US 20060180634 A1
A surgical severing and stapling instrument clamps, suitable for laparoscopic and endoscopic clinical procedures, clamps tissue within an end effector of an elongate channel pivotally opposed by an anvil. An E-beam firing bar moves distally through the clamped end effector to sever tissue and to drive staples on each side of the cut. The E-beam firing bar affirmatively spaces the spaces the anvil from the elongate channel to assure properly formed closed staples, especially when an amount of tissue is clamped that is inadequate to space the end effector. In particular, an upper pin of the firing bar longitudinally moves through an anvil slot and a channel clot is captured between a lower cap and a middle pin of the firing bar to assure a minimum spacing.
1. A surgical instrument comprising:
a handle portion operable to produce a firing motion;
an implement portion responsive to the firing motions from the handle portion, the implement portion comprising:
an elongate channel coupled to the handle portion and including a channel slot,
a staple cartridge received by the elongate channel and incorporating a proximally positioned wedge member aligned to cam upward a driver supporting a staple,
an anvil pivotally coupled to the elongate channel and including an anvil channel,
a firing device including a distally presented cutting edge longitudinally received between the elongate channel and the anvil, an upper member engageable to the anvil channel, a lower member engaging the channel slot, and a middle member operable to actuate the staple cartridge by distally translating the wedge member of the staple cartridge.
2. The surgical instrument of
3. The surgical instrument of
4. The surgical instrument of
5. A surgical instrument comprising:
a handle portion operable to produce a firing motion and a closing motion;
an implement portion responsive to the firing motions from the handle portion and diametrically dimensioned for endo-surgical use, the implement portion comprising:
a shaft coupled to the handle portion operable to separately transfer the firing motion and the closing motion;
an elongate channel coupled to the shaft and including a channel slot,
an anvil pivotally coupled to the elongate channel, responsive to the closing motion from the shaft, and including an anvil channel,
a firing device including a distally presented cutting edge longitudinally received between the elongate channel and the anvil, the firing device configured to affirmatively space the anvil from the elongate channel during longitudinal travel between the anvil and elongate channel.
6. The surgical instrument of
7. The surgical instrument of
8. The surgical instrument of
9. The surgical instrument of
10. The surgical instrument of
11. A surgical instrument, comprising:
a handle means for producing a closing motion and a firing motion;
a clamping means responsive to the closing motion to clamp tissue;
a firing means responsive to the firing motion for vertically spacing the clamping means and for causing severing and stapling of clamped tissue therein.
This is a continuation of prior application Ser. No. 10/443,617, entitled “SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT INCORPORATING AN E-BEAM FIRING MECHISM” to Frederick Shelton IV et al., filed 20 May 2003. AND
Four co-pending and commonly-owned applications filed on even date herewith, the disclosure of each is hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety, these four applications being respectively entitled:
(1) application Ser. No. 10/443,617 entitled “SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT HAVING A SINGLE LOCKOUT MECHANISM FOR PREVENTION OF FIRING” to Frederick E. Shelton IV et al., filed on 20 May 2003; application Ser. No. 10/441,424 entitled “SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT HAVING SEPARATE DISTINCT CLOSING & FIRING SYSTEMS” to Frederick E. Shelton IV et al., filed on 20 May 2003. application Ser. No. 10/441,632, entitled “SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT HAVING A SPENT CARTRIDGE LOCKOUT” to Frederick E. Shelton IV et al., filed on 20 May 2003 and application Ser. No. 10/441,565 entitled “SURGICAL STAPLING INSTRUMENT HAVING A FIRING LOCKOUT FOR AN UNCLOSED ANVIL” to Frederick E. Shelton IV et al., filed on 20 May 2003.
The present invention relates in general to surgical stapler instruments that are capable of applying lines of staples to tissue while cutting the tissue between those staple lines and, more particularly, to improvements relating to stapler instruments and improvements in processes for forming various components of such stapler instruments.
Surgical staplers have been used in the prior art to simultaneously make a longitudinal incision in tissue and apply lines of staples on opposing sides of the incision. Such instruments commonly include a pair of cooperating jaw members that, if the instrument is intended for endoscopic or laparoscopic applications, are capable of passing through a cannula passageway. One of the jaw members receives a staple cartridge having at least two laterally spaced rows of staples. The other jaw member defines an anvil having staple-forming pockets aligned with the rows of staples in the cartridge. The instrument includes a plurality of reciprocating wedges which, when driven distally, pass through openings in the staple cartridge and engage drivers supporting the staples to effect the firing of the staples toward the anvil.
The simultaneous severing of tissue while forming rows of staples on each side of the cut reduces bleeding and simplifies the surgical procedure. However, an appropriate amount of tissue should be clamped between the jaws so that proper staple formation is achieved and so that a cutting member does not bind or otherwise fail to fully cut the clamped tissue.
A stapling and severing instrument that maintains a maximum jaw spacing is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,429,695. In particular, a central knife carrier has an upper shoe that enters an upper passageway through an opening when the upper jaw is closed and has a lower shoe that is received within a lower passageway of the lower jaw. Thus, as the knife carrier is advanced distally, the shoes vertically and laterally position the upper and lower jaws. U.S. Pat. No. 4,429,695 teaches that the shoes are attached to the central knife carrier to resist vertical deflection (opening) of the jaws during ejection and forming of staples. As taught, the forces tend to vertically open the jaws during stapling. However, no mention is made of resisting forces that might be applied to vertically close the jaws. Additionally, this reference teaches that the device described therein is assembled from two separate, unconnected elements that are brought together and clamped onto tissue. The two elements form a device suitable only for an open procedure that has no size limitations.
Increasingly, endoscopic and laparoscopic procedures are preferred over open procedures due to their reduced post-operative recovery times and other advantages. Endoscopic stapling and severing instruments use a long slender jaw member that tends to deflect upwardly when clamped onto thick tissues. On thick tissue, this upward deflection of the free (distal) end of the jaw can cause differences in height of the formed staples as the distal gap between the anvil and cartridge is larger than the proximal gap. To ensure more uniform proximal to distal staple formation, the anvil is frequently cambered or bent inwardly toward the staple cartridge. This camber is better for thick tissue and can cause tighter staple forms at the distal end when used on thin tissue. To overcome this tight distal closure, pins or bumps have been added to the clamping surface of the cartridge adjacent to the distal end of the cartridge. The closure of the anvil onto the pin ensures a minimum gap at the distal end. However, surgeons were concerned about the pins or bumps causing tissue trauma. What is needed is a mechanism for maintaining a minimal gap between the anvil and cartridge and a mechanism for maintaining a maximum gap between the anvil and cartridge.
An example of a surgical stapler suitable for endoscopic applications is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,465,895, which advantageously provides distinct closing and firing actions. Thereby, a clinician is able to close the jaw members upon tissue to position the tissue prior to firing. Once the clinician has determined that the jaw members are properly gripping tissue, the clinician can then fire the surgical stapler, thereby severing and stapling the tissue. The simultaneous severing and stapling avoids complications that may arise when performing such actions sequentially with different surgical tools that respectively only sever or staple.
One specific advantage of being able to close upon tissue before firing is that the clinician is able to verify via an endoscope that a sufficient amount of tissue has been captured between opposing jaws. Otherwise, opposing jaws may be drawn too close together, especially pinching at their distal ends, and thus not effectively forming closed staples in the severed tissue. Moreover, a firing bar that traverses between opposing jaws to sever the tissue and to drive the wedges that drive the staples may encounter resistance due to the pinched opposing jaws.
Thus, while such surgical staplers have been a significant advance in surgical procedures, an opportunity has been recognized for enhancing their effectiveness. In particular, it would be desirable to affirmatively maintain proper spacing between the opposing jaws during firing, both opening and closing deflections. In particular, endoscopic devices need to fit into an access device such a trocar, and must maintain a small shaft diameter. To date, no endoscopic stapling device has been provided that has room for a pair for longitudinal passageways for shoes on a cutter that resists both tensile and compressive jaw loadings.
Furthermore, it is desirable to maintain other advantages of U.S. Pat. No. 5,465,895 to include a wedge sled integral to a staple cartridge, rather than having camming surfaces attached to a cutter. Thereby, fabrication of the cutter is simplified, as is installation of the staple cartridge. Significantly, an integral wedge sled may be designed specifically for each size and application of a staple cartridge, allowing the stapling and severing instrument increased number of uses. In particular, the thickness of the staple cartridge may be based on the desired tissue thickness. Also, the number and spacing of rows of staples may vary.
Consequently, a significant need exists for an improved surgical stapling and severing instrument that maintains proper spacing in its end effector to achieve proper stapling of the severed tissue, yet retains the advantages of a staple cartridge having an integral wedge sled.
The invention overcomes the above-noted and other deficiencies of the prior art by providing a firing mechanism that affirmatively vertically spaces an end effector of a surgical stapling and severing instrument. Thus, the instrument structurally assures adequate spacing to achieve proper stapling, even in instances where too little tissue is clamped in the end effector.
In one aspect of the invention, a surgical instrument includes a handle portion operable to produce a firing motion that actuates an implement portion. This implement portion has an elongate channel that receives a staple cartridge opposed by a pivotally attached anvil. A firing device includes a distally presented cutting edge longitudinally received between the elongate channel and the anvil, an upper member engageable to the anvil channel, a lower member engaging the channel slot, and a middle member operable to actuate the wedge sled, which is integral to the staple cartridge. The middle member advantageously opposes pinching of the end effector, assuring proper staple formation even when an otherwise too small amount of tissue has been clamped.
In another aspect of the invention, a surgical instrument is provided that is suitable for endo-surgical and laparoscopic procedures by have a diametrically sized end effector and shaft of the implement portion. A handle portion produces both a closing motion and firing motion that are transferred distally through the shaft of the implement portion. The firing mechanism responds to the firing motion by engaging both the anvil and the elongate channel to effect severing of clamped tissue and to affirmatively space the anvil and elongate channel to assure proper staple formation.
These and other objects and advantages of the present invention shall be made apparent from the accompanying drawings and the description thereof.
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention, and, together with the general description of the invention given above, and the detailed description of the embodiments given below, serve to explain the principles of the present invention.
Turning to the Drawings, wherein like numerals denote like components throughout the several views,
The surgical and stapling and severing instrument 10 includes a handle portion 20 connected to an implement portion 22, the latter further comprising a shaft 23 distally terminating in the end effector 12. The handle portion 20 includes a pistol grip 24 toward which a closure trigger 26 is pivotally drawn by the clinician to cause clamping, or closing, of the anvil 18 toward the elongate channel 16 of the end effector 12. A firing trigger 28 is farther outboard of the closure trigger 26 and is pivotally drawn by the clinician to cause the stapling and severing of clamped tissue in the end effector 12.
It will be appreciated that the terms “proximal” and “distal” are used herein with reference to a clinician gripping a handle of an instrument. Thus, the end effector 12 is distal with respect to the more proximal handle portion 20. It will be further appreciated that for convenience and clarity, spatial terms such as “vertical” and “horizontal” are used herein with respect to the drawings. However, surgical instruments are used in many orientations and positions, and these terms are not intended to be limiting and absolute.
Closure trigger 26 is actuated first. Once the clinician is satisfied with the positioning of the end effector 12, the clinician may draw back the closure trigger 26 to its fully closed, locked position proximate to the pistol grip 24. Then, the firing trigger 28 is actuated. The firing trigger 28 springedly returns when the clinician removes pressure. A release button 30 when depressed on the proximal end of the handle portion 20 releases any locked closure trigger 26.
A closure sleeve 32 encloses a frame 34, which in turn encloses a firing drive member 36 that is positioned by the firing trigger 28. The frame 34 connects the handle portion 20 to the end effector 12. With the closure sleeve 32 withdrawn proximally by the closure trigger 26 as depicted, the anvil 18 springedly opens, pivoting away from the elongate channel 16 and translating proximally with the closure sleeve 32.
The elongate channel 16 receives a staple cartridge 37 that is responsive to the firing bar 14 to drive staples into forming contact with the anvil 18. It will appreciated that although a readily replaceable staple cartridge 37 is advantageously described herein, a staple cartridge 37 consistent with aspects of the present invention may be permanently affixed or integral to the elongate channel 16, for instance when a larger portion of the end effector 12 is replaced after each firing.
E-Beam Firing Mechanism
With particular reference to
Firing bar 14 also includes a lower most pin, or firing bar cap, 44 that upwardly engages a channel slot 45 in the elongate channel 16, thereby cooperating with the upper pin 38 to draw the anvil 18 and the elongate channel 16 slightly closer together in the event of excess tissue clamped therebetween.
The firing bar 14 advantageously includes a middle pin 46 that passes through a firing drive slot 47 formed in a lower surface of the cartridge 37 and an upward surface of the elongate channel 16, thereby driving the staples therein as described below. The middle pin 46, by sliding against the elongate channel 16, advantageously resists any tendency for the end effector 12 to be pinched shut at its distal end. To illustrate an advantage of the middle pin 46,
Cambered Anvil with Selected Cartridge Gap
The affirmative vertical spacing provided by the E-Beam firing bar 14 is suitable for the limited size available for endoscopic devices. Moreover, the E-Beam firing bar 14 enables fabrication of an anvil 16 with a camber imparting a vertical deflection at its distal end, similar to the position depicted in
The E-Beam firing bar 14 further enables increased applications, especially in combination with a range of configurations of staple cartridges. For instance, a clinician may select a gray staple cartridge yielding a 0.02 mm tissue gap, a white staple cartridge yielding a 0.04 mm tissue gap, a blue cartridge yielding a 0.06 mm tissue gap, or a green cartridge yielding a 0.10 mm tissue gap. The vertical height of each respective staple cartridge in combination with the length of staples and an integral wedge sled (described in more detail below) predetermines this desired tissue thickness with the anvil 18 appropriately vertically spaced by the E-Beam firing bar 14.
With reference to
A rotating knob 60 has a bore 62 extending completely through it for engaging and rotating the implement portion 22 about its longitudinal axis. The rotating knob 60 includes an inwardly protruding boss 64 extending along at least a portion of the bore 62. The protruding boss 64 is received within a longitudinal slot 66-formed at a proximal portion of the closure sleeve 32 such that rotation of the rotating knob 60 effects rotation of the closure sleeve 32. It will be appreciated that the boss 64 further extends through frame 34 and into contact with a portion of the firing drive member 36 to effect their rotation as well. Thus, the end effector 12 (not shown in
A proximal end 68 of the frame 34 passes proximally through the rotating knob 60 and is provided with a circumferential notch 70 that is engaged by opposing channel securement members 72 extending respectively from the base sections 50 and 52. Only the channel securement member 72 of the second base section 52 is shown. The channel securement members 72 extending from the base sections 50, 52 serve to secure the frame 34 to the handle portion 20 such that the frame 34 does not move longitudinally relative to the handle portion 20.
The closure trigger 26 has a handle section 74, a gear segment section 76, and an intermediate section 78. A bore 80 extends through the intermediate section 78. A cylindrical support member 82 extending from the second base section 52 passes through the bore 80 for pivotably mounting the closure trigger 26 on the handle portion 20. A second cylindrical support member 83 extending from the second base section 52 passes through a bore 81 of firing trigger 28 for pivotally mounting on the handle portion 20. A hexagonal opening 84 is provided in the cylindrical support member 83 for receiving a securement pin (not shown) extending from the first base section 50.
A closure yoke 86 is housed within the handle portion 20 for reciprocating movement therein and serves to transfer motion from the closure trigger 26 to the closure sleeve 32. Support members 88 extending from the second base section 52 and securement member 72, which extends through a recess 89 in the yoke 86, support the yoke 86 within the handle portion 20.
A proximal end 90 of the closure sleeve 32 is provided with a flange 92 that is snap-fitted into a receiving recess 94 formed in a distal end 96 of the yoke 86. A proximal end 98 of the yoke 86 has a gear rack 100 that is engaged by the gear segment section 76 of the closure trigger 26. When the closure trigger 26 is moved toward the pistol grip 24 of the handle portion 20, the yoke 86 and, hence, the closure sleeve 32 move distally, compressing a spring 102 that biases the yoke 86 proximally. Distal movement of the closure sleeve 32 effects pivotal translation movement of the anvil 18 distally and toward the elongate channel 16 of the end effector 12 and proximal movement effects closing, as discussed below.
The closure trigger 26 is forward biased to an open position by a front surface 130 interacting with an engaging surface 128 of the firing trigger 28. Clamp first hook 104 that pivots top to rear in the handle portion 20 about a pin 106 restrains movement of the firing trigger 28 toward the pistol grip 24 until the closure trigger 26 is clamped to its closed position. Hook 104 restrains firing trigger 28 motion by engaging a lockout pin 107 in firing trigger 28. The hook 104 is also in contact with the closure trigger 26. In particular, a forward projection 108 of the hook 104 engages a member 110 on the intermediate section 78 of the closure trigger 26, the member 110 being outward of the bore 80 toward the handle section 74. Hook 104 is biased toward contact with member 110 of the closure trigger 26 and engagement with lockout pin 107 in firing trigger 28 by a release spring 112. As the closure trigger 26 is depressed, the hook 104 is moved top to rear, compressing the release spring 112 that is captured between a rearward projection 114 on the hook 104 and a forward projection 116 on the release button 30.
As the yoke 86 moves distally in response to proximal movement of the closure trigger 26, an upper latch arm 118 of the release button 30 moves along an upper surface 120 on the yoke 86 until dropping into an upwardly presented recess 122 in a proximal, lower portion of the yoke 86. The release spring 112 urges the release button 30 outward, which pivots the upper latch arm 118 downwardly into engagement with the upwardly presented recess 122, thereby locking the closure trigger 26 in a tissue clamping position, such as depicted in
The latch arm 118 can be moved out of the recess 122 to release the anvil 18 by pushing the release button 30 inward. Specifically, the upper latch arm 118 pivots upward about pin 123 of the second base section 52. The yoke 86 is then permitted to move proximally in response to return movement of the closure trigger 26.
A firing trigger return spring 124 is located within the handle portion 20 with one end attached to pin 106 of the second base section 52 and the other end attached to a pin 126 on the firing trigger 28. The firing return spring 124 applies a return force to the pin 126 for biasing the firing trigger 28 in a direction away from the pistol grip 24 of the handle portion 20. The closure trigger 26 is also biased away from pistol grip 24 by engaging surface 128 of firing trigger 28 biasing front surface 130 of closure trigger 26.
As the closure trigger 26 is moved toward the pistol grip 24, its front surface 130 engages with the engaging surface 128 on the firing trigger 28 causing the firing trigger 28 to move to its “firing” position. When in its firing position, the firing trigger 28 is located at an angle of approximately 45° to the pistol grip 24. After staple firing, the spring 124 causes the firing trigger 28 to return to its initial position. During the return movement of the firing trigger 28, its engaging surface 128 pushes against the front surface 130 of the closure trigger 26 causing the closure trigger 26 to return to its initial position. A stop member 132 extends from the second base section 52 to prevent the closure trigger 26 from rotating beyond its initial position.
The surgical stapling and severing instrument 10 additionally includes a reciprocating section 134, a multiplier 136 and a drive member 138. The reciprocating section 134 comprises a wedge sled in the implement portion 22 (not shown in
The drive member 138 includes first and second gear racks 141 and 142. A first notch 144 is provided on the drive member 138 intermediate the first and second gear racks 141, 142. During return movement of the firing trigger 28, a tooth 146 on the firing trigger 28 engages with the first notch 144 for returning the drive member 138 to its initial position after staple firing. A second notch 148 is located at a proximal end of the metal drive rod 140 for locking the metal drive rod 140 to the upper latch arm 118 of the release button 30 in its unfired position.
The multiplier 136 comprises first and second integral pinion gears 150 and 152. The first integral pinion gear 150 is engaged with a first gear rack 154 provided on the metal drive rod 140. The second integral pinion gear 152 is engaged with the first gear rack 141 on the drive member 138. The first integral pinion gear 150 has a first diameter and the second integral pinion gear 152 has a second diameter which is smaller than the first diameter.
Because the first gear rack 141 on the drive member 138 and the gear rack 154 on the metal drive rod 140 are engaged with the multiplier 136, movement of the firing trigger 28 causes the metal drive rod 140 to reciprocate between a first reciprocating position, shown in
It will be appreciated that the handle portion 20 is illustrative and that other actuation mechanisms may be employed. For instance, the closing and firing motions may be generated by automated means.
Separate and Distinct Closing and Firing End Effector
The end effector 12 of the surgical stapling and severing instrument 10 is depicted in further detail in
Having a wedge sled 218 integral to the staple cartridge 37 enables a number of flexible design options as compared to incorporating camming surfaces onto a firing bar itself. For instance, a number of different staple cartridges may be selected for use in the instrument 10 with each staple cartridge having a different configuration of rows of staples, each thus having a unique wedge sled configured to contact the middle pin 46 of the firing bar 14 while causing the driving of the staples 222. As another example, the integral wedge sled 218 provides an opportunity for a number of lockout features, described in greater detail in the first and third aforementioned co-pending applications.
The elongate channel 16 has a proximally placed attachment cavity 226 that receives a channel anchoring member 228 on the distal end of the frame 34 for attaching the end effector 12 to the handle portion 20. The elongate channel 16 also has an anvil cam slot 230 that pivotally receives an anvil pivot 232 of the anvil 18. The closure sleeve 32 that encompasses the frame 34 includes a distally presented tab 234 that engages an anvil feature 236 proximate but distal to the anvil pivot 232 on the anvil 18 to thereby effect opening and closing of the anvil 18. The firing drive member 36 is shown as being assembled from the firing bar 14 attached to a firing connector 238 by pins 240, which in turn is rotatingly and proximally attached to the metal drive rod 140. The firing bar 14 is guided at a distal end of the frame by a slotted guide 239 inserted therein.
With particular reference to
In particular, the cartridge body 216 (shown in
In use, the surgical stapling and severing instrument 10 is used as depicted in
With reference to
With reference to
With reference to
While the present invention has been illustrated by description of several embodiments and while the illustrative embodiments have been described in considerable detail, it is not the intention of the applicant to restrict or in any way limit the scope of the appended claims to such detail. Additional advantages and modifications may readily appear to those skilled in the art.
For example, the affirmative spacing of the anvil 18 and elongate channel 16 is achieved in part with two pins 44, 46 on the firing bar 14 engaging opposite sides of a channel slot 47 and a single upper pin 38 entrained within an anvil slot 42. It would consistent with aspects of the invention for the anvil to be captured by opposing pins on either side of a longitudinal slot and/or for an elongate channel to have an internal slot that entrains a lower pin.
For another example, although the E-beam firing beam 14 has advantages for an endoscopically employed surgical severing and stapling instrument 10, a similar E-Beam may be used in other clinical procedures. It is generally accepted that endoscopic procedures are more common than laparoscopic procedures. Accordingly, the present invention has been discussed in terms of endoscopic procedures and apparatus. However, use herein of terms such as “endoscopic”, should not be construed to limit the present invention to a surgical stapling and severing instrument for use only in conjunction with an endoscopic tube (i.e., trocar). On the contrary, it is believed that the present invention may find use in any procedure where access is limited to a small incision, including but not limited to laparoscopic procedures, as well as open procedures.
For yet another example, although an illustrative handle portion 20 described herein is manually operated by a clinician, it is consistent with aspects of the invention for some or all of the functions of a handle portion to be powered (e.g., pneumatic, hydraulic, electromechanical, ultrasonic, etc.). Furthermore, controls of each of these functions may be manually presented on a handle portion or be remotely controlled (e.g., wireless remote, automated remote console, etc.).
As yet an additional example, although a simultaneous stapling and severing instrument is advantageously illustrated herein, it would be consistent with aspects of the invention for stapling to comprise other types of fasteners and attachment techniques.