US 20060198339 A1
A wireless communication method and system for minimizing severe interference to one or more wireless transmit/receive unit (WTRUs). A plurality of non-overlapping zones (e.g., an inner zone and an outer zone) is defined for each cell of a wireless multi-cell communication system, such as a time division duplex (TDD) system. Information regarding potential conflicts between the non-overlapping cell zones is obtained. Each potential conflict indicates that there is a high likelihood of one of the WTRUs using a specific time slot for transmitting in a zone of one cell causing severe interference to a second one of the WTRUs using the specific time slot for receiving in a zone of another (i.e., a different) cell. Time slot usage (e.g., uplink, downlink or none) is then determined on a zone-by-zone basis using the obtained information to minimize interference caused by a conflicting uplink assignment or a conflicting downlink assignment.
1. A method of minimizing interference in a wireless multi-cell communication system that serves a plurality of wireless transmit/receive units (WTRUs), the method comprising:
(a) defining a plurality of non-overlapping zones in a conflicting zone lookup table for each cell in the system; and
(b) determining time slot usage on a zone-by-zone basis using information obtained from the conflicting zone lookup table to minimize interference caused by a conflicting uplink assignment or a conflicting downlink assignment.
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11. A wireless multi-cell communication system comprising:
(a) a plurality of wireless transmit/receive units (WTRUs);
(b) a plurality of cells, each of the cells having a plurality of non-overlapping zones;
(c) means for defining a plurality of non-overlapping zones in a conflicting zone lookup table for of the cells in the system; and
(d) means for determining time slot usage on a zone-by-zone basis using information obtained from the conflicting zone lookup table to minimize interference caused by a conflicting uplink assignment or a conflicting downlink assignment.
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This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/334,459 filed Dec. 30,2002, which issued as U.S. Pat. No. 7,046,655 on May 16, 2006, which in turn claims priority from Provisional application No. 60/403,685 filed Aug. 15, 2002, which are incorporated by reference as if fully set forth.
The present invention relates generally to radio communication systems using the time division duplexing (TDD) mode. More particularly, the invention relates to assignment of slots and slot-to-cell assignments in radio communication systems using TDD.
Cellular systems generally divide the time axis into intervals of equal durations called frames. Cellular systems employing the TDD scheme divide frames into a finite number of intervals of equal duration, called slots, and allow a cell to use some or all of the slots for uplink transmissions (mobile-to-base) or downlink (base-to-mobile) transmissions. The slot assignment of a cell defines how each slot is used by this cell. There are three possible ways for a cell to use a slot: 1) uplink transmissions; 2) downlink transmissions; or 3) the slot is not used.
The slot assignment of a cell can be varied by the system in order to adapt to the long-term variations of the traffic load. For example, the system may modify the assignment of one slot from uplink to downlink if the intensity of downlink traffic increases while the uplink traffic decreases. In addition, different cells of a system do not generally need to have the same slot assignment. Accordingly, if traffic characteristics in one geographical area are different from another area, the cells covering those areas may have different slot assignments to best adapt to local traffic conditions.
In the prior art, a simple approach in order to avoid base-to-base and mobile-to-mobile interference is to use the same slot assignment for all cells in the same geographic area; only allowing different assignments between cells that are clearly isolated from each other. The obvious disadvantage of this approach is when cells are deployed in a way to provide continuous coverage, as is often the case, it is difficult to segregate one subset of cells from another, unless the use of certain slots are completely disallowed in some cells. This ultimately results in a capacity loss of the system.
Therefore, both mobile-to-mobile and base-to-base interference restrict the use of independent slot assignments between cells in the same geographical area. What is needed is a system which avoids the loss of capacity as the traffic asymmetry metric varies over a coverage area.
The present invention is related to a wireless communication method and system for minimizing severe interference to one or more wireless transmit/receive unit (WTRUs). A plurality of non-overlapping zones are defined for each cell of a wireless multi-cell communication system, such as a TDD system. Information regarding potential conflicts between the non-overlapping cell zones is obtained. Each potential conflict indicates that there is a high likelihood of one of the WTRUs using a specific time slot for transmitting in a zone of one cell causing severe interference to a second one of the WTRUs using the specific time slot for receiving in a zone of another (i.e., a different) cell. Time slot usage (e.g., uplink, downlink or none) is then determined on a zone-by-zone basis using the obtained information to minimize interference caused by a conflicting uplink assignment or a conflicting downlink assignment. In one embodiment, the location of a WTRU is tracked by determining whether the WTRU is located in an inner or outer zone of a particular cell.
A more detailed understanding of the invention may be had from the following description of a preferred embodiment, given by way of example and to be understood in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:
The present invention will be described with reference to the drawing figures wherein like numerals represent like elements throughout.
Although the present invention will be described with reference to the example shown in
As illustrated in
The method and system of the present invention permit two neighboring cells to use conflicting slot assignments (i.e., a slot is used for the uplink in one cell but for the downlink in the neighboring cell) based on the concept of “zones.” A zone is a subdivision of a cell defined by the system operator. Cells are divided in a certain number of (non-overlapping) zones. Two zones (belonging to different cells) are defined to be conflicting with each other if there is a high likelihood that a first WTRU transmitting in one zone would cause severe interference to a second WTRU receiving in the second zone. The determination of whether two zones are conflicting with each other can be made by analysis of the cell layout. Alternatively, one could envision a more sophisticated scheme based on collecting measurements made by WTRUs.
Although the method of determining conflicting zones will be described with reference to
Having determined the conflicting zones, the physical resources can now be used more flexibly and efficiently. For example, suppose that it is desired that a given slot (S) be used for the uplink in cell A and in the downlink in cell B. Such a situation can happen if, for example, cell B has more downlink traffic than cell A. Without using the concept of zones, it would be difficult for cell A and cell B to use slot S in different directions. This is because a WTRU of cell A transmitting in slot S near the border of cell B would create too much interference to WTRUs receiving in slot S in cell B. However, when the concept of zones is used this problem is surmounted in the following way. Slot S can be used by some WTRUs of both cells A and B, provided that it is not used simultaneously by two WTRUs in conflicting zones. For example, suppose that zone A3 on
In the description of
Given the framework of slot usage defined by the SDCA process, when a WTRU connects to the system it is allocated at least one downlink channel in one or more of the slots which can be used for the downlink in the zone where it is located. It is also allocated at least one uplink channel in one or more of the slots that can be used for the uplink. Whenever a WTRU moves to another zone, the system checks if the channel allocation needs to be changed, a problem situation which can occur if the slot(s) used by this WTRU are no longer allowed in a given direction in the new zone it is moving in. This can be achieved by the fast dynamic channel allocation (FDCA) process. Therefore, there is no need to re-consult the conflicting zone lookup table every time a WTRU moves to a new zone. Rather, each zone is associated with a possible usage, uplink, downlink or none for every slot which is determined by the slow DCA based on the lookup table. The system uses this slot usage information when it is time to assign channels to a WTRU. The system then makes the appropriate non-interfering uplink and downlink slot assignments.
Another advantage of the present invention is the use of slot allocation to affect load balancing. Referring to
In an alternative embodiment in accordance with the present invention, a simple zone division scheme is used. A cell is separated into two zones as shown in
In one embodiment, the system determines both the cell in which the WTRU 28 is located and whether the WTRU is in an inner zone 22 or the outer zone 21. First measurements of the signal delay and the received signal power are performed. This allows the determination of whether WTRU 28 is located in the inner or outer zone. The example in
Another method to determine location utilizes additional nearby base stations or other WTRU. However, because a WTRU requires constant tracking as it traverses the coverage area, there is a need for continuous system participation and coordination of the other base stations and WTRUs causing this to be a very resource intensive technique
An additional technique to determine the location utilizes global positioning satellites of a Global Positioning System (GPS). A GPS receiver is put in each WTRU to identify the location of the WTRU. The coordinates are reported by the WTRU to the base station and the system uses the coordinates as aforementioned. However, there are some disadvantages with this option. The first is the need for the WTRU to be in a favorable position allowing it to properly receive the satellite signals (outdoors). Also, since the measurement is performed by the WTRU, the WTRU needs to constantly transmit location information to the system, which increases the signaling burden over the air interface and utilizes precious battery resources.
The consistency and accuracy of zone location is improved with adaptive antennas. The location measurements including inclination angle and signal level readings are employed to determine the position the WTRU. An advantage to adaptive antennas is that a position is obtained without the need of measurements from any other base stations or WTRUs. Therefore, adaptive antennas provide an efficient and independent means for tracking WTRUs.
The cellular system has two types of interference to cope with, the first is base-to-base interference and can occur when a first base station's downlink is another base station's uplink and the uplink base station receives the other base station's downlink, which impedes or degrades the intended uplink signal. The second type of interference that can occur in the cellular system (mobile-to-mobile interference) occurs when a first mobile's reception is impeded or degraded by another mobile's transmission.
Adaptive antennas can be placed at the base station, on the WTRUs or at both the base station and the WTRUs. The performance of the zone division scheme depends on basically two factors: 1) the effectiveness (i.e. reliability and convenience) with which one can determine the zone where a user is situated and the ability to track a moving user; 2) the size of the neighborhoods of the zones. The neighborhood of zone Z is defined as the set of other zones in other cells that conflict with zone Z. This means that the entries corresponding to Z and any zone belonging to the neighborhood of Z should be checked in the lookup table of
The use of zones for slot allocation requires locating the WTRU with reasonable certainty. As the accuracy of the WTRU positioning is increased, it is possible to define a larger number of zones per cell, resulting in higher flexibility and increased efficiency of the system.
A small neighborhood is one defined as one with a small number of zones. This means that for every zone, there is a relatively small number of other zones that are conflicting with it. Thus, there are fewer constraints, which allow for more flexibility in the determination of the slot usage for every zone. This allows for the greatest flexibility in terms of assigning different proportions of uplink versus downlink traffic for different cells. Therefore, any scheme that tends to restrict the size of neighborhoods results in a gain of flexibility.
When two zones are conflicting with each other, this may be due to one or both of the following:
The size of neighborhood depends of several factors, such as the specific geography of deployment or the propagation conditions present. If the mobiles are equipped with adaptive antennas, the neighborhood of a zone may be restricted to fewer zones. In the best case scenarios, a neighborhood can even be limited to only one or two zones, if the deployment is such that there are few scatterers around the mobiles. This is because the probability of mobile-to-mobile interference diminishes when mobiles are transmitting using narrow beams. Similarly, when adaptive antennas are used at the base station, the sizes of the neighborhoods should be reduced for the same reason.
In another embodiment the transmission power of mobiles is taken into account. The transmitted power is regarded as an important factor and influences the size of a neighborhood. If a zone Z is geographically defined as being close to the base station, any WTRUs transmitting in that zone will tend to transmit at a lower power level since they are closer to the base station and will need less power than other WTRUs that are further away. They per se generate less interference than other WTRUs and are less susceptible to the affect of other mobiles that would be receiving in the same timeslot. As a result, the number of zones that are conflicting with this zone Z tends to be smaller. In other words, a neighborhood of a zone close to the serving base station will normally be smaller than the neighborhood of a zone closer to the edge of the cell.
As stated above, mobiles normally transmit at a lower power when they are closer to their serving base station. But, with the advent of new high data rate cellular technology, an increase in power is often necessary to facilitate high data rate exchange at both the mobile and the base station. To accommodate the higher data rates, the WTRUs and the serving base station will have to increase transmission power, even if the WTRU is close to the serving base station. Therefore, it may be necessary to define service-dependent neighborhoods.
For example, it may be possible that two zones which are not conflicting with each other if the WTRUs are using the voice service or a low-rate service, but they would be conflicting if the WTRUs were using a high-rate service, for example a data rate of 384 kbps. In that case, a WTRU could be allowed to use a certain slot in a given zone only if it is using a low-rate service.
Although the present invention has been described in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, and that various changes can be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which is defined by the attached claims.