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Publication numberUS20060042510 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/166,472
Publication dateMar 2, 2006
Filing dateJun 24, 2005
Priority dateAug 30, 2004
Also published asUS7011703
Publication number11166472, 166472, US 2006/0042510 A1, US 2006/042510 A1, US 20060042510 A1, US 20060042510A1, US 2006042510 A1, US 2006042510A1, US-A1-20060042510, US-A1-2006042510, US2006/0042510A1, US2006/042510A1, US20060042510 A1, US20060042510A1, US2006042510 A1, US2006042510A1
InventorsDaniel Craig
Original AssigneeKerr-Mcgee Chemical Llc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Titanium dioxide particles is coated with a protective layer from alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride and trimethylol propane; processibility and dispersibility in thermoplastic resin, ultraviolet discoloration resistance
US 20060042510 A1
Abstract
Inorganic pigments, having deposited on the pigment surface at least one alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride and at least one organic polyol, possess improved processibility and dispersibility in thermoplastic materials, and impart improved properties to thermoplastic compositions containing said surface-treated pigments.
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Claims(9)
1. An inorganic pigment having deposited on its surface at least one alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride and at least one organic polyol.
2. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 1, having deposited on its surface at least one linear or branched alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride wherein the alkenyl or alkyl groups contain from about five to about thirty carbon atoms, together with at least one organic polyol selected from the group consisting of trimethylolethane, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol and neopentylglycol.
3. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 2, wherein the succinic anhydrides are those whose alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted groups contain from eight to eighteen carbon atoms.
4. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 1, wherein the alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride or anhydrides comprise from about 0.1 to about 5 percent of the weight of the pigment, while the organic polyol or polyols comprise from about 0.1 to about 1 percent of the weight of the pigment.
5. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 4, wherein the alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride or anhydrides comprise from about 0.25 to about 2.5 percent of the weight of the pigment, while the organic polyol or polyols comprise from about 0.2 to about 0.5 percent of the weight of the pigment.
6. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 5, wherein the alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride or anhydrides comprise from about 0.5 to about 1.5 percent of the weight of the pigment, while the organic polyol or polyols comprise from about 0.3 to about 0.45 percent of the weight of the pigment.
7. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 6, wherein the inorganic pigment is titanium dioxide.
8. An inorganic pigment as defined in claim 1, wherein the inorganic pigment is titanium dioxide.
9. Titanium dioxide treated with a combination of trimethylol propane and either hexadecenylsuccinic anhydride or dodecenylsuccinic anhydride.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. Ser. No. 10/928,389, filed Aug. 30, 2004.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to inorganic pigments with improved surface treatments. The pigments of this invention are useful as opacifiers and colorants in the manufacture of products produced in many industries, including in coatings and coated goods, in plastics and articles made therefrom, and in paper and paper goods.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Inorganic pigments are used as opacifiers and colorants in many industries including the coatings, plastics, and paper industries. In general, the effectiveness of the pigment in such applications depends on how evenly the pigment can be dispersed in a coating, in plastic or in paper. For this reason, pigments are generally handled in the form of a finely divided powder. For example, titanium dioxide, the most widely used white pigment in commerce today due to its ability to confer high opacity when formulated into end-use products, is handled in the form of a finely divided powder in order to maximize the opacifying properties imparted to materials formulated therewith. However, titanium dioxide powders are inherently dusty and frequently exhibit poor powder flow characteristics during the handling of the powder itself, especially during formulation, compounding, and manufacture of end-use products. While free-flowing powders with low dust properties can be obtained through known manufacturing practices, these powders usually exhibit reduced opacifying properties. To this end, chemical modification of titanium dioxide pigment surfaces has been the preferred approach to achieving the desired balance of pigment opacity and flow characteristics.

It is known in the art that the wetting and dispersing properties of titanium dioxide pigments can be improved by exposure to certain inorganic treatments, for example, depositing inorganic metal oxide and/or metal hydroxide coatings on the surface of the titanium dioxide.

Certain other chemical modifications of titanium dioxide pigment surfaces, involving treatment with organic compounds such as certain organic polyols, are also known to improve pigment performance, including helping to reduce the tendency of a pigment to adsorb moisture and to improve its gloss characteristics, particularly in coatings. In thermoplastics, improved pigment dispersion characteristics results in improved thermoplastics processing and uniformity of color. Organic chemical treatment of the pigment surface has also become the preferred method for achieving desired performance enhancements in cosmetics compositions, in paper and in inks, wherein the uniformity of pigment dispersion is critical. The most advantageous chemical composition for surface treatment in general will be dependent on the particular end use to which the titanium dioxide is put.

Thus, in combinations with organic thermoplastics, wherein enhanced thermoplastic stability, optimum thermoplastic surface aesthetics, or higher processing throughput is required, hydrophobic organic compounds have frequently been the surface treatments of choice, due to their known ability to enhance pigment/polymer compatibility and to decrease thermoplastic polymer melt viscosity. Not surprisingly, for the reasons stated above, many patents have been issued disclosing methods for improving titanium dioxide pigments wherein a hydrophobic organic compound is deposited onto the pigment surface prior to its incorporation into such end use materials as plastics as well as in coatings, inks and paper.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,015,573, for example, discloses titanium dioxide pigments having adsorbed thereon a small amount of the water-soluble salt of a tertiary amine with an organic acid of low water solubility, wherein substantially improved dispersibility in surface coating compositions is said to be achieved.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,172,772 discloses a method for improving the gloss properties of titanium dioxide pigments, comprising the treatment of a hydrous oxide treated titanium dioxide with specified levels of either benzoic or para-aminobenzoic acid and an organic amine.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,506,466 discloses a titanium dioxide pigment of either anatase or rutile modification with or without a coating of inorganic substances, which is treated with a salt of a water-soluble alkanolamine and an oxycarboxylic acid and milled in a fluid energy mill to provide improved properties in coating compositions.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,728,142 describes an inorganic pigment such as titanium dioxide which is described as being made more readily dispersible in plastics by coating with an alkyd resin of specified composition.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,754,956 discloses improved wetting and dispersion characteristics of titania pigments in plastics by treating the pigment with from 0.1-60.0 percent by weight of a polylactone having terminal hydroxy groups.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,825,438 discloses a process for coating titanium dioxide pigment with at least one hydrous metal oxide by precipitating, in a slurry process, a hydrous oxide on to the pigment in the presence of an alcohol and/or a carboxylic acid, each of which contains at least two or more hydroxy groups.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,925,095 describes free-flowing dispersible inorganic pigment or filler compositions containing, as dispersion aids, hydroxyalkylated alkylenediamines.

U.S. Pat. No. 3,947,287 discloses stable aqueous pigment dispersions comprising a water-soluble surfactant which is a reaction product of a polyhydroxyl compound with specified amounts of, sequentially, propylene oxide and ethylene oxide per equivalent of hydroxyl.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,056,402 describes water-dispersible dry, non-dusting pigment compositions which develop good strength and color values in waterborne industrial finish systems, wherein the pigment compositions contain specified ratios of pigment, nonionic dispersing agents, and at least one water soluble nonionic cellulose ether.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,127,421 discloses an aqueous process for production of non-dusting granular lead chromate-containing pigments via agitation in the presence of a friable low molecular weight hydrocarbon resin and a cationic surfactant. The granules are useful as colorants for air-drying enamels coating systems and plastics.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,156,616 describes dispersions of inorganic and organic pigments containing an alkylene oxide adduct on long-chain aliphatic amines and an anionic surfactant having an aliphatic radical of 3 to 40 carbon atoms which are readily incorporated into hydrophilic or hydrophobic media, yielding paints of high tinctorial strength and purity of shade.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,235,768 discloses an improved aqueous production process for readily dispersible titanium dioxide pigments comprising the homogeneous coating of a titanium dioxide pigment with an organic carboxyl group-containing polymer. The pigment products are described as dispersing very easily into organic binders.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,328,041 discloses the reaction product of inorganic powders with substituted succinic ahydrides, which exhibit improved processing characteristics when formulated into pigmented thermoplastics. The inorganic materials disclosed include metal oxides such as titanium dioxide, as well as calcium carbonate, silica and clay.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,375,520 describes a procedure for the densification of particulate materials comprising treatment of particles, including pigments, with a composition comprising a liquid polymeric substance, such as soybean oil, and a solid low molecular weight polymer, such as polyethylene vinyl acetate copolymer, resulting in the production of clean dustless uniform beads.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,375,989 claims a titanium dioxide pigment, comprising a coating of an inorganic substance, the total amount of the inorganic coating, expressed as oxide being at maximum about 0.5% of the weight of the pigment, and further comprising a coating of an organic substance selected from the group comprising large-molecule fatty acids and their salts, organic silicon compounds, such as dimethylpolysiloxane, alcohols and polyalcohols.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,464,203 discloses highly concentrated, dust-free, solid and readily dispersible inorganic or organic pigment formulations containing sequential propylene oxide and ethylene oxide addition products of alkyleneamines which are useful for pigmenting printing inks, surface coatings, and printing pastes for textiles.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,482,655 claims a filled polymeric composition which comprises a natural or synthetic polymer and a filler treated with a substituted succinic anhydride. The filled polymeric compositions are described as exhibiting improved melt processing and higher degrees of reinforcement.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,563,221 discloses a particulate titanium dioxide having an organic coating of isostearic acid, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and a cationic emulsifying agent of a fatty alkyl amine. After such treatment the pigment does not require milling in a fluid energy mill and is easily dispersible in plastics media.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,599,114 describes the treatment of titanium dioxide and other pigments with a surfactant compound consisting of the reaction product of a diamine, a carboxylic acid, and a fatty acid, to enhance the performance of the pigment in paints, plastics, paper making compositions, and reinforced plastic composite compositions.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,752,340 describes titanium dioxide pigments characterized by improved gloss developing and dispersibility properties in surface coating vehicles and reduced tendencies to adsorb moisture. Said titanium dioxide pigments comprise pigmentary titanium dioxide particles having deposited thereon a treating agent comprising at least one amine salt of a polyprotic acid having pKa1 value greater than about 2.5 and a water solubility at 20 C. of at least 2.0 weight percent and an alkanolamine having a pKb1 greater than about 4.4.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,762,523 claims permanently non-dusting inorganic or organic pigment preparations produced by a process comprising thoroughly mixing a moist press cake of said pigment with from 0.5 to 10% of a long-chain polyester surfactant produced by condensation of at least one saturated or unsaturated aliphatic (o-hydroxycarboxylic acid with at least 4 carbon atoms between the hydroxy group and the carboxy group and a total of at least 9 carbon atoms including the carboxy group or by condensing said at least one hydroxycarboxylic acid with a carboxylic acid lacking hydroxy substitution, then drying said surfactant-containing mixture; adding an essentially non-volatile liquid selected from the group consisting of mineral oil and molten wax to said dried mixture in an amount of 2-25% based on said dried mixture; and applying intensive stress to said liquid-containing mixture until said pigment is wetted by said liquid and the flowable granulate results.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,863,800 discloses a pigment material, the surfaces of which are treated with a saturated fatty acid triglyceride having an iodine value of not more than 5. The treated material, which is used in cosmetics, has strong water repellency, feels smooth, and adheres well to the skin.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,909,853 claims pigment preparations consisting essentially of an organic pigment and/or carbon black and a surfactant selected from the group consisting of sulfosuccinic acid ester series, alkylbenzenesulfonate series and mixtures thereof, which have been dried, after wet comminution, by spray- or freeze-drying from an aqueous medium, and which are useful for pigmenting thermoplastics.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,923,518 discloses chemically inert pigmentary zinc oxide compositions, useful in producing UV light stable polymeric resin compositions and prepared by wet treatment of chemically reactive zinc oxide base pigments. According to this reference, chemically inert organic or inorganic coatings of either a water insoluble metallic soap of a saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acid, separate and distinct coatings of at least two different hydrous metal oxides and, optionally, a further encapsulating coating of the water insoluble metallic soap of a saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acid, or a coating of a single hydrous metal oxide and an encapsulating coating of the water insoluble metallic soap of a saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acid are deposited on the zinc oxide base pigment.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,935,063 discloses inorganic fillers or pigments having simultaneous reinforcing effect and stabilizing effect on organic polymers, obtained by bringing the inorganic filler or pigment into contact with a solution, in an inert organic solvent, of a sterically hindered amine comprising one or more alkoxysilane groups, maintaining mixture at higher than ambient temperature for a period of at least 0.5 hours, removing the solvent, and recovering the stabilizing filler or pigment.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,986,853 discloses lamina-shaped pearlescent pigment preparations of improved flowability, wherein the starting pigments have been coated with preferably 0.2-20% by weight of a saturated monocarboxylic acid having preferably 10-26 carbon atoms or of a cyclohexanone condensate resin.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,228,912 teaches the surface treatment of platelet-shaped pigments, such as mica and metal oxide-coated mica, with a polyacrylate or polymethacrylate and water-soluble salts thereof, for improved dispersibility in printing ink systems.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,260,353 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,362,770 describe a method of increasing the hydrophobicity of solid materials, such as titanium dioxide and other particulate property modifiers, and polymeric compositions containing said hydrophobic particulate property modifiers. The method comprises the steps of: (a) metal ion activating the surface of a solid substrate material to provide reactive metal sites on the surface and (b) chemically bonding a surfactant to the surface at the reactive metal sites.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,266,622 discloses stable aqueous dispersions of fillers and/or pigments, useful as paper coating compounds, which contain a dispersant combination comprising a water-soluble polymer, a non-ionic alkylene oxide adduct, an organosulfonate, sulfate or phosphate, and anionic sulfosuccinate.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,288,320 discloses titanium dioxide carrying on its surface an ester or partial ester of an organic hydroxy compound containing 1 to 6 hydroxy groups and an aliphatic saturated C10 to C22 monocarboxylic acid, for use in plastic masterbatches.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,567,754 claims pigmentary materials, such as titanium dioxide, having deposited thereon a partial ester polyol and unsaturated monocarboxylic acid treating agent corresponding to the formula R(OH)xCOOR′, wherein R is an alkyl or aryl radical containing from about 2 to about 20 carbon atoms, R′ is an unsaturated alkyl radical containing from about 6 to about 20 carbon atoms, and x is a number from about 2 to about 6. Such treating agenrs are described as improving the dispersibility of the pigments in thermoplastic resins and enabling the production of thermoplastic concentrates comprising a high percentage of treated inorganic pigment dispersed in a thermoplastic resin.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,643,592 discloses finely-divided particulate additives for polymers with a surface coating comprised of a compound selected from the group consisting of esters of difunctional C6-C40 aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids and triesters of phosphoric acid. The preferred additive compositions are described as especially useful in the manufacture of synthetic fibers.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,733,365 describes a process for preparing a low-dusting, free-flowing pigment possessing good processibility and dispersibility in plastics concentrates, wherein a monovalent salt of a dialkyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid treating agent is deposited onto said pigment surface.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,830,929 claims thermoplastic concentrates comprising an inorganic pigment dispersed in a thermoplastic resin and having deposited thereon a dialkyl sulfosuccinate treating agent, said dialkyl sulfosuccinate treating agent being deposited in a dry-treating operation without the presence of aqueous metal ions in an amount ranging from about 0.1 percent to about 5 percent by weight.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,908,498 describes a process for preparing a low-dusting, free-flowing pigment possessing good processibility and dispersibility in plastics concentrates, wherein a monovalent salt of a dialkyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid treating agent is deposited onto said pigment surface under a specified set of treatment conditions.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,910,213 discloses a pigmentary material comprising particulate titanium dioxide treated with a polymeric hindered amine stabilizer, and which can be incorporated into a polymeric composition resulting in reduced degradation of the composition. The stabilizing effect of the hindered amine is greater than the effect observed when titanium dioxide and hindered amine stabilizer are separately added to a composition.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,139,617 claims titanium dioxide pigments which exhibit improved gloss developing and dispersibility properties in surface coating vehicles and reduced dispersant requirements, said pigments comprising pigmentary titanium dioxide particles having deposited thereon a treating agent comprising the reaction product of at least one monoprotic acid selected from the group consisting of dimethylolpropionic acid and dimethylolbutanoic acid and an amine.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,544,328 describes a process for preparing an improved pigment which is readily dispersible in paints and plastics concentrates, using specific surface active agents to coat the pigment. Preferred surface active agents are ethoxylated sorbitan derivatives and non-ethoxylated or ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

U.S. Patent Application Publication No. U.S. 2003/0029359 A1 describes improved particulate inorganic pigments and processes for preparing such inorganic pigments, which have enhanced dispersibility in plastic materials. The processes comprise coating the particulate inorganic pigment with a complex mixture of partially and totally polysaturated and unsaturated fatty acid esters and derivatives thereof.

In addition, many treatments are disclosed of inorganic fillers or pigments with organophosphorus compounds. U.S. Pat. No. 4,183,843, for instance, discloses an improved process for dispersing inorganic fillers in a polyester resin wherein the improvement comprises coating the filler with 0.05 to 1.0 percent, based on weight of the filler, of a polar phosphate ester surfactant containing acid groups and polar ether groups.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,186,028 describes improved fluid aqueous pigment dispersions, including titanium dioxide dispersions, using a phosphonocarboxylic acid or salt thereof as a dispersion aid.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,209,430 discloses improved inorganic pigments, such as pigmentary titanium dioxide, made by treating such pigments with a treating agent comprising the reaction product of a phosphorylating agent and a polyene. The treated pigments are useful in thermoplastic formulations and provide the additional benefit of suppressing yellowing in thermoplastic polyolefins containing a phenolic antioxidant and titanium dioxide.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,357,170 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,377,417 disclose titanium dioxide pigments treated to suppress yellowing in polymers, the treating composition comprising an organophosphate/alkanolamine addition product or a combination of an organophosphate/alkanolamine addition product and a polyol, respectively.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,318,625 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,397,391 disclose, respectively, thermoplastic pigment concentrates and pigments of improved dispersibility in thermoplastic resins, wherein an inorganic pigment such as titanium dioxide has an organophosphate triester treatment deposited thereon.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,837,049 describes a pigment, extender or filler, the particles of which are coated with an alkylphosphonic acid or ester thereof. The treated inorganic solid is particularly useful for preparing polymer compositions such as masterbatches.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,713,543 describes a unique treatment for pigments which uses certain organo-phosphoric acids and/or their salts, resulting in improved physical and chemical qualities, including lacing resistance, improved dispersion and decreased chemical reactivity when these treated pigments are incorporated into polymeric matrices.

Despite all the work and effort documented in the prior art relating to the development of improved organic treatments for pigments, further improvements are continually being sought. Organic treatments which impart more than one improvement to the resulting pigment, for instance improved thermoplastics processing properties combined with improved resistance to discoloration upon exposure to heat or ultraviolet light, are particularly desired. In none of the aforementioned references are pigment surface treatments described which would anticipate the advantages achieved according to the instant invention, specifics of which are provided below.

SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

It has been discovered that inorganic pigments having deposited on the pigment surface at least one alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride and at least one organic polyol possess improved processibility and dispersibility in thermoplastic materials, while unexpectedly also imparting improved ultraviolet discoloration resistance properties to thermoplastic compositions containing said surface-treated pigments. While not wishing to be held to any specific theory, it is speculated that reaction products resulting from the chemical reaction between succinic anhydride groups and alcohol functional groups in the polyol compound result in compositions particularly suitable for effecting simultaneous UV protection as well as thermoplastic processibility.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE PRESENT INVENTION

The alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides contemplated by the instant invention comprise especially linear or branched alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides whose alkenyl or alkyl groups contain from about five to about thirty carbon atoms. Preferred are linear or branched alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides whose alkenyl or alkyl groups contain from about eight to about eighteen carbon atoms. Also contemplated are combinations of 50% by weight or greater of the aforementioned alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides with other organic surface treatment materials known in the art for imparting improved processibility and performance properties to pigments in accordance with the instant invention. Corresponding preferred organic polyols according to the present invention include trimethylolethane, trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol and neopentylglycol.

The amount of alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides usefully incorporated in a pigment surface treatment according to the instant invention will preferably range from about 0.1 to about 5 weight percent of one or more such materials, based on the weight of the pigment. More preferably an alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride will be incorporated or used at about 0.25 percent to about 2.5 percent, based on the weight of the pigment. Most preferably, the surface treated pigment will use from about 0.5 percent to about 1.5 percent of such materials, based on the weight of the pigment.

The amount of organic polyols useful with the alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides, in a pigment surface treatment according to the instant invention, preferably ranges from about 0.1 percent to about 1 percent of one or more polyols, based on the weight of the pigment. More preferably, the polyol component will be used at from about 0.2 percent to about 0.5 percent, based on the weight of the pigment. Most preferred, the surface treated pigment will use from about 0.3 percent to about 0.45 percent of polyol material, based on the weight of the pigment.

The alkenyl- and alkyl-substituted succinic anhydrides and organic polyols useful for performing the contemplated pigment surface treatments, and useful in imparting improved properties to pigmented thermoplastics formulated therewith, can be deposited onto the pigment surface using any of the known methods of treating pigment surfaces, such as deposition in a fluid energy mill, applying the treating agent to the dry pigment by mixing or spraying, or through the drying of pigment slurries containing said treating agent.

Inorganic pigments improved by the instant invention, and which can also be referred to as fillers, extenders or reinforcing pigments, include any of the particulate inorganic pigments known in the surface coatings and plastics industries. Examples include white opacifying pigments such as titanium dioxide, basic carbonate white lead, basic sulfate white lead, basic silicate white lead, zinc sulfide, zinc oxide; composite pigments of zinc sulfide and barium sulfate, antimony oxide and the like; white extender pigments such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, china and kaolin clays, mica, diatomaceous earth; and colored pigments such as iron oxide, lead oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium selenide, lead chromate, zinc chromate, nickel titanate and chromium oxide. Most preferred is titanium dioxide of either the anatase or rutile crystalline structure or some combination thereof. The titanium dioxide pigment can have deposited thereon any of the inorganic metal oxide and/or metal hydroxide surface coatings known to the art, prior to treatment with an alkenyl- or alkyl-substituted succinic anhydride and an organic polyol according to the instant invention.

Thermoplastic compositions which possess improved properties with respect to polymer processing and end-use applications when formulated with the treated pigments of the instant invention comprise polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene, acrylic resins such as polymethylmethacrylate, polyester resins such as polyethylene or polybutylene terephthalate, polyamide resins, styrenic resins such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, poly(vinylchloride), polycarbonate resins and their various copolymers and alloys.

The following examples serve to illustrate specific embodiments of the instant invention without intending to impose any limitations or restrictions thereto. Concentrations and percentages are by weight unless otherwise indicated.

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES Example 1

Particulate titanium dioxide pigment intermediate obtained from the vapor phase oxidation of titanium tetrachloride and containing 0.8% alumina in its crystalline lattice, was dispersed in water in the presence of 0.18% by weight (based on the pigment) of sodium hexametaphosphate dispersant and with sodium hydroxide sufficient to adjust the pH of the dispersion to a minimum value of 9.5, to provide an aqueous dispersion having a solids content of 35% by weight. The resulting titanium dioxide slurry was sand milled, using a zircon sand-to-pigment weight ratio of 4 to 1, until a volume average particle size was achieved wherein >90% of the particles were smaller than 0.63 microns, as determined utilizing a Microtrac X1 00 Particle Size Analyzer (Microtrac Inc. Montgomeryville, Pa.). The slurry was heated to 60 C., acidified to a pH of 2.0 using concentrated sulfuric acid, then allowed to digest at 60 C. for 30 minutes. After this, adjustment of the pigment slurry pH to a value of 6.2 using 20% by weight aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was followed by digestion for an additional 30 minutes at 60 C., with final readjustment of the pH to 6.2, if necessary, at which point the dispersion was filtered while hot. The resulting filtrate was washed with an amount of water, which had been preheated to 60 C. and pre-adjusted to a pH of 7.0, equal to the weight of recovered pigment. The washed filtrate was subsequently re-dispersed in water with agitation, in the presence of 0.35% by weight based on pigment of the organic polyol trimethylolpropane, to achieve a concentration of <40% by weight of dispersed pigment. The resulting pigment dispersion was spray dried using an APV Nordic PSD52 Spray Dryer (Invensys APV Silkeborg, Denmark), maintaining a dryer inlet temperature of approximately 280 C., to yield a dry pigment powder.

One thousand (1000) grams of the resulting pigment powder were thoroughly mixed with ten (10) grams of hexadecenylsuccinic anhydride, corresponding to a pigment surface coating concentration of 1% by weight of the anhydride, based on titanium dioxide. The dry powder mixture was subsequently roll milled for sixteen hours at room temperature, after which time the powder mixture was steam micronized, utilizing a steam to pigment weight ratio of five, with a steam injector pressure set at 146 psi and micronizer ring pressure set at 118 psi.

The resulting treated pigment sample was evaluated in titanium dioxide/polyethylene concentrates, according to the following procedure:

One hundred and nine and one-half (109.5) grams of the pigment was mixed with thirty-six and one-half (36.5) grams of Dow 4012 low density polyethylene, a product of The Dow Chemical Co., and 0.05% by weight based on polyethylene of an 80/20 mixture of tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl)phosphite and octadecyl-3-(3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, to prepare a 75% by weight titanium dioxide-containing polyethylene concentrate via mastication of the mixture in the mixing bowl of a Plasticorder Model PL-2000 (C. W. Brabender Instruments, Inc. South Hackensack, N.J.) at 100 C. and a mixing speed of 100 rpm. Instantaneous torque and temperature values were then recorded for a nine minute period to ensure equilibrium mixing conditions had been attained. Equilibrium torque values were determined via averaging the measured instantaneous torque values for a two minute period after equilibrium mixing conditions had been achieved. The resulting pigment concentrate was cooled and ground into pellets. The melt flow index value was determined on the resulting pellet concentrate using ASTM method D1238, procedure B. Maximum extruder processing pressure was determined by extruding 100 grams of the 75% concentrate through a 500 mesh screen filter using a 0.75 inch barrel, 25/1 length to diameter extruder attached to the aforementioned Brabender Plasticorder, at an average processing temperature of approximately 190 C. and at 75 rpm, while recording instrument pressure values at the extruder die.

Injection molded plaques (Boy Machines Inc., Exton, Pa.) were then prepared from Dow 4012 low density polyethylene and from the concentrate prepared as just described, so that the plaques contained 2.6 weight percent of the pigment, 0.3 weight percent 2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) and 0.3 weight percent of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate. The plaques were exposed in a QUV Test Chamber (The Q-Panel Company, Cleveland, Ohio) equipped with a UVA-340 lamp, according to procedure ASTM #D4329-92 for a total of 96 hours, with determination of plaque b values (yellow/blue color index) before and after exposure utilizing a Macbeth Color Eye Spectrophotometer CE7000 (Gretag Macbeth, New Windsor, N.Y.). The difference between the b value determined after exposure and the value prior to exposure (delta b) is a measure of the resistance of the material to yellowing resulting from UV exposure, with a smaller value indicating greater resistance to discoloration.

The same procedures were then repeated using titanium dioxide produced according to the procedure outlined above but omitting the treatment with the hexadecenylsuccinic anhydride

Comparative Example 1-1

The same procedures were also repeated using titanium dioxide produced according to the procedure outlined above but omitting the treatment with the trimethylolpropane

Comparative Example 1-2

Results from these evaluations are provided in Table 1.

TABLE 1
Processing/UV Behavior of Titanium Dioxide-Containing
Polyethylene Concentrates
Melt Flow
Index (g/10 Equilibrium
Pigment minutes: Torque Max. Extruder
Sample: 190 C.) (meter-grams) Pressure (psi) Delta b
Example 1 10 1150 460 0.2
Comp. Ex. 1-1 <1 1490 750 2.8
Comp. Ex. 1-2 10 1140 450 1.2

The surface treated titanium dioxide produced according to the present invention and having no inorganic surface treatment coating thus demonstrates improved processibility and dispersibility, as well as increased resistance to ultraviolet light induced discoloration in plaques made using the surface treated titanium dioxide, as indicated by the higher melt flow index value, the lower equilibrium torque value, the lower maximum extruder processing pressure, and the lower Delta b value versus the results shown for the comparative examples.

Example 2

Particulate titanium dioxide pigment intermediate obtained from the vapor phase oxidation of titanium tetrachloride and containing 0.8% alumina in its crystalline lattice was dispersed in water in the presence of 0.18% by weight (based on pigment) of sodium hexametaphosphate dispersant, along with sufficient sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH of the dispersion to a minimum value of 9.5, to yield an aqueous dispersion with a solids content of 35% by weight. The resulting titanium dioxide slurry was sand milled, using a zircon sand-to-pigment weight ratio of 4 to 1, until a volume average particle size was achieved wherein >90% of the particles were smaller than 0.63 microns, as determined utilizing a Microtrac X100 Particle Size Analyzer. The slurry was heated to 60 C., acidified to a pH of 2.0 using concentrated sulfuric acid, then allowed to digest at 60 C. for 30 minutes. The pigment slurry pH was adjusted then to a value of 6.2 using 20% by weight aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, followed by a further 30 minutes of digestion at 60 C. and final adjustment to a pH of 6.2, if necessary. The dispersion was filtered while hot, and the filtrate washed with an amount of 60 C., pH 7.0 water equal in weight to the recovered pigment. The washed filtrate was subsequently re-dispersed in water with agitation, in the presence of 0.35% by weight based on pigment of the organic polyol trimethylolpropane, to achieve a concentration of <40% by weight of dispersed pigment. The resulting pigment dispersion was spray dried using an APV Nordic PSD52 Spray Dryer, maintaining a dryer inlet temperature of approximately 280 C., to yield a dry pigment powder.

One thousand (1000) grams of the resulting pigment powder were thoroughly mixed with ten (10) grams of dodecenylsuccinic anhydride, corresponding to a pigment surface coating concentration of 1% by weight of the anhydride, based on titanium dioxide. The dry powder mixture was subsequently roll milled for sixteen hours at room temperature, after which time the powder mixture was steam micronized at a steam to pigment weight ratio of five, with a steam injector pressure set at 146 psi and micronizer ring pressure set at 118 psi.

The resulting finished pigment sample was evaluated in titanium dioxide/polyethylene concentrates, according to the following procedure:

One hundred and nine and one-half (109.5) grams of the finished pigment described above was mixed with thirty-six and one-half (36.5) grams of Dow 4012 low density polyethylene, a product of The Dow Chemical Company, and 0.05% by weight based on polyethylene of an 80/20 mixture of tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl)phosphite and octadecyl-3-(3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, to prepare a 75% by weight titanium dioxide-containing polyethylene concentrate via mastication of the mixture in the mixing bowl of a Brabender Plasticorder Model PL-2000 at 100 C. and a mixing speed of 100 rpm. Instantaneous torque and temperature values were then recorded for a nine minute period to ensure equilibrium mixing conditions had been attained. Equilibrium torque values were determined via averaging the measured instantaneous torque values for a two minute period after equilibrium mixing conditions had been achieved. The resulting pigment concentrate was cooled and ground into pellets. The melt flow index value was determined on the resulting pellet concentrate using ASTM method D1238, procedure B. Maximum extruder processing pressure was determined by extruding 100 grams of the 75% concentrate through a 500 mesh screen filter using a 0.75 inch barrel, 25/1 length to diameter extruder attached to the aforementioned Brabender Plasticorder, at an average processing temperature of approximately 190 C. and at 75 rpm, while recording instrument pressure values at the extruder die.

Injection molded plaques were then prepared from Dow 4012 low density polyethylene and from the above-described concentrate, such that the plaques contained 2.6 weight percent of the pigment, 0.3 weight percent 2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), and 0.3 weight percent of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate. These were exposed in a QUV Test Chamber equipped with a UVA-340 lamp, according to procedure ASTM #D4329-92 for a total of 96 hours, with determination of plaque b values (yellow/blue color index) before and after exposure utilizing a Macbeth Color Eye Spectrophotometer CE7000. The difference between the b value determined after exposure and the value prior to exposure (delta b) is a measure of the resistance of the material to yellowing resulting from UV exposure, with a smaller value indicating greater resistance to discoloration.

The same procedures were repeated using titanium dioxide produced according to the procedure outlined above but omitting the dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (Comparative Example 2-1).

The same procedures were also repeated using titanium dioxide produced according to the procedure outlined above but omitting the trimethylolpropane (Comparative Example 2-2).

Results from these evaluations are provided in Table 2.

TABLE 2
Processing/UV Behavior of Titanium Dioxide Containing
Polyethylene Concentrates
Melt Flow Max.
Index (g/10 Equilibrium Extruder
minutes: Torque Pressure
Pigment Sample: 190 C.) (meter-grams) (psi) Delta b
Example 2 <1 1035 635 0.7
Comp. Example 2-1 <1 1500 830 3.5
Comp. Example 2-2 <1 1090 650 2.3

The surface treated titanium dioxide produced according to the present invention and having no inorganic surface treatment coating thus demonstrates improved processibility and dispersibility as well as increased resistance to ultraviolet light induced discoloration, as indicated by the higher melt flow index value, the lower equilibrium torque value, the lower maximum extruder processing pressure, and the lower Delta b value observed for the inventive pigment versus the comparative examples.

Example 3

Particulate titanium dioxide pigment intermediate obtained from the vapor phase oxidation of titanium tetrachloride and containing 0.8% alumina in its crystalline lattice was dispersed in water in the presence of 0.18% by weight (based on pigment) of sodium hexametaphosphate dispersant, along with sufficient sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH of the dispersion to a minimum value of 9.5, to yield an aqueous dispersion with a solids content of 35% by weight. The resulting titanium dioxide slurry was sand milled, using a zircon sand-to-pigment weight ratio of 4 to 1, until a volume average particle size was achieved wherein >90% of the particles were smaller than 0.63 microns, as determined utilizing a Microtrac X100 Particle Size Analyzer. The slurry was heated to 60 C., acidified to a pH of 2.0 using concentrated sulfuric acid, then treated with 1% alumina, added as a 357 g/liter aqueous sodium aluminate solution. During the addition of the sodium aluminate solution, the pH of the slurry was maintained between a value of 8.0 and 8.5 via the addition of sulfuric acid, prior to digestion for 15 minutes at 60 C. The pigment slurry pH was adjusted to a value of 6.2 using additional sulfuric acid followed by digestion for an additional 15 minutes at 60 C., with a final readjustment of the pH to 6.2, if necessary, at which point the dispersion was filtered while hot. The resulting filtrate was washed with an amount of water, which had been preheated to 60 C. and pre-adjusted to a pH of 7.0, equal to the weight of recovered pigment. The washed filtrate was subsequently re-dispersed in water with agitation, in the presence of 0.35% by weight based on pigment of the organic polyol trimethylol propane, to achieve a concentration of <40% by weight of dispersed pigment. The resulting pigment dispersion was spray dried using an APV Nordic PSD52 Spray Dryer, maintaining a dryer inlet temperature of approximately 280 C., to yield a dry pigment powder.

One thousand (1000) grams of the resulting pigment powder were thoroughly mixed with ten (10) grams of dodecenylsuccinic anhydride, corresponding to a pigment surface coating concentration of 1% by weight based on titanium dioxide. The dry powder mixture was subsequently roll milled for sixteen hours at room temperature, after which time the powder mixture was steam micronized at a steam to pigment weight ratio of five, with a steam injector pressure set at 146 psi and micronizer ring pressure set at 118 psi.

The resulting finished pigment sample was evaluated in titanium dioxide/polyethylene concentrates, according to the following procedure:

One hundred and nine and one-half (109.5) grams of the finished pigment described above was mixed with thirty-six and one-half (36.5) grams of Dow 4012 low density polyethylene, a product of Dow Chemical Co., and 0.05% by weight based on polyethylene of an 80/20 mixture of tris(2,4-di-tertbutylphenyl)phosphite and octadecyl-3-(3,5-di-tertbutyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate, to prepare a 75% by weight titanium dioxide-containing polyethylene concentrate via mastication of the mixture in the mixing bowl of a Brabender Plasticorder Model PL-2000 at 100 C. and a mixing speed of 100 rpm. Instantaneous torque and temperature values were then recorded for a nine minute period to ensure equilibrium mixing conditions had been attained. Equilibrium torque values were determined via averaging the measured instantaneous torque values for a two minute period after equilibrium mixing conditions had been achieved. The resulting pigment concentrate was cooled and ground into pellets. The melt flow index value was determined on the resulting pellet concentrate using ASTM method D1238, procedure B. Maximum extruder processing pressure was determined by extruding 100 grams of the 75% concentrate through a 500 mesh screen filter using a 0.75 inch barrel, 25/1 length to diameter extruder attached to the aforementioned Brabender Plasticorder, at an average processing temperature of approximately 190 C. and at 75 rpm, while recording instrument pressure values at the extruder die.

Injection molded plaques were then prepared from Dow 4012 low density polyethylene and from the above-described concentrate, such that the plaques contained 2.6 weight percent of the pigment, 0.3 weight percent 2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), and 0.3 weight percent of bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidyl) sebacate. These plaques were exposed in a QUV Test Chamber equipped with a UVA-340 lamp, according to procedure ASTM #D4329-92 for a total of 96 hours, with determination of plaque b values (yellow/blue color index) before and after exposure utilizing a Macbeth Color Eye Spectrophotometer CE7000. The difference between the b value determined after exposure and the value prior to exposure (delta b) is a measure of the resistance of the material to yellowing resulting from UV exposure, with a smaller value indicating greater resistance to discoloration.

The same procedures were repeated using titanium dioxide produced as outlined above but omitting the dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (Comparative Example 3-1).

The same procedures were repeated using titanium dioxide produced as outlined above but omitting the trimethylolpropane (Comparative Example 3-2).

Results from these evaluations are provided in Table 3.

TABLE 3
Processing/UV Behavior of Titanium Dioxide Containing
Polyethylene Concentrates
Melt Flow Max.
Index (g/10 Equilibrium Extruder
minutes: Torque Pressure
Pigment Sample: 190 C.) (meter-grams) (psi) Delta b
Example 3 4 1140 590 0.8
Comp. Example 3-1 <1 1360 1075 3.0
Comp. Example 3-2 3 1200 790 2.8

The surface treated titanium dioxide produced according to the present invention and having an inorganic coating of 1.0% of alumina (by weight of the pigment) deposited in an initial step also demonstrates improved processibility and dispersibility in a polyethylene concentrate, as well as increased resistance to ultraviolet light induced discoloration, as indicated by the higher melt flow index value, the lower equilibrium torque value, the lower maximum extruder processing pressure, and the lower Delta b value observed for the inventive pigment versus the comparative examples.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7722951Oct 15, 2004May 25, 2010Georgia Tech Research CorporationInsulator coating and method for forming same
US7935753Nov 13, 2006May 3, 2011Tronox LlcAn inorganic oxide pigment having deposited on its surface at least one ethylene glycol ester or diester: titanium oxide/triethylene glycol di-2-ethylhexyl ester or the corresponding polymer; good dispersibility tinting and opacifying properties;, little residue on extrusion; excellent heat resistance
WO2007126432A1 *Dec 20, 2006Nov 8, 2007Georgia Tech Res InstSuperhydrophobic surface and method for forming same
Classifications
U.S. Classification106/417, 106/465, 106/423, 106/480, 106/455, 106/453, 106/491, 106/452, 106/460, 106/435, 106/499, 106/421, 106/471, 106/447, 106/420, 106/429
International ClassificationC04B14/20
Cooperative ClassificationC09C1/3653, C09C3/06
European ClassificationC09C1/36D6, C09C3/06
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