US 20060046083 A1
The invention comprises a laminated article, such as may be used to apply a functional effect to a surface. The functional effect may be color. The article has plies which preferentially release from one another or adhere to one another as desired for bonding to the surface, either temporarily, for repositionability, or permanently, for long-term use.
1. An article for conveying color to a surface, comprising:
a sheet of color have opposite first and second sides;
a bonding agent carried by said first side of said sheet of color capable of bonding said sheet to the surface, at least one of said sheet of color and bonding agent being characterized by a thickness of less than about 0.076 mm and said bonding agent being adapted to adhere the article to a surface at room temperature and upon application of a pressure of less than about 50 lbs/in2 (3500 grams/sq. cm); and
a releasable liner removably attached to said second side of said sheet of color.
2. The article of
This invention relates to articles for applying a color or functional effect to a surface, which articles may be laminated sheets.
Laminated sheets are known in the art. Laminated sheets are usable for applying a color effect to a surface. Such sheets may comprise wallpaper or a dry color component. The color component may comprise pigments secured to a binder, as occurs in paint. The sheets may be adhesively attached to the surface, or attached by other means known in the art, such as cohesion, magnetic attraction, static/electrostatic charge, mechanical means, suction/vacuum, other differential pressures, etc.
The article may be provided in a continuous length of indeterminate width or provided in discrete units. The article may be spiral wound or flat sheets. Further, the articles may be cut out of a continuous roll as discrete units, such as decals.
It is important that upon application of the article to the substrate, the laminated structure remain intact. A particularly preferred laminated structure may comprise, laminae in series, such as a releasable liner, a color component or functional effect, and an adhesive or other bonding agent.
However, it is important that premature delamination of the laminae be avoided. For example, until the article is disposed on the surface, and permanently positioned thereon, it is important that the releasable liner not be removed from the color component—unless it is specifically desired to do so. Likewise, it is important that cohesive failure of the bonding agent or the color component not occur. Further, one may desire to reposition the sheet to assure squareness with a comer, that a true vertical has been achieved, pattern matching, etc. Thus, it is important that the strength of the bond of the article to the substrate not develop too quickly to allow this to occur.
The invention comprises an article for providing a functional effect to a surface. The article comprises a laminate comprising laminae in face-to-face relationship. The laminae comprise a sheet providing the functional effect, a bonding agent joined to a first side of the sheet, and a releasable liner removably attached to a second side of the sheet. The functional effect may be color. The sheet may have a specified thickness and application pressure to bond to the surface.
The article may be provided in a wound format, in a cut and stacked format, etc. The article may be manually applied to the surface or applied from a dispenser. The dispenser has internal forces which occur during dispensing. Also a force occurs between the dispenser and the article during dispensing.
The relative forces between the plies may provide that the forces within the dispenser are greater than the cohesive forces of each lamina and the force between the sheet and the releasable liner, as well as the force between the sheet and the bonding agent. Furthermore, as the article is dispensed to a surface, the force bonding the article to the surface is greater than the force between the article and the dispenser upon application to the surface.
The invention is directed to articles and methods for applying functional effects, such as color, to a surface. As employed herein, the term “color” is used to refer to a color effect, i.e., an aesthetic difference in color perception. In a specific embodiment, the color effect is a substantially permanent color effect, i.e., a color effect which is not removed or noticeably reduced upon casual contact, light washing, or the like. Thus, a substantially permanent color effect is distinguished from a temporary color effect which can be easily removed or reduced, such as that provided by chalk or crayons. The term “color component” is used herein to refer to the component of the inventive articles that provides the color effect.
Alternatively, the article may provide other functional effects to a surface. For example, the article may provide sound insulation, thermal insulation, texture, indicia/instructions, ultra-violet radiation, bactericides, Mass transfer, time-released odor control, scented walls, Copper Surface, Pet Solutions, glow-in-the-dark walls (e.g., color memory, light memory, differential glow-in-the-dark, photochromic), white-board capability, erasability, cleanability, attachable capability (e.g. hook and loop) for hanging items, pictures, magnetic surfaces, emission of light, heat, sound, self-cleaning, dust-absorbing, reflective for projection (can be smaller area within a wall), acoustically transparent, sound emission, fire resistance, safety net for capturing debris, one-way windows, smoke detection, carbon monoxide detection, alarm for intrusion detection, sound detection, sound responsive, etc. While it is understood that the article according to the present invention may be generally planar and in sheet form, an article having a significant thickness is also contemplated hereunder.
The term “surface” is used herein to refer to any outer layer or boundary of an object or substrate that is capable of receiving a color component thereon. Suitable surfaces may be substantially two-dimensional and flat or substantially three-dimensional and including curves, angled portions or the like. In one embodiment, the surface to which color component is applied using the articles and methods of the invention comprises an architectural surface, i.e., a surface of a building, a building fixture (i.e., appliances), furniture, and the like. The architectural surface may be an interior surface within the building or an exterior surface on an outer portion of the building. Substantially three-dimensional architectural surfaces can include, for example, edge treatments of two-dimensional surfaces such as moldings (e.g., moldings around windows or doorways), floorboards, appliances, furniture, floors, counters and the like. The architectural surface may be permanently installed or may be temporarily installed or portable. The products of the present invention can further be applied to surfaces of articles to give them the same or different texture and/or appearance of architectural surfaces. For example, the products hereof can be used to apply a color layer to appliances, furniture, and other architectural articles. Additional surfaces suitable for application of color using the articles and methods of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art in view of the present disclosure.
References herein to terms such as “vertical”, “horizontal”, “under”, “over”, etc. are made by way of example, and not by way of limitation, to establish a frame of reference. It is understood various other frames of reference may be employed without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the forces described herein acting on the article are schematic representations of the actual forces exerted on the article components and are distributed throughout the article and/or over a corresponding interface or boundary between adjacent lamina in the article. The following description is given in conjunction with an article 10 having a functional effect comprising color. However, it is to be recognized that this description is given for illustrative purposes only and the claims are not so limited.
With reference to
The bonding agent 14, which may be any adhesive, such as pressure sensitive adhesive known to those skilled in the art, which is adapted to bond the sheet 12 to the surface 20 upon application of a pressure of less than about 50 lbs/in2 (3500 grams/sq. cm). Exemplary articles 10 are described in commonly-assigned application Ser. No. 10/324,237 entitled “Articles and Methods for Applying Color on Surfaces.”
The releasable liner 16 may provide structural support and/or strength to the sheet 12, for example when the releasable liner 16 is in film form, and/or to facilitate handling of the article during manufacture, storage and use. The releasable liner 16 may be formed of a sheet of a polymer, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a nonwoven or be cellulosic. Releasable liner 16 may be provided with a release coating, such as a silicone coating, on a surface confronting the sheet 12. The caliper of the releasable liner 16 may be greater than the caliper of the sheet 12.
The article 10 may be provided in wound roll form (
The article 10 may have a thickness of less than 0.0033 inches (0.076 mm) and preferably less tan 0.003 inches (0.069 mm). The thickness is measured considering only the bonding agent 14 and sheet 12, and no releasable liner 16. Thickness is measured using a 5 mm diameter presser foot under a load of 8.74 gms. An article 10 may be manually applied or by using a dispenser therefor. If a dispenser is utilized, the dispenser may be made according to the teachings of Procter & Gamble U.S. patent application Ser. Nos. 10/458,520, filed Jun. 10, 2003, and 10/700,614, filed Nov. 4, 2003.
To successfully unwind or otherwise separate the bonding agent 14 from the releasable liner 16, a total association (e.g,. unwind or separation) force exhibited between the releasable liner 16 and the bonding agent 14, labeled as F1 on
If the article 10 is unwound from a roll form, an unwind force is defined to characterize the adhesive force acting between the releasable liner 16 and the surface of the adjacent portion of sheet 12 contacting the releasable liner 16. Similarly, if the article 10 is arranged in stacked or layered form, a separation force is defined to characterize the adhesive force acting between the releasable liner 16 and the bonding agent 14. The unwind or separation force may be measured in a peel test using a 2.0 inch wide peel strip according a modified version of ASTM D3811 using a Lab Master Release and Adhesion Tester Model 80-90 and a 16 inch (40.6 cm) sample length at a test speed of 720 in (1830). of from about 12 inches (30.5 cm) per minute to about 800 inches (2030 cm) per minute and at an angle of less than about 180° and particularly 90 degrees. The angle is measured relative to a tangential plane to the circular roll layer positioned at along the line of release of the bonding agent 14 from the underlying release liner 16, with the releasable liner 16 being the other lamina. In other embodiments of the invention, the unwind force F1 is less than about 100 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) if the roll is unwound at a rate ranging from about 12 inches (30.5 cm) per minute to about 720 inches (1830 cm) per minute. In yet other embodiments of the invention, the unwind force F1 ranges from about 50 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) to about 65 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) if the roll is unwound at a rate ranging from about 180 inches (460 cm) per minute to about 720 inches (1830 cm) per minute. In yet another embodiment, the unwind force is less than 50 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) measure at rates of 12 (30.5 cm) and 300 (760 cm) inches per minute.
In certain embodiments of the invention in which the article 10 does not require unwinding, a separation force F1 required to separate the release liner 16 and bonding agent 14 is less than about 150 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) if separated at a rate of from about 12 inches (30.5 cm) per minute to about 800 inches (2030 cm) per minute. In other embodiments of the invention, the separation force F1 is less than about 100 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) if the release liner 16 and bonding agent 14 are separated at a rate ranging from about 12 inches (30.5 cm) per minute to about 720 inches (1830 cm) per minute. In yet other embodiments of the invention, the separation force F1 ranges from about 50 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) to about 65 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) if the release liner 16 and bonding agent 14 are separated at a rate ranging from about 180 inches (460 cm) per minute to about 720 inches (1830 cm) per minute.
The magnitude of the unwind or separation force F1 may be modified by altering the composition or the chemical constituents of the bonding agent 14. For example, tackifiers and/or crosslinkers may be added to the composition to change the tack of the adhesive. The coating weight or thickness of the bonding agent 14 may also be varied to change the unwind force or separation force. Alternatively, the composition or chemical constituents of the release coating of the releasable liner 16 may be changed to affect the ability to separate from the bonding agent 14 when a roll is unwound or adjacent stacked sheets are separated. The value of the unwind force may also be affected by the tightness or compactness of the roll into which article 10 is wound. If adhesive is used for the bonding agent 14, the adhesive may be chilled to reduce its adhesion to the surface 20. Similarly, the compressive forces used to place release liner 16 into contact with bonding agent 14 may affected the magnitude of the separation force. Forces arising from static charging acting between the bonding agent 14 and the releasable liner 16 may contribute to the value of the unwind or separation force.
With reference to
The adhesion force F3 is determined by peeling the article 10 from the surface 20 at an angle of less than about 180°, particularly 90 degrees. In other embodiments of the invention, the adhesion force F3 between the bonding agent 14 and the surface 20 is greater than about 180 grams per two inches (5.08 cm) measured at 12 inches (30.5 cm) per minute. While F3 is generally taken as the force between the bonding agent 14 and an external surface 20, the invention is not so limited. For example, F3 may be measured between the bonding agent 14 of a first portion of the article 10 and the sheet 12 of a second portion of article 10. This may occur, for example, if two portions of the article 10 are placed in overlapping relationship, such as at a seam.
The magnitude of the adhesion force F3 may be influenced by the degree of bonding between the bonding agent 14 and the surface 20. Specifically, the magnitude of the adhesion force increases if a coextensive boundary or interface between bonding agent 14 and the surface 20 is substantially free of contaminants. To that end, the condition of surface 20 may be prepared for the application of the article 10 by, for example, wiping the surface 20 in a manner effective to remove any temporarily attached and, hence, removable residue. Removing the residue increases the contact area between surface 20 and bonding agent 14, which increases the strength of the adhesive bond as the intervening residue would otherwise lessen the available surface area of surface 20 for establishing the adhesive bond.
The article 10 is capable of being substantially applied to the surface 20. Factors affecting the establishment of “substantial application” include, but are not limited to, the burnish or smoothing pressure used to apply the article 10 to the surface 20, the surface energy of the surface 20, the presence of loose debris and/or contaminants (e.g., residue from sanding), the surface texture of the surface 20, a coating of paint present on the surface 20 prior to application of the article, the type of paint, if any, on the surface 20 prior to application, the underlying surface characteristics, and any residue (e.g., sizing) from wallpaper removal. Surface texture of the surface 20, and removal of air bubbles affects the degree of contact between portions of the bonding agent 14 and the surface 20 with greater textures reducing the strength of the adhesive bond. If desired, the article 10 may be perforate to allow escape of air therethrough. The degree of adhesion between the bonding agent and the surface 20 will also be influenced by the properties of any existing paint on the surface 20. For example, the degree of bonding may differ among primer, enamel paint, or latex paint, or among gloss, semi-gloss, satin, eggshell, and flat finishes. The bending stiffness of the article 10 also affects the ability of the article 10 to acheive contact and adhesion with the surface 20. Furthermore, if the article 10 is peforate, air may be released therethrough, and increase contact/adhesion of the article 10 to the surface 20.
Particles that may be added to bonding agent 14 include, but are not limited to, carbon black, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, silica, satin white, barytes, mica, zinc oxide, plastic pigments, or a kaolin clay pigment, which is composed primarily of kaolinite (a hydrated aluminum silicate (Al2Si2O5(OH)4)). The particles should be inert when in the matrix of the bonding agent 14. The average or mean diameter of the particles may range from about from about 25 nm to about 150 μm. The composition of the bonding agent 15 may include about 5 percent by weight of particles, with the balance of the composition comprising an organic matrix, although a greater percentage of particles may be used as the bonding agent 14 becomes thicker.
With continued reference to
In a particularly preferred embodiment the following forces may be used for F1, F2, and F3:
With continued reference to
The adhesion force F3 between the bonding agent 14 and the surface 20 at an initial point of application when the article is applied onto a surface 20 is greater than the application force exerted during application of the article 10 and during unwinding of a rolled article 10. Typically, the rolled article 10 is applied or tacked at one position on the surface 20 and unrolled to length, cut and pressed against the surface 20 to establish an adhesive bond. After the initial tacking, the adhesion force over the tacked region should be adequate to permit continued application without loss of adhesion over the tacked region.
Examining the article 10 according to the present invention in further detail, one of skill will realize that both adhesive and cohesive forces are present. With reference to
To dispense the article 10 with the releasable liner 16 in place, the following relationships must hold true at the point of application. Dispenser force D7 must be less than the forces between and cohesive to the layers of the article 10. Also, the attachment force F3 between the article 10 and the surface 20 must be greater than the attractive force between the article 10 and the dispenser. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
Furthermore, if dispensing with the releasable liner 16 still in place
If desired, the dispenser may be powered, in order to reduce its internal forces.
Further, one of skill will recognize that it may be desired to reposition the article after initial application to the surface 20. For example, the article 10 may not be applied in a straight, smooth or horizontal manner. One may wish to remove wrinkles, etc. During repositioning, the force F3 between the bonding agent 14 and the surface 20 must be less than the other forces inherent in the article 10. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
Upon final application to the surface 20, it is important that the bonding force joining the article 10 to the surface 20 be greater than the force between the releasable layer 16 and the sheet 12. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
If desired, dispensers are known in the art to spool the releasable liner 16 from the balance of the article 10 during application. If so, it is necessary that the force F3 joining the bonding agent 14 to the surface 20 be less than other forces present in the article 10. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
Once the releasable liner 16 is removed, one may still wish to reposition the article 10 as noted above. At such time, the adhesive force between the article 10 and the surface 20 must be less than the cohesive strength of the sheet 12, the cohesive strength of the bonding agent 14, and the force therebetween. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
A strength layer may be added as noted below. Even without a strength layer, the following tensile relationship must be observed wherein the force joining the article 10 to the surface 20 is less than the combination of the internal forces noted above. Mathematically, this can be expressed as
The adhesion between the sheet 12 and the bonding agent 14, between the releasable liner 16 and the sheet 12 and/or between the bonding agent 14 and the releasable liner 16 may be altered by surface treatments. Specifically, the sheet 12 and/or the releasable liner 16 may be surface treated by corona treatment, by roughening of target surface for increasing surface area, by swelling of target surface, intermolecular mixing, by direct coating of bonding agent, by applying heat or pressure during lamination, by including a functionalized polymer to provide covalent or intermolecular bonds, by increasing a surface area of one or more layers by embossing, by brushing or other mechanical methods, or by adding particles or by solvent etching, and combinations thereof. Corona treatment, for example, involves exposure to a high voltage corona discharge supplied by a pair of spaced electrodes.
With reference to
All documents cited in the Detailed Description of the Invention are, are, in relevant part, incorporated herein by reference; the citation of any document is not to be construed as an admission that it is prior art with respect to the present invention.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described, it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is therefore intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of this invention.