|Publication number||US20060144619 A1|
|Application number||US 11/030,263|
|Publication date||Jul 6, 2006|
|Filing date||Jan 6, 2005|
|Priority date||Jan 6, 2005|
|Also published as||EP1856373A1, WO2006074393A1|
|Publication number||030263, 11030263, US 2006/0144619 A1, US 2006/144619 A1, US 20060144619 A1, US 20060144619A1, US 2006144619 A1, US 2006144619A1, US-A1-20060144619, US-A1-2006144619, US2006/0144619A1, US2006/144619A1, US20060144619 A1, US20060144619A1, US2006144619 A1, US2006144619A1|
|Inventors||Bruce Storm, James Freeman, Juan-Carlos Jakaboski, Yogendra Joshi|
|Original Assignee||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (47), Referenced by (16), Classifications (7), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This disclosure is related to pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/602,236, titled “Method and Apparatus for Managing the Temperature of Thermal Components”, by Bruce H. Storm, Jr. and Haoshi Song, filed on Jun. 24, 2003, and is assigned to the assignee of the embodiments disclosed herein, Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
Various embodiments described herein relate to thermal management generally, including apparatus, systems, and methods used to manage electronic device thermal conditions.
Electronic devices may be designed to operate at a variety of temperatures, including up to about 200 C or greater, which is approximately the same as the ambient temperature experienced by various downhole drilling components. The variety of such components available to designers may be somewhat limited, however, and those that are available can be relatively expensive and difficult to obtain. In addition, managing thermal conditions associated with such components used in the downhole environment can be difficult, since operations can continue for days at a time. For a variety of reasons, then, there is a need to provide enhanced thermal management apparatus, systems, and methods for electronic devices used in downhole environments.
In some embodiments, an element that serves as both a chassis and a heat exchanger may be thermally coupled to a plurality of electronic devices using a corresponding plurality of receiving sections (e.g., machined recesses tailored to receive the individual devices). The chassis heat exchange element may include a conduit thermally coupled to the chassis heat exchange element. A flow rate regulator may be used adjust the flow rate of a coolant (e.g., water, oil, etc.) circulated in the conduit. In some embodiments, thermally conductive, flow disruptive elements may be included in the conduit. In some embodiments, the chassis heat exchange element may be used in conjunction with downhole drilling and logging operations.
For the purposes of this document, a “chassis heat exchange element” may mean any substantially rigid structure that serves both as a chassis and as a heat exchange device in direct thermal communication with at least one electronic device from which heat is to be removed. “Direct thermal communication” means that relatively thin thermally conductive materials (e.g., epoxy, grease, polymer, etc., comprising a total layer thickness of less than about 5 mm) may be interposed between the electronic device and the chassis heat exchange element (e.g., between the device and a receiving section). In some cases, the electronic device may be placed in direct contact with the chassis heat exchange element.
Referring now to
The apparatus 100 may also include a thermal conduit 116, 216 thermally coupled to the chassis heat exchange element 104, 204. A flow rate regulator 120, 220 may be used to adjust the flow rate of a coolant 122, 222 circulated in the thermal conduit 116, 216. In some embodiments, the flow rate regulator 120, 220 may be designed so as to be capable of adjusting the flow rate of the coolant 122, 222 to be a substantially constant flow rate. The flow rate regulator 120, 220 may also comprise a processor 124, perhaps electrically coupled to one or more thermocouples 128. The processor 124 may be thermally coupled to the chassis heat exchange element 104, 204.
Thus, in some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may comprise a feedback and control system 130 (e.g., comprising the flow rate regulator 120, 220; the processor 124; and thermocouples 128) to monitor the temperature of one or more of the plurality of electronic devices 212 and/or the coolant 122, 222, and to adjust the flow rate of the coolant 122, 222 in accordance with the sensed temperature. In this case, the flow rate of the coolant 122, 222 may be adjustable, including a set of states such as OFF, ON (at a preselected rate), ON (at a rate selected from a continuous range of rates), and ON (at a rate selected from a range of discrete rates), among others.
Alternatively, or in addition, the flow rate of the coolant 122, 222 may be adjusted to comprise a preselected flow rate, perhaps a fixed flow rate, and/or an optimal flow rate determined by simulation and/or experiment. In such cases, a designer may choose not to use any feedback and control system 130.
In some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may include a pump and/or valve 232 to circulate the coolant 122, 222 in the thermal conduit 116, 216. The thermal conduit 116, 216 may includes thermally conductive flow disruptive elements 236, including laminar flow disruptive elements, similar to or identical to those in-tube heat transfer enhancement devices known as HiTRAN® Matrix Elements available from Cal Galvin, Ltd. of Warwickshire, England. Of course, other laminar flow disruptive elements, such as spikes and other protuberances located within the thermal conduit 116, 216, and perhaps attached to the internal wall of the conduit 116, 216, may be used as well.
Many different types of coolant 122, 222 may be used within the thermal conduit 116, 216 of the apparatus 100. For example, the coolant 122, 222 may comprise water, such as distilled or de-ionized water. Thus, the coolant 122, 222 may comprise non-hydrocarbon-based fluids. In some embodiments, the coolant 122, 222 may comprise hydrocarbon-based fluids, such as oils, including poly(alpha-olefin) oils and other synthetic lubricants.
In some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may include additional elements. For example, the thermal conduit 116, 216 may be placed in fluid communication with a heat exchanger 140, perhaps immersed in a material 144, such as a phase-change material, including a eutectic phase-change material, a solid, a liquid, or a gas. The heat exchanger 140 and/or material 144 may be contained in a heat sink 146, which may in turn include a canister. Thus, the heat exchanger 140, material 144, and/or heat sink 146 may be thermally coupled to the chassis heat exchange element 104. In some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may be housed in a flask 148, such as an insulated and/or evacuated flask. Other embodiments may be realized.
For example, in some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may include a fluid expansion compensator 152 in fluid communication with the fluid conduit 116, 216. The fluid expansion compensator 152 may be used to maintain the pressure of the coolant 122, 222 at substantially the same value. Actuation of the fluid expansion compensator 152 may occur in a mechanical fashion (e.g., the fluid expansion compensator may include a piston and a spring to adjust a volume responsive to the pressure of the coolant), or in an electrical one, such as by moving a piston to adjust a volume coupled to the coolant 222 in accordance with a sensed pressure of the coolant 222, as monitored by the processor 124. A solenoid or other electrically-movable device may be mechanically coupled to the fluid expansion compensator 152 and activated by the processor 124.
In some embodiments, the apparatus 100 may include one or more circuit boards 254, perhaps located on the first and second sides 256, 258 of the chassis thermal exchange element 104, 204. The circuit boards may have a thermally conductive layer 260 thermally coupled to the plurality of electronic devices 212. The thermally conductive layer 260 may be embedded within the circuit boards 254, or provided as an outside layer of the circuits boards 254. If the thermally conductive layer 260 is embedded within the circuit boards 254, vias or similar mechanisms may be used to couple heat from the electronic devices 212 (e.g., using thermal grease or thermally conductive adhesive) to the thermally conductive layer 260. The thermally conductive layer 260 may in turn be coupled, mechanically and/or thermally to side rails 261 that can be attached to the circuit boards 254 and/or the chassis thermal exchange elements 104, 204, if desired. As noted previously, multiple receiving sections 208 may be used to receive the plurality of electronic devices 212 attached to the circuit boards 254. In some embodiments, an antenna 262 may be coupled to one or more of the plurality of electronic devices 212.
In some embodiments, a system 364 may form a portion of a drilling rig 302 located at the surface 304 of a well 306. The drilling rig 302 may provide support for a drill string 308. The drill string 308 may operate to penetrate a rotary table 310 for drilling a borehole 312 through subsurface formations 314. The drill string 308 may include a Kelly 316, a drill pipe 318, and a bottom hole assembly 320, perhaps located at the lower portion of the drill pipe 318.
The bottom hole assembly 320 may include drill collars 322, perhaps coupled to a downhole tool 324 and/or a drill bit 326. The drill bit 326 may operate to create a borehole 312 by penetrating the surface 304 and subsurface formations 314. The downhole tool 324 may comprise any of a number of different types of tools including MWD (measurement while drilling) tools, LWD (logging while drilling) tools, and others.
During drilling operations, the drill string 308 (perhaps including the Kelly 316, the drill pipe 318, and the bottom hole assembly 320) may be rotated by the rotary table 310. In addition to, or alternatively, the bottom hole assembly 320 may also be rotated by a motor (e.g., a mud motor) that is located downhole. The drill collars 322 may be used to add weight to the drill bit 326. The drill collars 322 also may stiffen the bottom hole assembly 320 to allow the bottom hole assembly 320 to transfer the added weight to the drill bit 326, and in turn, assist the drill bit 326 in penetrating the surface 304 and subsurface formations 314.
During drilling operations, a mud pump 332 may pump drilling fluid (sometimes known by those of skill in the art as “drilling mud”) from a mud pit 334 through a hose 336 into the drill pipe 318 and down to the drill bit 326. The drilling fluid can flow out from the drill bit 326 and be returned to the surface 304 through an annular area 340 between the drill pipe 318 and the sides of the borehole 312. The drilling fluid may then be returned to the mud pit 334, where such fluid is filtered. In some embodiments, the drilling fluid can be used to cool the drill bit 326, as well as to provide lubrication for the drill bit 326 during drilling operations. Additionally, the drilling fluid may be used to remove subsurface formation 314 cuttings created by operating the drill bit 326.
Thus, it may be seen that in some embodiments the system 364 may include a bottom hole assembly 320, as well as one or more apparatus 300, similar to or identical to the apparatus 100 described above and illustrated in
In some embodiments (e.g., wireline applications), a system 364 may include a tool body 370 to couple to a logging cable 374. The tool body 370 may house an apparatus 300, including one or more chassis heat exchange elements. The logging cable 374 may comprise a wireline (multiple power and communication lines), a mono-cable (a single conductor), and a slick-line (no conductors for power or communications).
A variety of mechanisms can be used to cool the apparatus 300 when it is brought to the surface 306 after operation in the borehole 312. In some cases, it is desirable to remove and replace the apparatus 300 entirely. In others, a charging pump 378 is used. The charge pump 378 may be used to circulate the coolant 122, 222 in the conduit 116, 216 of the apparatus 100, 300 (see
The apparatus 100, chassis heat exchange elements 104, 204, thermal conduits 116, 216, flow rate regulators 120, 220, coolant 122, 222, processor 124, thermocouples 128, feedback and control system 130, fluid expansion compensator 152, receiving sections 208, electronic devices 212, pump and valve 232, thermally conductive flow disruptive elements 236, heat exchanger 140, material 144, flask 148, circuit boards 254, first and second sides 256, 258, thermally conductive layer 260, side rails 261, antenna 262, drilling rig 302, surface 304, well 306, drill string 308, rotary table 310, borehole 312, subsurface formations 314, Kelly 316, drill pipe 318, bottom hole assembly 320, drill collars 322, downhole tool 324, drill bit 326, mud pump 332, mud pit 334, hose 336, annular area 340, system 364, tool body 370, logging cable 374, and charging pump 378 may all be characterized as “modules” herein. Such modules may include hardware circuitry, and/or one or more processors and/or memory circuits, software program modules, including objects and collections of objects, and/or firmware, and combinations thereof, as desired by the architect of the apparatus 100, 300 and systems 364, and as appropriate for particular implementations of various embodiments of the invention. For example, such modules may be included in a system operation software simulation package, such as an electrical signal simulation package, a power usage and distribution simulation package, a power/heat dissipation simulation package, a signal transmission-reception simulation package, and/or a combination of software and hardware used to simulate the operation of various potential embodiments.
It should also be understood that the apparatus and systems of various embodiments can be used in applications other than for logging, drilling, and downhole operations, and thus, various embodiments are not to be so limited. The illustrations of apparatus 100, 300 and systems 364 are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of various embodiments, and they are not intended to serve as a complete description of all the elements and features of apparatus and systems that might make use of the structures described herein.
Applications that may include the novel apparatus and systems of various embodiments include electronic circuitry used in high-speed computers, communication and signal processing circuitry, modems, processor modules, embedded processors, data switches, and application-specific modules, including multilayer, multi-chip modules. Such apparatus and systems may further be included as sub-components within a variety of electronic systems, such as televisions, cellular telephones, personal computers, spaceflight computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), workstations, radios, video players, vehicles, and others.
In some embodiments, the method 411 may include adjusting a flow rate of the coolant in accordance with the sensed temperature at block 441. Thus, the method 411 may further include, for example, increasing the flow rate in accordance with sensing an increased temperature associated with one or more of the plurality of electronic devices, as well as decreasing the flow rate of the coolant in accordance with sensing a decreased temperature associated with one or more of the plurality of electronic devices at block 445. The flow rate may even be adjusted to a substantially constant flow rate, if desired. The method 411 may also include determining an optimal flow rate (e.g., a rate determined to provide a maximum operational time downhole) associated with the coolant at block 445.
In some embodiments, the method 411 may include adjusting the flow rate of the coolant in accordance with a change in the viscosity of the coolant at block 449. The method 411 may also include adjusting a volume in fluid communication with the conduit to maintain a substantially constant pressure of the coolant at block 453 (e.g., using an expansion valve).
More extensive cooling operations may be conducted in a number of ways, as indicated above. For example, the method 411 may include removing one or more of the apparatus (e.g., similar to or identical to apparatus 100, 300 shown in
In some circumstances, the method 411 may include removably coupling a charging pump to the thermal conduit included in the chassis heat exchange element at block 467, and circulating a second coolant through the thermal conduit (wherein the second coolant has a second temperature substantially less than a first temperature of the original, or first coolant). As noted above, whether or not a second coolant is used to replace the first coolant, the coolant that is in fact circulated by the charging pump may be chilled to speed up the cooling process.
It should be noted that the methods described herein do not have to be executed in the order described, or in any particular order. Any of the activities described above in conjunction with the methods 411 may be simulated, such that software and hardware modules are combined to provide a simulation environment that mimics the behavior of the apparatus 100, 300 and systems 364 in the real world. Moreover, various activities described with respect to the methods identified herein can be executed in serial, parallel, or iterative fashion. For the purposes of this document, the terms “information” and “data” may be used interchangeably. Information, including parameters, commands, operands, and other data, including data in various formats (e.g., time division, multiple access) and of various types (e.g., binary, alphanumeric, audio, video), can be sent and received in the form of one or more carrier waves.
Upon reading and comprehending the content of this disclosure, one of ordinary skill in the art will understand the manner in which a software program can be launched from a computer-readable medium in a computer-based system to execute the functions defined in the software program. One of ordinary skill in the art will further understand the various programming languages that may be employed to create one or more software programs designed to implement and perform the methods disclosed herein. The programs may be structured in an object-orientated format using an object-oriented language such as Java or C++. Alternatively, the programs can be structured in a procedure-orientated format using a procedural language, such as assembly or C. The software components may communicate using any of a number of mechanisms well-known to those skilled in the art, such as application program interfaces or inter-process communication techniques, including remote procedure calls. The teachings of various embodiments are not limited to any particular programming language or environment. Thus, other embodiments may be realized, as shown in
Other actions may include indicating the temperature, determining an optimal flow rate associated with the coolant, and perhaps increasing the flow rate in accordance with sensing an increased temperature associated with one or more of the plurality of electronic devices, or decreasing the flow rate of the coolant in accordance with sensing a decreased temperature associated with one or more of the plurality of electronic devices. The flow rate of the coolant may even be adjusted to a substantially constant flow rate. In some embodiments, actions may include adjusting a volume of the coolant to maintain a substantially constant coolant pressure.
Implementing the apparatus, systems, and methods described herein may provide a mechanism to increase the operational time of electronic devices used in downhole applications. The use of less expensive, more widely available components that tolerate lower operational temperatures may also be enabled.
The accompanying drawings that form a part hereof, show by way of illustration, and not of limitation, specific embodiments in which the subject matter may be practiced. The embodiments illustrated are described in sufficient detail to enable those skilled in the art to practice the teachings disclosed herein. Other embodiments may be utilized and derived therefrom, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of this disclosure. This Detailed Description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of various embodiments is defined only by the appended claims, along with the full range of equivalents to which such claims are entitled.
Such embodiments of the inventive subject matter may be referred to herein, individually and/or collectively, by the term “invention” merely for convenience and without intending to voluntarily limit the scope of this application to any single invention or inventive concept if more than one is in fact disclosed. Thus, although specific embodiments have been illustrated and described herein, it should be appreciated that any arrangement calculated to achieve the same purpose may be substituted for the specific embodiments shown. This disclosure is intended to cover any and all adaptations or variations of various embodiments. Combinations of the above embodiments, and other embodiments not specifically described herein, will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reviewing the above description.
The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided to comply with 37 C.F.R. §1.72(b), requiring an abstract that will allow the reader to quickly ascertain the nature of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, it can be seen that various features are grouped together in a single embodiment for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure. This method of disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter lies in less than all features of a single disclosed embodiment. Thus the following claims are hereby incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as a separate embodiment.
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|U.S. Classification||175/17, 166/57|
|Cooperative Classification||H05K7/20281, E21B47/011|
|European Classification||E21B47/01P, H05K7/20D90|
|Jan 6, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STORM, BRUCE H.;FREEMAN, JAMES J;REEL/FRAME:016163/0290;SIGNING DATES FROM 20041103 TO 20041209