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Publication numberUS20060052066 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/012,411
Publication dateMar 9, 2006
Filing dateDec 15, 2004
Priority dateSep 7, 2004
Also published asUS7844216
Publication number012411, 11012411, US 2006/0052066 A1, US 2006/052066 A1, US 20060052066 A1, US 20060052066A1, US 2006052066 A1, US 2006052066A1, US-A1-20060052066, US-A1-2006052066, US2006/0052066A1, US2006/052066A1, US20060052066 A1, US20060052066A1, US2006052066 A1, US2006052066A1
InventorsJoseph Cleveland, Paul Nelson
Original AssigneeSamsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wireless repeater using a single RF chain for use in a TDD wireless network
US 20060052066 A1
Abstract
A repeater for re-transmitting an incoming RF signal comprising: a first antenna array for receiving the incoming RF signal; a second antenna array for transmitting an outgoing RF signal; and a transceiver for down-converting the incoming RF signal to a down-converted signal, processing the down-converted signal, and up-converting the processed signal to produce the outgoing RF signal. The first antenna array is cross-polarized with respect to the second antenna array. The repeater also comprises an echo processor for attenuating in the down-converted signal an echo signal associated with the outgoing RF signal. The echo processor delays transmission of the outgoing RF signal in order to minimize the echo signal.
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Claims(20)
1. A repeater for re-transmitting an incoming RF signal comprising:
a first antenna array for receiving said incoming RF signal;
a second antenna array for transmitting an outgoing RF signal; and
a transceiver chain capable of down-converting said incoming RF signal to a down-converted signal, processing said down-converted signal, and up-converting said processed signal to thereby produce said outgoing RF signal, wherein said first antenna array comprises a first antenna element and said second antenna array comprises a second antenna element that is cross-polarized with respect to said first antenna element.
2. The repeater as set forth in claim 1, wherein a ground plane associated with said repeater is disposed between said first antenna array and said second antenna array to thereby provide isolation between said first and second antenna arrays.
3. The repeater as set forth in claim 2, wherein said transceiver chain further comprises an echo processor capable of attenuating in said down-converted signal an echo signal associated with said outgoing RF signal.
4. The repeater as set forth in claim 3, wherein said echo processor delays transmission of said outgoing RF signal in order to minimize said echo signal in said down-converted signal.
5. The repeater as set forth in claim 4, wherein said echo processor comprises an echo detector for detecting said echo signal in said down-converted signal.
6. The repeater as set forth in claim 5, wherein said echo processor further comprises an echo suppressor for suppressing at least a part of said echo signal from said down-converted signal.
7. The repeater as set forth in claim 6, wherein said echo processor comprises a delay buffer for delaying transmission of said outgoing RF signal.
8. The repeater as set forth in claim 7, wherein said echo processor further comprises a test signal generator capable of adding a known test signal to said outgoing RF signal.
9. The repeater as set forth in claim 8, wherein said echo processor is capable of detecting an echo of said test signal in said down-converted signal and using a delay associated with said test signal echo to determine a delay associated with said delay buffer.
10. The repeater as set forth in claim 9, further comprising a switching circuit capable of coupling said first antenna array to an input of said transceiver chain and said second antenna to an output of said transceiver chain in a first switch position and further capable of coupling said second antenna array to an input of said transceiver chain and said first antenna to an output of said transceiver chain in a second switch position.
11. A wireless network comprising:
a plurality of base stations capable of communicating with a plurality of mobile stations in a coverage area of said wireless network; and
a repeater capable of re-transmitting forward channel signals from a first base station to a first mobile station and re-transmitting reverse channel signals from said first mobile station to said first base station, said repeater comprising:
a first antenna array for receiving an incoming RF signal;
a second antenna array for transmitting an outgoing RF signal; and
a transceiver chain capable of down-converting said incoming RF signal to a down-converted signal, processing said down-converted signal, and up-converting said processed signal to thereby produce said outgoing RF signal, wherein said first antenna array comprises a first antenna element and said second antenna array comprises a second antenna element that is cross-polarized with respect to said first antenna element.
12. The wireless network as set forth in claim 11, wherein a ground plane associated with said repeater is disposed between said first antenna array and said second antenna array to thereby provide isolation between said first and second antenna arrays.
13. The wireless network as set forth in claim 12, wherein said transceiver chain further comprises an echo processor capable of attenuating in said down-converted signal an echo signal associated with said outgoing RF signal.
14. The wireless network as set forth in claim 13, wherein said echo processor delays transmission of said outgoing RF signal in order to minimize said echo signal in said down-converted signal.
15. The wireless network as set forth in claim 14, wherein said echo processor comprises an echo detector for detecting said echo signal in said down-converted signal.
16. The wireless network as set forth in claim 15, wherein said echo processor further comprises an echo suppressor for suppressing at least a part of said echo signal from said down-converted signal.
17. The wireless network as set forth in claim 16, wherein said echo processor comprises a delay buffer for delaying transmission of said outgoing RF signal.
18. The wireless network as set forth in claim 17, wherein said echo processor further comprises a test signal generator capable of adding a known test signal to said outgoing RF signal.
19. The wireless network as set forth in claim 18, wherein said echo processor is capable of detecting an echo of said test signal in said down-converted signal and using a delay associated with said test signal echo to determine a delay associated with said delay buffer.
20. The wireless network as set forth in claim 19, further comprising a switching circuit capable of coupling said first antenna array to an input of said transceiver chain and said second antenna to an output of said transceiver chain in a first switch position and further capable of coupling said second antenna array to an input of said transceiver chain and said first antenna to an output of said transceiver chain in a second switch position.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS AND CLAIM OF PRIORITY

The present invention is related to that disclosed in U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/608,299, filed Sep. 27, 2004, entitled “Method and Procedure for Using a Single RF Chain in a Wireless Repeater For Time-Division Duplexed Signals” and U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/608,282, filed Sep. 27, 2004, entitled “Method and Procedure for Reduction of Feedback in a Wireless Repeater Using Cancellation of Cross-Polarized Signals”. U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/608,282 and 60/608,299 are assigned to the assignee of the present application. The subject matter disclosed in each of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/608,282 and 60/608,299 is hereby incorporated by reference into the present disclosure as if fully set forth herein. The present invention hereby claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/608,282 and 60/608,299.

TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to communication networks and, more specifically, to a wireless network repeater that uses a single RF chain to repeat signals in a time-division duplexed (TDD) wireless network.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Consumers use a wide range of devices and networks, including cellular phones, paging devices, personal communication services (PCS) systems, and wireless data networks. Wireless service providers create new markets for wireless devices and expand existing markets by making wireless devices and services cheaper and more reliable. Wireless service providers attract new customers by reducing infrastructure costs and operating costs, by increasing handset battery life, and improving quality of service, and new and better features.

Inadequate coverage is a persistent problem in the quality of service of any wireless network. Natural and man-made obstacles frequently create radio frequency (RF) “holes” in the coverage area of a wireless network. Voice and data call connections are frequently dropped when a wireless terminal, such as a cell phone or a similar mobile station, enters an RF hole. Mobile stations that are already in an RF hole may not be able to reliably establish new connections. Typical areas in which RF holes occur include underground tunnels, buildings that have large footprints, tall buildings, and underground shopping malls.

Wireless service providers may attempt to improve coverage by deploying RF repeater transceivers. A variety of repeaters have been developed to improve the coverage of wireless networks. In U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/998,238 (Publication No. 20030104781), Son describes a residential wireless repeater that achieves isolation between transmit and receive antennas by physical separation of the antennas. The repeater disclosed by Son requires two separate modular repeaters that communicate simultaneously with each other with low radio frequency.

In U.S. Pat. No. 6,731,904, Judd describes a modular repeater that includes a housing having a pair of substantially 180° oppositely facing surfaces. At least one antenna element is mounted to each of these surfaces for radiating energy in a direction opposite that of another antenna element mounted to the other surface. An electronic circuit within the housing operatively couples signals between at least one antenna element on each of the oppositely facing surfaces of the module housing.

In U.S. Pat. No. 6,697,603, Lovinggood et al. describe a digital repeater for receiving and retransmitting radio frequency (RF) signals. The Lovinggood repeater down-converts a received RF signal to an intermediate frequency (IF) signal, converts the IF signal into a digital signal, processes and amplifies the digital signal into an amplified signal using the digital signal processor, and converts the amplified signal into an analog signal. The Lovinggood repeater then up-converts the analog signal to an outgoing RF signal suitable for antenna transmission.

In U.S. Pat. No. 6,640,112, Lee et al. describe a repeating method for a wireless communication system which provides time and space diversities. The method of repeating a forward link communication signal for a wireless communication system includes the steps of: a) transmitting the forward link communication signal through a first transmitting antenna; b) delaying the forward link communication signal for a predetermined time period; and c) transmitting a delayed forward link communication signal which is generated by step b) through a second transmitting antenna.

In U.S. Pat. No. 4,283,795, Steinberger presents an adaptive cross-polarization cancellation arrangement in which a first desired polarized signal and a second interfering orthogonally polarized signal, including cross-polarization components, are concurrently received at an antenna. The orthogonally polarized components of the received signal are separated and transmitted along separate paths and recombined after the phase and amplitude of the separated polarized interfering signal sample have been adjusted for maxim cancellation of cross-polarization components in the other path.

Each of the prior art repeaters described above requires at least one of the following: i) physical separation of primary and secondary antenna sets by a significant distance to reduce the magnitude of the transfer function H such that H<1/G, where G is the repeater power gain; ii) precise adjustment of input-output phase adjustment embodied in H such that the vector product G*H is <0 in order to yield negative feedback; iii) separate modules for the reception of external signals and the retransmission of signals internal to the building; and iv) methods for the cancellation of multiple time-delayed echoes that would occur in a home or in-building environment with multiple scattering surfaces. The prior art repeaters generally do not provide a method of canceling any echoes from the output that would lead to unstable operation (i.e., oscillations).

Therefore, there is a need in the art for improved repeaters for use in wireless networks. In particular, there is a need for a repeater that cancels echoes and avoids oscillation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a wireless repeater having a single radio frequency (RF) chain for use in a time-division duplexed (TDD) IEEE-802.16 (or similar) wireless network. A repeater according to the principles of the present invention reduces the feedback between an output antenna and an input antenna that could cause instabilities (or oscillations) in the repeater. The present invention uses a combination of antenna cross-polarization techniques and digital processing techniques to remove time-delayed feedback or echo terms. This combination of techniques greatly reduces the feedback between a donor antenna and a server antenna. Isolation factors may exceed 20 dB for oppositely-directed, cross-polarized antennas. The signal processing techniques described herein may provide another 20-40 dB of gain isolation.

To address the above-discussed deficiencies of the prior art, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a repeater for re-transmitting an incoming RF signal. According to an advantageous embodiment of the present invention, the repeater comprises: 1) a first antenna array for receiving the incoming RF signal; 2) a second antenna array for transmitting an outgoing RF signal; and 3) a transceiver chain capable of down-converting the incoming RF signal to a down-converted signal, processing the down-converted signal, and up-converting the processed signal to thereby produce the outgoing RF signal. The first antenna array comprises a first antenna element and the second antenna array comprises a second antenna element that is cross-polarized with respect to the first antenna element.

According to one embodiment of the present invention, a ground plane associated with the repeater is disposed between the first antenna array and the second antenna array to thereby provide isolation between the first and second antenna arrays.

According to another embodiment of the present invention, the transceiver chain further comprises an echo processor capable of attenuating in the down-converted signal an echo signal associated with the outgoing RF signal.

According to still another embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor delays transmission of the outgoing RF signal in order to minimize the echo signal in the down-converted signal.

According to yet another embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor comprises an echo detector for detecting the echo signal in the down-converted signal.

According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor further comprises an echo suppressor for suppressing at least a part of the echo signal from the down-converted signal.

According to a still further embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor comprises a time delay buffer for delaying transmission of the outgoing RF signal.

According to a yet further embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor further comprises a test signal generator capable of adding a known test signal to the outgoing RF signal.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the echo processor is capable of detecting an echo of the test signal in the down-converted signal and using a delay associated with the test signal echo to determine a delay associated with the delay buffer.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the repeater further comprises a switching circuit capable of coupling the first antenna array to an input of the transceiver chain and the second antenna to an output of the transceiver chain in a first switch position and further capable of coupling the second antenna array to an input of the transceiver chain and the first antenna to an output of the transceiver chain in a second switch position.

Before undertaking the DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION below, it may be advantageous to set forth definitions of certain words and phrases used throughout this patent document: the terms “include” and “comprise,” as well as derivatives thereof, mean inclusion without limitation; the term “or,” is inclusive, meaning and/or; the phrases “associated with” and “associated therewith,” as well as derivatives thereof, may mean to include, be included within, interconnect with, contain, be contained within, connect to or with, couple to or with, be communicable with, cooperate with, interleave, juxtapose, be proximate to, be bound to or with, have, have a property of, or the like; and the term “controller” means any device, system or part thereof that controls at least one operation, such a device may be implemented in hardware, firmware or software, or some combination of at least two of the same. It should be noted that the functionality associated with any particular controller may be centralized or distributed, whether locally or remotely. Definitions for certain words and phrases are provided throughout this patent document, those of ordinary skill in the art should understand that in many, if not most instances, such definitions apply to prior, as well as future uses of such defined words and phrases.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For a more complete understanding of the present invention and its advantages, reference is now made to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals represent like parts:

FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary wireless network in which a repeater according to the principles of the present invention may be implemented;

FIG. 2 illustrates an exemplary repeater according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is an architectural view of the exemplary repeater according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 4 illustrates an exemplary signal processor block according to one embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 5 illustrates an exemplary echo processor block according to one embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 6 illustrates an exemplary echo processor block according to another embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIGS. 1 through 6, discussed below, and the various embodiments used to describe the principles of the present invention in this patent document are by way of illustration only and should not be construed in any way to limit the scope of the invention. Those skilled in the art will understand that the principles of the present invention may be implemented in any suitably arranged RF repeater transceiver.

FIG. 1 illustrates exemplary wireless network 100, which implements repeater 120 according to the principles of the present invention. Wireless network 100 comprises base station (BS) 101 and other base stations (not shown) that communicate with a plurality of mobile stations, such as mobile station (MS) 111, located in a coverage area of wireless network 100. In an advantageous embodiment of the present invention, base station (BS) 101 communicates with mobile station (MS) 111 over time-division duplexed (TDD) channels. The TDD channels may use code division multiple access (CDMA) signals or orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) signals. MS 111 may be any suitable wireless device, including a conventional cellular radiotelephone, a PCS handset device, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a portable computer, a telemetry device, or the like, that is capable of communicating with BS 101 via wireless links.

The present invention is not limited to mobile devices. Other types of wireless access terminals, including fixed wireless terminals, may be used. For the sake of simplicity, only mobile stations are shown and discussed hereafter. However, it should be understood that the use of the term “mobile station” in the claims and in the description below is intended to encompass the exemplary types of mobile stations described above, as well as portable devices such as, for example, vehicle-mounted wireless devices.

Wireless network 100 further comprises wireless repeater 120. Forward channel (i.e., downlink) signals from BS 101 to MS 111 and reverse channel (i.e., uplink) signals from MS 111 to BS 101 may be blocked by objects 131-134. Repeater 120 may be used in wireless network 100 to extend the coverage range of BS 101 to areas, such as the vicinity of MS 111, where blockage or scattering causes large propagation losses. Objects 131-134 may include, for example, tunnels, terrain features (e.g., mountains, valleys), and large buildings.

Repeater 120 comprises donor antenna array 122, which communicates in the forward and reverse channels with BS 101, and server antenna array 124, which communicates in the forward and reverse channels with MS 111. Repeater 120 is placed in a location where the forward channel signal received from BS 101 exceeds a specified threshold. Repeater 120 filters and amplifies the received signal and retransmits the signal into the regions where the signal from BS 101 is too low for reliable reception. Repeater 120 performs a similar function in the reverse channel from MS 111 to BS 101.

FIG. 2 illustrates exemplary repeater 120 according to one embodiment of the present invention. Repeater 120 comprises a single receive and transmit path (i.e., a single radio frequency (RF) chain). Repeater 120 comprises bandpass filter 210, low-noise amplifier (LNA) 220, signal processor 230, high-power amplifier (HPA) 240, bandpass filter 250, and switch 260. Repeater 120 can repeat (i.e., re-transmit) signal in the forward channel and in the reverse channel, depending on the setting of switch (or duplexer) 260.

When switch 260 is in a first position, donor antenna array 122 is connected to the input of bandpass filter 210 and server antenna array 124 is connected to the output of bandpass filter 250, such that repeater 120 receives and retransmits forward channel signals. When switch 260 is in a second position, donor antenna array 122 is connected to the output of bandpass filter 250 and server antenna array 124 is connected to the input of bandpass filter 210, such that repeater 120 receives and retransmits reverse channel signals.

During TDD operation, donor antenna array 122 and server antenna array 124 support the same transmit and receive frequencies. Switch 250 is controlled by the CONTROL signal and provides isolation between the transmitter output and receiver input for the transmit and receive time slots. For each of the transmit and receive time slots, repeater 120 performs the following functions. Initially, repeater 120 receives the incoming RF modulated signal in time-slot Td with a first one of the antennas (e.g., donor antenna array 122 in this example). BPF 210 isolates the frequencies of interest and LNA 220 amplifies the received RF signal.

Next, signal processor 230 removes signal components coupled from the output antenna (i.e., server antenna array 124) to the input antenna (i.e., donor antenna array 122). Next, HPA 240 amplifies the regenerated signal. BPF 250 filters the amplified signal and the filtered amplified signal is radiated from the other antenna (i.e., server antenna array 124) in a translated time slot Td′.

In one position of switch 260, signal flow is from server antenna array 124 to donor antenna array 122 (i.e., reverse or uplink channel). In the other position of switch 260, the signal flow is from donor antenna array 122 to server antenna array 124 (i.e., forward or downlink channel). Repeater 120 activates the CONTROL signal to change the duplexer switch position based on timing derived from air interface timing, such as pilot synchronization.

Because repeater 120 receives and transmits on the same frequency in TDD format, it is possible for feedback to occur due to amplified, time-delayed signals coupled between the output antenna and the input antenna. According to the principles of the present invention, repeater 120 incorporates a number of techniques to minimize feedback.

FIG. 3 is an architectural view of exemplary repeater 120 according to one embodiment of the present invention. Repeater 120 uses ground plane isolation and cross-polarization of antenna elements to minimize feedback between the donor antenna and the server antenna. Repeater 120 uses orthogonally polarized antenna elements 301 and 302 on opposite faces of the housing of repeater 120 to radiate power in directions opposite to each other. Thus, antenna element 301 in antenna array 122 is aligned at right angles with antenna element 302 in antenna array 124.

Electronic circuits mounted within the housing of repeater 120 couple signals between antenna elements 301 and 302 on the oppositely facing surfaces. Circuits that receive low-power signals are isolated from the power amplifier circuits for the down-link and the up-link by shielding techniques well-known in the field. Ground plane 330, which contains filtered feed-through lines, provides additional isolation between the duplexer that controls the connectivity between down-conversion circuitry 310 and up-conversion circuitry 320. This architecture also reduces the length of antenna feeds, a major source of coupling between co-located antennas.

FIG. 4 illustrates exemplary signal processor 230 according to one embodiment of the present invention. Signal processor 230 provides further isolation by detecting and attenuating signals coupled from the transmitter antenna to the receiver antenna for both the forward (downlink) channel and the reverse (uplink) channel. Signal processor 230 comprises down-conversion mixer 405, analog-to-digital converter (ADC) 410, echo processor 415, digital-to-analog converter (DAC) 420, up-conversion mixer 425, local oscillator (LO) 430, clock 435 and local oscillator (LO) 440.

The incoming RF signal from LNA 220 is down-converted to baseband (or IF) by down-conversion mixer 405 and LO 430. ADC 410 converts the output of mixer 405 to digital samples, which are stored in memory in echo processor 415. Echo processor 415 then removes feedback (i.e., echoes) from the digital samples. The filtered samples are converted back to an analog signal by DAC 420 mixer 425 and LO 440 then up-convert the output of DAC 420 to an RF signal that is fed to the input of HPA 240.

In alternate embodiments, the ADC sampling may be performed in the RF band of the received signal or at an intermediate frequency (IF) level. The samples are taken over a time interval that represents the maximum propagation time expected for the latest arriving echo, generally less than 1 microsecond, for an in-building or home environment. To reduce the throughput of sampled date (bits/sec), sub-Nyquist sampling rates in either the RF band or in the IF band may be used. ADC 410 has a dynamic range and sampling frequency to differentiate the original, non-delayed signal from the amplified, delayed echo. Clock 435 synchronizes ADC 410 with the data transfer between blocks.

FIG. 5 illustrates exemplary echo processor 415 according to one embodiment of the present invention. Echo processor 415 comprises echo detector 505, echo suppressor 510, delay buffer 515, controller 520, memory 525 and clock 530. Echo detector 505 searches for any time-delayed echoes in the sampled data. Echo suppressor 510 subtracts any detected echoes from the sampled data stream. In order to reduce the correlation between the original signal and echoed signals, the resulting signal samples are delayed in delay buffer 515 for a time specified by controller 520. Those familiar with the art will recognize that conventional auto-correlation methods may be used to determine the time delay of each echo. The echo detection and echo subtraction may occur serially or in multiple parallel branches, one for each expected echo.

FIG. 6 illustrates exemplary echo processor 415 according to another embodiment of the present invention. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 6, repeater 120 processes orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Echo processor 415 comprises OFDM Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) detector 605, echo suppressor 610, OFDM Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) channel element 615, delay buffer 620, test code generator 625, controller 630, memory 635 and clock 640.

ODM IFFT channel element 615 receives a low-power OFDM/OFDMA test code generated by test code generator 625. This low-power test code signal is sufficiently strong so that its echo may be picked up by the receive antenna after transmission. However, the test code signal remains too weak to cause interference to mobile stations. Since repeater 120 knows the exact value of the test code signal, it is relatively easy to detect the echo of the test code signal. OFDM FFT detector 605 uses correlation or matched filter techniques in the FFT domain to detect any time-delayed, cross-polarized text code signals coupled into the sampled signal from the receiver input antenna. Detector 605 uses the time-delay information associated with the test code signal to determine the exact propagation delay through repeater 120. Echo suppressor 610 uses the propagation delay information to subtract each echo signal from the sampled data stored in memory 635.

To prevent the onset of instabilities or oscillations upon power up of repeater 120, controller 630 ramps up the output power amplifier gain while echo processor 415 learns of the existence of echo terms. The amplifier gain is increased until either the maximum allowed value is reached or until echo processor 415 no longer provides sufficient suppression of echo signals.

Repeater 120 uses a novel combination of techniques to minimize echoes in the transmitted signals. These techniques include the use of orthogonally polarized antenna elements 301 and 302 in the donor and server sides of repeater 120, coupled with intervening signal processor 230 that removes or greatly attenuates echoes coupled into the opposite polarization. The antennas are oriented at 180-degrees with respect to their high-gain directions, respectively. Antenna arrays 122 and 124 also have high front-to-rear isolation. The echo detection and cancellation processes in signal processor 230 are greatly enhanced by the use of delay buffers 515 and 620 that follow suppression of detected echo components in the input signal.

Although the present invention has been described with an exemplary embodiment, various changes and modifications may be suggested to one skilled in the art. It is intended that the present invention encompass such changes and modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification455/101, 455/11.1
International ClassificationH03C7/02
Cooperative ClassificationH04B7/15571
European ClassificationH04B7/155J1
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 22, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Dec 15, 2004ASAssignment
Owner name: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD., KOREA, REPUBLIC OF
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CLEVELAND, JOSEPH R.;NELSON, PAUL G.;REEL/FRAME:016102/0686
Effective date: 20041214