnCPP GGTTTTGATACACAACCAGTTCTCATTGGTTTGATCATATTTCAG---------------
BASF-Corn GGCTTCAAGGACCAGCCAGTAATAATTGGATTGATCATTTTCCCG---------------
** **  *    ** ** **  * *****  * ***** ** * *
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 CTTTTGACACTAATCTAATGAATCAAGGATGGATTAAGAAAAAAAAACTCTAAACCTTTG
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ---------------------------CATACTGTAATCCCACTTCAGCAATTGGTCAGC
BASF-Gm ---------------------------CATACTGTAATCCCACTTCAGCAATTGGTCAGC
AT4g01320 ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGC
AF007269 GTTATATCTCCTGTCTGATTATCACAGCACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGC
PPI-AtCPP ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGC
BASF_AT2 ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGC
afc1 ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCTAGTAAGC
BASF_AT1 ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTGCAACATCCAGTAAGC
PPI-BnCPP ---------------------------CACACTGTAATACCACTTCAACACCTAGTAAGC
BASF-Corn ---------------------------CACACCATAATACCCATCCAACACCTTCTGAGC
                           ** **  **** **  * ** **     * ***
PPI-GmCPP TTTGGTCTGAACCTAGTCAGCCGATCATTTGAATTTCAGG--------------------
BASF-Gm TTTGGTCTGAACCTAGTCAGCCGATCATTTGAATTTCAGG--------------------
AT4g01320 TTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
AF007269 TTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGGTACCATCTTACAATCCCTCA
PPI-AtCPP TTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
BASF_AT2 TTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
afc1 TTTGGCCTGAACCTCGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
BASF_AT1 TTTGGCCTCAACCTTGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
PPI-BnCPP TTTGACCTCAACCTTGTTAGTCGAGCGTTTGAGTTTCAGG--------------------
BASF-Corn TTTCGCCTGAACCTTGTCAGCAGAGCATTTGAATTTCAGG--------------------
***   ** ***** ** **  ** * ***** *******
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 AGATCCAACCATAGTTTCTTTATTGCAATGGCAGCCTCATCTACTAATCTGAGTTAACGT
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP ------------CTGATGGCTTTGCCAAGAAGCTTGGATATGCATCTGGATTACGCGGTG
BASF-Gm ------------CTGATGGCTTTGCCAAGAAGCTTGGATATGCATCTGGATTACGCGGTG
AT4g01320 ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGGCTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTG
AF007269 TCCTTTTGCAGGCTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGGCTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTG
PPI-AtCPP ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGACTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTG
BASF_AT2 ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGGCTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTG
afc1 ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCCGTGAAGCTTGGCTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTG
BASF_AT1 ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCTGTGAAGCTTGGCTATGCAAAAGATCTTCGTCCTA
PPI-BnCPP ------------CTGATGCTTTTGCAGTGAATCTTGGTTATGCAAAGGATCTACGTCCTG
BASF-Corn ------------CTGATGCCTTTGCCAAGAACCTTGGATATGCCCCTCAGCTCCGAGCAG
            ******  *****   *** ****  *****        * **
PPI-GmCPP GTCTTGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm GTCTTGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGGTCAGAGAAGATAACAACAGAACACAAACTGTTACCTCAATTT
AF007269 CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGGTCAGAGAAGATAACAACAGAACACAAACTGTTACCTCAATTT
PPI-AtCPP CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
afc1 CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 CTCTAGTGAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP CCCTAGTGAAGCTACAGG------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn CCCTTGTTAAACTACAGG------------------------------------------
  ** ** ** *******
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------AGGAGAATCTGTCAGCTA
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------AGGAGAATCTGTCAGCTA
AT4g01320 GTGTCACACACTTAAATGGATTTTTTGTTGGGATTTTGCAGGAAGAGAACTTATCAGCAA
AF007269 GTGTCACACACTTAAATGGATTTTTTGTTGGGATTTTGCAGGAAGAGAACTTATCAGCAA
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------AAGAGAACTTATCAACAA
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------AAGAGAACTTATCAGCAA
afc1 ------------------------------------------AAGAGAACTTATCAGCAA
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------AAGAGAACTTATCAGCAA
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------AAGAGAACTTATCAGCGA
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------AGGAGAACTTGTCTGCGA
                                          * *****  * **  * *
PPI-GmCPP TGAATACAGATCCTTGGTACTCTGCTTATCACTATTCTCATCCTCCCCTTGTTGAAAGAT
BASF-Gm TGAATACAGATCCTTGCT--CGTGCCG---------------------------------
AT4g01320 TGAACACTGATCCATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
AF007269 TGAACACTGATCCATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
PPI-AtCPP TGAACACTGATCCATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
BASF_AT2 TGAAAACTGATCTATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
afc1 TGAACACTGATCCATTGCACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
BASF_AT1 TGAATACTGATCCATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACATCCTCCTCTTGTTGAAAGGC
PPI-BnCPP TGAACACAGACCCATTGTACTCAGCTTATCACTACTCACACCCTCCTCTTGTAGAGAGGC
BASF-Corn TGAACACCGATCCTTGGTATTCGGCATATCACTACTCCCACCCACCACTCGTCGAGAGGC
**** ** ** *  *        **
PPI-GmCPP TGGCCGCGCTGGACGA---ACCGGATAAGAAGGAAGACTAA-------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
AF007269 TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
PPI-AtCPP TTCGAGCCACTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
BASF_AT2 TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
afc1 TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
BASF_AT1 TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
PPI-BnCPP TTCGAGCCATTGATGG---AGAAGACAAGAAGACAGATTAA-------------------
BASF-Corn TGCAAGCTTTGGAAGATTCAGACGACAAAAAAGAAGATTAGTCGATCCTTGTATGAGGTT
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn TACATATGGATTTTTCCCTGCCACATGCACACCGATTCAGTGCTTGGATGGTGAGGGTTT
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn TGACATAGGAGTGTTGTCAAAGCTTTAGAGTGCATCTTTCGGTCAGGTGCAACAGCCTTT
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn CGGTCATTGAGACATATAAGCGAATTAGCTATTAAAAAAAACAGAACTGTTGCATCAAAA
PPI-GmCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ------------------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-AtCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ------------------------------------------------------------
afc1 ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ------------------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn AAAAAAAAAAAAAAGAAACAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAGAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
PPI-GmCPP ----------------------------------------------------
BASF-Gm ----------------------------------------------------
AT4g01320 ----------------------------------------------------
AF007269 ----------------------------------------------------
PPI-AtCPP ----------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT2 ----------------------------------------------------
afc1 ----------------------------------------------------
BASF_AT1 ----------------------------------------------------
PPI-BnCPP ----------------------------------------------------
BASF-Corn AAAAAGTGCTCTGCGTTGTTACCACTGCTTGCCCTATAGTGATCGTATCAGA

TABLE 18B
ClustalW Amino Acid Analysis of CaaX Prenyl Protease
 1: PPI-AtCPP SEQ ID NO: 98
 2: PPI-BnCPP SEQ ID NO: 110
 3: PPI-GmCPP SEQ ID NO: 113
 4: BASF_AT1 SEQ ID NO: 117
 5: BASF_AT2 SEQ ID NO: 119
 6: BASF-Corn SEQ ID NO: 121
 7: BASF-Gm SEQ ID NO: 123
 8: AFC1 SEQ ID NO: 125
 9: AT4g01320 SEQ ID NO: 127
10: AF007269 SEQ ID NO: 129
PPI-GmCPP MAFPYMEAVVGFMILMYIFETYLDVRQHRALKLPTLPKTLEG-------VISQEKFEKSR
BASF-Gm MAFPYMEAVVGFMILMYIFETYLDVRQHRALKLPTLPKTLEG-------VISQEKFEKSR
AF007269 MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLI-------------------
AT4g-AtCPP MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVGVISQEKFEKSRAYRDIIT
BASF_AT2 MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVG-------VISQEKFEKSR
AFC1 MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVG-------VISQEKFEKSR
BASF_AT1 MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVG-------VISQEKFEKSR
PPI-AtCPP MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYIFETYLDLRQLTALKLPTLPKTLVG-------VISQEKFEKSR
PPI-BnCPP MAIPFMETVVGFMIVMYVFETYLDLRQHTALKLPTLPKTLVG-------VISQEKFEKSR
BASF-Corn ------------------------------------------------------------
PPI-GmCPP AYSLDKSHFHFVHEFVTIVTDSTILYFGVLPWFWKKSGDFMTIAGFNAENEILHTLAFLA
BASF-Gm AYSLDKSHFHFVHEFVTIVTDSTILYFGVLPWFWKKSGDFMTIAGFNAENEILHTLAFLA
AF007269 ------------------------------------------------------------
AT4g-AtCPP ENFNICSYFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
BASF_AT2 AYSLDKSYFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
AFC1 AYSLDKSYFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
BASF_AT1 AYSLDKSYFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
PPI-AtCPP AYSLDKSYFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKMSGAVLPRLGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
PPI-BnCPP AYSLDKSHFHFVHEFVTILMDSAILFFGILPWFWKISGGFLPMVGLDPENEILHTLSFLA
BASF-Corn -------------------------------------------TRLSAENEIIHTLAFLA
PPI-GmCPP GLMIWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIEARHGFNKQTPWLFFRDMLKGIFLSVIIGPPIVAAIIVI
BASF-Gm GLMIWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIEARHGFNKQTPWLFFRDMLKGIFLSVIIGPPIVAAIIVI
AF007269 --------TDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
AT4g-AtCPP GVMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
BASF_AT2 GVMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
AFC1 GVMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
BASF_AT1 GVMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
PPI-AtCPP GVMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGTFLSVILGPPIVAAIIFI
PPI-BnCPP GLMTWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIESRHGFNKQTIWMFIRDMIKGILLSVIPAPPIVAAIIVI
BASF-Corn GSMVWSQITDLPFSLYSTFVIEARHGFNKQTIWLFIRDMIKGILLSMILGPPIVAAIIYI
        **************:******** *:*:***:** :**:* .******** *
PPI-GmCPP VQKGGPYLAIYLWVFTFGLSIVMMTLYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGQLREKIEKLASSLNYP
BASF-Gm VQKGGPYLAIYLWVFTFGLSIVMMTLYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGQLREKIEKLASSLNYP
AF007269 VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
AT4g-AtCPP VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
BASF_AT2 VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
AFC1 VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
BASF_AT1 VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
PPI-AtCPP VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
PPI-BnCPP VQKGGPYLAIYLWAFMFILSLVMMTIYPVLIAPLFNKFTPLPDGDLREKIEKLASSLKFP
BASF-Corn VQIGGPYLAIYLWGFMFVLALLMMTIYPIVIAPLFNKFTPLPEGVLREKIEKLAASLKFP
** ********** * * *:::***:**::************:* *********:**::*
PPI-GmCPP LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVPYDTLIQQCKDDEEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
BASF-Gm LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKDDEEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
AF007269 LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
AT4g-AtCPP LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
BASF_AT2 LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
AFC1 LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
BASF_AT1 LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
PPI-AtCPP LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCKNEDEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
PPI-BnCPP LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCQNENEIVAVIAHELGHWKLNH
BASF-Corn LKKLFVVDGSTRSSHSNAYMYGFFKNKRIVLYDTLIQQCSNEDEIVSVIAHELGHWKLNN
****************************** ********.:::***:*************
PPI-GmCPP TVYTFVAMQILTLLQFGGYTLVRNSADLYRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQQLVSFG
BASF-Gm TVYTFVAMQILTLLQFGGYTLVRNSADLYRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQQLVSFG
AF007269 TTYSFIAV--------------------------------------QHTVIPLQHLVSFG
AT4g-AtCPP TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFG
BASF_AT2 TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFG
AFC1 TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFG
BASF_AT1 TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHPVSFG
PPI-AtCPP TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLLRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFG
PPI-BnCPP TTYSFIAVQILAFLQFGGYTLVRNSTDLFRSFGFDTQPVLIGLIIFQHTVIPLQHLVSFD
BASF-Corn TVYSFVAVQLLMFLQFGGYTLVRSSKDLFGSFGFKDQPVIIGLIIFPHTIIPIQHLLSFR
*.*:*:*:                                       **:**:*: :**
PPI-GmCPP LNLVSRSFEFQADGFAKKLGYASGLRG---------------------------------
BASF-Gm LNLVSRSFEFQADGFAKKLGYASGLRG---------------------------------
AF007269 LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLGYAKDLR-------PALV----KLQVREDNNRTQ-------
AT4g-AtCPP LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLGYAKDLR-------PALV----KLQVREDNNRTQTVTSICV
BASF_AT2 LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLGYAKDLR-------PALV----KLQE---------------
AFC1 LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLGYAKDLR-------PALVKLQE-------------------
BASF_AT1 LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLGYAKDLRPTLVKLQ---------------------------
PPI-AtCPP LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVKLDYAKDLRPALVKLQ---------------------------
PPI-BnCPP LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAVNLGYAKDLRP---------------------------------
BASF-Corn LNLVSRAFEFQADAFAKNLGYAPQLR----------------------------------
******:******.** :*.**  **
PPI-GmCPP ------GLVKLQEENLSAMNTDPWYSAYHYSHPPLVERLAALDEPDKKED-
BASF-Gm ------GLVKLQEENLSAMNTDPCSC-------------------------
AF007269 -----------TEENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
AT4g-AtCPP THLNGFFVGILQEENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
BASF_AT2 -------------ENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
AFC1 -------------ENLSAMNTDPLHSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
BASF_AT1 ------------EENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
PPI-AtCPP ------------EENLSTMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRATDGEDKKTD-
PPI-BnCPP ------ALVKLQEENLSAMNTDPLYSAYHYSHPPLVERLRAIDGEDKKTD-
BASF-Corn -----AALVKLQEENLSAMNTDPWYSAYHYSHPPLVERLQALEDSDDKKED
             ****:*****  .

Example 32 Plant Transformation

Arabidopsis transgenic plants were made by the method of dipping flowering plants into an Agrobacterium culture, based on the method of Andrew Bent in, Clough S J and Bent A F, 1998. Floral dipping: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. Wild type plants were grown under standard conditions until the plant has both developing flowers and open flowers. The plant was inverted for 2 minutes into a solution of Agrobacterium culture carrying the appropriate gene construct. Plants were then left horizontal in a tray and kept covered for two days to maintain humidity and then righted and bagged to continue growth and seed development. Mature seed was bulk harvested.

Transformed T1 plants were selected by germination and growth on MS plates containing 50 μg/ml kanamycin. Green, kanamycin resistant (KanR) seedlings were identified after 2 weeks growth and transplanted to soil. Plants were bagged to ensure self fertilization and the T2 seed of each plant harvested separately. During growth of T1 plants leaf samples were harvested, DNA extracted and Southern blot and PCR analysis performed.

T2 seeds were analysed for KanR segregation. From those lines that showed a 3:1 resistant phenotype, surviving T2 plants were grown, bagged during seed set, and T3 seed harvested from each line. T3 seed was again used for KanR segregation analysis and those lines showing 100% KanR phenotype were selected as homozygous lines. Further molecular and physiological analysis was done using T3 seedlings.

Transgenic Brassica napus, Glycine max and Zea maize plants were produced using Agrobacterium mediated transformation of cotyledon petiole tissue. Seeds were sterilized as follows. Seeds were wetted with 95% ethanol for a short period of time such as 15 seconds. Approximately 30 ml of sterilizing solution I was added (70% Javex, 100 μl Tween20) and left for approximately 15 minutes. Solution I was removed and replaced with 30 ml of solution II (0.25% mercuric chloride, 100 μl Tween20) and incubated for about 10 minutes. Seeds were rinsed with at least 500 ml double distilled sterile water and stored in a sterile dish. Seeds were germinated on plates of ½ MS medium, pH 5.8, supplemented with 1% sucrose and 0.7% agar. Fully expanded cotyledons were harvested and placed on Medium I (Murashige minimal organics (MMO), 3% sucrose, 4.5 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA), 0.7% phytoagar, pH 5.8). An Agrobacterium culture containing the nucleic acid construct of interest was grown for 2 days in AB Minimal media. The cotyledon explants were dipped such that only the cut portion of the petiole is contacted by the Agrobacterium solution. The explants were then embedded in Medium I and maintained for 5 days at 24° C., with 16, 8 hr light dark cycles.

Explants were transferred to Medium II (Medium I, 300 mg/L timentin,) for a further 7 days and then to Medium III (Medium II, 20 mg/L kanamycin). Any root or shoot tissue which had developed at this time was dissected away. Transfer explants to fresh plates of Medium III after 14-21 days. When regenerated shoot tissue developed the regenerated tissue was transferred to Medium IV (MMO, 3% sucrose, 1.0% phytoagar, 300 mg/L timentin, 20 mg/L 20 mg/L kanamycin). Once healthy shoot tissue developed shoot tissue dissected from any callus tissue was dipped in 10× IBA and transferred to Medium V (Murashige and Skooge (MS), 3% sucrose, 0.2 mg/L indole butyric acid (IBA), 0.7% agar, 300 mg/L timentin, 20 mg/L 20 mg/L kanamycin) for rooting. Healthy plantlets were transferred to soil. The above method, with or without modifications, is suitable for the transformation of numerous plant species including Glycine max, Zea maize and cotton.

Transgenic Glycine max, Zea maize and cotton can be produced using Agrobacterium-based methods which are known to one of skill in the art. Alternatively one can use a particle or non-particle biolistic bombardment transformation method. An example of non-particle biolistic transformation is given in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 20010026941. This method has been used to produce transgenic Glycine max and Zea maize plants. Viable plants are propagated and homozygous lines are generated. Plants are tested for the presence of drought tolerance, physiological and biochemical phenotypes as described elsewhere.

The following table identifies the constructs and the species which they have been transformed.

TABLE 19
Transformation List
SEQ ID NO: Construct Species Transformed
 99 pBII121-AtCPP A. thaliana, B. napus
100 pBII121-HP-AtCPP A. thaliana
131 pRD29A-AtCPP A. thaliana, B. napus
132 pRD29A-HP-AtCPP A. thaliana
134 MuA-AtCPP Glycine max, Zea mays

Non-limiting examples of vector constructs suitable for plant transformation are given in SEQ ID NO: 99, 5, 35-53.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 99
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc

SEQ ID NO:99 is the nucleic acid sequence of pBI121-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the 35S promoter and bolded sequence is the AtCPP sense sequence.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 100
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctqagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatcctcccaatgtccaagctcgtgtgcaataaccgccacaatttcatcctcattcttgcactg
ctgaatcaacgtatcataaagaacaatccttttgttcttaaagaaaccatacatgtaagcattg
ctatggcttgaccttgtagatccatcgacaacaaacagcttcttcaaaggaaactttagggaag
aagcaagtttctcaatcttctcccggaggtctccatctggaagaggagtgaatttgttgaagag
cggtgctatcaagaccgggtatatagtcatcatcactagagacaggataaacatgaatgcccac
agatagatggcaagataaggacctcctttctggactatgaaaattatcgcagcaacaatgggtg
ggcctagtatgacagagaggaatgttcctttgatcatgtccctaatgaacatccatattgtttg
tttgttgaacccatgccgagactcgatcacgaaagttgagtacaaagaaaatggcaaatcagtg
atctgtgaccatgtcataacaccagccaagaatgaaagagtatgcagtatttcattctccggat
caaggcccaacctcggtaaaagaggatccccATCTACCCGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTG
GCAGTGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATTAACCACAAACCGTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTC
ATGAAGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAGGATTCGATAACGTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATT
AATGGACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTACCGTACCTCGCATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTC
GACTGGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTGGTGATTGATGAAACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCT
CTTTAGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCAACAAGCCGAAAGAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAA
CGGGGAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACAGGCGATTAAAGAGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCAC
CCAAGCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCCAACGAACCGGATACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAAT
ATTTCGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGCGTAAACTCGACCCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAA
TGTAATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGATACCATCAGCGATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAAC
CGTTATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGCGGCGATTTGGAAACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAG
AACTTCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGTACACCGACATGTGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATG
GCTGGATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGATCGCGTCAGCGCCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAAT
TTCGCCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGCATATTGCGCGTTGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCA
CTCGCGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGGCTTTTCTGCTGCAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTT
CGGTGAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAAACAATGAATCAACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCG
GCTACAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAGCTC ttttaccgaggttgggccttgatccggagaatga
aatactgcatactctttcattcttggctggtgttatgacatggtcacagatcactgatttgcca
ttttctttgtactcaactttcgtgatcgagtctcggcatgggttcaacaaacaaacaatatgga
tgttcattagggacatgatcaaaggaacattcctctctgtcatactaggcccacccattgttgc
tgcgataattttcatagtccagaaaggaggtccttatcttgccatctatctgtgggcattcatg
tttatcctgtctctagtgatgatgactatatacccggtcttgatagcaccgctcttcaacaaat
tcactcctcttccagatggagacctccgggagaagattgagaaacttgcttcttccctaaagtt
tcctttgaagaagctgtttgttgtcgatggatctacaaggtcaagccatagcaatgcttacatg
tatggtttctttaagaacaaaaggattgttctttatgatacgttgattcagcagtgcaagaatg
aggatgaaattgtggcggttattgcacacgagcttggacattgg gagctcgaatttccccgatc
gttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattat
catataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttattt
atgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaa
tatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaatt
cactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgcct
tgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcc
caacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacg
ttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctt
tacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctg
atagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaa
actggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgattt
cggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaa
ctctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaa
ccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgttta
caccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:100 is the nucleic acid sequence of pBI121-HP-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the 35S promoter and bolded sequence is the AtCPP anti-sense sequence. Sequence in upper case is the truncated GUS fragment. Sequence in bold and underlined is the AtCPP sense sequence.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 130
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagcccacagatggttagagaggcttacgcagcaggtctcatcaagacg
atctacccgagcaataatctccaggaaatcaaataccttcccaagaaggttaaagatgcagtca
aaagattcaggactaactgcatcaagaacacagagaaagatatatttctcaagatcagaagtac
tattccagtatggacgattcaaggcttgcttcacaaaccaaggcaagtaatagagattggagtc
tctaaaaaggtagttcccactgaatcaaaggccatggagtcaaagattcaaatagaggacctaa
cagaactcgccgtaaagactggcgaacagttcatacagagtctcttacgactcaatgacaagaa
gaaaatcttcgtcaacatggtggagcacgacacacttgtctactccaaaaatatcaaagataca
gtctcagaagaccaaagggcaattgagacttttcaacaaagggtaatatccggaaacctcctcg
gattccattgcccagctatctgtcactttattgtgaagatagtggaaaaggaaggtggctccta
caaatgccatcattgcgataaaggaaaggccatcgttgaagatgcctctgccgacagtggtccc
aaagatggacccccacccacgaggagcatcgtggaaaaagaagacgttccaaccacgtcttcaa
agcaagtggattgatgtgatatctccactgacgtaagggatgacgcacaatcccactatccttc
gcaagacccttcctctatataaggaagttcatttcatttggagagaacacgggggactctagag
gatccTTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCATCAGTGGCTCGAAGCCTTTCAACAAGAGGAGGAT
GTGAGTAGTGATAAGCTGAGTACAATGGATCAGTGTTCATTGTTGATAAGTTCTCTTCCTGTAG
TTTCACTAGAGCAGGACGAAGATCTTTTGCATAGTCAAGCTTCACAGCAAAAGCATCAGCCTGA
AACTCAAACGCTCGACTAACGAGGTTCAGGCCAAAGCTTACTAGATGTTGCAGTGGTATTACAG
TGTGCTGAAATATGATCAAACCAATGAGAACAGGCTGTGTATCAAATCCGAAACTCCTGAAGAG
ATCAGTGGAGTTTCTGAGAAGAGTGTATCCTCCAAATTGTAAGAAGGCAAGGATTTGAACTGCA
ATGAACGAGTATGTAGTGTGATTCAGTTTCCAATGTCCAAGCTCGTGTGCAATAACCGCCACAA
TTTCATCCTCATTCTTGCACTGCTGAATCAACGTATCATAAAGAACAATCCTTTTGTTCTTAAA
GAAACCATACATGTAAGCATTGCTATGGCTTGACCTTGTAGATCCATCGACAACAAACAGCTTC
TTCAAAGGAAACTTTAGGGAAGAAGCAAGTTTCTCAATCTTCTCCCGGAGGTCTCCATCTGGAA
GAGGAGTGAATTTGTTGAAGAGCGGTGCTATCAAGACCGGGTATATAGTCATCATCACTAGAGA
CAGGATAAACATGAATGCCCACAGATAGATGGCAAGATAAGGACCTCCTTTCTGGACTATGAAA
ATTATCGCAGCAACAATGGGTGGGCCTAGTATGACAGAGAGGAATGTTCCTTTGATCATGTCCC
TAATGAACATCCATATTGTTTGTTTGTTGAACCCATGCCGAGACTCGATCACGAAAGTTGAGTA
CAAAGAAAATGGCAAATCAGTGATCTGTGACCATGTCATAACACCAGCCAAGAATGAAAGAGTA
TGCAGTATTTCATTCTCCGGATCAAGGCCCAACCTCGGTAAAACAGCTCCAGACATCTTCCAAA
ACCAAGGCAAGATCCCAAAGAACAAAATTGCAGAGTCCATAAGTATAGTTACAAACTCATGAAC
AAAGTGAAAATAGCTTTTGTCAAGACTGTATGCTCGTGATTTCTCAAACTTCTCTTGGCTAATT
ACACCAACCAAGGTTTTCGGGAGAGTTGGAAGCTTGAGAGCAGTGAGTTGCCTCAGATCCAAAT
ACGTCTCAAAAATGTACATCACTATCATAAAACCCACGACGGTTTCCATGAAAGGAATCGCCAT
cccctcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgtt
gccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaaca
tgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacattta
atacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatct
atgttactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggc
gttacccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagagg
cccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttct
tcccttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctcccttt
agggttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttca
cgtagtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttcttta
atagtggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgattt
ataagggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaacca
gcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgt
ctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttg
tctaagcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:130 is the nucleic acid sequence of pBI121-antisense-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the 35S promoter. Sequence in upper case is the AtCPP anti-sense sequence.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 131
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaaggactctagaggatc
catggcgattcctttcatggaaaccgtcgtgggttttatgatagtgatgtacatttttgagacg
tatttggatctgaggcaactcactgctctcaagcttccaactctcccgaaaaccttggttggtg
taattagccaagagaagtttgagaaatcacgagcatacagtcttgacaaaagctattttcactt
tgttcatgagtttgtaactatacttatggactctgcaattttgttctttgggatcttgccttgg
ttttggaagatgtctggagctgttttaccgaggttgggccttgatccggagaatgaaatactgc
atactctttcattcttggctggtgttatgacatggtcacagatcactgatttgccattttcttt
gtactcaactttcgtgatcgagtctcggcatgggttcaacaaacaaacaatatggatgttcatt
agggacatgatcaaaggaacattcctctctgtcatactaggcccacccattgttgctgcgataa
ttttcatagtccagaaaggaggtccttatcttgccatctatctgtgggcattcatgtttatcct
gtctctagtgatgatgactatatacccggtcttgatagcaccgctcttcaacaaattcactcct
cttccagatggagacctccgggagaagattgagaaacttgcttcttccctaaagtttcctttga
agaagctgtttgttgtcgatggatctacaaggtcaagccatagcaatgcttacatgtatggttt
ctttaagaacaaaaggattgttctttatgatacgttgattcagcagtgcaagaatgaggatgaa
attgtggcggttattgcacacgagcttggacattggaaactgaatcacactacatactcgttca
ttgcagttcaaatccttgccttcttacaatttggaggatacactcttctcagaaactccactga
tctcttcaggagtttcggatttgatacacagcctgttctcattggtttgatcatatttcagcac
actgtaataccactgcaacatctagtaagctttggcctgaacctcgttagtcgagcgtttgagt
ttcaggctgatgcttttgctgtgaagcttgactatgcaaaagatcttcgtcctgctctagtgaa
actacaggaagagaacttatcaacaatgaacactgatccattgtactcagcttatcactactca
catcctcctcttgttgaaaggcttcgagccactgatggagaagacaagaagacagattaacccc
tcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccg
gtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgta
atgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatac
gcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgt
tactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgtta
cccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccg
caccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttccc
ttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttaggg
ttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgta
gtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatag
tggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataa
gggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgt
ggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctca
ctggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtcta
agcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:131 is the nucleic acid sequence of RD29A-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the RD29A promoter. Sequence in bold is the AtCPP sense sequence.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 132
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaaggactctagaggatc
ctcccaatgtccaagctcgtgtgcaataaccgccacaatttcatcctcattcttgcactgctga
atcaacgtatcataaagaacaatccttttgttcttaaagaaaccatacatgtaagcattgctat
ggcttgaccttgtagatccatcgacaacaaacagcttcttcaaaggaaactttagggaagaagc
aagtttctcaatcttctcccggaggtctccatctggaagaggagtgaatttgttgaagagcggt
gctatcaagaccgggtatatagtcatcatcactagagacaggataaacatgaatgcccacagat
agatggcaagataaggacctcctttctggactatgaaaattatcgcagcaacaatgggtgggcc
tagtatgacagagaggaatgttcctttgatcatgtccctaatgaacatccatattgtttgtttg
ttgaacccatgccgagactcgatcacgaaagttgagtacaaagaaaatggcaaatcagtgatct
gtgaccatgtcataacaccagccaagaatgaaagagtatgcagtatttcattctccggatcaag
gcccaacctcggtaaaagaggatccccATCTACCCGCTTCGCGTCGGCATCCGGTCAGTGGCAG
TGAAGGGCGAACAGTTCCTGATTAACCACAAACCGTTCTACTTTACTGGCTTTGGTCGTCATGA
AGATGCGGACTTGCGTGGCAAAGGATTCGATAACGTGCTGATGGTGCACGACCACGCATTAATG
GACTGGATTGGGGCCAACTCCTACCGTACCTCGCATTACCCTTACGCTGAAGAGATGCTCGACT
GGGCAGATGAACATGGCATCGTGGTGATTGATGAAACTGCTGCTGTCGGCTTTTCGCTCTCTTT
AGGCATTGGTTTCGAAGCGGGCAACAAGCCGAAAGAACTGTACAGCGAAGAGGCAGTCAACGGG
GAAACTCAGCAAGCGCACTTACAGGCGATTAAAGAGCTGATAGCGCGTGACAAAAACCACCCAA
GCGTGGTGATGTGGAGTATTGCCAACGAACCGGATACCCGTCCGCAAGGTGCACGGGAATATTT
CGCGCCACTGGCGGAAGCAACGCGTAAACTCGACCCGACGCGTCCGATCACCTGCGTCAATGTA
ATGTTCTGCGACGCTCACACCGATACCATCAGCGATCTCTTTGATGTGCTGTGCCTGAACCGTT
ATTACGGATGGTATGTCCAAAGCGGCGATTTGGAAACGGCAGAGAAGGTACTGGAAAAAGAACT
TCTGGCCTGGCAGGAGAAACTGTACACCGACATGTGGAGTGAAGAGTATCAGTGTGCATGGCTG
GATATGTATCACCGCGTCTTTGATCGCGTCAGCGCCGTCGTCGGTGAACAGGTATGGAATTTCG
CCGATTTTGCGACCTCGCAAGGCATATTGCGCGTTGGCGGTAACAAGAAAGGGATCTTCACTCG
CGACCGCAAACCGAAGTCGGCGGCTTTTCTGCTGCAAAAACGCTGGACTGGCATGAACTTCGGT
GAAAAACCGCAGCAGGGAGGCAAACAATGAATCAACAACTCTCCTGGCGCACCATCGTCGGCTA
CAGCCTCGGGAATTGCTACCGAGCTC ttttaccgaggttgggccttgatccggagaatgaaata
ctgcatactctttcattcttggctggtgttatgacatggtcacagatcactgatttgccatttt
ctttgtactcaactttcgtgatcgagtctcggcatgggttcaacaaacaaacaatatggatgtt
cattagggacatgatcaaaggaacattcctctctgtcatactaggcccacccattgttgctgcg
ataattttcatagtccagaaaggaggtccttatcttgccatctatctgtgggcattcatgttta
tcctgtctctagtgatgatgactatatacccggtcttgatagcaccgctcttcaacaaattcac
tcctcttccagatggagacctccgggagaagattgagaaacttgcttcttccctaaagtttcct
ttgaagaagctgtttgttgtcgatggatctacaaggtcaagccatagcaatgcttacatgtatg
gtttctttaagaacaaaaggattgttctttatgatacgttgattcagcagtgcaagaatgagga
tgaaattgtggcggttattgcacacgagcttggacattgggag ctcgaatttccccgatcgttc
aaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcata
taatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatga
gatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatata
gcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattcact
ggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttgca
gcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcccaac
agttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgttcg
ccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctttacg
gcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgatag
acggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaactg
gaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcgga
accaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaactct
ctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaaccac
cccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttacacc
acaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:132 is the nucleic acid sequence of RD29A-HP-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the RD29A promoter. Sequence in bold is the AtCPP anti-sense sequence. Upper case sequence represents the truncated GUS fragment. Bold and underlined sequence represents the A. thaliana CaaX prenyl protease sense fragment.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 133
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagcttgcatgcctgcagggagccatagatgcaattcaatcaaactgaaatttctgcaagaatc
tcaaacacggagatctcaaagtttgaaagaaaatttatttcttcgactcaaaacaaacttacga
aatttaggtagaacttatatacattatattgtaattttttgtaacaaaatgtttttattattat
tatagaattttactggttaaattaaaaatgaatagaaaaggtgaattaagaggagagaggaggt
aaacattttcttctattttttcatattttcaggataaattattgtaaaagtttacaagatttcc
atttgactagtgtaaatgaggaatattctctagtaagatcattatttcatctacttcttttatc
ttctaccagtagaggaataaacaatatttagctcctttgtaaatacaaattaattttccttctt
gacatcattcaattttaattttacgtataaaataaaagatcatacctattagaacgattaagga
gaaatacaattcgaatgagaaggatgtgccgtttgttataataaacagccacacgacgtaaacg
taaaatgaccacatgatgggccaatagacatggaccgactactaataatagtaagttacatttt
aggatggaataaatatcataccgacatcagttttgaaagaaaagggaaaaaaagaaaaaataaa
taaaagatatactaccgacatgagttccaaaaagcaaaaaaaaagatcaagccgacacagacac
gcgtagagagcaaaatgactttgacgtcacaccacgaaaacagacgcttcatacgtgtcccttt
atctctctcagtctctctataaacttagtgagaccctcctctgttttactcacaaatatgcaaa
ctagaaaacaatcatcaggaataaagggtttgattacttctattggaaaggactctagaggatc
cTTAATCTGTCTTCTTGTCTTCTCCATCAGTGGCTCGAAGCCTTTCAACAAGAGGAGGATGTGA
GTAGTGATAAGCTGAGTACAATGGATCAGTGTTCATTGTTGATAAGTTCTCTTCCTGTAGTTTC
ACTAGAGCAGGACGAAGATCTTTTGCATAGTCAAGCTTCACAGCAAAAGCATCAGCCTGAAACT
CAAACGCTCGACTAACGAGGTTCAGGCCAAAGCTTACTAGATGTTGCAGTGGTATTACAGTGTG
CTGAAATATGATCAAACCAATGAGAACAGGCTGTGTATCAAATCCGAAACTCCTGAAGAGATCA
GTGGAGTTTCTGAGAAGAGTGTATCCTCCAAATTGTAAGAAGGCAAGGATTTGAACTGCAATGA
ACGAGTATGTAGTGTGATTCAGTTTCCAATGTCCAAGCTCGTGTGCAATAACCGCCACAATTTC
ATCCTCATTCTTGCACTGCTGAATCAACGTATCATAAAGAACAATCCTTTTGTTCTTAAAGAAA
CCATACATGTAAGCATTGCTATGGCTTGACCTTGTAGATCCATCGACAACAAACAGCTTCTTCA
AAGGAAACTTTAGGGAAGAAGCAAGTTTCTCAATCTTCTCCCGGAGGTCTCCATCTGGAAGAGG
AGTGAATTTGTTGAAGAGCGGTGCTATCAAGACCGGGTATATAGTCATCATCACTAGAGACAGG
ATAAACATGAATGCCCACAGATAGATGGCAAGATAAGGACCTCCTTTCTGGACTATGAAAATTA
TCGCAGCAACAATGGGTGGGCCTAGTATGACAGAGAGGAATGTTCCTTTGATCATGTCCCTAAT
GAACATCCATATTGTTTGTTTGTTGAACCCATGCCGAGACTCGATCACGAAAGTTGAGTACAAA
GAAAATGGCAAATCAGTGATCTGTGACCATGTCATAACACCAGCCAAGAATGAAAGAGTATGCA
GTATTTCATTCTCCGGATCAAGGCCCAACCTCGGTAAAACAGCTCCAGACATCTTCCAAAACCA
AGGCAAGATCCCAAAGAACAAAATTGCAGAGTCCATAAGTATAGTTACAAACTCATGAACAAAG
TGAAAATAGCTTTTGTCAAGACTGTATGCTCGTGATTTCTCAAACTTCTCTTGGCTAATTACAC
CAACCAAGGTTTTCGGGAGAGTTGGAAGCTTGAGAGCAGTGAGTTGCCTCAGATCCAAATACGT
CTCAAAAATGTACATCACTATCATAAAACCCACGACGGTTTCCATGAAAGGAATCGCCATcccc
tcgaatttccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccg
gtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgta
atgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatac
gcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgt
tactagatcgggaattcactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgtta
cccaacttaatcgccttgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccg
caccgatcgcccttcccaacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttccc
ttcctttctcgccacgttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttaggg
ttccgatttagtgctttacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgta
gtgggccatcgccctgatagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatag
tggactcttgttccaaactggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataa
gggattttgccgatttcggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgt
ggaccgcttgctgcaactctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctca
ctggtgaaaagaaaaaccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtcta
agcgtcaatttgtttacaccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:133 is the nucleic acid sequence of RD29A-antisense-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Underlined sequence is the RD29A promoter. Sequence in upper case sequence is the AtCPP anti-sense sequence.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 134
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagctGGGAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCT
ATCTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGA
TAACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCC
CATGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGT
AGTATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTA
TATAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGGGGGATCCatggcgattcctttcat
ggaaaccgtcgtgggttttatgatagtgatgtacatttttgagacgtatttggatctgaggcaa
ctcactgctctcaagcttccaactctcccgaaaaccttggttggtgtaattagccaagagaagt
ttgagaaatcacgagcatacagtcttgacaaaagctattttcactttgttcatgagtttgtaac
tatacttatggactctgcaattttgttctttgggatcttgccttggttttggaagatgtctgga
gctgttttaccgaggttgggccttgatccggagaatgaaatactgcatactctttcattcttgg
ctggtgttatgacatggtcacagatcactgatttgccattttctttgtactcaactttcgtgat
cgagtctcggcatgggttcaacaaacaaacaatatggatgttcattagggacatgatcaaagga
acattcctctctgtcatactaggcccacccattgttgctgcgataattttcatagtccagaaag
gaggtccttatcttgccatctatctgtgggcattcatgtttatcctgtctctagtgatgatgac
tatatacccggtcttgatagcaccgctcttcaacaaattcactcctcttccagatggagacctc
cgggagaagattgagaaacttgcttcttccctaaagtttcctttgaagaagctgtttgttgtcg
atggatctacaaggtcaagccatagcaatgcttacatgtatggtttctttaagaacaaaaggat
tgttctttatgatacgttgattcagcagtgcaagaatgaggatgaaattgtggcggttattgca
cacgagcttggacattggaaactgaatcacactacatactcgttcattgcagttcaaatccttg
ccttcttacaatttggaggatacactcttctcagaaactccactgatctcttcaggagtttcgg
atttgatacacagcctgttctcattggtttgatcatatttcagcacactgtaataccactgcaa
catctagtaagctttggcctgaacctcgttagtcgagcgtttgagtttcaggctgatgcttttg
ctgtgaagcttgactatgcaaaagatcttcgtcctgctctagtgaaactacaggaagagaactt
atcaacaatgaacactgatccattgtactcagcttatcactactcacatcctcctcttgttgaa
aggcttcgagccactgatggagaagacaagaagacagattaacccctcgaatttccccgatcgt
tcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatca
tataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttat
gagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaata
tagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaattca
ctggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgccttg
cagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttccca
acagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacgtt
cgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgcttta
cggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctgat
agacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaaac
tggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgatttcg
gaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaact
ctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaacc
accccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgtttaca
ccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:134 is the nucleic acid sequence of MuA-AtCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Sequence in upper case is the MuA promoter. The A. thaliana CaaX prenyl protease sense sequence is in bold.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 135
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcaggacgaggca
gcgcggctatcgtggctggccacgacgggcgttccttgcgcagctgtgctcgacgttgtcactg
aagcgggaagggactggctgctattgggcgaagtgccggggcaggatctcctgtcatctcacct
tgctcctgccgagaaagtatccatcatggctgatgcaatgcggcggctgcatacgcttgatccg
gctacctgcccattcgaccaccaagcgaaacatcgcatcgagcgagcacgtactcggatggaag
ccggtcttgtcgatcaggatgatctggacgaagagcatcaggggctcgcgccagccgaactgtt
cgccaggctcaaggcgcgcatgcccgacggcgatgatctcgtcgtgacccatggcgatgcctgc
ttgccgaatatcatggtggaaaatggccgcttttctggattcatcgactgtggccggctgggtg
tggcggaccgctatcaggacatagcgttggctacccgtgatattgctgaagagcttggcggcga
atgggctgaccgcttcctcgtgctttacggtatcgccgctcccgattcgcagcgcatcgccttc
tatcgccttcttgacgagttcttctgagcgggactctggggttcgaaatgaccgaccaagcgac
gcccaacctgccatcacgagatttcgattccaccgccgccttctatgaaaggttgggcttcgga
atcgttttccgggacgccggctggatgatcctccagcgcggggatctcatgctggagttcttcg
cccacgggatctctgcggaacaggcggtcgaaggtgccgatatcattacgacagcaacggccga
caagcacaacgccacgatcctgagcgacaatatgatcgggcccggcgtccacatcaacggcgtc
ggcggcgactgcccaggcaagaccgagatgcaccgcgatatcttgctgcgttcggatattttcg
tggagttcccgccacagacccggatgatccccgatcgttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttctt
aagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattatcatataatttctgttgaattacgttaag
catgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttatttatgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcc
cgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaatatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatc
gcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggcctcctgtcaatgctggcggcggctctggtgg
tggttctggtggcggctctgagggtggtggctctgagggtggcggttctgagggtggcggctct
gagggaggcggttccggtggtggctctggttccggtgattttgattatgaaaagatggcaaacg
ctaataagggggctatgaccgaaaatgccgatgaaaacgcgctacagtctgacgctaaaggcaa
acttgattctgtcgctactgattacggtgctgctatcgatggtttcattggtgacgtttccggc
cttgctaatggtaatggtgctactggtgattttgctggctctaattcccaaatggctcaagtcg
gtgacggtgataattcacctttaatgaataatttccgtcaatatttaccttccctccctcaatc
ggttgaatgtcgcccttttgtctttggcccaatacgcaaaccgcctctccccgcgcgttggccg
attcattaatgcagctggcacgacaggtttcccgactggaaagcgggcagtgagcgcaacgcaa
ttaatgtgagttagctcactcattaggcaccccaggctttacactttatgcttccggctcgtat
gttgtgtggaattgtgagcggataacaatttcacacaggaaacagctatgaccatgattacgcc
aagctGGGAAATTTTTCGCCAGTTCTAAATATCCGGAAACCTCTTGGGATGCCATTGCCCATCT
ATCTGTAATTTATTGACGAAATAGACGAAAAGGAAGGTGGCTCCTATAAAGCACATCATTGCGA
TAACAGAAAGGCCATTGTTGAAGATACCTCTGCTGACATTGGTCCCCAAGTGGAAGCACCACCC
CATGAGGAGCACCGTGGAGTAAGAAGACGTTCGAGCCACGTCGAAAAAGCAAGTGTGTTGATGT
AGTATCTCCATTGACGTAAGGGATGACGCACAATCCAACTATCCATCGCAAGACCATTGCTCTA
TATAAGAAAGTTAATATCATTTCGAGTGGCCACGCTGAGGGGGATCGGGATGGCGTTTCCCTAC
ATGGAAGCCGTTGTCGGATTTATGATATTAATGTACATTTTTGAAACTTACTTGGATGTGCGAC
AACATAGGGCCCTCAAACTTCCTACTCTTCCAAAGACTTTAGAGGGTGTTATCAGCCAAGAGAA
ATTTGAGAAATCTAGAGCCTATAGTCTTGATAAAAGCCACTTCCATTTTGTTCACGAGTTTGTG
ACAATAGTGACAGACTCTACAATTTTGTACTTTGGGGTATTGCCCTGGTTTTGGAAGAAATCAG
GAGATTTTATGACAATAGCTGGTTTCAATGCTGAGAATGAAATACTGCATACCCTTGCCTTCTT
AGCAGGGCTGATGATTTGGTCACAGATAACAGATTTGCCCTTTTCTCTGTACTCAACTTTTGTG
ATTGAGGCCCGTCATGGTTTTAATAAGCAAACACCATGGTTATTCTTTAGGGACATGCTTAAAG
GAATTTTCCTTTCTGTAATAATTGGTCCACCTATTGTGGCTGCAATCATTGTAATAGTACAGAA
AGGAGGTCCATACTTGGCCATCTATCTTTGGGTTTTTACGTTTGGTCTTTCTATTGTGATGATG
ACCCTTTATCCAGTACTAATAGCTCCACTCTTCAATAAGTTCACTCCACTTCCAGATGGTCAAC
TCAGGGAGAAAATCGAGAAACTTGCTTCCTCCCTCAACTATCCGTTAAAGAAACTATTTGTTGT
CGATGGATCCACAAGATCAAGTCACAGCAATGCCTATATGTATGGATTCTTCAAGAACAAGAGG
ATTGTCCCTTATGACACATTAATTCAACAGTGCAAAGACGATGAGGAAATTGTTGCTGTTATTG
CCCATGAGTTGGGACACTGGAAGCTCAACCATACTGTGTACACATTTGTTGCTATGCAGATTCT
TACACTTCTACAATTTGGAGGATATACACTAGTGCGAAATTCAGCTGATCTGTATCGAAGCTTT
GGGTTTGATACGCAGCCAGTCCTCATTGGGCTCATCATATTTCAGCATACTGTAATCCCACTTC
AGCAATTGGTCAGCTTTGGTCTGAACCTAGTCAGCCGATCATTTGAATTTCAGGCTGATGGCTT
TGCCAAGAAGCTTGGATATGCATCTGGATTACGCGGTGGTCTTGTGAAACTACAGGAGGAGAAT
CTGTCAGCTATGAATACAGATCCTTGGTACTCTGCTTATCACTATTCTCATCCTCCCCTTGTTG
AAAGATTGGCCGCGCTGGACGAACCGGATAAGAAGGAAGACTAAgagctcgaatttccccgatc
gttcaaacatttggcaataaagtttcttaagattgaatcctgttgccggtcttgcgatgattat
catataatttctgttgaattacgttaagcatgtaataattaacatgtaatgcatgacgttattt
atgagatgggtttttatgattagagtcccgcaattatacatttaatacgcgatagaaaacaaaa
tatagcgcgcaaactaggataaattatcgcgcgcggtgtcatctatgttactagatcgggaatt
cactggccgtcgttttacaacgtcgtgactgggaaaaccctggcgttacccaacttaatcgcct
tgcagcacatccccctttcgccagctggcgtaatagcgaagaggcccgcaccgatcgcccttcc
caacagttgcgcagcctgaatggcgcccgctcctttcgctttcttcccttcctttctcgccacg
ttcgccggctttccccgtcaagctctaaatcgggggctccctttagggttccgatttagtgctt
tacggcacctcgaccccaaaaaacttgatttgggtgatggttcacgtagtgggccatcgccctg
atagacggtttttcgccctttgacgttggagtccacgttctttaatagtggactcttgttccaa
actggaacaacactcaaccctatctcgggctattcttttgatttataagggattttgccgattt
cggaaccaccatcaaacaggattttcgcctgctggggcaaaccagcgtggaccgcttgctgcaa
ctctctcagggccaggcggtgaagggcaatcagctgttgcccgtctcactggtgaaaagaaaaa
ccaccccagtacattaaaaacgtccgcaatgtgttattaagttgtctaagcgtcaatttgttta
caccacaatatatcctgcca

SEQ ID NO:135 is the nucleic acid sequence of MuA-GmCPP. Italicized sequences are the right and left border repeats. Sequence in upper case is the MuA promoter. The G. max CaaX prenyl protease sense sequence is in upper case and bold.

gtttacccgccaatatatcctgtcaaacactgatagtttaaactgaaggcgggaaacgacaatc SEQ ID NO: 136
tgatcatgagcggagaattaagggagtcacgttatgacccccgccgatgacgcgggacaagccg
ttttacgtttggaactgacagaaccgcaacgttgaaggagccactcagccgcgggtttctggag
tttaatgagctaagcacatacgtcagaaaccattattgcgcgttcaaaagtcgcctaaggtcac
tatcagctagcaaatatttcttgtcaaaaatgctccactgacgttccataaattcccctcggta
tccaattagagtctcatattcactctcaatccaaataatctgcaccggatctggatcgtttcgc
atgattgaacaagatggattgcacgcaggttctccggccgcttgggtggagaggctattcggct
atgactgggcacaacagacaatcggctgctctgatgccgccgtgttccggctgtcagcgcaggg
gcgcccggttctttttgtcaagaccgacctgtccggtgccctgaatgaactgcagga