US 20060213522 A1
Contraceptive intrauterine devices made of thin film shape memory alloy materials. The devices are formed in three-dimensional shapes which contact uterus tissue of a human or other mammal to prevent conception. In certain embodiments, structural features such as tails, fenestrations, ridges or grooves are formed on the devices to enhance the contraceptive effect.
1. A method of preventing conception in a human or other mammal comprising the steps of providing an intrauterine device comprised of a thin film of shape memory alloy material, and placing the device in the uterus of the human or other mammal.
2. A method as in
3. An intrauterine device for use in the uterus of a human or other mammal, the device comprising a thin film formed of a shape memory alloy material that is characterized in having a crystalline phase change transformation temperature by which the film changes from an elastic phase shape when the material is below the temperature to a memory shape when the material is above the temperature, the elastic phase shape being sufficient to enable insertion of the device into the uterus, and the memory shape being sufficient to enable contact of at least a portion of the thin film with a wall of the uterus to prevent conception.
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This application claims the benefit under 35 USC §119(e) of U.S. provisional application serial No. 60/402,418 filed Aug. 8, 2002 and is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/638,282 filed Aug. 7, 2003.
1.0 Field of Invention
This invention relates to contraceptive intrauterine devices (IUDs) and methods of preventing conception.
2.0 Description of the Related Art
Reproductive medicine is lagging in contraception technologies at a time when the world population is about to include the largest proportion of people of reproductive age ever. This invention introduces Nitinol thin film, a recent major advancement in material science and micro-electro-mechanic technology, to help resolve longstanding limitations in existing contraceptive intrauterine devices.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are objects inserted into the uterus to prevent conception. Introducing an object into the uterus for birth control is an ancient discovery that has evolved to become the modern IUD. The use of such devices is based on the fact that the presence of a foreign object in the uterus discourages conception. IUDs have been invented of numerous and varied solid shapes and configurations. The most well known shapes are the ring, the “S”, the coil or spiral, the “T” and the “T” with its transversal arms bent down. These devices are configured to occupy a significant portion of the uterine fundus in order to prevent expulsion through the cervical os, a lumen of a few millimeters in diameter.
Existing IUDs are most commonly inserted using an insertion tube and a complementary plunger. Prior to insertion, the extended arms of the “T” are manually inserted into the upper end of the insertion tube The tube is of sufficient diameter and malleability to constrain the extended arms of the device in a folded position during insertion. The loaded tube is pushed through the cervical os into the uterine cavity. When the desired position is achieved, the tube is withdrawn to release the IUD while the inner plunger is manually held stationary. Withdrawal of the insertion tube allows the arms of the “T” to unfold inside the uterus.
The required manual placement of the IUD in the insertion tube is disadvantageous because it is cumbersome, time consuming, and increases the possibilities of compromising the sterile field. Moreover, where the IUD must be positioned by human manipulation, there exists a hazard of erroneous placement that could reduce contraceptive effectiveness and may be a source of injury to the patient. Approximately 1 in 500 insertions of existing rigid IUDs cause perforation.
IUDs of some configurations must be positioned in the insertion tube by drawing back on the “tail,” i.e., the string attached to the IUD for removal from the uterus. Such a method, however, is undesirable for an IUD having a “T” configuration since the arms would be drawn upwards. In some devices the folding of the IUD or placement in the insertion tube occurs after the initial placement of the insertion tube in the uterus, resulting in less control on placement position.
Attempts have been made to reduce the size of convention solid IUDs to allow use by younger women, but reducing size and surface area result in a less effective contraceptive and an increased rate of expulsion. The challenges in adapting these devices for use by nulliparous women include reducing size to reduce trauma and adverse reactions, while maintaining a large enough inert or medicated surface area to maximize effectiveness and a size sufficient to resist expulsion. These problems have limited the use of existing IUDs, especially in younger women.
The use of Nitinol is already well established in other areas of medicine and thin film devices are being developed to replace or expand these applications. For example, thin film devices are successfully used in neuro- and neurovascular surgery, where miniaturization, flexibility, and compliance are imperative to reach small vessels and to remove clots and block aneurisms.
It is a general object of the invention to provide a new and improved reversible contraceptive device and method for intrauterine use in humans and other mammals
Another object to provide a device and method of use of the type described which is relatively smaller, safer, less intrusive, easier to insert and remove, more comfortable, and less expensive to manufacture than currently available IUDs.
In its general concept, the invention provides contraceptive IUD devices, and methods of use, made from thin-film, shape memory alloy materials exhibiting superplasticity and shape memory at the internal body temperatures of humans and other mammals.
The contraceptive devices of the invention are comprised of thin films of a shape memory alloy (SMA), such as TiNi (also known as Nitinol). TiNi thin film is ˜5 microns thick and has shape memory at human body temperature. At lower temperatures, the material is in its martensitic state, is highly ductile, and can withstand large deformations. At higher temperatures, such as that of the human body, the material undergoes a phase transformation to a more rigid austenitic state in which it is not easily deformed.
The contraceptive thin film IUD is a micro-fabricated three-dimensional object.
Micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) techniques developed recently at TiNi Alloy Co permit the fabrication of seamless thin film three-dimensional structures that were impossible to fabricate in the past. Since this TiNi alloy film has a “body temperature phase transformation”, then once inserted and released into the uterine cavity (temperatures ˜37° C.), the thin film contraceptive expands within the uterus so that the film makes contact with the uterine walls with sufficient force to maintain its predetermined shape. The inherent elasticity of the thin film will also enable it to comply and move with the walls during contraction and relaxation of the uterine muscles.
By virtue of the characteristics of TiNi shape memory alloy, the IUD can be folded or rolled at low temperatures and introduced into the uterus within a very narrow tube, i.e. a catheter of less than 1 mm diameter. Once inside the uterus, the contraceptive foil is released from the catheter. The inherent properties of the shape memory alloy allow the IUD to automatically unfold and adopt a desired shape. The thin film contraceptive IUD can be manufactured, sterilized and pre-packed inside a catheter, minimizing contamination risks. The thin film IUDs can be micro-fabricated with appendages or tails. These would not be placed extracervically but would remain inside the uterus or cervix. Material for adding radio-opaque features to the contraceptive can also be used. A comparison between a regular IUD insertion tube and that used for a thin film contraceptive device is illustrated in
Fabrication of the Device
In the invention three-dimensional shapes of thin films are fabricated using the general teachings of Busch et. al. U.S. Pat. No. 5,061,914, the disclosure of which is incorporated by this reference. Multiple layers of TiNi thin film and sacrificial material are sputter deposited sequentially on a polished and oxidized silicon wafer. The sacrificial material can be chromium, aluminum, copper, or TiCuSil, a material obtained through Wesgo Metals. Chromium is preferentially used as a sacrificial layer.
A thin chromium layer is sputter deposited on the oxidized silicon wafer using RF sputtering at argon pressure of about 2 milliTorr. The thickness of the deposited thin film can be 500 A or more. A thin layer of TiNi is sputter deposited on top of the chromium layer using DC sputtering at an argon pressure of about 2 milliTorr. The thickness of the deposited TiNi layer can be from 1 to 40 microns. A thin chromium layer is then sputter deposited on top of the device layer. Typical thickness of this layer is about 1000 A. This layer acts as a protective layer for the underlying TiNi layer during subsequent lithography steps and provides a sacrificial layer that in the final steps of fabrication is dissolved away chemically in order to selectively create a pocket between the two device layers.
Three-dimensional thin film shapes as shown in
Micro-photolithography techniques are then followed. A thin layer of positive photo resist liquid is spin-coated on the above wafer at about 4000 rpm and baked at 90° C. in a clean room convection oven. Using an ultraviolet light mask aligner, the wafer and mask1 are aligned and the photo resist layer is UV exposed though the mask plate which transfers the patterns from mask1 on to the photo resist layer. The wafer with exposed photo resist is immersed in developer solution to selectively remove the exposed sections of the photo resist thus creating windows in the photo resist layer on the wafer. When immersed in a chemical etchant, these windows in the photo resist allow for the selective etching of the chromium layer. After patterning, the photo resist layer is chemically dissolved away by immersing in a solvent.
The wafer is loaded back into the sputtering chamber that is taken to high vacuum. In the chamber, the top exposed surface is sputter-etched to remove any contamination. Sputter-etch is a process similar to sputtering except that in the case of sputter-etch the argon ions are accelerated to the substrate surface rather than the target surface. Highly energetic argon ions when operated in “sputter-etch” mode also remove the undesired thin native oxide layer on the surface, which may have formed during the lithography process. Following sputter-etch, another layer of TiNi film followed by another layer of chromium are sputter deposited on the substrate. The resulting TiNi film is heat-treated at 500° C. in vacuum for crystallization so that the material exhibits the properties of shape memory and superelasticity.
Photo resist is spin coated again to pattern the layers with designs in mask2 using the photolithography steps described above. In this step, after etching the top chromium layer, the underlying TiNi layers are also chemically etched with the same mask design in order to define the device's outer features. This is followed by the complete removal of the photo resist layer. To separate the devices from the surface of the substrate, the whole wafer with patterned layers is immersed in a chemical etchant to completely dissolve the sacrificial layer. The etchant for this purpose should etch the sacrificial material selective to the device layer. This etching not only separates the devices from the substrate surface but also selectively creates an empty pocket between the two TiNi layers by etching away the chromium layer from between.
A pattern of fenestrations 14 (
The released multi-layered thin film devices from the above steps are in planar form which may be of various size and shapes: triangular, rectangular, semicircular etc. These multi-layered thin film devices may then be transformed into their corresponding three-dimensional shapes 12 (
In planar deposition of TiNi to produce three-dimensional structures, multiple layers, are deposited by planar sputtering, with intermediate sacrificial layers patterned selectively, producing structures that can be opened to produce cones, cylinders, and other shapes. Multiple alternating layers of TiNi film and Cr sacrificial layers are applied by sputtering alternatively from a TiNi target, patterning, depositing a sacrificial layer from a Cr target, patterning a second time, and depositing a second TiNi layer. The number of TiNi layers is not limited to two: more complex structures may be formed by iteration of this sequence.
During fabrication of three-dimensional nitinol thin film structures, a metal such as copper is added as an integral part of the device. This is accomplished either by electroplating or by sputter deposition depending on the design of the finished film contraceptive product. The tails 16 (or strings, ribbons etc.) can be formed in the device as integral features rather than attached or welded onto it. The tails can function as features for retrieval of the device, similar to the regular IUD tail, or as the medicated or contraceptive agent (copper) carrier.