US 20060041994 A1
An apparatus and method allows for the construction of an inflatable, protective enclosure that provides a temporary, contaminant free environment for one or more individuals. The approach results in a protective suit and/or enclosure that is inexpensive, compactly stored and light-weight, yet provides a reliable source of filtered, contaminant-free air as well as upper-body and/or full-body protection for one or more persons. The protective suits/enclosures described produce an over pressure environment within the protective enclosure so that a positive flow of filtered air is maintained between the interior of the suit or enclosure and the outside environment, thus assuring that no contaminants may seep into the protected, contaminant free interior. The protective enclosures protect individuals from contact with and inhalation of noxious chemicals, inorganic and organic dust and particles, as well as radioactive particles that would ordinarily be associated with industrial emergencies and/or an intentional terrorist attack.
1. An enclosure capable of protecting at least one individual from a contaminated environment, comprising:
a flexible gas and water impermeable membrane;
a pump, internal to the enclosure, that draws a stream of external air into the enclosure; and
a filter that filters the stream of external air prior to the stream of external air being released into the enclosure;
wherein the pump establishes within the enclosure a pressure greater than the surrounding atmosphere.
2. The enclosure of
3. The enclosure of
4. The enclosure of
5. The enclosure of
an extension through which the individual may extend an arm beyond a perimeter of the impermeable membrane.
6. The enclosure of
a first impermeable membrane that encompasses a head, arms and an upper torso of the at least one individual, only.
7. The enclosure of
a second impermeable membrane that encompasses a lower torso and legs of the at least one individual, only.
8. The enclosure of
a pressure sharing tube that transfers air pressure from an interior of the first impermeable membrane to an interior of the second impermeable membrane.
9. The enclosure of
10. The enclosure of
11. The enclosure of
12. The enclosure of
13. The enclosure of
14. The enclosure of
a gas monitor that monitors gases internal to the enclosure.
15. The enclosure of
16. The enclosure of
17. The enclosure of
18. The enclosure of
a control module that controls operation of at least one pump in response to the gas monitor detecting a threshold level of at least one predetermined gas internal to the enclosure.
1. Field of Invention
The present invention pertains to emergency enclosures and garments. In particular, the present invention pertains to inflatable enclosures that provide a contaminant free environment for one or more individuals.
2. Description of Related Art
Protective suits and protective enclosures have traditionally been designed to meet the extreme needs of military, police and emergency response personnel. Such suits/enclosures are typically designed for prolonged use by individuals performing assigned missions within dangerous and/or contaminated environments and/or under extreme conditions.
Such suits are typically designed of durable materials that resist tearing under stressful use under extreme conditions (e.g. heat, cold, wet, ice snow) and are typically designed for use with masks, hats, gloves, and/or complex breathing apparatus. For example, protective suits for firefighters are typically made of thick insulated, flame resistant material and often contain a breathing apparatus and/or filters that are integrated within the suit. Suits for biohazard response teams are typically designed for active use moving within and cleaning up contaminated areas (e.g., setting up barriers, moving and operating cleanup equipment).
Protective enclosures have also typically been designed for extreme conditions. For example, emergency protective enclosures for fire-fighters are designed using materials that insulate an occupant against extreme heat within hostile environments. Protective enclosures for military personnel are typically self-standing and are typically designed with sufficient strength to support an ongoing military mission in an exposed outdoor environment. As a result, such structures are heavy and cumbersome. Further, conventional protective enclosures typically have pump and/or filters positioned outside of the protective enclosure. This forces an individual to leave the protected area in order to operate or service the pump and/or filters, thereby risking exposure to contamination.
Cost has typically not been a factor in the design of such traditional protective suits and enclosures. Such suits and enclosures have typically been made for use in limited quantities to meet the needs of specific groups financed by Federal, state and/or local governments budgets. As a result, such suits and enclosures are typically not available to and/or are outside the budget and/or either exceed or otherwise do not meet the needs of the general civilian population. For these reasons, very few members of the civilian population have access to any form of protective suit or enclosure that is capable of temporarily protecting them from a contaminated environment. Still fewer would have sufficiently timely access to a protective suit or enclosure during a time of emergency to assure protection against contamination.
Unfortunately, due to relatively recent changes in technology and national/world events, the risk of accidents and/or attacks that would lead to the harmful or even deadly exposure of large civilian populations to contamination by harmful or even deadly substances is ever increasing. For example, accidental and/or intentional train derailments, tractor-trailer accidents, chemical/processing plant accidents, chemical and fuel storage depot explosions, nuclear power-plant accidents, etc., could result in catastrophe for thousands of individuals unless they have access to either a protective suit or enclosure capable of protecting them during a temporary and/or long term period of living in a contaminated environment. Further, the constant threat of a direct terrorist biological and/or bio-chemical attack, explosion of a radioactive dirty-bomb in an urban business sector, explosion of a small scale nuclear device, and/or sabotage of even a small operational nuclear power plant could result is the release of clouds of dust and radioactive fallout that would endanger thousands of civilians living and/or working within the proximate area or down-wind of the location of attack.
Fortunately, the detrimental impact of any of these scenarios can be greatly diminished by providing civilians with even minimal protection. For example, most conventional contaminants are either inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Even most radio-active fallout will only result in nominal damage so long as radio-active dust and/or other particles are not inhaled into the lungs and/or an individual is not subjected to long term external contact with radio-particles that typically settle upon the body within a contaminated environment in the form of dust and/or rain and are subsequently absorbed via the skin, eyes, nose and mouth into the body and/or allowed to settle on food that is later ingested. Therefore, by providing civilians with nominal external protection, an air supply filtered of organic and/or inorganic particulate matter and/or noxious gases, and safe access to clean food and water sources, the damage to civilian populations caused by such individual accidents and/or attacks may be greatly diminished.
Hence, a need remains for a method and apparatus for providing a temporary, contaminant free environment for one or more individuals. Preferably, the approach would provide a protective suit and/or enclosure that is inexpensive, compactly stored and light-weight, yet provide upper-body and or full-body protection for one or more persons. The protective suit or enclosure would preferably be water and gas impermeable and would provide the user with the ability to bring clean, filtered air from the outside environment into the suit or enclosure. Further, the protective suit or enclosure would preferably allow the user to establish an over-pressure environment within the enclosure so that a positive flow of filtered air is maintained from the interior of the suit or enclosure to the outside environment, thus assuring that no contaminants seep into the protected, contaminant free interior.
In accordance with the present invention, an apparatus for providing a protective contaminant-free enclosure for one or more individuals and methods of producing said apparatus are described.
In a first exemplary embodiment of the invention, an inflatable, pressurized emergency personal protective enclosure, or suit, is described. The embodiment provides a user with the ability to move within a contaminated environment and/or to optionally interact with objects within the contaminated environment. The structure may be inflated and pressurized with an air pump and filter (e.g., HEPA, activated charcoal, etc.) that is contained within and operated by the user within the protected region of the protective enclosure.
The pump and filters may be positioned within the protected environment, thereby allowing an individual within the protected environment to operate and/or service the pump (e.g., change batteries, swap filters, etc.) without risking contamination. Preferably the pump is positioned to bring fresh incoming air to a region within the protective enclosure that is as close to the user's head and face as possible, in order to maximize the occupant's inhalation of fresh air. The protective enclosure may be configured with appropriate detectors for monitoring the interior (e.g., CO2 detectors) and/or exterior environment (e.g., poison gas and/or radiation detectors). Preferably detectors are configured to monitor the level of one or more predetermined gases at several locations within the protective enclosure. Such detectors may automatically activate the pump/filter and/or activate alarms based upon determined readings. Further, safety information may be printed on the inside of the enclosure for the occupant to read such as standard emergency guidance/instructions and/or emergency phone numbers in case the person has a cell phone.
The pump provides a source of filtered, contaminant free air that is used to establish a positive air pressure within the structure. In this manner any leaks in the protective membrane result in an outward flow of filtered air from the interior of the enclosure to the exterior of the enclosure rather than an inward seepage of contaminated air. The air pump, or bellows, may be powered by A/C utility power, D/C battery power, and/or manually operated. The structure is preferably constructed of light weight plastic, rubber or some other flexible material that is completely clear, or clear in some areas in order to allow the occupants to see outside. The embodiments described are stowable within articles of clothing such as belts or collars or easily stowed within a briefcase, knapsack, suitcase, pocket, glove compartment, purse, drawer, etc.
In a second exemplary embodiment of the invention, an inflatable, pressurized emergency protective enclosure or living space for one or more individuals is described. The invention is similar to the personal protective enclosure embodiment described above, but the present embodiment is larger and configured to provide an inflatable, pressurized emergency personal protective enclosure capable of protecting one or more occupants. For example, a single person embodiment may be configured as a 3 rectangular inflatable enclosure suitable for a single occupant to stand or lay down. In an embodiment configured to allow the occupant to stand, the manual bellows may be manually operated by a simulated walking motion. The enclosure may be configured with vents that allow accumulated gas and/or smoke to be vented from the top and/or bottom of the enclosure, respectively. The structure is preferably constructed of light weight plastic, rubber or some other flexible material that is completely clear, or clear in some areas in order to allow the occupants to see outside. The protective enclosure may be configured with appropriate detectors for monitoring the interior (e.g., CO2 detectors) and/or exterior environment (e.g., poison gas and/or radiation detectors). Such detectors may automatically activate the pump/filter and/or activate alarms based upon determined readings.
In addition to the embodiments described above, disclosed are embodiments of key components that allow an individual to tailor the exemplary first and second embodiments described above to meet their specific needs. For example, the described components allow a group, or individual, to construct an emergency protective over-pressure suit or protective enclosure of any size and shape tailored to meet specific needs. These novel components allow an individual to build single or multi-person enclosures that may include specific features that an individual believes he and/or his loved ones will need to safely sit out a period of emergency. Such components for suits may include ports for safely receiving food and drink and/or ports for allowing disposal of waste products. Such components for enclosures may include air-tight seams, air-tight hatches, air purification intake ports, over-pressure exhaust outlet valves and any number of optional features such as air-tight power line input ports, airtight interior/exterior relative pressure monitors, secondary structural supports, air-tight exterior access arms and access to exterior water supplies, exterior restroom facilities, etc.
The above features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon consideration of the following descriptions and descriptive figures of specific exemplary embodiments thereof. While these descriptions go into specific details of the invention, it should be understood that variations may and do exist and would be apparent to those skilled in the art based on the descriptions herein.
Exemplary embodiments according to the present invention are described below with reference to the above drawings, in which like reference numerals designate like components.
An individual, or occupant, within protective enclosure 100 may inflate the structure with purified/filtered air via a manual/electric pump, or bellows, 106. Pump 106 may be attached to upper torso membrane 102 and draw air through a reinforced inlet port 108 and intake hose 110, as shown in
By inflating the interior of upper torso membrane 102 to a pressure equal to or greater than the pressure outside of upper torso membrane 102, the membrane forms a protective environment of filtered air about the upper torso of the occupant within which the occupant my comfortably move and breath. By continuing to operate pump 106, fresh purified air is continually brought into the interior of membrane 102. Gases within the interior are returned to the exterior environment via a positive-pressure air-flow that allows air within the interior of protective enclosure 100 to return the outside environment via the cinched waist-line 104, and a series of one-way valves incorporated into membrane 102. Exhaust valves 116 located near the top of membrane 102 vent lighter gasses that tend to rise to the top of protective enclosure 100. Heavier gasses such as exhaled carbon dioxide tend to settle to the bottom of protective enclosure 100 and are vented through one-way exhaust valves 116 located in lower portion of the protected environment, closer to draw string/elastic band 104. In this manner, the pressure within the protective enclosure provided by the pump may be released through the membrane via one-way valves incorporated into membrane 102. This release of pressure has the natural tendency to pressure out noxious heavy gases via the lower exhaust valves and to pressure out noxious light gases via the upper exhaust valves, thereby assuring that fresh air is provided to the occupant.
In an optional embodiment, a flexible yet non-collapsible pressure sharing tube 118 may connect the protected environment formed by upper torso membrane 102 with the protected environment formed by lower torso membrane 112, thereby allowing filtered air to flow under pressure from the protected area formed by membrane 102 to the protected area formed by lower torso membrane 112. In such an embodiment, lower torso membrane 112 may also be fitted with one or more exhaust valves 116 to release pressure, should the interior lower torso pressure exceed a predetermined level (e.g., upon sitting down with a fully inflated lower torso membrane, etc.). By venting air via exhaust vents 116, moisture from perspiration and the user's exhaled breath is also removed from the interior of the protective enclosure, thereby allowing the protected interior to remain more comfortable.
Upper torso membrane 102 and lower torso membrane 114 may be constructed to form any shape when inflated. The membranes may include any number of specially shaped portions, or segments, which are then connected together along one or more seams to form the final membrane. Seams may be fashioned in any manner, such as using adhesives, thermal sealing, stitching, and/or any combination of techniques may be used to achieve strong seams that resist leaking and bursting when the membrane is pressurized.
Upper torso membrane 102 may be formed, as shown in
Optionally, upper torso membrane 102 may include optional arm extensions that allow a user to extend his arms and hands beyond a perimeter of upper torso membrane 102 to manipulate objects outside of the protective enclosure. When not in use, such arm extensions may be inverted and pulled into the interior of the protective enclosure, thereby deflating the extension. The deflated extension may then be tucked into a protective pocket attached to the inside or outside of upper torso membrane 102. Further, the embodiment depicted in
The embodiment presented in
By inflating the interior of membrane 202 to a pressure equal to or greater than the pressure outside membrane 202, the membrane forms a protective environment of filtered air about the occupant(s) within which the occupant(s) may comfortably move and breath. By continuing to operate pump(s) 206, fresh purified air is continually brought into the interior of membrane 202. Gases within the interior are returned via a positive-pressure air-flow that allows air within the interior of protective enclosure 200 to return the outside environment via a series of one-way exhaust valves 216 incorporated into membrane 202. Exhaust valves 216 located near the top of membrane 202 vent lighter gasses that tend to rise to the top of protective enclosure 200. Heavier gasses such as exhaled carbon dioxide tend to settle to the top of protective enclosure 200 and are vented through one-way exhaust valves 216 located in the lower portion of the protected environment, closer to a surface (e.g., the ground or floor) upon which the enclosure rests.
The embodiment presented in
The invention provides a further advantage in that it allows an able bodied individual to care for an individual that would not be able to effectively assisted using a traditional protective suit and/or gas mask. For example, embodiments shown in
The thickness of the membrane 102 and 202 in the embodiment above may vary significantly. The thickness of membrane 102 may be determined by balancing the needs for puncture and tear resistance with the need for compact storage, weight and flexibility. For example, an embodiment designed for a single individual may typically use a thinner more flexible material than an embodiment designed for use by multiple persons due to an individual's ability to better control his activities while within the protective suit to avoid tears and punctures. Embodiments designed for multiple individuals and/or including children and/or infants may use a thicker material for improved durability. Clear polyurethane sheet with a thickness ranging from 0.25 mil to 6 mil should meet the needs of most embodiments, however, sheet material with a greater thickness may be used.
Optionally, membrane 202 may include optional arm extensions that allow a user to extend his arms and hands beyond a perimeter of membrane 202 to manipulate objects outside of the protective enclosure. When not in use, such arm extensions may be inverted and pulled into the interior of the protective enclosure, thereby deflating the extension. The deflated extension may then be tucked into a protective pocket attached to the inside or outside of membrane 202. Further, the embodiment depicted in
By way of example, a membrane embodiment, as shown in
As shown in
As further shown in
As shown in
Assuming that the intake port connection between the hose 410 and the membrane material includes a valve that allows air to enter but not exit hose 410, as described above with respect to
In one exemplary embodiment, stiff upper surface of bellows 400 may include a hinge 420 that allows air chamber 402 to be temporarily opened to allow access to the interior of air chamber 402. Such an embodiment allows the protective membrane, hose and filters to be stowed within air chamber 402. The air chamber 402 may then be compressed and sealed within an airtight bag in order to retain the small condensed profile.
The embodiments described, above, with respect to
Although such protective environments embodiments provide short term emergency protection against a contaminated, or soon to be contaminated, environment, they do not provide a complete solution for dealing with longer term or extended periods of threat. Typically, the period during which the risk of contamination is imminent is longer than the duration of the of the contamination, assuming that actual contamination even occurs. For example, during a period of war (e.g., Israel during the first and second Gulf Wars) the period during which a threat of chemical and/or biological attack may remain eminent may last days or even weeks. Preferably, a family would be able to safely wait out such a period of threat without loosing access to all the daily necessities and amenities of life.
One focus of the present invention is to make effective protection against contamination “available” to the general public. In order to be “available,” exemplary embodiments of the present invention would preferably be affordable and effective. Given the different needs and resources of different members and/or groups of the general population, an embodiment intended to address a longer term period of threat and/or a long term period of contamination would preferably be configurable to meet individual and group needs.
It will be appreciated that the exemplary embodiments described above and illustrated in the drawings represent are only a few of the many ways of implementing and adapting an inflatable, protective enclosure for use by one or more individuals. The present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed herein, but may be applied to any inflatable, protective enclosure for use by one or more individuals.
The pump used to inflate an exemplary protective enclosure may use any type of pumping action, including but not limited to a piston style pump, a bellows style pump and or any type of mechanical or other air pumping device. Such an exemplary pump may be manually operated and/or mechanically or electrically powered. Electrically powered pumps may be powered using any voltage and/or current sustaining A/C or D/C power source.
An exemplary protective enclosure may be equipped with any type and number of pressure sensing gauges, monitors for determining the mixture and composition of gases within protective enclosure including the level of any and all life supporting gases and/or noxious gases and/or toxins. Such devices may issue audible or other alerts upon detecting a predetermined condition, such as a buildup of one or more gasses, and/or detection of one or more toxins either within or outside of the protective enclosure.
Pumps within an enclosure may be controlled based upon the results of one or more monitoring systems that monitor the mixture and composition of gases within protective enclosure including the level of any and all life supporting gases and/or noxious gases and/or toxins.
Filters used to filter incoming air may be configured in any manner. For example, filter materials may be integrated within an air pump and/or permanently affixed in any manner relative to the air pump. Further, one or more filter materials may be positioned before and/or after the pump relative to the flow of incoming air.
A pathway through which an air-pump receives external air may be connected to the external membrane of a protective enclosure in any manner, including but not limited to a hermetically sealed connection, a compression based connection, an adhesive seal, and/or any other manner by which a pathway may be established to draw air through the protective membrane without allowing contaminants to enter the protective enclosure.
A protective enclosure membrane may be constructed of any material and/or combination of materials that may result in a closed protective enclosure capable of maintaining a predetermined over-pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure external to the protective enclosure. Appropriate over-pressure levels may include any level of pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure immediately surrounding the enclosure that does not place the seams of the protective enclosure membrane at risk of rupturing. For example, in one representative embodiment the protective enclosure membrane and seams are configured to withstand an over-pressure as high as 1.5 times the surrounding atmospheric pressure. In another representative embodiment the protective enclosure membrane and seams may be configured to withstand an over-pressure of only 1.1 times the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
The capacity of a pump used in an embodiment of the present invention may be any pump capable of maintaining within the protective enclosure a predetermined over-pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure external to the protective enclosure. Appropriate over-pressure levels may include any level of pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure immediately surrounding the enclosure that does not place the seams of the protective enclosure membrane seams at risk of rupturing. For example, in one representative embodiment the protective enclosure membrane and seams are configured to withstand an over-pressure as high as 1.5 times the surrounding atmospheric pressure. In another representative embodiment the protective enclosure membrane and seams may be configured to withstand an over-pressure of only 1.1 times the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
Optional components/feature may be attached to the protective enclosure membrane in any manner including the use of adhesives, as described above, and/or the use of stitching, heat sealing, and/or use of any combination thereof to achieve an air-tight seal. If adhesives are used, the placement of the adhesives and/or the orientation of the respective collars relative to the interior and/or exterior of the protective enclosure membrane may be in any manner and/or orientation that results in an effective seal. Further, any additional structural and/or adhesive components may be used that facilitates achieving a strong structural bond and air-tight seam about the component added.
From the foregoing description it will be appreciated that the present invention includes novel approaches and methods for constructing and adapting an inflatable, protective enclosure for use by one or more individuals.
Having described exemplary embodiments of inflatable, protective enclosures for use by one or more individuals, it is believed that other modifications, variations and changes will be suggested to those skilled in the art in view of the teachings set forth herein. It is therefore to be understood that all such variations, modifications and changes are believed to fall within the scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. Although specific terms are employed herein, they are used in their ordinary and accustomed manner only, unless expressly defined differently herein, and not for purposes of limitation.