US 20060197164 A1
An epitaxially deposited source/drain extension may be formed for a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor. A sacrificial layer may be formed and etched away to undercut under the gate electrode. Then a source/drain extension of epitaxial silicon may be deposited to extend under the edges of the gate electrode. As a result, the extent by which the source/drain extension extends under the gate may be controlled by controlling the etching of the sacrificial material. Its thickness and depth may be controlled by controlling the deposition process. Moreover, the characteristics of the source/drain extension may be controlled independently of those of the subsequently formed deep or heavily doped source/drain junction.
1. A field effect transistor comprising:
a doped epitaxial semiconductor material formed over said substrate; and
a gate electrode formed over said doped epitaxial semiconductor material, said doped epitaxial semiconductor material extending under said gate electrode.
2. The transistor of
3. The transistor of
4. The transistor of
5. The transistor of
6. The transistor of
7. The transistor of
This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/692,696, filed on Oct. 24, 2003.
This invention relates generally to metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors.
Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors include a gate that is self-aligned with a source/drain. The source/drain may include a deeper or heavily doped region and a shallower and lightly doped region, sometimes called a tip or source/drain extension.
Gate underlap is the amount by which the source/drain material diffuses under the gate after ion implantation and subsequent heat processing. After implantation, the material that is implanted is exposed to heat which causes the material to move downwardly into the substrate and, to a lesser extent, laterally under the gate. Thus, in a system using an ion implanted source/drain extension, the amount of underdiffusion is determined as a function of junction depth.
It is desirable to have relatively shallow junction depth for the source/drain extension to support smaller transistor dimensions. Usually, in source/drain extension implantation techniques, the minimum tip junction depths are determined by the necessary gate underlap.
The shallower the source/drain extension, generally the shorter the gate lengths that may be utilized without increasing off-state leakage currents. Extension doping under the gate edge is needed to ensure a low resistance path between the inversion layer under the gate and the highly doped source/drain extension region. The low resistance is needed for a high drive currents, which are critical for high circuit switching speeds.
Thus, there is a need for better ways to make source/drain junctions of field effect transistors.
The selective deposition of the sacrificial epitaxial silicon layer 18 may be carried out, for example, using dichlorosilane-based chemistry in a single wafer chemical vapor deposition reactor, such as an Epsilon 3000 epitaxial reactor, available from ASM International NV, Bilthoven, Netherlands. The film may be deposited with gas flows of 150-200 sccm of dichlorosilane, 100-150 sccm of HCl, 20 slm of H2 at 825° C. in a processed pressure of 20 Torr. Under these processing conditions, a deposition rate of 10-15 nanometers per minute may be achieved for silicon on exposed substrate while achieving selectivity to spacer and oxide regions. Other deposition techniques may also be used.
The arrangement shown in
The structure shown in
After spacer formation, a selective wet etch may remove the exposed portions of the epitaxial silicon layer 18 and may continue etching under the gate 16 to achieve the undercut structure shown in
The epitaxial silicon layer 18 may be selectively etched with a variety of hydroxide-based solutions, for example. However, for high selectivity of the undoped or lightly doped layer 18 to the heavily doped substrate 12, relatively mild processing conditions may be employed.
In one embodiment, an aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution in the concentration range of 2 to 10 percent by volume at 20° C. may be used together with sonication. The sonication may be provided by a transducer that dissipates ultra or megasonic energy with a power of 0.5 to 5 watts per cm2 in one embodiment of the present invention. Since the delta doped transistor has a heavily doped region below the undoped region, it may serve as an etch stop layer for the wet etch.
After the wet etch undercut, a doped selective epitaxial silicon layer 50 may be grown. A shallow, highly doped source/drain extension 50 a laterally extends the desired distance under the gate 16 edge and the sidewall spacer 28, as shown in
In forming the P-type MOS (PMOS) transistor, the source/drain extension 50 a and raised source/drain 50 b may be formed by selectively depositing epitaxial boron doped silicon or silicon germanium with a germanium concentration of up to 30 percent, as one example. Under the processing conditions of 100 sccm of dichlorosilane, 20 slm H2, 750-800° C., 20 Torr, 150-200 sccm HCl, diborane flow of 150-200 sccm and GeH4 flow of 150-200 sccm, a highly doped silicon germanium film with a deposition rate of 20 nanometers per minute, a boron concentration of 1E20 cm−3, and a germanium concentration of 20 percent may be achieved in one embodiment. A low resistivity of 0.7-0.9 mOhm-cm results from the high boron concentration of the film.
Low resistivity provide the benefit of high conductivity in the extension and source/drain regions in some embodiments. This lowered resistivity may reduce the external resistance. The larger unit cell of the silicon germanium present in source/drain regions 50 b may exert compressive strain on the channel, which in turn may result in enhanced mobility and transistor performance in some embodiments.
In the N-type transistor (NMOS), the source/drain 50 b and source/drain extension 50 a may be formed using in situ phosphorus doped silicon deposited in one embodiment. The silicon may be deposited selectively under processing conditions of 100 sccm of dichlorosilane, 25-50 sccm HCl, 200-300 sccm of 1 percent PH3 with a H2 gas carrier flow of 20 slm at 750° C. and 20 Torr. A phosphorous concentration of 2E20 cm−3 with a resistivity of 0.4-0.6 mOhm-cm may be achieved in the deposited film in one embodiment.
Thereafter, a second thin spacer 34 may be formed using conventional techniques as shown in
The characteristics of the shallow source/drain extensions 50 a and the degree by which they underlap the gate 16 may be independent of the characteristics of the deep source/drain junction 32. The extent of extension underlap of the gate 16 of the source/drain extension 50 a may be controlled as desired.
While the present invention has been described with respect to a limited number of embodiments, those skilled in the art will appreciate numerous modifications and variations therefrom. It is intended that the appended claims cover all such modifications and variations as fall within the true spirit and scope of this present invention.