Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20060084688 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/046,645
Publication dateApr 20, 2006
Filing dateJan 28, 2005
Priority dateNov 14, 1997
Also published asCA2306460A1, CN1279669A, EP1042290A1, US6541489, US6890937, US20040048852, WO1999025687A1
Publication number046645, 11046645, US 2006/0084688 A1, US 2006/084688 A1, US 20060084688 A1, US 20060084688A1, US 2006084688 A1, US 2006084688A1, US-A1-20060084688, US-A1-2006084688, US2006/0084688A1, US2006/084688A1, US20060084688 A1, US20060084688A1, US2006084688 A1, US2006084688A1
InventorsThomas Barta, Daniel Becker, Louis Bedell, Terri Boehm, Jeffery Carroll, Gary DeCrescenzo, Theresa Fletcher, John Freskos, Daniel Getman, Gunnar Hanson, Susan Hockerman, Carol Howard, Stephen Kolodziej, Madeleine Li, Joseph McDonald, Deborah Mischke, Patrick Mullins, Joseph Rico, Nathan Stehle, Clara Villamil
Original AssigneeBarta Thomas E, Becker Daniel P, Bedell Louis J, Boehm Terri L, Carroll Jeffery N, Decrescenzo Gary A, Fletcher Theresa R, Freskos John N, Getman Daniel P, Hanson Gunnar J, Hockerman Susan L, Howard Carol P, Kolodziej Stephen A, Li Madeleine H, Mcdonald Joseph J, Mischke Deborah A, Mullins Patrick B, Rico Joseph G, Stehle Nathan W, Villamil Clara I
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid metalloprotease inhibitor
US 20060084688 A1
Abstract
A treatment process is disclosed that comprises administering an effective amount of an aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid that exhibits excellent inhibitory activity of one or more matrix metalloprotease (MMP) enzymes, such as MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13, while exhibiting substantially less inhibition at least of MMP-1 to a host having a condition associated with pathological matrix metalloprotease activity. The administered enzyme inhibitor corresponds in structure to formula (I), below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R1 and R2 are both hydrido or R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered ring containing one, two, or three heteroatoms in the ring that are oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. R3 in formula (I) is an optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl radical. Also disclosed are metalloprotease inhibitor compounds having those selective activities, processes for manufacture of such compounds and pharmaceutical compositions using an inhibitor.
Images(387)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(26)
1-14. (canceled)
15. A process for treating a mammal having a condition associated with pathological matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity, wherein:
the process comprises administering a compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt recited in claim 62 in an effective amount to the mammal; and
the compound or salt is characterizeable in that the compound or salt inhibits the activity of one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13, while exhibiting substantially less inhibiting activity against MMP-1,
16. The process according to claim 143 wherein the sum of m+n+p is 1 or 2.
17. The process according to claim 143, wherein Z is selected from the group consisting of O, S, and NR6.
18. The process according to claim 143, wherein each R6 is selected from the group consisting of C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, aminosulfonyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxycarbonyl, and C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl.
19. The process according to claim 143, wherein m is zero, n is zero, p is 1, and Y is NR6.
20-61. (canceled)
62. A compound or pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:
the compound or salt is characterizeable in that the compound or salt selectively inhibits in vitro activity of human MMP-2, MMP-9, and/or MMP-13 over in vitro activity of human MMP-1;
the compound corresponds in structure to formula III:
R3 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl and 5- to 6-membered heteroaryl, wherein:
the phenyl or heteroaryl is substituted at its 4-position when phenyl or 6-membered heteroaryl and at its 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered heteroaryl with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy;
R14 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C(W)R15, and tetrahydropyranyl;
W is selected from the group consisting of O and S;
R15 is selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, C1-C6-alkoxy, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy, aryl-C1-C6-alkoxy, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, and amino C1-C6-alkyl group, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen is optionally substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or
the amino C1-C6-alkyl nitrogen is optionally substituted with two substituents such that the amino C1-C6-alkyl nitrogen and two substituents together form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring;
m is zero, 1, or 2;
n is zero, 1, or 2;
p is zero, 1, or 2;
the sum of m+n+p is 1, 2, 3, or 4;
as to X, Y, and Z:
(a) one of X, Y, and Z is selected from the group consisting of C(O), NR6, O, S, S(O), S(O)2, and NS(O)2R7, and the remaining two of X, Y, and Z are CR8R9 and CR10R11, or
(b) X and Z or Z and Y together constitute a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of NR6C(O), NR6S(O), NR6S(O)2, NR6S, NR60, SS, NR6NR6, and OC(O), with the remaining one of X and Y being CR8R9, or
(c) n is zero, and X, Y, and Z together constitute a moiety selected from the group consisting of:
wherein the wavy lines are bonds to the atoms of the depicted ring;
each of R6 and R6′ is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C6-alkanoyl, C6-aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aroyl, bis(C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl)-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, C6-aryl, C5-C6-heterocyclo, C5-C6-heteroaryl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylsulfonyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, C5-C6-heteroarylsulfonyl, carboxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6-alkyliminocarbonyl, C6-aryliminocarbonyl, C5-C6-heterocycloiminocarbonyl, C6-arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C4-alkylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C5-C6-heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkanoyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkanoyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkanoyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, hydroxy-C1-C5-alkyl, aminocarbonyl hydroxyaminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, and amino-C1-C6-alkyl, wherein:
the aminocarbonyl, aminosulfonyl, aminoalkylsulfonyl, or aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl;
R7 is selected from the group consisting of arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C6-carboxyalkyl, and C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl;
as to R8:
R8 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylaryl-C1-6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide of any of the thio substituents, the sulfone of any of the thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl, and amino-C1-C6-alkyl, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or
R8 and R9, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form a carbonyl group, or
R8 and R9 or R8 and R10, together with the atom(s) to which they are bonded, form:
a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or
a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;
as to R9:
R9 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylalkoxy-C1-C6-, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide of any of the thio substituents, the sulfone of any of the thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl, and amino-C1-C6-alkyl, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6— alkyl, cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or
R8 and R9, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form a carbonyl group, or
R8 and R9, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form:
a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or
a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;
as to R10:
R10 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide of any of the thio substituents, the sulfone of any of the thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-6-alkyl, and amino-C1-C67 alkyl, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6— alkyl, cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or
R10 and R11, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form a carbonyl group, or
R8 and R10 or R10 and R11, together with the atom(s) to which they are bonded, form:
a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or
a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;
as to R11:
R11 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide of any of the thio substituents, the sulfone of any of the thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl, and amino-C1-C6-alkyl, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-6— alkyl, cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or
R10 and R11, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form a carbonyl group, or
R10 and R11, together with the carbon to which they are bonded, form:
a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or
a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms independently selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur;
only one of R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 is hydroxyl
R12 and R12 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroarylalkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide of any of the thio substituents, the sulfone of any of the thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl, and amino-C1-C6-alkyl, wherein:
the aminoalkyl nitrogen optionally is substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl; and
R13 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrogen, benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, and C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl.
63. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein the sum of m+n+p is 1 or 2.
64. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein Z is selected from the group consisting of O, S, and NR6.
65. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein each R6 is selected from the group consisting of C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, aminosulfonyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxycarbonyl, and C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl.
66. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein m is zero, n is zero, p is 1, and Y is NR6.
67. The compound or salt according to claim 62, wherein R14 is hydrogen.
68-124. (canceled)
125. A pharmaceutical composition that comprises a compound or pharmaceutically-acceptable salt according to claim 62 dissolved or dispersed in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
126-142. (canceled)
143. The process according to claim 15, wherein R14 is hydrogen.
144. The process according to claim 143, wherein R3 has a length greater than the length of a pentyl group and less than the length of an icosyl group.
145. The process according to claim 143, wherein R3 is phenyl substituted at its 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
146. The process according to claim 143, wherein R3 is 5-membered heteroaryl substituted at its 3- or 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
147. The process according to claim 143, wherein R3 is 6-membered heteroaryl substituted at its 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
148. The compound or salt according to claim 62, wherein R14 is tetrahydropyranyl.
149. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein R3 has a length greater than the length of a pentyl group and less than the length of an icosyl group.
150. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein R3 is phenyl substituted at its 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
151. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein R3 is 5-membered heteroaryl substituted at its 3- or 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
152. The compound or salt according to claim 67, wherein R3 is 6-membered heteroaryl substituted at its 4-position with a substituent selected from the group consisting of thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and 4-benzyloxyphenoxy.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

This invention is directed to proteinase (protease) inhibitors, and more particularly to the use of aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid compounds that, inter alia, are selective inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases in a process for treating conditions associated with pathological matrix metalloproteinase activity, the selective inhibitors themselves, compositions of proteinase inhibitors, intermediates for the syntheses of proteinase inhibitors, and processes for the preparation of proteinase inhibitors.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Connective tissue, extracellular matrix constituents and basement membranes are required components of all mammals. These components are the biological materials that provide rigidity, differentiation, attachments and, in some cases, elasticity to biological systems including human beings and other mammals. Connective tissues components include, for example, collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, fibronectin and laminin. These biochemicals makeup, or are components of structures, such as skin, bone, teeth, tendon, cartilage, basement membrane, blood vessels, cornea and vitreous humor.

Under normal conditions, connective tissue turnover and/or repair processes are controlled and in equilibrium. The loss of this balance for whatever reason leads to a number of disease states. Inhibition of the enzymes responsible loss of equilibrium provides a control mechanism for this tissue decomposition and, therefore, a treatment for these diseases.

Degradation of connective tissue or connective tissue components is carried out by the action of proteinase enzymes released from resident tissue cells and/or invading inflammatory or tumor cells. A major class of enzymes involved in this function are the zinc metalloproteinases (metalloproteases).

The metalloprotease enzymes are divided into classes with some members having several different names in common use. Examples are: collagenase I (MMP-1, fibroblast collagenase; EC 3.4.24.3); collagenase II (MMP-8, neutrophil collagenase; EC 3.4.24.34), collagenase III (MMP-13), stromelysin 1 (MMP-3; EC 3.4.24.17), stromelysin 2 (MMP-10; EC 3.4.24.22), proteoglycanase, matrilysin (MMP-7), gelatinase A (MMP-2, 72 kDa gelatinase, basement membrane collagenase; EC 3.4.24.24), gelatinase B (MMP-9, 92 kDa gelatinase; EC 3.4.24.35), stromelysin 3 (MMP-11), metalloelastase (MMP-12, HME, human macrophage elastase) and membrane MMP (MMP-14). MMP is an abbreviation or acronym representing the term Matrix Metalloprotease with the attached numerals providing differentiation between specific members of the MMP group.

The uncontrolled breakdown of connective tissue by metalloproteases is a feature of many pathological conditions. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, septic arthritis; corneal, epidermal or gastric ulceration; tumor metastasis, invasion or angiogenesis; periodontal disease; proteinuria; Alzheimers Disease; coronary thrombosis and bone disease. Defective injury repair processes also occur. This can produce improper wound healing leading to weak repairs, adhesions and scarring. These latter defects can lead to disfigurement and/or permanent disabilities as with post-surgical adhesions.

Metalloproteases are also involved in the biosynthesis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and inhibition of the production or action of TNF and related compounds is an important clinical disease treatment mechanism. TNF-α, for example, is a cytokine that at present is thought to be produced initially as a 28 kD cell-associated molecule. It is released as an active, 17 kD form that can mediate a large number of deleterious effects in vitro and in vivo. For example, TNF can cause and/or contribute to the effects of inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis, graft rejection, fibrotic disease, cancer, infectious diseases, malaria, mycobacterial infection, meningitis, fever, psoriasis, cardiovascular/pulmonary effects such as post-ischemic reperfusion injury, congestive heart failure, hemorrhage, coagulation, hyperoxic alveolar injury, radiation damage and acute phase responses like those seen with infections and sepsis and during shock such as septic shock and hemodynamic shock. Chronic release of active TNF can cause cachexia and anorexia. TNF can be lethal, and TNF can help control the growth of tumor cells.

TNF-α convertase is a metalloprotease involved in the formation of soluble TNF-α. Inhibition of TNF-α convertase (TACE) inhibits production of active TNF-α. Compounds that inhibit both MMPs activity and TNF-α production have been disclosed in WIPO International Publication Nos. WO 94/24140, WO 94/02466 and WO 97/20824. Compounds that inhibit MMPs such as collagenase, stromelysin and gelatinase have been shown to inhibit the release of TNF (Gearing et al. Nature 376, 555-557 (1994), McGeehan et al., Nature 376, 558-561 (1994)). There remains a need for effective MMP inhibitors. There also remains a need for effective TNF-α convertase inhibiting agents.

MMPs are involved in other biochemical processes in mammals as well. Included is the control of ovulation, post-partum uterine involution, possibly implantation, cleavage of APP (β-Amyloid Precursor Protein) to the amyloid plaque and inactivation of α1-protease inhibitor (α1-PI). Inhibition of these metalloproteases permits the control of fertility and the treatment or prevention of Alzheimers Disease. In addition, increasing and maintaining the levels of an endogenous or administered serine protease inhibitor drug or biochemical such as α1-PI supports the treatment and prevention of diseases such as emphysema, pulmonary diseases, inflammatory diseases and diseases of aging such as loss of skin or organ stretch and resiliency.

Inhibition of selected MMPs can also be desirable in other instances. Treatment of cancer and/or inhibition of metastasis and/or inhibition of angiogenesis are examples of approaches to the treatment of diseases wherein the selective inhibition of stromelysin, gelatinase A or B, or collagenase III appear to be the relatively most important enzyme or enzymes to inhibit especially when compared with collagenase I (MMP-1). A drug that does not inhibit collagenase I can have a superior therapeutic profile. Osteoarthritis, another prevalent disease wherein it is believed that cartilage degradation of inflamed joints is at least partially caused by MMP-13 released from cells such as stimulated chrondrocytes, may be best treated by administration of drugs one of whose modes of action is inhibition of MMP-13. See, for example, Mitchell et al., J. Clin. Invest., 97:761-768 (1996) and Reboul et al., J. Clin. Invest., 97:201′-2019 (1996).

Inhibitors of metalloproteases are known. Examples include natural biochemicals such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α2-macroglobulin and their analogs or derivatives. These endogenous inhibitors are high molecular weight protein molecules that form inactive complexes with metalloproteases. A number of smaller peptide-like compounds that inhibit metalloproteases have been described. Mercaptoamide peptidyl derivatives have shown ACE inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) aids in the production of angiotensin II, a potent pressor substance in mammals and inhibition of this enzyme leads to the lowering of blood pressure.

Thiol group-containing amide or peptidyl amide-based metalloprotease (MMP) inhibitors are known as is shown in, for example, WO95/12389, WO96/11209 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,595,700. Hydroxamate group-containing MMP inhibitors are disclosed in a number of published patent applications such as WO 95/29892, WO 97/24117, WO 97/49679 and EP 0 780 386 that disclose carbon back-boned compounds, and WO 90/05719, WO 93/20047, WO 95/09841 and WO 96/06074 that disclose hydroxamates that have a peptidyl back-bones or peptidomimetic back-bones, as does the article by Schwartz et al., Progr. Med. Chem., 29:271-334(1992) and those of Rasmussen et al., Pharmacol. Ther., 75(1): 69-75 (1997) and Denis et al., Invest. New Drugs, 15(3): 175-185 (1997).

One possible problem associated with known MMP inhibitors is that such compounds often exhibit the same or similar inhibitory effects against each of the MMP enzymes. For example, the peptidomimetic hydroxamate known as batimastat is reported to exhibit IC50 values of about 1 to about 20 nanomolar (nM) against each of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, and MMP-9. Marimastat, another peptidomimetic hydroxamate was reported to be another broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor with an enzyme inhibitory spectrum very similar to batimastat, except that marimastat exhibited an IC50 value against MMP-3 of 230 nM. Rasmussen et al., Pharmacol. Ther., 75(1): 69-75 (1997).

Meta analysis of data from Phase I/II studies using marimastat in patients with advanced, rapidly progressive, treatment-refractory solid tumor cancers (colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate) indicated a dose-related reduction in the rise of cancer-specific antigens used as surrogate markers for biological activity. Although marimastat exhibited some measure of efficacy via these markers, toxic side effects were noted. The most common drug-related toxicity of marimastat in those clinical trials was musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, often commencing in the small joints in the hands, spreading to the arms and shoulder. A short dosing holiday of 1-3 weeks followed by dosage reduction permits treatment to continue. Rasmussen et al., Pharmacol. Ther., 75(1): 69-75 (1997). It is thought that the lack of specificity of inhibitory effect among the MMPs may be the cause of that effect.

International application Wo 98/38163, published on Sep. 3, 1998 disclose a large group of hydroxamate inhibitors of MMPs and TACE. The compounds of WO 98/38163 contain one or two substituents adjacent to the hydroxamate functionality and a substituent that can be an aromatic sulfonyl group adjacent to those one or two substituents.

International application WO 98/37877, published on Sep. 3, 1998 discloses compounds that contain a 5- to 7-membered heterocyclic ring adjacent to the hydroxamate functionality and can contain an aromatic sulfonyl group adjacent to the heterocyclic ring.

Although many of the known MMP inhibitors such as batimastat, marimastat and the hydroxamates of WO 98/37877 and WO 98/38163 exhibit a broad spectrum of activity against MMPS, those compounds are not particularly selective in their inhibitory activity. This lack of selectivity may be the cause of the musculoskeletal pain and stiffness observed with their use. In addition, it can be therapeutically advantageous to utilize a medicament that is selective in its activity as compared to a generally active material so that treatment can be more closely tailored to the pathological condition presented by the host mammal. The disclosure that follows describes a process for treating a host mammal having a condition associated with pathological matrix metalloprotease activity that utilizes a compound that selectively inhibits one or more MMPs, while exhibiting less activity against at least MMP-1.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a treatment process that comprises administering a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid metalloprotease inhibitor in an effective amount to a host mammal having a condition associated with pathological metalloprotease activity. A contemplated molecule, inter alia, exhibits excellent inhibitory activity of one or more matrix metalloprotease (MMP) enzymes, such as MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, while exhibiting substantially less inhibition at least of MMP-1. By “substantially less” it is meant that a contemplated compound exhibits an IC50 value ratio against one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 or MMP-13 as compared to its IC50 value against MMP-1, e.g., IC50 MMP-2:IC50 MMP-1, that is less than about 1:10, preferably less than about 1:100, and most preferably less than about 1:1000 in the in vitro inhibition assay utilized hereinafter. The invention also contemplates particular compounds that selectively inhibit the activity of one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, while exhibiting substantially less inhibition at least of MMP-1, as well as a composition containing such a MMP inhibitor as active ingredient. The invention further contemplates intermediates in the preparation of a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid molecule and a process for preparing an aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid molecule.

Briefly, one embodiment of the present invention is directed to a treatment process that comprises administering a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid metalloprotease inhibitor that selectively inhibits matrix metalloprotease activity as above in an effective amount to a host mammal having a condition associated with pathological metalloprotease activity. The administered enzyme inhibitor corresponds in structure to formula (I), below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

    • wherein
    • R1 and R2 are both hydrido or R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered ring containing one, two or three heteroatoms in the ring that are oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen.

R3 in formula I is an optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl radical. When R3 is a substituted aryl or heteroaryl radical, a contemplated substituent is selected from the group consisting of an aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aryloxy, arylthio, aralkoxy, heteroaralkoxy, aralkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, aralkanoylalkyl, arylcarbonylalkyl, aralkylaryl, aryloxyalkylaryl, aralkoxyaryl, arylazoaryl, arylhydrazinoaryl, alkylthioaryl, arylthioalkyl, alkylthioaralkyl, aralkylthioalkyl, an aralkylthioaryl radical, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any of the thio substituents, and a fused ring structure comprising two or more 5- or 6-membered rings selected from the group consisting of aryl, heteroaryl, carbocyclic and heterocyclic.

The substituent bonded to the aryl or heteroaryl radical of which the R3 radical is comprised itself can be substituted with one or more substituents; i.e., the substituting substituent is optionally substituted. When that aryl or heteroaryl radical is substituted, and the substituting moiety (group, substituent, or radical) is itself substituted, the last-named substituent is independently selected from the group consisting of a cyano, perfluoroalkyl, trifluoromethoxy, trifluoromethylthio, haloalkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, hydroxy, halo, alkyl, alkoxy, nitro, thiol, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxy, arylthio, aralkyl, aryl, arylcarbonylamino, heteroaryloxy, heteroarylthio, heteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclooxy, heterocyclothio, heterocycloamino, cycloalkyloxy, cycloalkylthio, heteroaralkoxy, heteroaralkylthio, aralkoxy, aralkylthio, aralkylamino, heterocyclo, heteroaryl, arylazo, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkanoyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, alkanoyloxy, aralkanoyloxy, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkoxy, alkylthio, alkoxyalkylthio, alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxyalkoxyaryl, arylthioalkylthioaryl, aryloxyalkylthioaryl, arylthioalkoxyaryl, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, hydroxycarbonylalkylthio, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkylthio, amino, wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, heteroaralkanoyl and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring containing zero to two additional heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur and which ring itself is (a) unsubstituted or (b) substituted with one or two groups independently selected from the group consisting of an aryl, alkyl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, alkanoyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxyalkyl, trifluoromethyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, hydroxyalkoxyalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, benzofused heterocycloalkoxy, benzofused cycloalkylcarbonyl, heterocyclo-alkylcarbonyl, and a cycloalkylcarbonyl group, carbonylamino

    • wherein the carbonylamino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) is the reacted amine of an amino acid, or (iii) substituted with one or two radicals selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyheteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused cycloalkyl, and an N,N-dialkylsubstituted alkylamino-alkyl group, or (iv) the carboxamido nitrogen and two substituents bonded thereto together form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo, heteroaryl or benzofused heterocycloalkyl ring that is itself unsubstituted or substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, nitro, heterocycloalkyl, hydroxy, hydroxycarbonyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl and an amino group,
    • wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring, and an aminoalkyl group
      wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring.

In preferred practice, R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 6-membered ring.

An R3 radical preferably has a length that is greater than that of a pentyl group [a —(CH2)4CH3 chain] and more preferably greater than about that of a hexyl group [a —(CH2)5CH3 chain]. An R3 radical preferably has a length that is less than that of an icosyl group [a —(CH2)19CH3 chain], and more preferably a length that is less than that of a stearyl group [a —(CH2)17CH3 chain). A preferred R3 group contains two or more 5- or 6-membered rings. A contemplated R3 group, when rotated about an axis drawn through the SO2-bonded 1-position and the substituent-bonded 4-position of a 6-membered ring or the SO2-bonded 1-position and substituent-bonded 3- or 4-position of a 5-membered ring, defines a three-dimensional volume whose widest dimension has the width in a direction transverse to that axis to rotation of about one furanyl ring to about two phenyl rings.

It is also preferred that a R3 radical be a single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group that is 5- or 6-membered, and is itself substituted at its own 4-position when a 6-membered ring or at its own 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered ring with an optionally substituted substituent selected from the group consisting of one other single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group, a C3-C14 alkyl group, a N-piperidyl group, a N-piperazyl group, a phenoxy group, a thiophenoxy group, a 4-thiopyridyl group, a phenylazo group and a benzamido group. The substituent of the 5- or 6-membered aryl or heteroaryl group can itself be substituted as discussed before.

A preferred compound for use in a contemplated process has a structure that corresponds to formula II, below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

    • wherein
    • R14 is hydrido, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation or C(W)R15 where W is O or S and R15 is selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, C1-C6-alkoxy, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy, ar-C1-C6-alkoxy, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl and amino C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl radical, or (iii) wherein the amino C1-C6-alkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring;
    • m is zero, 1 or 2;
    • n is zero, 1 or 2;
    • p is zero, 1 or 2;
    • the sum of m+n+p=1, 2, 3 or 4;
    • (a) one of X, Y and Z is selected from the group consisting of C(O), NR6, O, S, S(O), S(O)2 and NS(O)2R7, and the remaining two of X, Y and Z are CR8R9, and CR10R11, or
    • (b) X and Z or Z and Y together constitute a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of NR6C(O), NR6S(O), NR6S(O)2, NR6S, NR6O, SS, NR6NR6 and OC(O), with the remaining one of X, Y and Z being CR8R9, or
    • (c) n is zero and X, Y and Z together constitute a moiety selected from the group consisting of
    • wherein wavy lines are bonds to the atoms of the depicted ring;
    • R6 and R6′ are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C6-alkanoyl, C6-aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aroyl, bis(C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl)-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6-trifluoromethylalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, C6-aryl, C5-C6-heterocyclo, C5-C6-heteroaryl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylsulfonyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, C5-C6-heteroarylsulfonyl, carboxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6-alkyliminocarbonyl, C6-aryliminocarbonyl, C5-C6-heterocycloiminocarbonyl, C6-arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C4-alkylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C5-C6-heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkanoyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkanoyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkanoyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C4-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, NR8R9-C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, hydroxy-C1-C5-alkyl, an aminocarbonyl wherein the aminocarbonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, hydroxyaminocarbonyl, an aminosulfonyl group wherein the aminosulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, an amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl group wherein the amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group;
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of a arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C6-carboxyalkyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group;
    • R8 and R9 and R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroar-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aralkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 and the carbon to which they are bonded form a carbonyl group, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11, or R8 and R10 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, with the proviso that only one of R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 is hydroxy;
    • R12 and R12′ are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, c1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl;
    • R13 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group; and
    • G-A-R-E-Y is a substituent that preferably has a length greater than that of a pentyl group, and more preferably has a length greater than that of a hexyl group. The substituent G-A-R-E-Y preferably has a length that is less than that of an icosyl group, and is more preferably less than that of a stearyl group. In this substituent:
    • G is an aryl or heteroaryl group;
    • A is selected from the group consisting of
    • (1) —O—;
    • (2) —S—;
    • (3) —NR17—;
    • (4) —CO—N(R17) or —N(R17)—Co—, wherein R17 is hydrogen, C1-C4-alkyl, or phenyl;
    • (5) —CO—O— or —O—CO—;
    • (6) —O—CO—O—;
    • (7) —HC═CH—;
    • (8) —NH—CO—NH—;
    • (9) —C≡C—;
    • (10) —NH—CO—O— or —O—CO—NH—;
    • (11) —N═N—;
    • (12) —NH—NH—; and
    • (13) —CS—N(R18)— or —N(R18)—CS—, wherein R18 is hydrogen C1-C4-alkyl, or phenyl; or
    • (14) A is absent and G is bonded directly to R;
    • R is a moiety selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxyalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloalkoxyalkyl, heterocycloalkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, heteroaryloxyalkyl, arylthioalkyl, heteroarylthioalkyl, cycloalkylthioalkyl, and a heterocycloalkylthioalkyl group wherein the aryl or heteroaryl or cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl substituent is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals selected from the group consisting of a halo, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy, perfluoroalkylthio, trifluoromethylalkyl, amino, alkoxycarbonylalkyl, alkoxy, C1-C2-alkylene-dioxy, hydroxycarbonylalkyl, hydroxycarbonylalkylamino, nitro, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkanoylamino, and a alkoxycarbonyl group, and R is other than alkyl or alkoxyalkyl when A is —O— or —S—;
    • E is selected from the group consisting of
      • (1)—CO(R19)— or —(R19)CO—, wherein R19 is a heterocycloalkyl, or a cycloalkyl group;
      • (2) —CONH— or —HNCO—; and
    • (3) —CO—;
    • (4) —SO2—R19- or —R19—SO2—;
    • (5) —SO2—;
    • (6) —NH—SO2— or —SO2—NH—; or
    • (7) E is absent and R is bonded directly to Y; and

Y is absent or is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, hydroxy, aryloxy, aralkoxy, heteroaryloxy, heteroaralkyl, perfluoroalkoxy, perfluoroalkylthio, trifluoromethylalkyl, alkenyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxycarbonyl, and a aminoalkyl group, wherein the aryl or heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl group is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of an alkanoyl, halo, nitro, aralkyl, aryl, alkoxy, and an amino group wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two groups independently selected from hydrido, alkyl, and an aralkyl group.

A particularly preferred compound for use in a contemplated process corresponds in structure to formula III, below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

    • wherein
    • m, n, p, X, Z, Y and R14 are as defined above for formula II, and the R3 radical that is defined below is a sub-set of the previously discussed G-A-R-E-Y substituents.

Thus, R3 is a radical that is comprised of a single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group that is 5- or 6-membered, and is itself substituted at its own 4-position when a 6-membered ring and at its own 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered ring with a substituent selected from the group consisting of a thiophenoxy, 4-chlorophenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluorophenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoromethoxy-phenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)-phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)-thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methylphenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, N-piperidyl, N-piperazinyl and a 4-benzyloxyphenoxy group.

A more particularly preferred compound for use in a contemplated process has a structure that corresponds to formula IV, below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

    • wherein R3 is as defined above for formula I, more preferably as defined for formula II (wherein this R3 group is the G-A-R-E-Y substituent), and more preferably still as defined for formula III, and Z is selected group the group consisting of O, S, NR6, SO, SO2, and NSO2R7,
    • wherein R6 is selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C5-alkyl, C1-C5-alkanoyl, benzyl, benzoyl, C3-C5-alkynyl, C3-C5-alkenyl, C1-C3-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C5-hydroxyalkyl, C1-C5-carboxyalkyl, C1-C5-alkoxy C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, and NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl or NR8R9—C1-C5-alkyl wherein R8 and R9 are independently hydrido, C1-C5-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl or aryl-C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, or NR8R9 together form a heterocyclic ring containing 5- to 8-atoms in the ring; and
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of an arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C6-carboxyalkyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group.

A still more preferred group of compounds for use in a contemplated process correspond in structure to formula V, below, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof:

    • wherein
    • Z is as previously defined in formula IV;
    • W and Q are independently oxygen (O), NR6 or sulfur (S), and R6 is as defined in formula IV; and
    • q is zero or one such that when q is zero, the trifluoromethyl group is bonded directly to the depicted phenyl ring.

The use of a compound of formulas I-V, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt of one of those compounds is contemplated in a before-described process. In addition, the compounds of formulas II, III, IV and V, and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts are contemplated compounds of this invention.

The present invention also contemplates a precursor or intermediate compound that is useful in preparing a compound of formulas I-V. Such an intermediate compound corresponds in structure to formula VI, below:

    • wherein m, n, p, X, Z and Y are as defined above for formula II, g is zero, 1 or 2 and R24 is R3 as defined in formulas I, III or IV, is the substituent G-A-R-E-Y of formula II (formula VIA) or is R3′, an aryl or heteroaryl group that is substituted with a coupling substituent reactive for coupling with another moiety (formula VIB), such as a nucleophilically displaceable leaving group, D.

Exemplary nucleophilically displaceable leaving groups, D, include a halo (fluoro, chloro, bromo, or idodo) nitro, azido, phenylsulfoxido, aryloxy, C1-C6-alkoxy, a C1-C6-alkylsulfonate or arylsulfonate group and a trisubstituted ammonium group in which the three substituents are independently aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl or c1-C6-alkyl.

R20 is (a) —O—R21, where R21 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl group and a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or (b) —NH—O—R22 wherein R22 is a selectively removable protecting group such as a 2-tetrahydropyranyl, C1-C6-acyl, aroyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyloxycarbonyl (MOZ), benzyloxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-CH2—, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-CH2—, trisubstituted silyl group or o-nitrophenyl group, peptide synthesis resin and the like. Trisubstituted silyl group is substituted with C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, or ar-C1-C6-alkyl.

A particularly preferred precursor intermediate to an intermediate compound of formula VI is an intermediate compound of formula VII

    • wherein m, n, p, g, X, Z, Y, D and R20 are as defined above for formula VI.

Among the several benefits and advantages of the present invention are the provision of compounds and compositions effective as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase activity, the provision of such compounds and compositions that are effective for the inhibition of metalloproteinases implicated in diseases and disorders involving uncontrolled breakdown of connective tissue.

More particularly, a benefit of this invention is the provision of a compound and composition effective for selectively inhibiting certain metalloproteinases, such as one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, associated with pathological conditions such as, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, septic arthritis, corneal, epidermal or gastric ulceration, tumor metastasis, invasion or angiogenesis, periodontal disease, proteinuria, Alzheimer's Disease, coronary thrombosis and bone disease.

An advantage of the invention is the provision of compounds, compositions and methods effective for treating such pathological conditions by selective inhibition of a metalloproteinase such as MMP-2, MMP-9 or MMP-13 associated with such conditions with minimal side effects resulting from inhibition of other metalloproteinases, such as MMP-1, whose activity is necessary or desirable for normal body function.

Yet another advantage of the invention is the provision of a process for preparing such compounds.

Another benefit is the provision of a method for treating a pathological condition associated with abnormal matrix metalloproteinase activity.

A further advantage of the invention is the provision of a process for preparing such compositions.

Still further benefits and advantages of the invention will be apparent to the skilled worker from the disclosure that follows.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with the present invention, it has been discovered that certain aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acids (hydroxamates) are effective for inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (“MMPs”) believed to be associated with uncontrolled or otherwise pathological breakdown of connective tissue. In particular, it has been found that these certain aromatic sulfone hydroxamates are effective for inhibition of one or more enzymes such as MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, which can be particularly destructive to tissue if present or generated in abnormal quantities or concentrations, and thus exhibit a pathological activity. Included in that pathological activity is the assistance of tumors and tumor cells in the process of penetrating basement membrane, and developing a new or improved blood supply; i.e., angiogenesis.

Moreover, it has been discovered that these aromatic sulfone hydroxamates are selective in the inhibition of one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 without excessive inhibition of other collagenases essential to normal bodily function such as tissue turnover and repair. More particularly, it has been found that a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamate of the invention, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, is particularly active in inhibiting of one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 in an in vitro assay that is predictive of in vivo activity. In addition, while being selective for one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamate, or its salt, has a limited or minimal in vitro inhibitory effect on MMP-1.

There is thus a substantial difference in the activity of a compound used in a contemplated process toward one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 and MMP-1. This substantial difference is assayed using the in vitro inhibition assay discussed in the examples. A substantial difference in activity corresponds to a compound exhibiting an IC50 value against one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13 that is about 0.1 times that of the compound against MMP-1, and more preferably 0.01 times that against MMP-1 and most preferably 0.001 times that against MMP-1, or more. Indeed, some compounds exhibit selectivity differences measured by IC50 values that exceed the bounds of the assay at the number 100,000-fold. These selectivities are illustrated in the Inhibition Tables hereinafter.

Put differently, a contemplated compound can inhibit the activity of MMP-2 compared to MMP-9 or MMP-13 and MMP-1. Similarly, a contemplated compound can inhibit the activity of MMP-13 and MMP-2, while exhibiting less inhibition against MMP-1 and MMP-9. In addition, a contemplated compound can inhibit the activity of a MMP enzyme, while having less of an effect on tumor necrosis factor release.

The advantages of the selectivity of a contemplated compound can be appreciated, without wishing to be bound by theory, by considering the therapeutic uses the compounds. For example, inhibition of MMP-1 is suggested to be undesirable due to its role as a housekeeping enzyme, helping to maintain normal connective tissue turnover and repair. Inhibition of MMP-1 can lead to toxicities or side effects such as such as joint or connective tissue deterioration and pain. On the other hand, MMP-13 has been suggested to be intimately involved in the destruction of joint components in diseases such as osteoarthritis. Thus, potent and selective inhibition of MMP-13 compared with inhibition MMP-1 is highly desirable because a MMP-13 inhibitor can have a positive effect on disease progression in a patient in addition to having an anti-inflammatory effect.

Inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 can be desirable for inhibition of tumor growth, metastasis, invasion and/or angiogenesis. A profile of selective inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 relative to MMP-1 can provide a therapeutic advantage.

Yet another advantage of a contemplated compound is the selectivity with respect to tumor necrosis factor release and/or tumor necrosis factor receptor release that provides the physician with another factor to help select the best drug for a particular patient. While not wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that there are several factors to this type of selectivity to be considered.

The first is that presence of tumor necrosis factor can be desirable for the control of cancer in the organism, so long as TNF is not present in a toxic excess. Thus, uncontrolled inhibition of release of TNF can be counterproductive and actually can be considered an adverse side effect even in cancer patients. In addition, selectivity with respect to inhibition of the release of the tumor necrosis factor receptor can also be desirable. The presence of that receptor can be desirable for maintaining a controlled tumor necrosis level in the mammal by binding excess TNF.

A contemplated selective MMP inhibitor compound useful in a contemplated process can be administered to by various routes and provide adequate therapeutic blood levels of enzymatically active inhibitor. A compound can be administered, for example, by the oral (IG, PO) or intravenous (IV) routes. Oral administration is advantageous if the patient is ambulatory, not hospitalized, physically able and sufficiently responsible to take drug at the required intervals. This is true even if the person is being treated with more than one drug for one or more diseases. On the other hand, IV drug administration is an advantage in a hospital setting wherein the dose and thus the blood levels can well controlled. A contemplated inhibitor can also be formulated for IM administration if desired. This route of administration can be desirable for the administration of prodrugs or regular drug delivery to patients that are either physically weak or have a poor compliance record or require constant drug blood levels.

Thus, in one embodiment, the present invention is directed to a treatment process that comprises administering a contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid metalloprotease inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, in an effective amount to a host mammal having a condition associated with pathological matrix metalloprotease activity. A contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamate inhibitor compound useful in such a process inhibits the activity of one or more of MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, and exhibits substantially less inhibitory activity against at least MMP-1 in the in vitro assay noted above and discussed in detail hereinbelow. An aromatic sulfone hydroxamate inhibitor compound for use in a contemplated process corresponds in structure to formula I, below:

    • wherein

In one embodiment, R1 and R2 are both hydrido. In another embodiment, R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered ring containing one, two or three heteroatoms in the ring that are oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen.

It is preferred that R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a five- to eight-membered ring that contains one or two heteroatoms in the ring, although R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered ring containing one, two or three heteroatoms. The heterocyclic ring can itself also be substituted with up to six C1-C6-alkyl groups or groups that comprise a another 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring, an amino group, or contain one or two oxo (carbonyl) groups.

R3 in formula I is an optionally substituted aryl or optionally substituted heteroaryl radical. That R3 radical is selected from the group consisting of an aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, aralkoxy, heteroaralkoxy, aralkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, aralkanoylalkyl, arylcarbonylalkyl, aralkylaryl, aryloxyalkylaryl, aralkoxyaryl, arylazoaryl, arylhydrazinoaryl, alkylthioaryl, arylthioalkyl, alkylthioaralkyl, aralkylthioalkyl, an aralkylthioaryl radical, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any of the thio substituents, and a fused ring structure comprising two or more 5- or 6-membered rings selected from the group consisting of aryl, heteroaryl, carbocyclic and heterocyclic.

The substituent of which R3 is comprised itself is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents independently selected from the group consisting of a cyano, perfluoroalkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, hydroxy, halo, alkyl, alkoxy, nitro, thiol, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxy, arylthio, aralkyl, aryl, heteroaryloxy, heteroarylthio, heteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclooxy, heterocyclothio, heterocycloamino, cycloalkyloxy, cycloalkylthio, heteroaralkoxy, heteroaralkylthio, aralkoxy, aralkylthio, aralkylamino, heterocyclo, heteroaryl, arylazo, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkanoyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, alkanoyloxy, aralkanoyloxy, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkoxy, alkylthio, alkoxyalkylthio, alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxyalkoxyaryl, arylthioalkylthioaryl, aryloxyalkylthioaryl, arylthioalkoxyaryl, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, hydroxycarbonylalkylthio, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkylthio, amino,

    • wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, heteroaralkanoyl and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring containing zero to two additional heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur and which ring itself is (a) unsubstituted or (b) substituted with one or two groups independently selected from the group consisting of an aryl, alkyl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, alkanoyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxyalkyl, trifluoromethyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, hydroxyalkoxyalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, benzofused heterocycloalkoxy, benzofused cycloalkylcarbonyl, heterocyclo-alkylcarbonyl, and a cycloalkylcarbonyl group, carbonylamino wherein the carboxamido nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) is the reacted amine of an amino acid, or (iii) substituted with one or two radicals selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyheteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused cycloalkyl, and an N,N-dialkylsubstituted alkylamino-alkyl group, or (iv) the carboxamido nitrogen and two substituents bonded thereto together form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo, heteroaryl or benzofused heterocycloalkyl ring that is itself unsubstituted or substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, nitro, heterocycloalkyl, hydroxy, hydroxycarbonyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl and an amino group,
    • wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring, and an aminoalkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring. A compound of formula I can also be used in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable salt.

The R3 radical has a length that is greater than that of a pentyl group [a —(CH2)4CH3 chain], and is more preferably greater than about the length of a hexyl group [a —(CH2)5CH3 chain]. A R3 group has a length that is less than that of an icosyl group [eicosyl; a —(CH2)19CH3 chain), and more preferably, a length that is less than that of a stearyl group [a —(CH2)17CH3 chain). When rotated about an axis drawn through the SO2-bonded 1-position and the substituent-bonded 4-position of a 6-membered ring or the SO2-bonded 1-position and substituent-bonded 3- or 4-position of a 5-membered ring, a contemplated R3 radical defines a three-dimensional volume whose widest dimension has the width of about one furanyl ring to about two phenyl rings in a direction transverse to that axis to rotation.

Where the SO2-linked R3 radical is 4-phenoxyphenyl for purposes of illustration, a contemplated compound can be viewed as a phenoxyphenylsulfone derivative of the desired 5- to 8-membered ring N-hydroxycarboxamide. Exemplary compounds can therefore be named:

  • N-hydroxy-1-methyl-[4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-4-piperidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-[4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1-methyl-[2,6-dioxo-4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-4-piperidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-[5-(phenoxyphenyl-sulfonyl)]-1,3-dioxane-5-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-6-oxo-[4-(phenoxyphenyl-sulfonyl)]-4-piperidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-2,2,6,6,tetramethyl-[4-(phenoxyphenyl-sulfonyl)]-4-piperidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1,3-dimethyl-[5-(phenoxyphenyl-sulfonyl)]-hexahydro-5-pyrimidinecarboxamide,
  • 2-amino-N-hydroxy-[5-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-[4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-1(λ6),2,6-thiadizinane-4-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-2-oxo-[5-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-hexahydro-5-pyrimidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-[2-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]tetrahydro-2-furancarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1-methyl-[2-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-2-methyl-[4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-4-piperidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-[3-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-3-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-[4-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-hexahydro-1(lambda6)-thiopyran-4-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-[3-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]tetrahydro-3-furancarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-[3-(phenoxyphenylsulfonyl)]-3-pyrrolidinecarboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-4-[[4-(phenylthio)phenyl]sulfonyl]-1-(2-propynyl)-4-piperidinecarboxamide, monohydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-4-[[4-(phenylthio)phenyl]sulfonyl]-1-(2-propynyl)-4-piperidinecarboxamide, monomethanesulfonate, tetrahydro-N-hydroxy-4-[[4-[4-[(trifluoromethyl]phenoxy]phenyl]-sulfonyl]-2H-pyran-4-carboxamide,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(4-pyridinylmethyl)-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl]-sulfonyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, hydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridinylmethyl)-4-[[4-[4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl]-sulfonyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, dihydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl]-sulfonyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, dihydrochloride, hydroxy-1-(3-pyridinylmethyl)-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]phenyl]-sulfonyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, dihydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]phenyl]sulfonyl}-4-piperidinecarboxamide, monohydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl]sulfonyl}-4-piperidinecarboxamide, monohydrochloride,
  • N-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyethyl)-4-[[4-[4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]phenoxy]phenyl]sulfonyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, monohydrochloride,
  • 1-cyclopropyl-N-hydroxy-4-[[4-[4-(trifluoro-methyl)phenoxy]phenyl]sulfonyl]-4-piperidine-carboxamide, monohydrochloride, and the like.

Several exemplary R1 and R2 groups that together form a contemplated heterocyclic ring are shown in the Tables that follow hereinafter, as well as in the descriptions of those 5- to 8-membered rings and the specific Examples, as are several contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid compounds.

In more preferred practice, R1 and R2 of formula I together with the atom to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered ring that contains one, two or three heteroatoms. Most preferably, that ring is a 6-membered ring that contains one heteroatom located at the 4-position relative to the position at which the SO2 group is bonded. Other preferred compounds for use in a contemplated process correspond in structure to one or more of formulas II, III, IV or V, which are discussed hereinafter.

In one embodiment, a preferred compound used in a contemplated process has a structure that corresponds to formula II, below:

    • wherein
    • R14 is hydrido, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation or C(W)R15 where W is O or S and R15 is selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, C1-C6-alkoxy, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy, ar-C1-C6-alkoxy, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl and amino C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, and C1-C6-alkanoyl radical, or (iii) wherein the amino C1-C6-alkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring;
    • m is zero, 1 or 2;
    • n is zero, 1 or 2;
    • p is zero, 1 or 2;
    • the sum of m+n+p=1, 2, 3 or 4;
    • (a) one of X, Y and Z is selected from the group consisting of C(O), NR6, O, S, S(O), S(O)2 and NS(O)2R7, and the remaining two of X, Y and Z are CR8R9, and CR10R11, or
    • (b) X and Z or Z and Y together constitute a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of NR6C(O), NR6S(O), NR6S(O)2, NR6S, NR60, SS, NR6NR6 and OC(O), with the remaining one of X, Y and Z being CR8R9, or
    • (c) n is zero and X, Y and Z together constitute a moiety selected from the group consisting of
    • wherein wavy lines are bonds to the atoms of the depicted ring;
    • R6 and R6′ are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C6-alkanoyl, C6-aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aroyl, bis(C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl)-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6-trifluoromethylalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, C6-aryl, C5-C6-heterocyclo, C5-C6-heteroaryl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylsulfonyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, C5-C6-heteroarylsulfonyl, carboxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6-alkyliminocarbonyl, C6-aryliminocarbonyl, C5-C6-heterocycloiminocarbonyl, C6-arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C4-alkylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C5-C6-heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkanoyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkanoyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkanoyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C4-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, hydroxy-C1-C5-alkyl, an aminocarbonyl wherein the aminocarbonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, hydroxyaminocarbonyl, an aminosulfonyl group wherein the aminosulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, an amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl group wherein the amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group;
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of a benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group;
    • R8 and R9 and R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroar-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C11-6-alkyl, aralkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 and the carbon to which they are bonded form a carbonyl group, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11, or R8 and R10 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, with the proviso that only one of R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 is hydroxy;
    • R12 and R12′ are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-CG-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl;
    • R13 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group; and
    • G-A-R-E-Y is a substituent that preferably has a length greater than that of a pentyl group, and more preferably has a length greater than that of a hexyl group. The substituent G-A-R-E-Y preferably has a length that is less than that of an icosyl group, and is more preferably less than that of a stearyl group. In this substituent:
    • G is an aryl or heteroaryl group;
    • A is selected from the group consisting of
    • (1) —O—;
    • (2) —S—;
    • (3) —NR17—;
    • (4) —CO—N(R17) or —N(R17)—Co—, wherein R17 is hydrogen, C1-C4-alkyl, or phenyl;
    • (5) —CO—O— or —O—CO—;
    • (6) —O—CO—O—;
    • (7) —HC═CH—;
    • (8) —NH—CO—NH—;
    • (9) —C≡C—;
    • (10) —NH—CO—O— or —O—CO—NH—;
    • (11) —N═N—;
    • (12) —NH—NH—; and
    • (13) —CS—N(R18)— or —N(R18)—CS—, wherein R18 is hydrogen C1-C4-alkyl, or phenyl; or
    • (14) A is absent and G is bonded directly to R;
    • R is a moiety selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxyalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, heterocycloalkylalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, cycloalkoxyalkyl, heterocycloalkoxyalkyl, aryloxyalkyl, heteroaryloxyalkyl, arylthioalkyl, heteroarylthioalkyl, cycloalkylthioalkyl, and a heterocycloalkylthioalkyl group wherein the aryl or heteroaryl or cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl substituent is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals selected from the group consisting of a halo, alkyl, perfluoroalkyl, perfluoroalkoxy, perfluoroalkylthio, trifluoromethylalkyl, amino, alkoxycarbonylalkyl, alkoxy, C1-C2-alkylene-dioxy, hydroxycarbonylalkyl, hydroxycarbonylalkylamino, nitro, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkanoylamino, and a alkoxycarbonyl group, and R is other than alkyl or alkoxyalkyl when A is —O— or —S—;
    • E is selected from the group consisting of
      • (1)—CO(R19)— or —(R19)CO—, wherein R19 is a heterocycloalkyl, or a cycloalkyl group;
      • (2) —CONH— or —HNCO—; and
      • (3) —CO—;
      • (4) —SO2—R19- or —R19—SO2—;
      • (5) —SO2—;
      • (6) —NH—SO2— or —SO2—NH—; or
      • (7) E is absent and R is bonded directly to Y; and

Y is absent or is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, heteroaryl, hydroxy, aryloxy, aralkoxy, heteroaryloxy, heteroaralkyl, perfluoroalkoxy, perfluoroalkylthio, trifluoromethylalkyl, alkenyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxycarbonyl, and a aminoalkyl group, wherein the aryl or heteroaryl or heterocycloalkyl group is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of an alkanoyl, halo, nitro, aralkyl, aryl, alkoxy, and an amino group wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two groups independently selected from hydrido, alkyl, and an aralkyl group.

The substituent -G-A-R-E-Y preferably contains two to four carbocyclic or heterocyclic rings, including the aryl or heteroaryl group, G. More preferably, each of those rings is 6-membered. Additional separate preferences for a compound of formula II include: (a) that A is —O— or —S—, (b) R is an aryl, heteroaryl, cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl group, (c) E is absent, and (d) Y is selected from the group consisting of hydrido, an alkyl, alkoxy, perfluoroalkoxy and a perfluoroalkylthio group.

A more preferred compound for use in a contemplated process has a structure that corresponds to formula III, below:

    • wherein R3 is a single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group that is 5- or 6-membered, and is itself substituted at its own 4-position when a 6-membered ring and at its own 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered ring with a substituent selected from the group consisting of a thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-phenoxy, 3-chlorophenoxy, 4-methoxyphenoxy, 3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy, 3,4-dimethylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-phenoxy, 4-fluorothiophenoxy, phenoxy, 4-trifluoro-methoxyphenoxy, 4-trifluoromethylphenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy, 4-(trifluoromethyl-thio)thiophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-fluorophenoxy, 4-isopropoxyphenoxy, 4-isopropylphenoxy, (2-methyl-1,3-benzothiazol-5-yl)oxy, 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methyl-phenoxy, 4-ethoxyphenoxy, 3,4-difluorophenoxy, 4-chloro-3-methylphenoxy, 4-fluoro-3-chlorophenoxy, 4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenoxy, 3,5-difluorophenoxy, 3,4-dichlorophenoxy, 4-cyclopentylphenoxy, 4-bromo-3-methylphenoxy, 4-bromophenoxy, 4-methylthiophenoxy, 4-phenylphenoxy, 4-benzylphenoxy, 6-quinolinyloxy, 4-amino-3-methylphenoxy, 3-methoxyphenoxy, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthalenyloxy, 3-hydroxymethylphenoxy, and a 4-benzyloxyphenoxy group;
    • R14 is hydrido, a pharmaceutically acceptable cation or C(W)R15 where W is O or S and R15 is selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, C1-C6-alkoxy, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy, ar-C1-C6-alkoxy, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl and amino C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl, and a C1-C6-alkanoyl radical, or (iii) wherein the amino C1-C6-alkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring;
    • m is zero, 1 or 2;
    • n is zero, 1 or 2;
  • p is zero, 1 or 2;
    • the sum of m+n+p=1, 2, 3 or 4;
    • (a) one of X, Y and Z is selected from the group consisting of C(O), NR6, O, S, S(O), S(O)2 and NS(O)2R7, and the remaining two of X, Y and Z are CR8R9, and CR10R11, or
    • (b) X and Z or Z and Y together constitute a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of NR6C(O), NR6S(O), NR6S(O)2, NR6S, NR6O, SS, NR6NR6 and OC(O), with the remaining one of X, Y and Z being CR8R9, or
    • (c) n is zero and X, Y and Z together constitute a moiety selected from the group consisting of
    • wherein wavy lines are bonds to the atoms of the depicted ring;
    • R6 and R6′ are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C6-alkanoyl, C6-aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aroyl, bis(C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl)-C1-C6-alkylC1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6-trifluoromethylalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, C6-aryl, C5-C6-heterocyclo, C5-C6-heteroaryl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylsulfonyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, C5-C6-heteroarylsulfonyl, carboxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6-alkyliminocarbonyl, C6-aryliminocarbonyl, c5-C6-heterocycloiminocarbonyl, C6-arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C4-alkylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C5-C6-heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkanoyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkanoyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkanoyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C4-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, hydroxy-C1-C5-alkyl, an aminocarbonyl wherein the aminocarbonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, hydroxyaminocarbonyl, an aminosulfonyl group wherein the aminosulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, an amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl group wherein the amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group;
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of a benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group;
    • R8 and R9 and R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroar-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aralkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 and the carbon to which they are bonded form a carbonyl group, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11, or R8 and R10 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, with the proviso that only one of R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 is hydroxy;
    • R12 and R12′ are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-1C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6, alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl; and
    • R13 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group. Again, the use of a compound of formula III as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is also contemplated.

Preferences related to a compound of formula III that also apply to a compound of formula II include the following, which are independently preferred: (a) the sum of m+n+p=1 or 2, and more preferably 2; (b) Z is O, S or NR6; (c) R6 is selected from the group consisting of C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, aminosulfonyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxycarbonyl, and C1-C6-alkoxycarbonyl; and (d) m=n=zero, p=1, and Y is NR6. Another preference for a compound of both of formulas II and III is that R14 be hydrido, or that W of the C(W)R15 pro-drug form be 0 and R15 be a C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, C1-C6-alkoxy, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, or aryloxy group.

A still more preferred compound for use in a contemplated process corresponds in structure to formula IV, below:

Here, R3 is as defined above as to formulas I, III and more preferably as defined as to formula II (wherein the R3 radical is the substituent G-A-R-E-Y). Most preferably, R3 is as defined in formula III.

Z is selected group the group consisting of O, S, NR6, SO, SO2, and NSO2R7,

    • wherein R6 is selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C5-alkyl, C1-C5-alkanoyl, benzyl, benzoyl, C3-C5-alkynyl, C3-C5-alkenyl, C1-C3-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C5-hydroxyalkyl, C1-C5-carboxyalkyl, C1-C5-alkoxy C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, and NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl or NR8R9—C1-C5-alkyl wherein R8 and R9 are independently hydrido, C1-C5-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl or aryl-C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, or NR8R9 together form a heterocyclic ring containing 5- to 8-atoms in the ring; and
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of an arylalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, heterocyclo, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C6-carboxyalkyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group. Most preferably, Z is O or NR6. Here too, the use of a compound of formula IV as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is contemplated.

A still more preferred group of contemplated compounds for use in a contemplated process correspond in structure to formula V, below;

    • wherein
    • Z is as previously defined for formula IV;
    • W and Q are independently oxygen (O), NR6 or sulfur (S), and R6 is as defined in formula IV; and
    • q is zero or one such that when q is zero, Q is absent and the trifluoromethyl group is bonded directly to the depicted phenyl ring. Here again, the use of a compound of formula IV as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt is contemplated.

Particularly preferred compounds within the group defined by formula V have the structural formulas shown below:

Also particularly preferred are the following compounds:

Several particularly preferred compounds whose structures correspond to formulas I through V are illustrated in the Tables and examples provided hereinafter.

As was noted before, the compounds of formulas II, III, IV and V, and their pharmaceutically acceptable salts are themselves contemplated compounds of the invention.

In preferred practice, an SO2-linked R3 radical is an aryl or heteroaryl group that is a 5- or 6-membered single-ring that is itself substituted with one other single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group or, with an alkyl or alkoxy group having a chain length of 3 to about 16 carbon atoms (and more preferably a length of up to about 14 carbon atoms), a phenoxy group, a thiophenoxy [C6H5—S—] group, a phenylazo [C6H5—N2—] group, a N-piperidyl [C5H10N-] group, a N-piperazyl [NC4HgN—) group or a benzamido [—NHC(O)C6H5] group. The SO2-linked single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl R3 group here is substituted at its own 4-position when a 6-membered ring and at its own 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered ring.

The SO2-linked aryl or heteroaryl group of a R3 radical is preferably itself substituted at the 4-position when a 6-membered ring or the 3- or 4-position when a 5-membered ring. A particularly preferred substituent is a single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl, phenoxy, thiophenoxy, phenylazo, N-piperidyl, N-piperazyl or benzamido group that is unsubstituted or can itself be substituted.

The 4- and 3-positions of rings discussed here are numbered from the sites of substituent bonding as compared to formalized ring numbering positions used in heteroaryl nomenclature, as is discussed further hereinbelow. Here, single atoms such as halogen moieties (fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo) or substituents that contain one to a chain length of about five atoms other than hydrogen such as phenyl, C1-C4 alkyl, trifluoromethyl, trifluoromethoxy, trifluorothiomethyl or carboxyethyl groups are preferred, although longer substituents can be accommodated up to a total length of an icosyl group.

Exemplary particularly preferred substituted SO2-linked R3 radicals include 4-(phenyl)phenyl [biphenyl], 4-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-phenyl, 4-(phenoxy)phenyl, 4-(thiophenyl)phenyl [4-(phenylthio)phenyl], 4-(azophenyl)phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethylthio)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethyl)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethoxy)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-phenyl)N-piperidyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-acetyl)N-piperazyl]phenyl and 4-(benzamido)phenyl.

Inasmuch as a contemplated SO2-linked aryl or heteroaryl radical of an R3 group is itself preferably substituted with a 6-membered ring, two nomenclature systems are used together herein for ease in understanding substituent positions. The first system uses position numbers for the ring directly bonded to the SO2-group, whereas the second system uses ortho, meta or para for the position of one or more substituents of a 6-membered ring bonded to a SO2-linked aryl or heteroaryl radical. Although ortho, meta and para positional nomenclature is normally not used with aliphatic ring systems, it is believed more readily understood for describing the present compounds when used in conjunction with the numerical system for the first ring bonded to the SO2-group. When a R3 radical is other than a 6-membered ring, substituent positions are numbered from the position of linkage to the aromatic or heteroaromatic ring. Formal chemical nomenclature is used in naming particular compounds.

Thus, the 1-position of an above-discussed SO2-linked aryl or heteroaryl group is the position at which the SO2-group is bonded to the ring. The 4- and 3-positions of rings discussed here are numbered from the sites of substituent bonding from the SO2-linkage as compared to formalized ring numbering positions used in heteroaryl nomenclature.

When examined along its longest chain of atoms, an R3 radical including its own substituent has a total length that is greater than a saturated chain of five carbon atoms (a pentyl group), and preferably has a length greater than that of a saturated chain of six carbon atoms (a hexyl group); i.e., a length of about a heptyl chain or longer. An R3 radical also has a length that is less than that of a saturated chain of about 20 carbon atoms [an icosyl group (icosyl was formerly spelled eicosyl)] and more preferably about 18 carbon atoms (a stearyl group). Most preferably, the length of R3 is about that of an 8 to about 12 carbon atom chain, even though many more atoms may be present in ring structures or substituents. This length requirement is discussed further below.

Looked at more generally, and aside from specific moieties from which it is constructed, an R3 radical (group or moiety) has a length that is greater than that of a pentyl group. Such an R3 radical also has a length that is less than that of an icosyl (didecyl) group. That is to say that R3 is a radical having a minimal length longer that a saturated five carbon chain, and preferably greater than a hexyl group, but is shorter than the length of a saturated twenty carbon atom chain, and preferably shorter than an eighteen carbon chain. Most preferably, R3 has a length greater than that of an octyl group and less than that of a lauryl group.

More specifically, an R3 group has a minimal length of a hexyl group only when that substituent is comprised of two rings that can be fused or simply covalently linked together by exocyclic bonding. When R3 does not contain two linked or fused rings, e.g., where a R3 radical includes an alkyl or second, third or fourth ring substituent, R3 has a length that is greater than that of a hexyl group. Exemplary of such two ring R3 groups are a 2-naphthyl group or a 2-quinolinyl group (each with a six carbon chain length) and 8-purinyl (with a five carbon atom chain length). Without wishing to be bound by theory, it is believed that the presence of multiple rings in R3 enhances selectivity of the enzyme activity inhibitor profile.

The radical chain lengths are measured along the longest linear atom chain in the radical, following the skeletal atoms around a ring where necessary. Each atom in the chain, e.g. carbon, oxygen, sulfur or nitrogen, is presumed to be carbon for ease in calculation.

Such lengths can be readily determined by using published bond angles, bond lengths and atomic radii, as needed, to draw and measure a desired, usually staggered, chain, or by building models using commercially available kits whose bond angles, lengths and atomic radii are in accord with accepted, published values. Radical (substituent) lengths can also be determined somewhat less exactly by assuming that all atoms have bond lengths saturated carbon, that unsaturated bonds have the same lengths as saturated bonds and that bond angles for unsaturated bonds are the same as those for saturated bonds, although the above-mentioned modes of measurement are preferred. For example, a phenyl or pyridyl group has a length of a four carbon chain, as does a propoxy group, whereas a biphenyl group has a length of about an eight carbon chain using such a measurement mode.

In addition, a R3 group when rotated about an axis drawn through the SO2-bonded 1-position and the 4-position of a 6-membered ring or the SO2-bonded position and substituent-bonded 3- or 4-position of a 5-membered ring defines a three-dimensional volume whose widest dimension has the width of about one furanyl ring to about two phenyl rings in a direction transverse to that axis to rotation.

Thus, a 2-naphthyl substituent or an 8-purinyl substituent is an appropriately sized R3 group when examined using the above rotational width criterion as well as the before-discussed criterion. On the other hand, a 1-naphthyl group or a 7- or 9-purinyl group is too wide upon rotation and is excluded from being an R3 group.

As a consequence of these length and width requirements, R3 radicals such as 4-(phenyl)phenyl [biphenyl], 4-(4′-methoxyphenyl)-phenyl, 4-(phenoxy)phenyl, 4-(thiophenyl)phenyl [4-(phenylthio)phenyl], 4-(azophenyl)phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethylthio)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethylthio)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethyl)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethoxy)phenoxy]phenyl, 4-[(4′-trifluoromethoxy)thiophenyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-phenyl)N-piperidyl]phenyl, 4-[(4′-acetyl)N-piperazyl]phenyl and 4-(benzamido)phenyl are particularly preferred R3 radicals. Those substituents can themselves also be substituted in the second ring from the SO2 group at the meta- or para-position or both with a single atom or a substituent containing a longest chain length that is preferably of up to five atoms, excluding hydrogen.

Without wishing to be bound by theory, the length of a R3 radical substituent bonded to the SO2 group is believed to play a role in the overall activity of a contemplated inhibitor compound against MMP enzymes generally. The length of the R3 radical group also appears to play a role in the selective activity of an inhibitor compound against particular MMP enzymes.

In particularly preferred practice, R3 is a PhR23 group, wherein Ph is phenyl. The phenyl ring (Ph) of a PhR23 group is substituted at its para-position (4-position) by an R23 group that can be another single-ringed aryl or heteroaryl group, a piperidyl group, a piperazinyl group, a phenoxy group, a thiophenoxy [C6H5—S—] group, a phenylazo [C6H5—N2—] group or a benzamido [—NHC(O)C6H5] group.

In one embodiment of a particularly preferred aromatic sulfone hydroxamate inhibitor compound, an R23 substituent is phenoxy and is itself substituted at its own para-position with a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of a halogen, a C1-C4 alkoxy group, a C1-C4 alkyl group, a dimethylamino group, a carboxyl C1-C3 alkylene group, a C1-C4 alkoxy carbonyl C1-C3 alkylene group, a trifluoromethylthio group, a trifluoromethoxy group, a trifluoromethyl group and a carboxamido C1-C3 alkylene group, or is substituted at the meta- and para-positions by a methylenedioxy group. It is to be understood that any R23 substituent can be substituted with a moiety from the above list. Such substitution at the para-position is preferred.

The present invention also contemplates an intermediate compound that is useful in preparing a compound of formulas I-V. Such an intermediate compound corresponds in structure to formula VI, below:

    • wherein g is zero, 1 or 2;
    • R20 is (a) —O—R21, where R21 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl group and a pharmaceutically acceptable cation, or (b) —NH—O—R22 wherein R22 is a selectively removable protecting group such as a 2-tetrahydropyranyl, C1-C6-acyl, aroyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl (MOZ) carbonyl-C1-C6-alkoxy, trisubstituted silyl group or o-nitrophenyl group, peptide systhesis resin and the like, wherein trisubstituted silyl group is substituted with C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, or ar-C1-C6-alkyl;
    • m is zero, 1 or 2;
    • n is zero, 1 or 2;
    • p is zero, 1 or 2;
    • the sum of m+n+p=1, 2, 3 or 4;
    • (a) one of X, Y and Z is selected from the group consisting of C(O), NR6, O, S, S(O), S(O)2 and NS(O)2R7, and the remaining two of X, Y and Z are CR8R9, and CR10R11, or
    • (b) X and Z or Z and Y together constitute a moiety that is selected from the group consisting of NR6C(O), NR6S(O), NR6S(O)2, NR6S, NR6O, SS, NR6NR6 and OC(O), with the remaining one of X, Y and Z being CR8R9, or
    • (c) n is zero and X, Y and Z together constitute a moiety selected from the group consisting of
    • wherein wavy lines are bonds to the atoms of the depicted ring;
    • R6 and R6′ are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrido, C1-C6-alkanoyl, C6-aryl-C1-C6-alkyl, aroyl, bis(C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl)-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-haloalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkyl, C1-C6-trifluoromethylalkyl, C1-C6-perfluoroalkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-cycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkyl, C3-C8-heterocycloalkylcarbonyl, C6-aryl, C5-C6-heterocyclo, C5-C6-heteroaryl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylsulfonyl, C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl, C5-C6-heteroarylsulfonyl, carboxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C4-alkoxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl, C1-C6-alkyliminocarbonyl, C6-aryliminocarbonyl, C5-C6-heterocycloiminocarbonyl, C6-arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, C6-arylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C1-C4-alkylthio-C3-C6-alkenyl, C5-C6-heteroaryl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkanoyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkanoyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkanoyl, C3-C6-alkenyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, C1-C4-alkoxy-C1-C4-alkyl, C1-C5-alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, NR8R9—C1-C5-alkylcarbonyl, hydroxy-C1-C5-alkyl, an aminocarbonyl wherein the aminocarbonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, hydroxyaminocarbonyl, an aminosulfonyl group wherein the aminosulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group, an amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl group wherein the amino-C1-C6-alkylsulfonyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C8-cycloalkyl and a C1-C6-alkanoyl group;
    • R7 is selected from the group consisting of a benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C3-C6-alkynyl, c3-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group;
    • R8 and R9 and R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, hydroxy, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroar-C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aralkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 and the carbon to which they are bonded form a carbonyl group, or wherein R8 and R9 or R10 and R11, or R8 and R10 together with the atoms to which they are bonded form a 5- to 8-membered carbocyclic ring, or a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclic ring containing one or two heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur, with the proviso that only one of R8 and R9 or R10 and R11 is hydroxy;
    • R12 and R12′ are independently selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, C1-C6-alkyl, aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryl, heteroaralkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl, thiol-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, heterocycloalkyl-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, amino-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkoxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxy-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, hydroxycarbonylar-C1-C6-alkyl, aminocarbonyl-C1-C6-alkyl, aryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroaryloxy-C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, arylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, heteroarylthio-C1-C6-alkyl, the sulfoxide or sulfone of any said thio substituents, perfluoro-C1-C6-alkyl, trifluoromethyl-C1-C6-alkyl, halo-C1-C6-alkyl, alkoxycarbonylamino-C1-C6-alkyl and an amino-C1-C6-alkyl group wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted or (ii) substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of C1-C6-alkyl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl, cycloalkyl and C1-C6-alkanoyl;
    • R13 is selected from the group consisting of a hydrido, benzyl, phenyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C2-C6-alkynyl, C2-C6-alkenyl and a C1-C6-hydroxyalkyl group; and
    • R24 is R3 as defined in formulas I, III, IV or is the substituent G-A-R-E-Y of formula II (formula VIA). Alternatively, R24 is R3, an aryl or heteroaryl group that is substituted with a coupling substituent reactive for coupling with another moiety (formula VIB), such as a nucleophilically displaceable leaving group, D.

Exemplary nucleophilically displaceable leaving groups, D, include a halo (fluoro, chloro, bromo, or idodo) nitro, azido, phenylsulfoxido, aryloxy, C1-C6-alkoxy, a C1-C6-alkylsulfonate or arylsulfonate group and a trisubstituted ammonium group in which the three substituents are independently aryl, ar-C1-C6-alkyl or C1-C6-alkyl. Additional coupling substituents include, without limitation, a hydroxyl group and an amino group that can be coupled with carbonyl-containing moieties to form esters, urethanes, carbonates, amides and ureas. Similarly, a carboxyl coupling substituent can be used to form an ester, thioester or amide. Thus, a coupling substituent is useful in converting a coupling substituent-containing aryl or heteroaryl group into a substituent such as a G-A-R-E-Y substituent discussed hereinabove by the formation of a covalent bond.

A compound of formula VI can be coupled with another moiety at the R3′ coupling substituent to form a compound whose newly formed R3 group is that of formulas I, III, IV or -G-A-R-E-Y. Exemplary of such couplings are the nucleophilic displacement to form ethers and thioethers, as well as the formation of ester, amide, urea, carbonate, urethane and the like linkages.

A particularly preferred precursor intermediate to an intermediate compound of formula VI is an intermediate compound of formula VII, below

    • wherein m, n, p, g, X, Z, Y, D and R20 are as defined above for formula VI.

R20 is preferably —NH—O—R22, wherein R22 is a selectively removable protecting group such as a 2-tetrahydropyranyl, C1-C6-acyl, aroyl, benzyl, p-methoxybenzyl (MOZ) carbonyl-C1-C6-alkoxy, o-nitrophenyl group, a peptide syntheisi resin such as a so-called Merrifield's Peptide Resin commercially available from Sigma Chemical Co., and the like, with 2-tetrahydropyranyl being particularly preferred. An —NH—O—R22 group (R20) in formulas VI and VII is therefore seen to be a reaction product of a hydroxyl amine whose oxygen is bonded to a selectively removable protecting group and a carboxyl group.

In regard to a compound of each of formulas VI and VII, the subscript letter “g” is used to show the oxidation state of the sulfur atom. Where g is zero, the sulfur is unoxidized, and the compound depicted is typically the sulfide reaction product of a sulfur-containing synthon as is illustrated in the examples hereinafter. Where g is 1, the sulfur is oxidized to a sulfoxide, whereas when g is 2, the sulfur is oxidized to a sulfone as is also illustrated hereinafter. A compound of formulas VI or VII wherein g is zero or 1 are themselves typically intermediates in the formation of a similar compound wherein g is 2 and the intermediate is a preferred sulfone.

A preferred intermediate therefore corresponds in structure to formula VIIA, below

In the written descriptions of molecules and groups, molecular descriptors can be combined to produce words or phrases that describe structural groups or are combined to describe structural groups. Such descriptors are used in this document. Common illustrative examples include such terms as aralkyl (or arylalkyl), heteroaralkyl, heterocycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl, aralkoxyalkoxycarbonyl and the like. A specific example of a compound encompassed with the latter descriptor aralkoxyalkoxycarbonyl is C6H5—CH2—CH2—O—CH2—O—(C═O)— wherein C6H5— is phenyl. It is also to be noted that a structural group can have more than one descriptive word or phrase in the art, for example, heteroaryloxyalkylcarbonyl can also be termed heteroaryloxyalkanoyl. Such combinations are used herein in the description of the processes, compounds and compositions of this invention and further examples are described below. The following list is not intended to be exhaustive or drawn out but provide illustrative examples of words or phrases (terms) that are used herein.

As utilized herein, the term “alkyl”, alone or in combination, means a straight-chain or branched-chain alkyl radical containing 1 to about 12 carbon atoms, preferably 1 to about 10 carbon atoms, and more preferably 1 to about 6 carbon atoms. Examples of such radicals include methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, iso-amyl, hexyl, octyl and the like.

The term “alkenyl”, alone or in combination, means a straight-chain or branched-chain hydrocarbon radical having one or more double bonds and containing 2 to about 12 carbon atoms preferably 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, and more preferably, 2 to about 6 carbon atoms. Examples of suitable alkenyl radicals include ethenyl (vinyl), 2-propenyl, 3-propenyl, 1,4-pentadienyl, 1,4-butadienyl, 1-butenyl, 2-butenyl, 3-butenyl, decenyl and the like.

The term “alkynyl”, alone or in combination, means a straight-chain hydrocarbon radical having one or more triple bonds and containing 2 to about 12 carbon atoms, preferably 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, and more preferably, 2 to about 6 carbon atoms. Examples of alkynyl radicals include ethynyl, 2-propynyl, 3-propynyl, decynyl, 1-butynyl, 2-butynyl, 3-butynyl, and the like.

The term “carbonyl” or “oxo”, alone or in combination, means a —C(═O)— group wherein the remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted. The term carbonyl is also intended to encompass a hydrated carbonyl group —C(OH)2—.

The term “thiol” or “sulfhydryl”, alone or in combination, means a —SH group. The term “thio” or “thia”, alone or in combination, means a thiaether group; i.e., an ether group wherein the ether oxygen is replaced by a sulfur atom.

The term “amino”, alone or in combination, means an amine or —NH2 group whereas the term mono-substituted amino, alone or in combination, means a substituted amine —N(H)(substituent) group wherein one hydrogen atom is replaced with a substituent, and disubstituted amine means a —N(substituent)2 wherein two hydrogen atoms of the amino group are replaced with independently selected substituent groups.

Amines, amino groups and amides are compounds that can be designated as primary (I°), secondary (II°) or tertiary (III°) or unsubstituted, mono-substituted or N,N-disubstituted depending on the degree of substitution of the amino nitrogen. Quaternary amine (ammonium)(IV°) means a nitrogen with four substituents [—N+(substituent)4] that is positively charged and accompanied by a counter ion, whereas N-oxide means one substituent is oxygen and the group is represented as [—N+(substituent)3—O]; i.e., the charges are internally compensated.

The term “cyano”, alone or in combination, means a —C-triple bond-N (—C≡N) group. The term “azido”, alone or in combination, means a —N-triple bond-N (—N≡N) group. The term “hydroxyl”, alone or in combination, means a —OH group. The term “nitro”, alone or in combination, means a —NO2 group. The term “azo”, alone or in combination, means a —N≡N-group wherein the bonds at the terminal positions can be independently substituted.

The term “hydrazino”, alone or in combination, means a —NH—NH— group wherein the depicted remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted. The hydrogen atoms of the hydrazino group can be replaced, independently, with substituents and the nitrogen atoms can form acid addition salts or be quaternized.

The term “sulfonyl”, alone or in combination, means a —SO2— group wherein the depicted remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted. The term “sulfoxido”, alone or in combination, means a —SO— group wherein the remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted.

The term “sulfone”, alone or in combination, means a —SO2— group wherein the depicted remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted. The term “sulfenamide”, alone or in combination, means a —SON=group wherein the remaining three depicted bonds (valences) can be independently substituted. The term “sulfide”, alone or in combination, means a —S— group wherein the remaining two bonds (valences) can be independently substituted.

The term “alkoxy”, alone or in combination, means an alkyl ether radical wherein the term alkyl is as defined above. Examples of suitable alkyl ether radicals include methoxy, ethoxy, n-propoxy, isopropoxy, n-butoxy, iso-butoxy, sec-butoxy, tert-butoxy and the like.

The term “cycloalkyl”, alone or in combination, means a cyclic alkyl radical that contains 3 to about 8 carbon atoms. The term “cycloalkylalkyl” means an alkyl radical as defined above that is substituted by a cycloalkyl radical containing 3 to about 8, preferably 3 to about 6, carbon atoms. Examples of such cycloalkyl radicals include cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl and the like.

A heterocyclic (heterocyclo) or heterocyclo portion of a heterocyclocarbonyl, heterocyclooxy-carbonyl, heterocycloalkoxycarbonyl, or heterocycloalkyl group or the like is a saturated or partially unsaturated monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic heterocycle that contains one or more hetero atoms selected from nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Such a moiety can be optionally substituted on one or more ring carbon atoms by halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, oxo, and the like, and/or on a secondary nitrogen atom (i.e., —NH—) of the ring by alkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkanoyl, aryl or arylalkyl or on a tertiary nitrogen atom (i.e., ═N—) by oxido and that is attached via a carbon atom. The tertiary nitrogen atom with three substituents can also attached to form a N-oxide (═N(O)—] group.

The term “aryl”, alone or in combination, means a 5- or 6-membered carbocyclic aromatic ring-containing moiety or a fused ring system containing two or three rings that have all carbon atoms in the ring; i.e., a carbocyclic aryl radical. Exemplary carbocyclic aryl radicals include phenyl, indenyl and naphthyl radicals.

The term “heteroaryl”, alone or in combination means a 5- or 6-membered aromatic ring-containing moiety or a fused ring system (radical) containing two or three rings that have carbon atoms and also one or more heteroatoms in the ring(s) such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Examples of such heterocyclic or heteroaryl groups are pyrrolidinyl, piperidyl, piperazinyl, morpholinyl, thiamorpholinyl, pyrrolyl, imidazolyl (e.g., imidazol-4-yl, 1-benzyloxycarbonylimidazol-4-yl, and the like), pyrazolyl, pyridyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, furyl, tetrahydrofuryl, thienyl, triazolyl, oxazolyl, oxadiazoyl, thiazolyl, thiadiazoyl, indolyl (e.g., 2-indolyl, and the like), quinolinyl, (e.g., 2-quinolinyl, 3-quinolinyl, 1-oxido-2-quinolinyl, and the like), isoquinolinyl (e.g., 1-isoquinolinyl, 3-isoquinolinyl, and the like), tetrahydroquinolinyl (e.g., 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-quinolyl, and the like), 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinyl (e.g., 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-oxo-isoquinolinyl, and the like), quinoxalinyl, β-carbolinyl, 2-benzofurancarbonyl, benzothiophenyl, 1-, 2-, 4- or 5-benzimidazolyl, and the like radicals.

When an aryl or heteroaryl radical is a substituting moiety (group, substituent, or radical), it can itself substituted, the last-named substituent is independently selected from the group consisting of a cyano, perfluoroalkyl, trifluoro-methoxy, trifluoromethylthio, haloalkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, hydroxy, halo, alkyl, alkoxy, nitro, thiol, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxy, arylthio, aralkyl, aryl, arylcarbonylamino, heteroaryloxy, heteroarylthio, heteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, heterocyclooxy, heterocyclothio, heterocycloamino, cycloalkyloxy, cycloalkylthio, heteroaralkoxy, heteroaralkylthio, aralkoxy, aralkylthio, aralkylamino, heterocyclo, heteroaryl, arylazo, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkanoyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, alkanoyloxy, aralkanoyloxy, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyalkoxy, alkylthio, alkoxyalkylthio, alkoxycarbonyl, aryloxyalkoxyaryl, arylthioalkylthioaryl, aryloxyalkylthioaryl, arylthioalkoxyaryl, hydroxycarbonylalkoxy, hydroxycarbonylalkylthio, alkoxycarbonylalkoxy, alkoxycarbonylalkylthio, amino,

    • wherein the amino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, arylcarbonyl, aralkanoyl, heteroarylcarbonyl, heteroaralkanoyl and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring containing zero to two additional heteroatoms that are nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur and which ring itself is (a) unsubstituted or (b) substituted with one or two groups independently selected from the group consisting of an aryl, alkyl, heteroaryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy, alkanoyl, cycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, hydroxyalkyl, trifluoromethyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, hydroxyalkoxyalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, hydroxycarbonyl, aryloxycarbonyl, benzofused heterocycloalkoxy, benzofused cycloalkylcarbonyl, heterocyclo-alkylcarbonyl, and a cycloalkylcarbonyl group, carbonylamino
    • wherein the carbonylamino nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) is the reacted amine of an amino acid, or (iii) substituted with one or two radicals selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, hydroxyalkyl, hydroxyheteroaralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkyl, trifluoromethylalkyl, heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused heterocycloalkyl, benzofused cycloalkyl, and an N,N-dialkylsubstituted alkylamino-alkyl group, or (iv) the carboxamido nitrogen and two substituents bonded thereto together form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo, heteroaryl or benzofused heterocycloalkyl ring that is itself unsubstituted or substituted with one or two radicals independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, alkoxycarbonyl, nitro, heterocycloalkyl, hydroxy, hydroxycarbonyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaralkyl and an amino group,
      • wherein the amino nitrogen is
      • (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents that are independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl, or (iii) wherein the amino nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring,
        and an aminoalkyl group
        wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen is (i) unsubstituted, or (ii) substituted with one or two substituents independently selected from the group consisting of an alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, aralkoxycarbonyl, alkoxycarbonyl, and an alkanoyl group, or (iii) wherein the aminoalkyl nitrogen and two substituents attached thereto form a 5- to 8-membered heterocyclo or heteroaryl ring.

The term “aralkyl”, alone or in combination, means an alkyl radical as defined above in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by an aryl radical as defined above, such as benzyl, 2-phenylethyl and the like.

The term “aralkoxycarbonyl”, alone or in combination, means a radical of the formula aralkyl-O—C(O)— in which the term “aralkyl”, has the significance given above. An example of an aralkoxycarbonyl radical is benzyloxycarbonyl.

The term “aryloxy” means a radical of the formula aryl-O— in which the term aryl has the significance given above. The phenoxy radical is an exemplary aryloxy radical.

The terms “heteroaralkyl” and “heteroaryloxy” mean radicals structurally similar to aralkyl and aryloxy that are formed from heteroaryl radicals. Exemplary radicals include 4-picolinyl and 2-pyrimidinoxy, respectively.

The terms “alkanoyl” or “alkylcarbonyl”, alone or in combination, means an acyl radical derived from an alkanecarboxylic acid, examples of which include formyl, acetyl, propionyl, butyryl, valeryl, 4-methylvaleryl, and the like.

The term “cycloalkylcarbonyl” means an acyl group derived from a monocyclic or bridged cycloalkanecarboxylic acid such as cyclopropanecarbonyl, cyclohexanecarbonyl, adamantanecarbonyl, and the like, or from a benz-fused monocyclic cycloalkanecarboxylic acid that is optionally substituted by, for example, alkanoylamino, such as 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2-naphthoyl, 2-acetamido-1,2,3,4-tetrahyaro-2-naphthoyl.

The terms “aralkanoyl” or “aralkylcarbonyl” mean an acyl radical derived from an aryl-substituted alkanecarboxylic acid such as phenylacetyl, 3-phenylpropionyl (hydrocinnamoyl), 4-phenylbutyryl, (2-naphthyl)acetyl, 4-chlorohydrocinnamoyl, 4-aminohydrocinnamoyl, 4-methoxyhydrocinnamoyl and the like.

The terms “aroyl” or “arylcarbonyl” means an acyl radical derived from an aromatic carboxylic acid. Examples of such radicals include aromatic carboxylic acids, an optionally substituted benzoic or naphthoic acid such as benzoyl, 4-chlorobenzoyl, 4-carboxybenzoyl, 4-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzoyl, 1-naphthoyl, 2-naphthoyl, 6-carboxy-2 naphthoyl, 6-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-2-naphthoyl, 3-benzyloxy-2-naphthoyl, 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl, 3-(benzyloxyformamido)-2-naphthoyl, and the like.

The term “cycloalkylalkoxycarbonyl” means an acyl group of the formula cycloalkylalkyl-O—CO-wherein cycloalkylalkyl has the significance given above. The term “aryloxyalkanoyl” means an acyl radical of the formula aryl-O-alkanoyl wherein aryl and alkanoyl have the significance given above. The term “heterocyclooxycarbonyl”, means an acyl group having the formula heterocyclo-O—CO— wherein heterocyclo is as defined above.

The term “heterocycloalkanoyl” is an acyl radical of the formula heterocyclo-substituted alkane carboxylic acid wherein heterocyclo has the significance given above. The term “heterocycloalkoxycarbonyl” means an acyl radical of the formula heterocyclo-substituted alkane-O—CO-wherein heterocyclo has the significance given above. The term “heteroaryloxycarbonyl” means an acyl radical represented by the formula heteroaryl-O—CO-wherein heteroaryl has the significance given above.

The term “aminocarbonyl” (carboxamide) alone or in combination, means an amino-substituted carbonyl (carbamoyl) group derived from an amine reacted with a carboxylic acid wherein the amino (amido nitrogen) group is unsubstituted (—NH2) or a substituted primary or secondary amino group containing one or two substituents selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl radicals and the like, as recited. A hydroxamate is a N-hydroxycarboxamide.

The term “aminoalkanoyl” means an acyl group derived from an amino-substituted alkanecarboxylic acid wherein the amino group can be a primary or secondary amino group containing substituents independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, cycloalkyl, cycloalkylalkyl radicals and the like.

The term “halogen” means fluoride, chloride, bromide or iodide. The term “haloalkyl” means an alkyl radical having the significance as defined above wherein one or more hydrogens are replaced with a halogen. Examples of such haloalkyl radicals include chloromethyl, 1-bromoethyl, fluoromethyl, difluoromethyl, trifluoromethyl, 1,1,1-trifluoroethyl and the like.

The term “perfluoroalkyl” means an alkyl group wherein each hydrogen has been replaced by a fluorine atom. Examples of such perfluoroalkyl groups, in addition to trifluoromethyl above, are perfluorobutyl, perfluoroisopropyl, perfluorododecyl and perfluorodecyl.

The term “perfluoroalkoxy” alone or in combination, means a perfluoroalkyl ether radical wherein the term perfluoroalkyl is as defined above. Examples of such perfluoroalkoxy groups, in addition to trifluoromethoxy (F3C—O—), are perfluorobutoxy, perfluoroisopropoxy, perfluorododecoxy and perfluorodecoxy.

The term “perfluoroalkylthio” alone or in combination, means a perfluoroalkyl thioether radical wherein the term perfluoroalkyl is as defined above. Examples of such perfluoroalkylthio groups, in addition to trifluoromethylthio (F3C—S—), are perfluorobutylthio, perfluoroisopropylthio, perfluorododecylthio and perfluorodecylthio.

The term “aromatic ring” in combinations such as substituted-aromatic ring sulfone or substituted-aromatic ring sulfoxide means aryl or heteroaryl as defined before.

The term “pharmaceutically acceptable” is used adjectivally herein to mean that the modified noun is appropriate for use in a pharmaceutical product. Pharmaceutically acceptable cations include metallic ions and organic ions. More preferred metallic ions include, but are not limited to appropriate alkali metal (Group Ia) salts, alkaline earth metal (Group IIa) salts and other physiological acceptable metal ions. Exemplary ions include aluminum, calcium, lithium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc in their usual valences. Preferred organic ions include protonated tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium cations, including in part, trimethylamine, diethylamine, N,N′-dibenzylethylenediamine, chloroprocaine, choline, diethanolamine, ethylenediamine, meglumine (N-methylglucamine) and procaine. Exemplary pharmaceutically acceptable acids include without limitation hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, methanesulfonic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, tartaric acid, maleic acid, malic acid, citric acid, isocitric acid, succinic acid, lactic acid, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, pyruvic acid oxalacetic acid, fumaric acid, propionic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, benzoic acid, and the like.

“M” utilized in the reaction schemes that follow represents a leaving group such as halogen, phosphate ester or sulfate ester.

Preparation of Useful Compounds

Schemes A through C and Schemes 1 through 19 hereinbelow illustrate chemical processes and transformations that can be useful for the preparation of compounds useful in this invention; i.e., compounds of formulas I, II, III, IV and V and similar cyclic inhibitors. In addition, the preparation of compounds of formula VI and formula VII is illustrated. Compounds of formula VI and formula VII can be used as intermediates in the preparation of the compounds of formulas I, II, III, IV and V or pro-drugs or MMP inhibitors.

In Schemes A through C, the symbol J independently represents R20 or other synthetically useful groups such as amides, acid chlorides, mixed anhydrides and the like. The n is 0, 1 or 2 and is preferred to be 1 or 2 in Scheme C. The n of these schemes corresponds to g in formulas VI and VII., and is zero, 1 or 2. The symbol m is 1 or 2. The symbol r is independently 1, 2 or 3. The symbol P represents a protecting group that can also be a member of the group R6. In Scheme A, for simplicity and clarity of illustration positional isomers are illustrated with a bond through the ring in standard fashion. Later Schemes typically only show one positional isomer but positional isomers are represented by these structures and reactions in a manner consistent with Formula I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII above. Similarly, the symbol B represents O, S, SO, SO2 and NR6. The symbols C and C′ independently are electrophilic groups or groups capable of participating in a condensation reaction. Here to it should be noted that the six-membered ring is shown for illustrative purposes but the procedures and/or reagents are applicable to and represent combinations the permit the preparation of 5- to 8-membered rings.

The structures in Schemes 1 through 19 are also shown with compounds that represent the other compounds of this invention. The aromatic ring in Scheme C is aryl and heteroaryl. The moieties of -A-R-E-Y are as defined before. Reactions illustrated involving a spiroheterocyclic nitrogen atom may not be applicable to those compounds with sulfur or oxygen.

Scheme A shows in step 1 the reduction of a heteraryl compound to a carboxyl derivative. Generally, the first product is a hydrogen-containing amine heterocycle when the starting material is aromatic or an R6-containing heterocycle when a partially unsaturated heterocycle is the starting material.

Compound 2 can be treated in several ways depending on the needs of the chemist. In Step 2, the nitrogen can be protected by preparing, for example, a carbobenzoxy (Z) or tert-butoxycarbonyl derivative. Such acylations can be carried out by methods well known in the art, especially the art of amino acid and peptide synthesis. The process of acylation with activated carboxyl group- or activated sulfonyl group-containing reagents to prepare contemplated compounds is carried out in the same manner. Examples of such acylating groups are carbonyl azides, halides, anhydrides, mixed anhydrides, carbodiimide derivatives or other less traditional activated ester groups such as the hydroxybenzotriazole derivative. These acylations can be run in the presence of base including mild bases such as triethylamine or N-ethylmorpholine if desired. The preparation of some activated ester reagents and their use to prepare other compounds useful in this invention is discussed below. It should be recalled that the groups constituting P and serving as a selectively removable protecting group can also be included as part of the group R6.

Step 4 of Scheme A shows the alkylation or acylation of Compound 2 to produce compound 5. The process of acylation and alkylation are as discussed herein. In Step 5, the group J can be changed if desired. An example of such a change is exchange of an ester for a THP-protected hydroxamate conversion of a THP-protected hydroxamate inot a hydroxamate or conversion of an acid into a protected hydroxamate or the like.

Steps 3, 7 and 8 show the preparation of sulfur-containing derivatives of the contemplated compounds or intermediates to those compounds. The starting material for the above steps (e.g., compounds 2, 5 and 6) can be treated with a base to deprotonate the carbon alpha to the carbonyl function. This anion can be reacted with a sulfur electrophile to produce a sulfone, sulfoxide or sulfide. Such electrophiles can be of the form of, for example, R24S—SR24, R24SO2C1, R24SC1, R24SOC1, R24S(O)—SR24 and the like where R24 is as defined before or is an aryl or heteroaryl sulfur-containing material containing a coupling substituent, R3′, that can be used to prepare one of the R24-containing groups. Preparation of the anion requires a base and a strong base may be required such as one of the metal amides, hydrides or alkyls discussed herein. The solvents are nonprotic, and dipolar aprotic solvents are preferred along with an inert atmosphere. Subsequent schemes usually utilize R3 for the R24 group for ease of illustration.

It should be noted that these processes produce sulfides (thio ethers), sulfoxides or sulfones depending on starting material. In addition, the sulfides can be oxidized to sulfoxides or sulfones, and the sulfoxides can be oxidized to their corresponding sulfone derivatives. The choice of position in the synthetic sequence to change the oxidation state of sulfur as well as the decision to change oxidation state is under the control of the chemist skilled in the art. Methods of oxidizing sulfur are discussed hereinbelow.

Scheme A, Steps 6, 9, 10 and 12 independently illustrate the interconversion of groups within J. Examples of such interconversions include exchange of an ester for hydroxamic acid or hydroxamic acid derivative, conversion of a carboxylic acid into an activated carbonyl derivative or into a hydroxamic acid or hydroxamic acid derivative (pro-drug or protected derivative), or removal of a protecting group from a hydroxamate derivative. The preparation of activated carbonyl compounds their reaction with nucleophiles such as hydroxamic acid, protected hydroxamates or hydroxamic acid pro-drugs is discussed below as is the conversion of protected hydroxamic acid derivatives into hydroxamic acids. The preparation of, for example, hydroxybenzotriazole/carbodiimide, derived products is discussed herein. The preparation or hydrolysis of esters, amides, amide derivatives, acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, mixed anhydrides and the like are synthetic methods very well known in the art, and are not discussed in detail herein. Step 6 illustrates the conversion of compound 4 into compound 9, without first being converted into compound 7.

Scheme B illustrates an alternate method of preparing contemplated compounds. The reagent shown above the arrow in Step 1 is a reagent with two active groups in addition to the heteroatoms (B) noted before. Here again, the particular reagent illustrated was selected to permit a clear illustration of the reaction, but it is also intended to represent reagents that permit the preparation of the heteroatom position, and 5-, 7- and 8-membered ring size compounds. These reagents are readily selected by those skilled in the art.

C and C′ in this Step 1 reagent are independently an electophile or a group convertible into an electrophile. Such groups include halides, sulfonic acid esters, epoxides, thioepoxides, hydroxyl groups, and the like. This reagent is reacted with a nucleophilic anion of a sulfur containing carbonyl compound such as compound 1. The anion is formed by deprotonation of compound 1 and examples of bases suitable for such a deprotonation are discussed below. Treatment with the above electrophilic reagent is carried out under alkylating conditions well known in the art and discussed herein. The product of this reaction can be either Compound 2 or Compound 3; i.e., the reaction can be carried out as a pot or two step process as required.

Step 3 illustrates the interconversion of J groups if desired as discussed above for Scheme A. Step 4 uses reagent where C, for example, represents a nucleophile as discussed above and C′ represents an electrophile or a nucleophile such as hydroxyl, thiol or R6-amino. It is noted that C′ can be, independently, a nucleophile or an electrophile when m is 2; i.e., the C′ groups are not required to be the same when m is 2. When m is 2, treatment with a second mole of base provides the skilled chemist an alternative preparation of Compound 5. When C′ is hydroxyl, thiol, or R6-amino and m is 2, the person skilled in the art can condense Compound 4 with, for example, an aldehyde or ketone, under reductive conditions or with subsequent reduction to form a contemplated compound. As above, the compound where m is 2 can be made in one step (one pot process) or two steps, thus permitting the chemist the choice of having the reagent(s) be the same (one pot) or different (two step).

Scheme B also illustrates the interconversions of the groups within J, the oxidation state of the sulfur and groups on nitrogen; i.e., R6 groups, to provide the contemplated compounds. These methods and processes are discussed above for the reactions of Scheme A.

Scheme C illustrates the nucleophilic displacement of a group D as defined herein. This reaction is carried out in a similar manner to the displacement reactions discussed herein. The choice of oxidation state of the sulfur is made by the person skilled in the art, but sulfoxide or sulfone groups are preferred, and the sulfone is most preferred. The displacement can be carried out either before or after the methylene next to the carbonyl group is reacted to form a spiro heterocyclic group.

Steps 1, 2 and 3 also illustrate that although the nucleophilic displacement can be carried out with one nucleophile (Nu), the product of this reaction can be modified by methods well known in the art and as shown herein to provide the group -A-R-E-Y as defined hereinbefore.

A non-limiting illustration of such a process is provided when D is fluoride. The fluoride leaving group can be directly displaced with the anion of 4-trifluoromethylphenol, 4-trifluoromethoxyphenol, 4-trifluoromethylthiophenol and the like to provide a contemplated compound. This is a one pot process from Compound 4. Other compounds included in -A-R-E-Y can be prepared by displacing the fluoride leaving group with ammonia to provide an amine, which can then be acylated by methods discussed wherein with, for example, 4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl chloride, to form another contemplated product compound.

The R6 function can be changed and/or further modified in compounds or at steps in the Schemes as desired or required by the person skilled in the art to prepare the contemplated compounds. Interconversion of dual purpose functional groups such as short or long term protecting groups into other R6 groups has been mentioned. Many other routine and/or useful conversions, including the preparation of synthetic intermediates, are very well known in the art. A few non-limiting examples of such conversions or reactions include: reductions; nucleophilic displacement/substitution reactions; exchange or preparation of carboxylic or sulfonic acids, amides, esters, acid halides, mixed anhydrides and the like; electrophilic displacement/substitution reactions; oxidations; ring/chain conversions, ring opening reactions, condensation reactions including those involving sulfonyl or carbonyl groups and/or carbon-hydrogen bonds influenced by either or both of those groups. The selection of preparative methods or conversion methods of the contemplated compounds and the order of the reaction(s) is made by the skilled person. It is expected that should a particular sequence or method prove to be undesirable that an alternative will be selected and used. Included is the choice of preparing/adding the groups in a single step using a convergent inhibitor strategy or preparing the final R6 group following a stepwise strategy.

Thus, in general, the choices of starting material and reaction conditions can vary as is well known to those skilled in the art. Usually, no single set of conditions is limiting because variations can be applied as required. Conditions are also selected as desired to suit a specific purpose such as small scale preparations or large scale preparations. In either case, the use of less safe or less environmentally sound materials or reagents is usually be minimized. Examples of such materials are diazomethane, diethyl ether, heavy metal salts, dimethyl sulfide, chloroform, benzene and the like.

These reactions can be carried out under a dry inert atmosphere such a nitrogen or argon if desired. Selected reactions known to those skilled in the art, can be carried out under a dry atmosphere such as dry air whereas other synthetic steps, for example, aqueous acid or base ester or amide hydrolysis, can be carried out under laboratory air. In addition, some processes of these syntheses can be carried out in a pressure apparatus at pressures above, equal to or below atmospheric pressure. The use of such an apparatus aids in the control of gaseous reagents such as hydrogen, ammonia, trimethylamine, methylamine, oxygen and the like, and can also help prevent the leakage of air or humidity into a reaction in progress. This discussion is not intended to be exhaustive as it is readily noted that additional or alternative methods, conditions, reactions or systems can be identified and used by a chemist of ordinary skill.

The illustrated reactions are usually carried out at a temperature of between −25° C. to solvent reflux under an inert atmosphere such as nitrogen or argon. The solvent or solvent mixture can vary widely depending upon reagents and other conditions and can include polar or dipolar aprotic solvents as listed or mixtures of these solvents. Reactions can be carried out at lower temperatures such as dry ice/acetone or liquid nitrogen temperature if desired to carry out such reactions as metalations or anion formations using strong bases.

In some cases, amines such as triethylamine, pyridine or other non-reactive bases can serve as reagents and/or solvents and/or co-solvents. In some instances, in these reactions and other reactions in these Schemes, protecting groups can be used to maintain or retain groups in other parts of a molecule(s) at locations that is(are) not desired reactive centers. Examples of such groups that the skilled person can maintain or retain include, amines, other hydroxyls, thiols, acids and the like. Such protecting groups can include acyl groups, arylalkyl groups, carbamoyl groups, ethers, alkoxyalkyl ethers, cycloalkyloxy ethers, arylalkyl groups, silyl groups including trisubstituted silyl groups, ester groups and the like. Examples of such protecting groups include acetyl, trifluoroacetyl, tetrahydropyran (THP), benzyl, tert-butoxy carbonyl (BOC or TBOC), benzyloxycarbonyl (Z or CBZ), tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) or methoxyethoxymethylene (MEM) groups. The preparation of such protected compounds as well as their removal is well known in the art. The protecting groups can also be used as substituents in the contemplated compounds whose utility is as a drug rather than as a synthetic intermediate.

Many reactions or processes involve bases that can act as reactants, reagents, deprotonating agents, acid scavengers, salt forming reagents, solvents, co-solvents and the like. Bases that can be used include, for example, metal hydroxides such as sodium, potassium, lithium, cesium or magnesium hydroxide, oxides such as those of sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium or magnesium, metal carbonates such as those of sodium, potassium, lithium, cesium, calcium or magnesium, metal bicarbonates such as sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate, primary (I°), secondary (II°) or tertiary (III°) organic amines such as alkyl amines, arylalkyl amines, alkylarylalkyl amines, heterocyclic amines or heteroaryl amines, ammonium hydroxides or quaternary ammonium hydroxides. As non-limiting examples, such amines can include triethylamine, trimethylamine, diisopropylamine, methyldiisopropylamine, diazabicyclononane, tribenzylamine, dimethylbenzylamine, morpholine, N-methylmorpholine, N,N′-dimethylpiperazine, N-ethylpiperidine, 1,1,5,5-tetramethylpiperidine, dimethylaminopyridine, pyridine, quinoline, tetramethylethylenediamine, and the like. Non-limiting examples of ammonium hydroxides, usually made from amines and water, can include ammonium hydroxide, triethylammonium hydroxide, trimethylammonium hydroxide, methyldiiospropylammonium hydroxide, tribenzylammonium hydroxide, dimethylbenzylammonium hydroxide, morpholinium hydroxide, N-methylmorpholinium hydroxide, N,N′-dimethylpiperazinium hydroxide, N-ethylpiperidinium hydroxide, and the like. As non-limiting examples, quaternary ammonium hydroxides can include tetraethylammonium hydroxide, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, dimethyldiiospropyl-ammonium hydroxide, benzylmethyldiisopropylammonium hydroxide, methyldiazabicyclononylammonium hydroxide, methyltribenzylammonium hydroxide, N,N-dimethyl-morpholiniumhydroxide, N,N,N1,N′-tetramethylpiperazinium hydroxide, and N-ethyl-N′-hexylpiperidinium hydroxide and the like.

Metal hydrides, amides or alcoholates such as calcium hydride, sodium hydride, potassium hydride, lithium hydride, aluminum hydride, diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBAL) sodium methoxide, potassium tert-butoxide, calcium ethoxide, magnesium ethoxide, sodium amide, potassium diisopropyl amide and the like can also be suitable reagents. Organometallic deprotonating agents such as alkyl or aryl lithium reagents such as methyl lithium, phenyl lithium, tert-butyl lithium, lithium acetylide or butyl lithium, Grignard reagents such as methylmagnesium bromide or methymagnesium chloride, organocadmium reagents such as dimethylcadmium and the like can also serve as bases for causing salt formation or catalyzing the reaction. Quaternary ammonium hydroxides or mixed salts are also useful for aiding phase transfer couplings or serving as phase transfer reagents. Pharmaceutically acceptable bases can be reacted with acids to form contemplated pharmaceutically acceptable salts. It should also be noted that optically active bases can be used to make optically active salts which can be used for optical resolutions.

Generally, reaction media can comprise a single solvent, mixed solvents of the same or different classes or serve as a reagent in a single or mixed solvent system. The solvents can be protic, non-protic or dipolar aprotic. Non-limiting examples of protic solvents include water, methanol (MeOH), denatured or pure 95% or absolute ethanol, isopropanol and the like. Typical non-protic solvents include acetone, tetrahydrofuran (THF), dioxane, diethyl ether, tert-butylmethyl ether (TBME), aromatics such as xylene, toluene, or benzene, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, butyl acetate, trichloroethane, methylene chloride, ethylenedichloride (EDC), hexane, heptane, isooctane, cyclohexane and the like. Dipolar aprotic solvents include compounds such as dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethylacetamide (DMAc), acetonitrile, DMSO, hexamethylphosphorus triamide (HMPA), nitromethane, tetramethylurea, N-methylpyrrolidone and the like. Non-limiting examples of reagents that can be used as solvents or as part of a mixed solvent system include organic or inorganic mono- or multi-protic acids or bases such as hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, triethylamine, morpholine, N-methylmorpholine, piperidine, pyrazine, piperazine, pyridine, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, alcohols or amines for making esters or amides or thiols for making contemplated products and the like.

The preparation of compounds contemplated herein can require the oxidation of nitrogen or sulfur to N-oxide derivatives or sulfoxides or sulfones. Reagents for this process can include, in a non-limiting example, peroxymonosulfate (OXONE®), hydrogen peroxide, meta-chloroperbenzoic acid, perbenzoic acid, peracetic acid, perlactic acid, tert-butyl peroxide, tert-butyl hypochlorite, sodium hydpochlorite, hypochlorous acid, sodium meta-periodate, periodic acid and the like with the weaker agents being most useful for the preparation of sulfones and sulfoxides. Protic, non-protic, dipolar aprotic solvents, either pure or mixed, can be chosen, for example, methanol/water.

The oxidation can be carried out at temperature of about −78° to about 50° degrees Centigrade, and normally selected from a range −10° C. to about 40° C. Sulfoxides are best prepared using one equivalent of oxidizing agent. It can be desirable in the case of more active oxidizing agents, but not required, that the reactions be carried out under an inert gas atmosphere with or without degassed solvents. It should be noted that the oxidation of sulfides to sulfones can be carried out in one step or two steps via the sulfoxide as desired by the chemist.

Reduction is a well known process in the art with a useful method being hydrogenation. In such cases (catalytic reduction), there can be a metal catalyst such as Rh, Pd, Pt, Ni or the like with or without an additional support such as carbon, barium carbonate and the like. Solvents can be protic or non-protic pure solvents or mixed solvents as required. The reductions can be carried out at atmospheric pressure to a pressure of multiple atmospheres with atmospheric pressure to about 40 pounds per square inch (psi) preferred or very high pressures in special hydrogenation equipment well known in the art.

Reductive alkylation of amines or active methylene compounds is also a useful method of preparing compounds. Such alkylations can be carried out under reductive hydrogenation conditions as presented above using, for example, aldehydes or ketones. Hydride transfer reagents such as sodium cyanoborohydride, aluminum hydride, lithium aluminumhydride, borane, sodium borohydride, di-isobutylaluminum hydride and the like are also useful as reagents for reductive alkylation. Acyl groups can be reduced in a similar manner to produce substituted amines.

Alternative methods of alkylating carbon or nitrogen are direct alkylation. Such an alkylation, as is well known in the art, can be carried by treatment of an activated carbon containing at least one hydrogen with base to form the corresponding anion, adding an electrophilic reagent and permitting the SN2 reaction to proceed. An amine to be alkylated is treated similarly except that deprotonation may not be required. Electrophiles include halogen derivatives, sulfonate esters, epoxides and the like.

Bases and solvents for alkylation reactions are those discussed above. Preferred are bases that are hindered such that competition with the electrophile is minimized. Additional preferred bases are metal hydrides, amide anions or organometallic bases such as n-butyl lithium. The solvents, solvent mixtures or solvent/reagent mixtures discussed are satisfactory but non-protic or dipolar aprotic solvents such as acetone, acetonitrile, DMF and the like are examples of preferred classes.

Acids are used in many reactions during various syntheses. For example, removal of the THP protecting group to produce the hydroxamic acid. The acid can be a mono-, di- or tri-protic organic or inorganic acid. Examples of acids include hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, formic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrofluoric acid, carbonic acid, phosphorus acid, p-toluene sulfonic acid, trifluoromethane sulfonic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, difluoroacetic acid, benzoic acid, methane sulfonic acid, benzene sulfonic acid, 2,6-dimethylbenzene sulfonic acid, trichloroacetic acid, nitrobenzoic acid, dinitrobenzoic acid, trinitrobenzoic acid, and the like. They can also be Lewis acids such as aluminum chloride, borontrifluoride, antimony pentafluoride and the like. Acids in a protic can also be used to hydrolyze esters, amides and the like as well as catalyze exchange reactions.

Conversion of a carboxylic acid protected as an ester or amide into a hydroxamic acid or hydroxamic acid derivative such as an O-arylalkylether or O-cycloalkoxyalkylether group is useful. In the case where hydroxylamine is used, treatment of an ester or amide with one or more equivalents of hydroxylamine hydrochloride at room temperature or above in a solvent or solvents, usually protic or partially protic, such as those listed above can provide a hydroxamic acid directly. This exchange process can be further catalyzed by the addition of additional acid. Alternatively, a base such as a salt of an alcohol used as a solvent, for example, sodium methoxide in methanol, can be used to form hydroxylamine from hydroxylamine hydrochloride in situ which can exchange with an ester or amide. As mentioned above, exchange can be carried out with a protected hydroxylamine such as tetrahydropyranylhydroxyamine (THPONH2), benzylhydroxylamine (BnONH2), and the like in which case compounds such as shown in Schemes A, B and C that are tetrahydropyranyl (THP) or benzyl (Bn) hydroxamic acid derivatives are the products. Removal of the protecting groups when desired, for example, following further transformations in another part of the molecule or following storage, is accomplished by standard methods well known in the art such as acid hydrolysis of the THP group as discussed above or reductive removal of the benzyl group with hydrogen and a metal catalyst such as palladium, platinum, palladium on carbon or nickel.

In the case where R20 is hydroxyl; i.e., where the intermediate is a carboxylic acid, standard coupling reactions can be used. For example, the acid can be converted into an acid chloride, mixed anhydride or activated ester such as hydroxybenzotriazole and treated with hydroxylamine or a protected hydroxylamine in the presence of a non-competitive base to the nitrogen acylated compound. This is the same product as discussed above. Couplings of this nature are well known in the art and especially the art related to peptide and amino acid chemistry.

Compounds contemplated herein can possess one or more asymmetric carbon atoms and are thus capable of existing in the form of optical isomers, enantiomers, diastereoisomers, as well as in the form of racemic or nonracemic mixtures. A compound can also exist in other isomeric forms such as ortho, meta and para isomers, cis and trans isomers, syn and anti isomers, E and Z isomers, tautomeric isomers, alpha and beta isomers, axial and equatorial isomers and isomers due to hindered rotation. An isomer can exist in equilibrium with another isomer in a mammal or a test system. Such a compound can also exist as an isomeric equilibrium system with a solvent or water, for example, as a hydrated ketone or aldehyde, as is well known in the art. All isomers are included as compounds of this invention.

The chemical reactions described above are generally disclosed in terms of their broadest application to the preparation of the compounds of this invention. Occasionally, the reactions may not be applicable as described to each compound included within the disclosed scope. The compounds for which this occurs will be readily recognized by those skilled in the art. In all such cases, either the reactions can be successfully performed by conventional modifications known to those skilled in the art, e.g., by appropriate protection of interfering groups, by changing to alternative conventional reagents, by routine modification of reaction conditions, and the like, or other reactions disclosed herein or otherwise conventional, are applicable to the preparation of the corresponding compounds that are contemplated.

Table 1 through Table 150, below, show several contemplated aromatic sulfone hydroxamic acid inhibitor compounds or structural formulas that illustrate substituent groups. Each group of compounds is illustrated by a generic formula, or formulae, followed by a series of preferred moieties or groups that constitute various substituents that can be attached at the position clearly shown in the generic structure. The substituent symbols, e.g., R1 and R2 and R3, are as shown in each Table, and are typically not those used before. One or two bonds (wavy lines) are shown with those substituents to indicate the respective positions of attachment in the illustrated compound. This system is well known in the chemical communication arts and is widely used in scientific papers and presentations. For example in Table 2, R1 and R2 together with the atoms to which they are bonded is the variable group with the structural entities that can substitute for R1 and R2 together shown in the balance of that table.

TABLE 1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TABLE 2
II
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TABLE 3
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

TABLE 4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

TABLE 6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

TABLE 7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 8
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

TABLE 9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

TABLE 11
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

TABLE 13
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

TABLE 14
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

TABLE 16
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 17
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

TABLE 18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 19
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

TABLE 20
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

TABLE 21
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 22
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

TABLE 23
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 24
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

TABLE 25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

TABLE 26
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

TABLE 27
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16