Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20060264623 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/403,763
Publication dateNov 23, 2006
Filing dateApr 13, 2006
Priority dateApr 15, 2005
Publication number11403763, 403763, US 2006/0264623 A1, US 2006/264623 A1, US 20060264623 A1, US 20060264623A1, US 2006264623 A1, US 2006264623A1, US-A1-20060264623, US-A1-2006264623, US2006/0264623A1, US2006/264623A1, US20060264623 A1, US20060264623A1, US2006264623 A1, US2006264623A1
InventorsGraeme Smith, Niall Martin, Keith Menear, Marc Hummersone, Xiao-Ling Cockcroft, Mark Frigerio, Roger Griffin, Bernard Golding, Ian Hardcastle, David Newell, Hilary Calvert, Nicola Curtin, Marine Desage-El Murr
Original AssigneeKudos Pharmaceuticals Limited, Cancer Research Technology Limited
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
DNA-PK inhibitors
US 20060264623 A1
Abstract
Compounds of formula l: wherein A, B and D are respectively selected from the group consisting of: (i) CH, NH, C; (ii) CH, N, N;and (iii) CH, O, C; are disclosed for use in inhibiting DNA-PK.
Images(40)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(14)
1. A compound of formula I:
and isomers, salts, solvates, chemically protected forms, and prodrugs thereof, wherein:
A, B and D are respectively selected from the group consisting of:
(i) CH, NH, C;
(ii) CH, N, N;and
(iii) CH, O, C;
the dotted lines represent two double bonds in the appropriate locations; RN1 and RN2 are independently selected from hydrogen, an optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl group, C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or C5-20 aryl group, or may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms;
Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6, together with the carbon atom to which they are bound, form an aromatic ring;
Z2 is selected from the group consisting of CR2, N, NH, S, and O; Z3 is CR3; Z4 is selected from the group consisting of CR4, N, NH, S, and O; Z5 is a direct bond, or is selected from the group consisting of O, N, NH, S, and CH; Z6 is selected from the group consisting of O, N, NH, S, and CH;
R2 is H;
R3 is selected from halo or optionally substituted C5-20 aryl;
R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, NO2, NH2 and Q-Y—X, where
Q is —NH—C(═O)— or —O—;
Y is an optionally substituted C1-5 alkylene group;
X is selected from SRS1 or NRN3RN4, wherein,
RS1, or RN3 and RN4 are independently selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl, C5-20 aryl, or C3-20 heterocyclyl groups, or RN3 and RN4 may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms;
if Q is —O—, X may additionally be selected from —C(═O)—NRN5RN6, wherein RN5 and RN6 are independently selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl, C5-20 aryl, or C3-20 heterocyclyl groups, or RN5 and RN6 may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms and
if Q is —NH—C(═O)—, —Y—X may be additionally selected from C1-7 alkyl.
2. A compound according to claim 1, wherein Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6, together with the carbon atom to which they are bound, form a substituted aryl group selected from substituted phenyl, thiophenyl, furanyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, isothiazolyl.
3. A compound according to claim 2, wherein Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6, together with the carbon atom to which they are bound form a group selected from substituted phenyl, thiazolyl, thiophenyl, or pyridyl.
4. A compound according to claim 1, wherein R3 is selected from C5 heteroaryl, pyridyl and phenyl.
5. A compound according to claim 1, wherein Z2 is CR2, Z3 is CR3, Z4 is CR4 and Z5 and Z6 are both CH.
6. A compound according to claim 5, wherein R3 is unsubstituted phenyl, RN1 and RN2 form a morpholino group and R4 is not H.
7. A compound according to claim 1, wherein R4 is Q-Y—X.
8. A compound according to claim 7, wherein Q is —NH—C(═O)— and X is NRN3RN4.
9. A compound according to claim 7, wherein Q is —O—, X is NRN3RN4, and Y is an optionally substituted C1-3 alkylene group.
10. A compound according to claim 1, wherein RN1 and RN2 form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 atoms.
11. A compound according to claim 1, wherein RN1 and RN2 form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a group selected from morpholino and thiomorpholino.
12. A composition comprising a compound according to claim 1, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
13. A method of treatment of a subject suffering from a disease ameliorated by the inhibition of DNA-PK, comprising administering to said subject a compound according to claim 1.
14. A method of inhibiting DNA-PK in vitro or in vivo, comprising contacting a cell with an effective amount of a compound according to claim 1.
Description
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to compounds which act as DNA-PK inhibitors, their use and synthesis.
  • [0002]
    The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated upon association with DNA. Biochemical and genetic data have revealed this kinase to be composed of a large catalytic subunit, termed DNA-PKcs, and a regulatory component termed Ku. DNA-PK has been shown to be a crucial component of both the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair machinery and the V(D)J recombination apparatus. In addition, recent work has implicated DNA-PK components in a variety of other processes, including the modulation of chromatin structure and telomere maintenance (Smith, G. C. M. and Jackson, S. P.,Genes and Dev., 13, 916-934 (1999)).
  • [0003]
    DNA DSBs are regarded as the most lethal lesion a cell can encounter. To combat the serious threats posed by DNA DSBs, eukaryotic cells have evolved several mechanisms to mediate their repair. In higher eukaryotes, the predominant of these mechanisms is DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), also known as illegitimate recombination. DNA-PK plays a key role in this pathway. Increased DNA-PK activity has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo and correlates with the resistance of tumour cells to IR and bifunctional alkylating agents (Muller C., et al., Blood, 92, 2213-2219 (1998), Sirzen F., et al., Eur. J. Cancer, 35, 111-116 (1999)). Therefore, increased DNA-PK activity has been proposed as a cellular and tumour resistance mechanism. Hence, inhibition of DNA-PK with a small molecule inhibitor may prove efficacious in tumours where over-expression is regarded as a resistance mechanism.
  • [0004]
    It also has been previously found that the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002:
  • [0005]
    is able to inhibit DNA-PK function in vitro (Izzard, R. A., et al., Cancer Res., 59, 2581-2586 (1999)). The IC50 (concentration at which 50% of enzyme activity is lost) for LY294002 towards DNA-PK is, at ˜1 μM, the same as that for PI 3-kinase. Furthermore it has been shown that LY294002 is also able to weakly sensitise cells to the effects of IR (Rosenzweig, K. E., et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3, 1149-1156 (1999)).
  • [0006]
    WO 03/024949 describes a number of classes of compounds useful as DNA-PK inhibitors, including 2-amino-chromen-4-ones of the general structure:
  • [0007]
    of which:
  • [0008]
    was one example. This compound exhibited an IC50 of 0.76 μM and an SER of 1.5 (500 nM) (see below for methods).
  • [0009]
    Other examples of DNA-PK inhibitors include 1(2-hydroxy-4-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethanone (Kashishian, A., et al., Mol. Cancer Ther, 2, 1257-1264 (2003)):
  • [0010]
    and SU11752 (Ismail, I. H., et al., Oncogene, 23, 873-882 (2004))
  • [0011]
    Given the involvement of DNA-PK in DNA repair processes, and that small molecule inhibitors have been shown to radio- and chemo-sensitise mammalian cells in culture, an application of specific DNA-PK inhibitory drugs would be to act as agents that will enhance the efficacy of both cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. DNA-PK inhibitors may also prove useful in the treatment of retroviral mediated diseases. For example it has been demonstrated that loss of DNA-PK activity severely represses the process of retroviral integration (Daniel R, et al., Science, 284, 644-7 (1999)).
  • [0012]
    The present inventors have now discovered further compounds which exhibit similar or improved levels of DNA-PK inhibition, whilst possessing other useful properties for use as active pharmaceuticals, in particular improved solubility and cellular efficacy.
  • [0013]
    Accordingly, the first aspect of the invention provides a compound of formula l:
  • [0014]
    and isomers, salts, solvates, chemically protected forms, and prodrugs thereof, wherein: A, B and D are respectively selected from the group consisting of:
  • [0015]
    (i) CH, NH, C;
  • [0016]
    (ii) CH, N, N;and
  • [0017]
    (iii) CH, 0, C;
  • [0018]
    the dotted lines represent two double bonds in the appropriate locations; RN1 and RN2 are independently selected from hydrogen, an optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl group, C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or C5-20 aryl group, or may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms;
  • [0019]
    Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6, together with the carbon atom to which they are bound, form an aromatic ring;
  • [0020]
    Z2 is selected from the group consisting of CR2, N, NH, S, and O; Z3 is CR3; Z4 is selected from the group consisting of CR4, N, NH, S, and O; Z5 is a direct bond, or is selected from the group consisting of O, N, NH, S, and CH; Z6 is selected from the group consisting of O, N, NH, S, and CH;
  • [0021]
    R2 is H;
  • [0022]
    R3 is selected from halo or optionally substituted C5-20 aryl;
  • [0023]
    R4 is selected from the group consisting of H, OH, NO2, NH2 and Q-Y—X, where Q is —NH—C(═O)— or —O—;
  • [0024]
    Y is an optionally substituted C1-5 alkylene group;
  • [0025]
    X is selected from SRS1 or NRN3RN4, wherein,
  • [0026]
    RS1, or RN3 and RN4 are independently selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl, C5-20 aryl, or C3-20 heterocyclyl groups, or RN3 and RN4 may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms;
  • [0027]
    if Q is —O—, X may additionally be selected from —C(═O)—NRN5RN6, wherein RN5 and RN6 are independently selected from hydrogen, optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl, C5-20 aryl, or C3-20 heterocyclyl groups, or RN5 and RN6 may together form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms and
  • [0028]
    if Q is —NH—C(═O)—, —Y—X may be additionally selected from C1-7 alkyl.
  • [0029]
    Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are selected such that the group they form including the carbon atom to which Z2 and Z6 are bound is aromatic.
  • [0030]
    In some embodiments of the present invention, the compounds of the first aspect may be compounds of formula II or more particularly formula IIa, in which Z2 is CR2, Z3 is CR3, Z4 is CR4 and Z5 and Z6 are both CH:
  • [0031]
    wherein A, B, D, RN1, RN2, R2, R3 and R4 are as described above. In these particular embodiments, if R3 is unsubstituted phenyl, and RN1 and RN2 form a morpholino group, R4 is not H.
  • [0032]
    The options for A, B and D result in compounds of the following formulae, where Ar represents the aromatic ring formed by Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6:
    Formula A B D Structure
    Ia CH NH C
    Ib CH N N
    Ic CH O C
  • [0033]
    A second aspect of the invention provides a composition comprising a compound of the first aspect and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.
  • [0034]
    A third aspect of the invention provides a compound of the first aspect for use in a method of therapy.
  • [0035]
    A fourth aspect of the invention provides for the use of a compound of the first aspect in the preparation of a medicament for treating a disease ameliorated by the inhibition of DNA-PK.
  • [0036]
    It is preferred that the medicament of the fourth aspect selectivity inhibits the activity of DNA-PK compared to PI 3-kinase and/or ATM. Selectivity is an important issue as inhibition of other PI 3-kinase family members may lead to unwanted side-effects associated with the loss of function of those enzymes.
  • [0037]
    In particular, the compounds may be used in the preparation of a medicament for:
  • [0038]
    (a) use as an adjunct in cancer therapy or for potentiating tumour cells for treatment with ionising radiation or chemotherapeutic agents; or
  • [0039]
    (b) the treatment of retroviral mediated diseases.
  • [0040]
    A further aspect of the invention provides an active compound as described herein for use in a method of treatment of the human or animal body, preferably in the form of a pharmaceutical composition.
  • [0041]
    Another aspect of the invention provides a method of inhibiting DNA-PK in vitro or in vivo, comprising contacting a cell with an effective amount of an active compound as described herein.
  • DEFINITIONS
  • [0042]
    C1-7 alkyl: The term “C1-7alkyl”, as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from a C1-7 hydrocarbon compound having from 1 to 7 carbon atoms, which may be aliphatic or alicyclic, or a combination thereof, and which may be saturated, partially unsaturated, or fully unsaturated.
  • [0043]
    Examples of saturated linear C1-7 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl (amyl).
  • [0044]
    Examples of saturated branched C1-7 alkyl groups include, but are not limited to, iso-propyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, and neo-pentyl.
  • [0045]
    Examples of saturated alicyclic C1-7 alkyl groups (also referred to as “C3-7 cycloalkyl” groups) include, but are not limited to, groups such as cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, and cyclohexyl, as well as substituted groups (e.g., groups which comprise such groups), such as methylcyclopropyl, dimethylcyclopropyl, methylcyclobutyl, dimethylcyclobutyl, methylcyclopentyl, dimethylcyclopentyl, methylcyclohexyl, dimethylcyclohexyl, cyclopropylmethyl and cyclohexylmethyl.
  • [0046]
    Examples of unsaturated C1-7 alkyl groups which have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (also referred to as “C2-7alkenyl” groups) include, but are not limited to, ethenyl (vinyl, —CH═CH2), 2-propenyl (allyl, —CH—CH═CH2), isopropenyl (—C(CH3)═CH2), butenyl, pentenyl, and hexenyl.
  • [0047]
    Examples of unsaturated C1-7 alkyl groups which have one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (also referred to as “C2-7 alkynyl” groups) include, but are not limited to, ethynyl (ethinyl) and 2-propynyl (propargyl).
  • [0048]
    Examples of unsaturated alicyclic (carbocyclic) C1-7 alkyl groups which have one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (also referred to as “C3-7cycloalkenyl” groups) include, but are not limited to, unsubstituted groups such as cyclopropenyl, cyclobutenyl, cyclopentenyl, and cyclohexenyl, as well as substituted groups (e.g., groups which comprise such groups) such as cyclopropenylmethyl and cyclohexenylmethyl.
  • [0049]
    C3-20 heterocyclyl: The term “C3-20 heterocyclyl”, as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from a ring atom of a C3-20 heterocyclic compound, said compound having one ring, or two or more rings (e.g., spiro, fused, bridged), and having from 3 to 20 ring atoms, atoms, of which from 1 to 10 are ring heteroatoms, and wherein at least one of said ring(s) is a heterocyclic ring. Preferably, each ring has from 3 to 7 ring atoms, of which from 1 to 4 are ring heteroatoms. Ring heteroatoms may preferably be selected from the group consisting of O, N, S and P. “C3-20” denotes ring atoms, whether carbon atoms or heteroatoms.
  • [0050]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one nitrogen ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from aziridine, azetidine, pyrrolidines (tetrahydropyrrole), pyrroline (e.g., 3-pyrroline, 2,5-dihydropyrrole), 2H-pyrrole or 3H-pyrrole (isopyrrole, isoazole), piperidine, dihydropyridine, tetrahydropyridine, and azepine.
  • [0051]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one oxygen ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from oxirane, oxetane, oxolane (tetrahydrofuran), oxole (dihydrofuran), oxane (tetrahydropyran), dihydropyran, pyran (C6), and oxepin. Examples of substituted C3-20 heterocyclyl groups include sugars, in cyclic form, for example, furanoses and pyranoses, including, for example, ribose, lyxose, xylose, galactose, sucrose, fructose, and arabinose.
  • [0052]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one sulphur ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from thiirane, thietane, thiolane (tetrahydrothiophene), thiane (tetrahydrothiopyran), and thiepane.
  • [0053]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having two oxygen ring atoms include, but are not limited to, those derived from dioxolane, dioxane, and dioxepane.
  • [0054]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having two nitrogen ring atoms include, but are not limited to, those derived from imidazolidine, pyrazolidine (diazolidine), imidazoline, pyrazoline (dihydropyrazole), and piperazine.
  • [0055]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one nitrogen ring atom and one oxygen ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from tetrahydrooxazole, dihydrooxazole, tetrahydroisoxazole, dihydroisoxazole, morpholine, tetrahydrooxazine, dihydrooxazine, and oxazine.
  • [0056]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one oxygen ring atom and one sulphur ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from oxathiolane and oxathiane (thioxane).
  • [0057]
    Examples of C3-20 heterocyclyl groups having one nitrogen ring atom and one sulphur ring atom include, but are not limited to, those derived from thiazoline, thiazolidine, and thiomorpholine.
  • [0058]
    Other examples of C3-20heterocyclyl groups include, but are not limited to, oxadiazine and oxathiazine.
  • [0059]
    Examples of heterocyclyl groups which additionally bear one or more oxo (═O) groups, include, but are not limited to, those derived from:
  • [0060]
    C5 heterocyclics, such as furanone, pyrone, pyrrolidone (pyrrolidinone), pyrazolone (pyrazolinone), imidazolidone, thiazolone, and isothiazolone;
  • [0061]
    C6 heterocyclics, such as piperidinone (piperidone), piperidinedione, piperazinone, piperazinedione, pyridazinone, and pyrimidinone (e.g., cytosine, thymine, uracil), and barbituric acid;
  • [0062]
    fused heterocyclics, such as oxindole, purinone (e.g., guanine), benzoxazolinone, benzopyrone (e.g., coumarin);
  • [0063]
    cyclic anhydrides (—C(═O)—O—C(═O)— in a ring), including but not limited to maleic anhydride, succinic anhydride, and glutaric anhydride; cyclic carbonates (—O—C(═O)—O— in a ring), such as ethylene carbonate and 1,2-propylene carbonate;
  • [0064]
    imides (—C(═O)—NR—C(═O)— in a ring), including but not limited to, succinimide, maleimide, phthalimide, and glutarimide;
  • [0065]
    lactones (cyclic esters, —O—C(═O)— in a ring), including, but not limited to, β-propiolactone, γ-butyrolactone, δ-valerolactone (2-piperidone), and ε-caprolactone;
  • [0066]
    lactams (cyclic amides, —NR—C(═O)— in a ring), including, but not limited to, β-propiolactam, γ-butyrolactam (2-pyrrolidone), δ-valerolactam, and ε-caprolactam;
  • [0067]
    cyclic carbamates (—O—C(═O)—NR— in a ring), such as 2-oxazolidone;
  • [0068]
    cyclic ureas (—NR—C(═O)—NR— in a ring), such as 2-imidazolidone and pyrimidine-2,4-dione (e.g., thymine, uracil).
  • [0069]
    C5-20 aryl: The term “C5-20 aryl”, as used herein, pertains to a monovalent moiety obtained by removing a hydrogen atom from an aromatic ring atom of a C5-20 aromatic compound, said compound having one ring, or two or more rings (e.g., fused), and having from 5 to 20 ring atoms, and wherein at least one of said ring(s) is an aromatic ring. Preferably, each ring has from 5 to 7 ring atoms.
  • [0070]
    The ring atoms may be all carbon atoms, as in “carboaryl groups”, in which case the group may conveniently be referred to as a “C5-20 carboaryl” group.
  • [0071]
    Examples of C5-20 aryl groups which do not have ring heteroatoms (i.e. C5-20 carboaryl groups) include, but are not limited to, those derived from benzene (i.e. phenyl) (C6), naphthalene (C10), anthracene (C14), phenanthrene (C14), naphthacene (C18), and pyrene (C16).
  • [0072]
    Examples of aryl groups which comprise fused rings, one of which is not an aromatic ring, include, but are not limited to, groups derived from indene and fluorene.
  • [0073]
    Alternatively, the ring atoms may include one or more heteroatoms, including but not limited to oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur, as in “heteroaryl groups”. In this case, the group may conveniently be referred to as a “C5-20 heteroaryl” group, wherein “C5-20” denotes ring atoms, whether carbon atoms or heteroatoms. Preferably, each ring has from 5 to 7 ring atoms, of which from 0 to 4 are ring heteroatoms.
  • [0074]
    Examples of C5-20 heteroaryl groups include, but are not limited to, C5 heteroaryl groups derived from furan (oxole), thiophene (thiole), pyrrole (azole), imidazole (1,3-diazole), pyrazole (1,2-diazole), triazole, oxazole, isoxazole, thiazole, isothiazole, oxadiazole, and oxatriazole; and C6 heteroaryl groups derived from isoxazine, pyridine (azine), pyridazine (1,2-diazine), pyrimidine (1,3-diazine; e.g., cytosine, thymine, uracil), pyrazine (1,4-diazine), triazine, tetrazole, and oxadiazole (furazan).
  • [0075]
    Examples of C5-20 heterocyclic groups (some of which are C5-20 heteroaryl groups) which comprise fused rings, include, but are not limited to, C9 heterocyclic groups derived from benzofuran, isobenzofuran, indole, isoindole, purine (e.g., adenine, guanine), benzothiophene, benzimidazole; C10 heterocyclic groups derived from quinoline, isoquinoline, benzodiazine, pyridopyridine, quinoxaline; C13 heterocyclic groups derived from carbazole, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran; C14 heterocyclic groups derived from acridine, xanthene, phenoxathiin, phenazine, phenoxazine, phenothiazine.
  • [0076]
    The above C1-7 alkyl, C3-20 heterocyclyl and C5-20 aryl groups whether alone or part of another substituent, may themselves optionally be substituted with one or more groups selected from themselves and the additional substituents listed below.
  • [0077]
    Halo: —F, —Cl, —Br, and —I.
  • [0078]
    Hydroxy: —OH.
  • [0079]
    Ether: —OR, wherein R is an ether substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group (also referred to as a C1-7 alkoxy group, discussed below), a C3-20 heterocyclyl group (also referred to as a C3-20 heterocyclyloxy group), or a C5-20 aryl group (also referred to as a C5-20 aryloxy group), preferably a C1-7 alkyl group.
  • [0080]
    C1-7 alkoxy: —OR, wherein R is a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of C17 alkoxy groups include, but are not limited to, —OCH3 (methoxy), —OCH2CH3 (ethoxy) and —OC(CH3)3 (tert-butoxy).
  • [0081]
    Oxo (keto, -one): ═O. Examples of cyclic compounds and/or groups having, as a substituent, an oxo group (═O) include, but are not limited to, carbocyclics such as cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone; heterocyclics, such as pyrone, pyrrolidone, pyrazolone, pyrazolinone, piperidone, piperidinedione, piperazinedione, and imidazolidone; cyclic anhydrides, including but not limited to maleic anhydride and succinic anhydride; cyclic carbonates, such as propylene carbonate; imides, including but not limited to, succinimide and maleimide; lactones (cyclic esters, —O—C(═O)— in a ring), including, but not limited to, β-propiolactone, γ-butyrolactone, δ-valerolactone, and ε-caprolactone; and lactams (cyclic amides, —NH—C(═O)— in a ring), including, but not limited to, β-propiolactam, γ-butyrolactam (2-pyrrolidone), δ-valerolactam, and ε-caprolactam.
  • [0082]
    Imino (imine): ═NR, wherein R is an imino substituent, for example, hydrogen, C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably hydrogen or a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of ester groups include, but are not limited to, ═NH, ═NMe, ═NEt, and ═NPh.
  • [0083]
    Formyl (carbaldehyde, carboxaldehyde): —C(═O)H.
  • [0084]
    Acyl (keto): —C(═O)R, wherein R is an acyl substituent, for example, a C1-7alkyl group (also referred to as C1-7 alkylacyl or C1-7 alkanoyl), a C3-20 heterocyclyl group (also referred to as C3-20 heterocyclylacyl), or a C5-20 aryl group (also referred to as C5-20 arylacyl), preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of acyl groups include, but are not limited to, —C(═O)CH3 (acetyl), —C(═O)CH2CH3 (propionyl), —C(═O)C(CH3)3 (butyryl), and —C(═O)Ph (benzoyl, phenone).
  • [0085]
    Carboxy (carboxylic acid): —COOH.
  • [0086]
    Ester (carboxylate, carboxylic acid ester, oxycarbonyl): —C(═O)OR, wherein R is an ester substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7alkyl group. Examples of ester groups include, but are not limited to, —C(═O)OCH3, —C(═O)OCH2CH3, —C(═O)OC(CH3)3, and —C(═O)OPh.
  • [0087]
    Acyloxy (reverse ester): —OC(═O)R, wherein R is an acyloxy substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7alkyl group. Examples of acyloxy groups include, but are not limited to, —OC(═O)CH3 (acetoxy), —OC(═O)CH2CH3, —OC(═O)C(CH3)3, —OC(═O)Ph, and —OC(═O)CH2Ph.
  • [0088]
    Amido (carbamoyl, carbamyl, aminocarbonyl, carboxamide): —C(═O)NR1R2, wherein R1 and R2 are independently amino substituents, as defined for amino groups. Examples of amido groups include, but are not limited to, —C(═O)NH2, —C(═O)NHCH3, —C(═O)N(CH3)2, —C(═O)NHCH2CH3, and —C(═O)N(CH2CH3)2, as well as amido groups in which R1 and R2, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocyclic structure as in, for example, piperidinocarbonyl, morpholinocarbonyl, thiomorpholinocarbonyl, and piperazinocarbonyl.
  • [0089]
    Acylamido (acylamino): —NR1C(═O)R2, wherein R1 is an amide substituent, for example, hydrogen, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably hydrogen or a C1-7 alkyl group, and R2 is an acyl substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably hydrogen or a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of acylamide groups include, but are not limited to, —NHC(═O)CH3, —NHC(═O)CH2CH3, and —NHC(═O)Ph. R1 and R2 may together form a cyclic structure, as in, for example, succinimidyl, maleimidyl and phthalimidyl:
  • [0090]
    Acylureido: —N(R1)C(O)NR2C(O)R3 wherein R1 and R2 are independently ureido substituents, for example, hydrogen, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably hydrogen or a C1-7 alkyl group. R3 is an acyl group as defined for acyl groups. Examples of acylureido groups include, but are not limited to, —NHCONHC(O)H, —NHCONMeC(O)H, —NHCONEtC(O)H, —NHCONMeC(O)Me, —NHCONEtC(O)Et, —NMeCONHC(O)Et, —NMeCONHC(O)Me, —NMeCONHC(O)Et, —NMeCONMeC(O)Me, —NMeCONEtC(O)Et, and —NMeCONHC(O)Ph.
  • [0091]
    Carbamate: —NR1—C(O)—OR2 wherein R1 is an amino substituent as defined for amino groups and R2 is an ester group as defined for ester groups. Examples of carbamate groups include, but are not limited to, —NH—C(O)—O—Me, —NMe—C(O)—O—Me, —NH—C(O)—O-Et, —NMe-C(O)—O-t-butyl, and —NH—C(O)—O—Ph.
  • [0092]
    Thioamido (thiocarbamyl): —C(═S)NR1R2, wherein R1 and R2 are independently amino substituents, as defined for amino groups. Examples of amido groups include, but are not limited to, —C(═S)NH2, —C(═S)NHCH3, —C(═S)N(CH3)2, and —C(═S)NHCH2CH3.
  • [0093]
    Tetrazolyl: a five membered aromatic ring having four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom,
  • [0094]
    Amino: —NR1R2, wherein R1 and R2 are independently amino substituents, for example, hydrogen, a C1-7 alkyl group (also referred to as C1-7 alkylamino or di-C1-7 alkylamino), a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably H or a C1-7alkyl group, or, in the case of a “cyclic” amino group, R1 and R2, taken together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, form a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms. Examples of amino groups include, but are not limited to, —NH2, —NHCH3, —NHC(CH3)2, —N(CH3)2, —N(CH2CH3)2, and —NHPh. Examples of cyclic amino groups include, but are not limited to, aziridino, azetidino, pyrrolidino, piperidino, piperazino, morpholino, and thiomorpholino.
  • [0095]
    Imino: ═NR, wherein R is an imino substituent, for example, for example, hydrogen, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably H or a C1-7 alkyl group.
  • [0096]
    Amidine: —C(═NR)NR2, wherein each R is an amidine substituent, for example, hydrogen, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably H or a C1-7 alkyl group. An example of an amidine group is —C(═NH)NH2.
  • [0097]
    Carbazoyl (hydrazinocarbonyl): —C(O)—NN—R1 wherein R1 is an amino substituent as defined for amino groups. Examples of azino groups include, but are not limited to, —C(O)—NN—H, —C(O)—NN-Me, —C(O)—NN-Et, —C(O)—NN—Ph, and —C(O)—NN—CH2—Ph.
  • [0098]
    Nitro: —NO2.
  • [0099]
    Nitroso: —NO.
  • [0100]
    Azido: —N3.
  • [0101]
    Cyano (nitrile, carbonitrile): —CN.
  • [0102]
    Isocyano: —NC.
  • [0103]
    Cyanato: —OCN.
  • [0104]
    Isocyanato: —NCO.
  • [0105]
    Thiocyano (thiocyanato): —SCN.
  • [0106]
    Isothiocyano (isothiocyanato): —NCS.
  • [0107]
    Sulfhydryl (thiol, mercapto): —SH.
  • [0108]
    Thioether (sulfide): —SR, wherein R is a thioether substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group (also referred to as a C1-7 alkylthio group), a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of C1-7 alkylthio groups include, but are not limited to, —SCH3 and —SCH2CH3.
  • [0109]
    Disulfide: —SS—R, wherein R is a disulfide substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group (also referred to herein as C1-7 alkyl disulfide). Examples of C1-7 alkyl disulfide groups include, but are not limited to, —SSCH3 and —SSCH2CH3.
  • [0110]
    Sulfone (sulfonyl): —S(═Q)2R, wherein R is a sulfone substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfone groups include, but are not limited to, —S(═O)2CH3 (methanesulfonyl, mesyl), —S(═O)2CF3 (triflyl), —S(═O)2CH2CH3, —S(═O)2C4F9 (nonaflyl), —S(═O)2CH2CF3 (tresyl), —S(═O)2Ph(phenylsulfonyl), 4-methylphenylsulfonyl(tosyl), 4-bromophenylsulfonyl(brosyl), and 4-nitrophenyl (nosyl).
  • [0111]
    Sulfine (sulfinyl, sulfoxide): —S(═O)R, wherein R is a sulfine substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfine groups include, but are not limited to, —S(═O)CH3 and —S(═O)CH2CH3.
  • [0112]
    Sulfonyloxy: —OS(═O)2R, wherein R is a sulfonyloxy substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfonyloxy groups include, but are not limited to, —OS(═O)2CH3 and —OS(═O)2CH2CH3.
  • [0113]
    Sulfinyloxy: —OS(═O)R, wherein R is a sulfinyloxy substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfinyloxy groups include, but are not limited to, —OS(═O)CH3 and —OS(═O)CH2CH3.
  • [0114]
    Sulfamino: —NR1S(═O)2OH, wherein R1 is an amino substituent, as defined for amino groups. Examples of sulfamino groups include, but are not limited to, —NHS(═O)2OH and —N(CH3)S(═O)2OH.
  • [0115]
    Sulfinamino: —NR1S(═O)R, wherein R1 is an amino substituent, as defined for amino groups, and R is a sulfinamino substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfinamino groups include, but are not limited to, —NHS(═O)CH3 and —N(CH3)S(═O)C6H5.
  • [0116]
    Sulfamyl: —S(═O)NR1R2, wherein R1 and R2 are independently amino substituents, as defined for amino groups. Examples of sulfamyl groups include, but are not limited to, —S(═O)NH2, —S(═O)NH(CH3), —S(═O)N(CH3)2, —S(═O)NH(CH2CH3), —S(═O)N(CH2CH3)2, and —S(═O)NHPh.
  • [0117]
    Sulfonamino: —NR1S(═O)2R, wherein R1 is an amino substituent, as defined for amino groups, and R is a sulfonamino substituent, for example, a C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of sulfonamino groups include, but are not limited to, —NHS(═O)2CH3 and —N(CH3)S(═O)2C6H5. A special class of sulfonamino groups are those derived from sultams—in these groups one of R1 and R is a C5-20 aryl group, preferably phenyl, whilst the other of R1 and R is a bidentate group which links to the C5-20 aryl group, such as a bidentate group derived from a C1-7 alkyl group. Examples of such groups include, but are not limited to:
  • [0118]
    Phosphoramidite: —OP(OR1)—NR2 2, where R1 and R2 are phosphoramidite substituents, for example, —H, a (optionally substituted) C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably —H, a C1-7 alkyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group. Examples of phosphoramidite groups include, but are not limited to, —OP(OCH2CH3)—N(CH3)2, —OP(OCH2CH3)—N(i-Pr)2, and —OP(OCH2CH2CN)—N(i-Pr)2.
  • [0119]
    Phosphoramidate: —OP(═O)(OR1)—NR2 2, where R1 and R2 are phosphoramidate substituents, for example, —H, a (optionally substituted) C1-7 alkyl group, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group, preferably —H, a C1-7 alkyl group, or a C5-20 aryl group. Examples of phosphoramidate groups include, but are not limited to, —OP(═O)(OCH2CH3)—N(CH3)2, —OP(═O)(OCH2CH3)—N(i-Pr)2, and —OP(═O)(OCH2CH2CN)—N(i-Pr)2.
  • [0120]
    In many cases, substituents may themselves be substituted. For example, a C1-7 alkoxy group may be substituted with, for example, a C1-7 alkyl (also referred to as a C1-7 alkyl-C1-7alkoxy group), for example, cyclohexylmethoxy, a C3-20 heterocyclyl group (also referred to as a C5-20 aryl-C1-7 alkoxy group), for example phthalimidoethoxy, or a C5-20 aryl group (also referred to as a C5-20aryl-C1-7alkoxy group), for example, benzyloxy.
  • [0121]
    C1-5 Alkylene: The term “C1-5 alkylene”, as used herein, pertains to a bidentate moiety obtained by removing two hydrogen atoms, either both from the same carbon atom, or one from each of two different carbon atoms, of an aliphatic linear hydrocarbon compound having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms (unless otherwise specified), which may be saturated, partially unsaturated, or fully unsaturated. Thus, the term “alkylene” includes the sub-classes alkenylene, alkynylene, etc., discussed below.
  • [0122]
    Examples of saturated C1-5 alkylene groups include, but are not limited to, —(CH2)n— where n is an integer from 1 to 5, for example, —CH2-(methylene), —CH2CH2-(ethylene), —CH2CH2CH2-(propylene), and —CH2CH2CH2CH2-(butylene).
  • [0123]
    Examples of partially unsaturated C1-5 alkylene groups include, but is not limited to, —CH═CH-(vinylene), —CH═CH—CH2—, —CH2—CH═CH2—, —CH═CH—CH2—CH2—, —CH═CH—CH2—CH2—CH2—, —CH═CH—CH═CH— and —CH═CH—CH═CH—CH2—.
  • [0124]
    The substituent groups listed above may be substituents on an alkylene group.
  • [0000]
    Includes Other Forms
  • [0125]
    Included in the above are the well known ionic, salt, solvate, and protected forms of these substituents. For example, a reference to carboxylic acid (—COOH) also includes the anionic (carboxylate) form (—COO), a salt or solvate thereof, as well as conventional protected forms. Similarly, a reference to an amino group includes the protonated form (—N+HR1R2), a salt or solvate of the amino group, for example, a hydrochloride salt, as well as conventional protected forms of an amino group. Similarly, a reference to a hydroxyl group also includes the anionic form (—O), a salt or solvate thereof, as well as conventional protected forms of a hydroxyl group.
  • [0000]
    Isomers, Salts, Solvates, Protected Forms, and Prodrugs
  • [0126]
    Certain compounds may exist in one or more particular geometric, optical, enantiomeric, diasteriomeric, epimeric, stereoisomeric, tautomeric, conformational, or anomeric forms, including but not limited to, cis- and trans-forms; E- and Z-forms; c-, t-, and r-forms; endo- and exo-forms; R—, S—, and meso-forms; D- and L-forms; d- and l-forms; (+) and (−) forms; keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms; syn- and anti-forms; synclinal- and anticlinal-forms; α- and β-forms; axial and equatorial forms; boat-, chair-, twist-, envelope-, and halfchair-forms; and combinations thereof, hereinafter collectively referred to as “isomers” (or “isomeric forms”).
  • [0127]
    Note that, except as discussed below for tautomeric forms, specifically excluded from the term “isomers”, as used herein, are structural (or constitutional) isomers (i.e. isomers which differ in the connections between atoms rather than merely by the position of atoms in space). For example, a reference to a methoxy group, —OCH3, is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, a hydroxymethyl group, —CH2OH. Similarly, a reference to ortho-chlorophenyl is not to be construed as a reference to its structural isomer, meta-chlorophenyl. However, a reference to a class of structures may well include structurally isomeric forms falling within that class (e.g., C1-7 alkyl includes n-propyl and iso-propyl; butyl includes n-, iso-, sec-, and tert-butyl; methoxyphenyl includes ortho-, meta-, and para-methoxyphenyl).
  • [0128]
    The above exclusion does not pertain to tautomeric forms, for example, keto-, enol-, and enolate-forms, as in, for example, the following tautomeric pairs: keto/enol (illustrated below), imine/enamine, amide/imino alcohol, amidine/amidine, nitroso/oxime, thioketone/enethiol, N-nitroso/hyroxyazo, and nitro/aci-nitro.
  • [0129]
    Note that specifically included in the term “isomer” are compounds with one or more isotopic substitutions. For example, H may be in any isotopic form, including 1H, 2H (D), and 3H (T); C may be in any isotopic form, including 12C, 13C, and 14C; 0 may be in any isotopic form, including 16O and 18O; and the like.
  • [0130]
    Unless otherwise specified, a reference to a particular compound includes all such isomeric forms, including (wholly or partially) racemic and other mixtures thereof. Methods for the preparation (e.g. asymmetric synthesis) and separation (e.g., fractional crystallisation and chromatographic means) of such isomeric forms are either known in the art or are readily obtained by adapting the methods taught herein, or known methods, in a known manner.
  • [0131]
    Unless otherwise specified, a reference to a particular compound also includes ionic, salt, solvate, and protected forms of thereof, for example, as discussed below.
  • [0132]
    It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle a corresponding salt of the active compound, for example, a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt. Examples of pharmaceutically acceptable salts are discussed in Berge, et al., J. Pharm. Sci., 66, 1-19 (1977).
  • [0133]
    For example, if the compound is anionic, or has a functional group which may be anionic (e.g., —COOH may be —COO), then a salt may be formed with a suitable cation. Examples of suitable inorganic cations include, but are not limited to, alkali metal ions such as Na+ and K+, alkaline earth cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+, and other cations such as Al3+. Examples of suitable organic cations include, but are not limited to, ammonium ion (i.e., NH4 +) and substituted ammonium ions (e.g., NH3R+, NH2R2 +, NHR3+, NR4 +). Examples of some suitable substituted ammonium ions are those derived from: ethylamine, diethylamine, dicyclohexylamine, triethylamine, butylamine, ethylenediamine, ethanolamine, diethanolamine, piperazine, benzylamine, phenylbenzylamine, choline, meglumine, and tromethamine, as well as amino acids, such as lysine and arginine. An example of a common quaternary ammonium ion is N(CH3)4 +.
  • [0134]
    If the compound is cationic, or has a functional group which may be cationic (e.g., —NH2 may be —NH3 +), then a salt may be formed with a suitable anion. Examples of suitable inorganic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following inorganic acids: hydrochloric, hydrobromic, hydroiodic, sulphuric, sulphurous, nitric, nitrous, phosphoric, and phosphorous. Examples of suitable organic anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following organic acids: acetic, propionic, succinic, glycolic, stearic, palmitic, lactic, malic, pamoic, tartaric, citric, gluconic, ascorbic, maleic, hydroxymaleic, phenylacetic, glutamic, aspartic, benzoic, cinnamic, pyruvic, salicyclic, sulfanilic, 2-acetyoxybenzoic, fumaric, phenylsulfonic, toluenesulfonic, methanesulfonic, ethanesulfonic, ethane disulfonic, oxalic, pantothenic, isethionic, valeric, lactobionic, and gluconic. Examples of suitable polymeric anions include, but are not limited to, those derived from the following polymeric acids: tannic acid, carboxymethyl cellulose.
  • [0135]
    It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle a corresponding solvate of the active compound. The term “solvate” is used herein in the conventional sense to refer to a complex of solute (e.g. active compound, salt of active compound) and solvent. If the solvent is water, the solvate may be conveniently referred to as a hydrate, for example, a mono-hydrate, a di-hydrate, a tri-hydrate, etc.
  • [0136]
    It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle the active compound in a chemically protected form. The term “chemically protected form”, as used herein, pertains to a compound in which one or more reactive functional groups are protected from undesirable chemical reactions, that is, are in the form of a protected or protecting group (also known as a masked or masking group or a blocked or blocking group). By protecting a reactive functional group, reactions involving other unprotected reactive functional groups can be performed, without affecting the protected group; the protecting group may be removed, usually in a subsequent step, without substantially affecting the remainder of the molecule. See, for example, Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis (T. Green and P. Wuts, Wiley, 1 999).
  • [0137]
    For example, a hydroxy group may be protected as an ether (—OR) or an ester (—OC(═O)R), for example, as: a t-butyl ether; a benzyl, benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl), or trityl (triphenylmethyl) ether; a trimethylsilyl or t-butyldimethylsilyl ether; or an acetyl ester (—OC(═O)CH3, —OAc).
  • [0138]
    For example, an aldehyde or ketone group may be protected as an acetal or ketal, respectively, in which the carbonyl group (>C═O) is converted to a diether (>C(OR)2), by reaction with, for example, a primary alcohol. The aldehyde or ketone group is readily regenerated by hydrolysis using a large excess of water in the presence of acid.
  • [0139]
    For example, an amine group may be protected, for example, as an amide or a urethane, for example, as: a methyl amide (—NHCO—CH3); a benzyloxy amide (—NHCO—OCH2C6H5, —NH—Cbz); as a t-butoxy amide (—NHCO—OC(CH3)3, —NH—Boc); a 2-biphenyl-2-propoxy amide (—NHCO—OC(CH3)2C6H4C6H5, —NH—Bpoc), as a 9-fluorenylmethoxy amide (—NH—Fmoc), as a 6-nitroveratryloxy amide (—NH—Nvoc), as a 2-trimethylsilylethyloxy amide (—NH—Teoc), as a 2,2,2-trichloroethyloxy amide (—NH-Troc), as an allyloxy amide (—NH—Alloc), as a 2(-phenylsulphonyl)ethyloxy amide (—NH—Psec); or, in suitable cases, as an N-oxide (>NO$).
  • [0140]
    For example, a carboxylic acid group may be protected as an ester for example, as: an C1-7 alkyl ester (e.g. a methyl ester; a t-butyl ester); a C1-7 haloalkyl ester (e.g., a C1-7 trihaloalkyl ester); a triC1-7 alkylsilyl-C1-7 alkyl ester; or a C5-20 aryl-C1-7 alkyl ester (e.g. a benzyl ester; a nitrobenzyl ester); or as an amide, for example, as a methyl amide.
  • [0141]
    For example, a thiol group may be protected as a thioether (—SR), for example, as: a benzyl thioether; an acetamidomethyl ether (—S—CH2NHC(═O)CH3).
  • [0142]
    It may be convenient or desirable to prepare, purify, and/or handle the active compound in the form of a prodrug. The term “prodrug”, as used herein, pertains to a compound which, when metabolised (e.g. in vivo), yields the desired active compound. Typically, the prodrug is inactive, or less active than the active compound, but may provide advantageous handling, administration, or metabolic properties.
  • [0143]
    For example, some prodrugs are esters of the active compound (e.g. a physiologically acceptable metabolically labile ester). During metabolism, the ester group (—C(═O)OR) is cleaved to yield the active drug. Such esters may be formed by esterification, for example, of any of the carboxylic acid groups (—C(═O)OH) in the parent compound, with, where appropriate, prior protection of any other reactive groups present in the parent compound, followed by deprotection if required. Examples of such metabolically labile esters include those wherein R is C1-7 alkyl (e.g. -Me, -Et); C1-7 aminoalkyl (e.g. aminoethyl; 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl; 2-(4-morpholino)ethyl); and acyloxy-C1-7 alkyl (e.g. acyloxymethyl; acyloxyethyl; e.g. pivaloyloxymethyl; acetoxymethyl; 1-acetoxyethyl; 1-(1-methoxy-1-methyl)ethyl-carbonxyloxyethyl; 1-(benzoyloxy)ethyl; isopropoxy-carbonyloxymethyl; 1-isopropoxy-carbonyloxyethyl; cyclohexyl-carbonyloxymethyl; 1-cyclohexyl-carbonyloxyethyl; cyclohexyloxy-carbonyloxymethyl; 1-cyclohexyloxy-carbonyloxyethyl; (4-tetrahydropyranyloxy)carbonyloxymethyl; 1-(4-tetrahydropyranyloxy)carbonyloxyethyl; (4-tetrahydropyranyl)carbonyloxymethyl; and 1-(4-tetrahydropyranyl)carbonyloxyethyl).
  • [0144]
    Also, some prodrugs are activated enzymatically to yield the active compound, or a compound which, upon further chemical reaction, yields the active compound. For example, the prodrug may be a sugar derivative or other glycoside conjugate, or may be an amino acid ester derivative.
  • [0000]
    Selective Inhibition
  • [0145]
    ‘Selective inhibition’ means the inhibition of one enzyme to a greater extent than the inhibition of one or more other enzymes. This selectivity is measurable by comparing the concentration of a compound required to inhibit 50% of the activity (IC50) of one enzyme against the concentration of the same compound required to inhibit 50% of the activity (IC50) of the other enzyme (see below). The result is expressed as a ratio. If the ratio is greater than 1, then the compound tested exhibits some selectivity in its inhibitory action.
  • [0146]
    The compounds of the present invention preferably exhibit a selectivity of greater than 3, 10, 20 or 50 against DNA-PK over PI 3-kinase.
  • [0147]
    The compounds of the present invention preferably exhibit a selectivity of greater than 5, 10, 50 or 100 against DNA-PK over ATM.
  • [0148]
    It is preferred that the IC50 values used to assess selectivity are determined using the methods described in WO 03/024949, which is herein incorporated by reference.
  • [0000]
    Further Preferences
  • [0149]
    Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6
  • [0150]
    When Z5 is not a single bond, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 and the carbon atom to which Z2 and Z6 are bound, form a six-memebered aromatic ring, and it is preferred that one or two of Z2, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are N and the rest are CH. When Z5 is a single bond, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6 and the carbon atom to which Z2 and Z6 are bound, form a five-memebered aromatic ring, and it is preferred that one or two of Z2, Z4 and Z6 are selected from S, O and N and that the rest are CH. It may be preferred that one of Z2, Z4 and Z6 is selected from O and S, and that the others are both CH or one is N and the other CH.
  • [0151]
    Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z6, together with the carbon atom to which they are bound, preferably form a substituted aryl group selected from substituted phenyl, thiophenyl, furanyl, thiazolyl, imidazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidinyl, isoxazolyl, oxazolyl, isothiazolyl. More preferably they form a group selected from substituted phenyl, thiazolyl, thiophenyl, or pyridyl.
  • [0152]
    Z2 is preferably S or CR2, where R2 is preferably H.
  • [0153]
    Z3 is preferably CR3. R3is preferably optionally substituted C5-20 aryl, more preferably C5-6 aryl.
  • [0154]
    Some preferred embodiments have R3 as C5 heteroaryl, pyridyl and phenyl, of which phenyl is most preferred. R3 is preferably unsubstituted.
  • [0155]
    In embodiments where R3 is C5-20 aryl, it may include one or more fused rings. In these embodiments, R3 may preferably be selected from naphthyl, indolyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl
  • [0156]
    In embodiments where R3 is C5 heteroaryl, it is preferably selected from groups derived from furan, thiophen, 2-methyl-thiophene, 2-nitrothiophene, thiophen-2-ylamine, thiazole, imidazole, and 1-methyl-1H-imidazole.
  • [0157]
    In embodiments where R3 is substituted aryl, the optional substituents are preferably selected from halo (most preferably fluoro), C5-20 aryl, R, OR, SO2R and COR, where R is C1-7 alkyl.
  • [0158]
    Z4 is preferably N or CR4, where R4is H or Q-Y—X
  • [0159]
    Z5 is preferably a direct bond or CH.
  • [0160]
    Z6 is preferably N, S or CH.
  • [0161]
    R4
  • [0162]
    When Z2, Z3, Z5 and Z6 all represent CH, and Z4 represents CR4, it is preferred that R4 is Q-Y—X. If at least one of Z2, Z3, Z5 and Z6 is O, N or S, it is preferred that R4 is H.
  • [0163]
    When Q is —NH—C(═O)—, X is preferably NRN3RN4. It is further preferred that Y is an optionally substituted C1-3 alkylene group, more preferably an optionally substituted C1-2 alkylene group and most preferably a C1-2 alkylene group.
  • [0164]
    When Q is —O— and X is NRN3RN4, then Y is preferably an optionally substituted C1-3 alkylene group, more preferably an optionally substituted C1-2 alkylene group and most preferably a C1-2 alkylene group.
  • [0165]
    In some embodiments, RN3 and RN4 are preferably independently selected from H and optionally substituted C1-7 alkyl, more preferably H and optionally substituted C1-4 alkyl and most preferably H and optionally substituted C1-3 alkyl (e.g. methyl, ethyl, iso-propyl, n-propyl). Preferred optional substitutents include, but are not limited to, hydroxy, methoxy, —NH2, optionally substituted C6-aryl and optionally substituted C5-6 heterocyclyl.
  • [0166]
    In other embodiments, RN3 and RN4 form, together with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, an optionally substituted nitrogen containing heterocylic ring having from 4 to 8 ring atoms. Preferably, the heterocyclic ring has 5 to 7 ring atoms. Examples of preferred groups include, morpholino, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, homopiperazinyl and tetrahydropyrrolo, with piperazinyl being particularly preferred. These groups may be substituted, and a particularly preferred group is optionally substituted piperazinyl, where the substituent is preferably on the 4-nitrogen atom. Preferred N-substituents include optionally substituted C1-4 alkyl, optionally substituted C6 aryl and acyl (with a C1-4 alkyl group as the acyl substituent).
  • [0167]
    RN5 and RN6
  • [0168]
    The preferences for RN5 and RN6 may be the same as for RN3 and RN4 expressed above.
  • [0000]
    RN1 nad RN2
  • [0169]
    In compounds of formula I, when RN1 and RN2 form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a heterocyclic ring having from 4 to 8 atoms, this may form part of a C4-20 heterocyclyl group defined above (except with a minimum of 4 ring atoms), which must contain at least one nitrogen ring atom. It is preferred that RN1 and RN2 form, along with the nitrogen atom to which they are attached, a heterocyclic ring having 5, 6 or 7 atoms, more preferably 6 ring atoms.
  • [0170]
    Single rings having one nitrogen atom include azetidine, azetidine, pyrrolidine (tetrahydropyrrole), pyrroline (e.g., 3-pyrroline, 2,5-dihydropyrrole), 2H-pyrrole or 3H-pyrrole (isopyrrole, isoazole), piperidine, dihydropyridine, tetrahydropyridine, and azepine; two nitrogen atoms include imidazolidine, pyrazolidine (diazolidine), imidazoline, pyrazoline (dihydropyrazole), and piperazine; one nitrogen and one oxygen include tetrahydrooxazole, dihydrooxazole, tetrahydroisoxazole, dihydroisoxazole, morpholine, tetrahydrooxazine, dihydrooxazine, and oxazine; one nitrogen and one sulphur include thiazoline, thiazolidine, and thiomorpholine.
  • [0171]
    Preferred rings are those containing one heteroatom in addition to the nitrogen, and in particular, the preferred heteroatoms are oxygen and sulphur. Thus preferred groups include morpholino, thiomorpholino, thiazolinyl. Preferred groups without a further heteroatom include pyrrolidino.
  • [0172]
    The most preferred groups are morpholino and thiomorpholino.
  • [0173]
    As mentioned above, these heterocyclic groups may themselves be substituted; a preferred class of substituent is a C1-7 alkyl group. When the heterocyclic group is morpholino, the substituent group or groups are preferably methyl or ethyl, and more preferably methyl. A sole methyl substituent is most preferably in the 2 position.
  • [0174]
    As well as the single ring groups listed above, rings with bridges or cross-links are also envisaged. Examples of these types of ring where the group contains a nitrogen and an oxygen atom are:
  • [0175]
    These are named 8-oxa-3-aza-bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl, 6-oxa-3-aza-bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-yl, 2-oxa-5-aza-bicyclo[2.2.1 ]hept-5-yl, and 7-oxa-3-aza-bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-yl, respectively.
  • [0000]
    General Synthesis Methods
  • [0176]
    Compounds of formula II, where R4 is Q-Y—X and Q is —NH—C(═O)— can be represented as Formula 1:
  • [0177]
    These compounds, where —Y—X is not C1-7 alkyl, can be made from compounds of Formula 2:
  • [0178]
    wherein L is a leaving group, for example chloro or bromo, by reacting with the appropriate amine or thiol. This reaction can be carried at room temperature, or may be heated, if necessary.
  • [0179]
    Compounds of Formula 2 can be synthesised by the reaction of a compound of Formula 3:
  • [0180]
    with a compound of Formula 4:
  • [0181]
    in the presence of an organic base, for example, triethylamine.
  • [0182]
    Compounds of Formula 1 where —Y—X is C1-7 alkyl can be synthesised by the reaction of a compound of Formula 3 with a compound of Formula 4a:
  • [0183]
    in the presence of an organic base, for example, triethylamine.
  • [0184]
    The compounds of Formula 3 may be synthesised by reducing a compound of Formula 5:
  • [0185]
    using an appropriate reducing agent, for example, zinc in acetic acid.
  • [0186]
    Compounds of Formula 5 can be synthesised by the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of compounds of Formulae 6 and 7:
  • [0187]
    where X′ is a group such as bromo or OTf. The coupling moieities may be reversed.
  • [0188]
    The above methods for the synthesis of compounds of formula 11 may be adapted to the synthesis of compounds of general formula I.
  • [0189]
    Compounds of Formula 7 may be synthesised as follows.
  • [0190]
    Compounds of Formula 7a:
  • [0191]
    may be synthesised from compounds of Formula 8a:
  • [0192]
    by cyclocondensation via pyrolysis.
  • [0193]
    The compounds of Formula 8a may be synthesised from a compound of Formula 9a:
  • [0194]
    by reaction with the appropriate amine of formula HNRN1RN2, in an appropriate solvent.
  • [0195]
    The compound of Formula 9a can be synthesised from a compound of Formula 10a:
  • [0196]
    by reaction with a Meldrum's acid derivative of Formula 11a:
  • [0197]
    in an appropriate solvent.
  • [0198]
    Compounds of Formula 7b:
  • [0199]
    may be synthesised by reacting a compound of Formula 8b:
  • [0200]
    with triflic anhydride, in a solvent such as DCM, in the presence of a base, such as triethylamine.
  • [0201]
    Compounds of Formula 8b may be synthesised from a compound of Formula 9b:
  • [0202]
    by nuceleophilic substitution of the chloride by an amine of formula HNR1R2.
  • [0203]
    The compound of Formula 9b can be synthesised from a compound of Formula 10b:
  • [0204]
    by chlorination using a chlorinating agent, e.g. POCl3. The compound of Formula 10b may be synthesised from a compound of Formula 11b:
  • [0205]
    by reaction with diethyl malonate, or an equivalent thereof.
  • [0206]
    Compounds of Formula 7c:
  • [0207]
    Routes to compounds of Formula 7c are described in WO 03/024949 (Synthesis Route 6). Compounds of formula 11, where R4 is Q-Y—X, Q is —O— and X is selected from SRS1 or NRN3RN4 can be represented as Formula 13:
  • [0208]
    wherein X″ represents SRS1 or NRN3RN4. These compounds may be synthesised from compounds of Formula 14:
  • [0209]
    wherein L is a leaving group, for example chloro or bromo, by reacting with the appropriate 10 amine or thiol. This reaction can be carried at room temperature, or may be heated, if necessary.
  • [0210]
    Compounds of Formula 14 may be synthesised by the reaction of a compound of Formula 15:
  • [0211]
    with a compound of Formula 16:
  • [0212]
    wherein, if Y is non-symmetrical, it is preferred that L is not Br, in the presence of, for example, potassium carbonate.
  • [0213]
    Compounds of Formula 15 can be synthesised from compounds of Formula 3 using a diazotisation-hydrolysis procedure. This first converts the amino group into the diazonium fluoroborate salt, for example, using HBF4 and butyl nitrite, which is then hydrolysed using, for example, aqueous copper (I) oxide-copper (II) nitrate.
  • [0214]
    Compounds of formula II, where Q is —O— and X is —C(═O)—NRN5RN6 can be represented as Formula 17:
  • [0215]
    wherein X′″ represents NRN5RN6. These compounds may be synthesised from compounds of Formula 18:
  • [0216]
    by reaction with the appropriate amine in the presence of HBTU and HOBT.
  • [0217]
    Compounds of Formula 18 may be made from compounds of Formula 19:
  • [0218]
    by reaction with sodium hydroxide in methanol. The compounds of Formula 19 may be synthesised from compounds of Formula 15 by reaction with a compound of Formula 20:
  • [0219]
    in the presence of, for example, potassium carbonate.
  • [0220]
    Compounds of the present invention where R4 is H may be made by the coupling of an appropriate boronic acid to a compound of Formula 7, in an analagous way to that described above.
  • [0221]
    Compounds of the present invention where Z3 is CR3 and R3 is a C5-6 aryl group may be synthesised by a double Suzuki coupling of compounds of Formulae 7, 21 and 22:
  • [0222]
    where Ar′ represents the C5-6 aryl group and X2 is an appropriate halide.
  • [0223]
    In particular, compounds of the present invention where Z3 is CR3; Z2, Z4, Z5 and Z6 are all CH; A, B, D represent CH, O, C respectively; and R3 is a C5-6 aryl group may be synthesised by a double Suzuki coupling of compounds 7c, 21a and 22a:
  • [0224]
    where Ar represents the C5-6 aryl group and X is an appropriate halide.
  • USE OF COMPOUNDS OF THE INVENTION
  • [0225]
    The present invention provides active compounds, specifically, active 8-aryl-2-amin-4-yl-quinolin-4-ones, pyridopyrimidine-4-ones, and chromen-4-ones.
  • [0226]
    The term “active”, as used herein, pertains to compounds which are capable of inhibiting DNA-PK activity, and specifically includes both compounds with intrinsic activity (drugs) as well as prodrugs of such compounds, which prodrugs may themselves exhibit little or no intrinsic activity.
  • [0227]
    One assay which may be used in order to assess the DNA-PK inhibition offered by a particular compound is described in the examples below.
  • [0228]
    The present invention further provides a method of inhibiting DNA-PK inhibition in a cell, comprising contacting said cell with an effective amount of an active compound, preferably in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. Such a method may be practised in vitro or in vivo.
  • [0229]
    For example, a sample of cells (e.g. from a tumour) may be grown in vitro and an active compound brought into contact with said cells in conjunction with agents that have a known curative effect, and the enhancement of the curative effect of the compound on those cells observed.
  • [0230]
    The present invention further provides active compounds which inhibit DNA-PK activity as well as methods of methods of inhibiting DNA-PK activity comprising contacting a cell with an effective amount of an active compound, whether in vitro or in vivo.
  • [0231]
    Active compounds may also be used as cell culture additives to inhibit DNA-PK, for example, in order to sensitize cells to known chemotherapeutic agents or ionising radiation treatments in vitro.
  • [0232]
    Active compounds may also be used as part of an in vitro assay, for example, in order to determine whether a candidate host is likely to benefit from treatment with the compound in question.
  • [0233]
    The invention further provides active compounds for use in a method of treatment of the human or animal body. Such a method may comprise administering to such a subject a therapeutically-effective amount of an active compound, preferably in the form of a pharmaceutical composition.
  • [0234]
    The term “treatment”, as used herein in the context of treating a condition, pertains generally to treatment and therapy, whether of a human or an animal (e.g. in veterinary applications), in which some desired therapeutic effect is achieved, for example, the inhibition of the progress of the condition, and includes a reduction in the rate of progress, a halt in the rate of progress, amelioration of the condition, and cure of the condition. Treatment as a prophylactic measure (i.e. prophylaxis) is also included.
  • [0235]
    The term “therapeutically-effective amount” as used herein, pertains to that amount of an active compound, or a material, composition or dosage from comprising an active compound, which is effective for producing some desired therapeutic effect, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio.
  • [0236]
    The term “adjunct” as used herein relates to the use of active compounds in conjunction with known therapeutic means. Such means include cytotoxic regimes of drugs and/or ionising radiation as used in the treatment of different cancer types. Examples of adjunct anti-cancer agents that could be combined with compounds from the invention include, but are not limited to, the following: alkylating agents: nitrogen mustards, mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, melphalan, chlorambucil: Nitrosoureas: carmustine (BCNU), lomustine (CCNU), semustine (methyl-CCNU), ethylenimine/methylmelamine, thriethylenemelamine (TEM), triethylene thiophosphoramide (thiotepa), hexamethylmelamine (HMM, altretamine): Alkyl sufonates; busulfan; Triazines, dacarbazine (DTIC): Antimetabolites; folic acid analogs, methotrexate, trimetrexate, pyrimidine analogs, 5-fluorouracil, fluorodeoxyuridine, gemcitabine, cytosine arabinoside (AraC, cytarabine), 5-azacytidine, 2,2′-difluorodeoxycytidine: Purine analogs; 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, azathioprine, 2′-deoxycoformycin (pentostatin, erythrohydroxynonyladenine (EHNA), fludarabine phosphate, 2-Chlorodeoxyadenosine (cladribine, 2-CdA): Topoisomerase I inhibitors; camptothecin, topotecan, irinotecan, rubitecan: Natural products; antimitotic drugs, paclitaxel, vinca alkaloids, vinblastine (VLB), vincristine, vinorelbine, Taxotere™ (docetaxel), estramustine, estramustine phosphate; epipodophylotoxins, etoposide, teniposide: Antibiotics; actimomycin D, daunomycin (rubidomycin), doxorubicin (adriamycin), mitoxantrone, idarubicin, bleomycins, plicamycin (mithramycin), mitomycin C, dactinomycin: Enzymes; L-asparaginase, RNAse A: Biological response modifiers; interferon-alpha, IL-2, G-CSF, GM-CSF: Differentiation Agents; retinoic acid derivatives: Radiosensitizers;, metronidazole, misonidazole, desmethylmisonidazole, pimonidazole, etanidazole, nimorazole, RSU 1069, E09, RB 6145, SR4233, nicotinamide, 5-bromodeozyuridine, 5-iododeoxyuridine, bromodeoxycytidine: Platinium coordination complexes; cisplatin, carboplatin: Anthracenedione; mitoxantrone, AQ4N Substituted urea, hydroxyurea; Methylhydrazine derivatives, N-methylhydrazine (MIH), procarbazine; Adrenocortical suppressant, mitotane (o.p′-DDD), aminoglutethimide: Cytokines; interferon (α, β, γ), interleukin; Hormones and antagonists; adrenocorticosteroids/antagonists, prednisone and equivalents, dexamethasone, aminoglutethimide; Progestins, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, megestrol acetate; Estrogens, diethylstilbestrol, ethynyl estradiol/equivalents; Antiestrogen, tamoxifen; Androgens, testosterone propionate, fluoxymesterone/equivalents; Antiandrogens, flutamide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, leuprolide; Nonsteroidal antiandrogens, flutamide; EGFR inhibitors, VEGF inhibitors; Proteasome inhibitors.
  • [0000]
    Cancer
  • [0237]
    The present invention provides active compounds which are anticancer agents or adjuncts for treating cancer. One of ordinary skill in the art is readily able to determine whether or not a candidate compound treats a cancerous condition for any particular cell type, either alone or in combination.
  • [0238]
    Examples of cancers include, but are not limited to, lung cancer, small cell lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, bowel cancer, colon cancer, breast carinoma, ovarian carcinoma, prostate cancer, testicular cancer, liver cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, pancreas cancer, brain cancer, sarcoma, osteosarcoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, melanoma and leukemias.
  • [0239]
    Any type of cell may be treated, including but not limited to, lung, gastrointestinal (including, e.g., bowel, colon), breast (mammary), ovarian, prostate, liver (hepatic), kidney (renal), bladder, pancreas, brain, and skin.
  • [0240]
    The anti cancer treatment defined hereinbefore may be applied as a sole therapy or may involve, in addition to the compound of the invention, conventional surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Such chemotherapy may include one or more of the following categories of anti-tumour agents:—
  • [0241]
    (i) other antiproliferative/antineoplastic drugs and combinations thereof, as used in medical oncology, such as alkylating agents (for example cis platin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, nitrogen mustard, melphalan, chlorambucil, busulphan, temozolamide and nitrosoureas); antimetabolites (for example gemcitabine and antifolates such as fluoropyrimidines like 5 fluorouracil and tegafur, raltitrexed, methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, and hydroxyurea); antitumour antibiotics (for example anthracyclines like adriamycin, bleomycin, doxorubicin, daunomycin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitomycin-C, dactinomycin and mithramycin); antimitotic agents (for example vinca alkaloids like vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine and vinorelbine and taxoids like taxol and taxotere and polokinase inhibitors); and topoisomerase inhibitors (for example epipodophyllotoxins like etoposide and teniposide, amsacrine, topotecan and camptothecin);
  • [0242]
    (ii) cytostatic agents such as antioestrogens (for example tamoxifen, fulvestrant, toremifene, raloxifene, droloxifene and iodoxyfene), antiandrogens (for example bicalutamide, flutamide, nilutamide and cyproterone acetate), LHRH antagonists or LHRH agonists (for example goserelin, leuprorelin and buserelin), progestogens (for example megestrol acetate), aromatase inhibitors (for example as anastrozole, letrozole, vorazole and exemestane) and inhibitors of 5*-reductase such as finasteride;
  • [0243]
    (iii) anti-invasion agents (for example c-Src kinase family inhibitors like 4-(6-chloro-2,3-methylenedioxyanilino)-7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]-5-tetrahydropyran-4-yloxyquinazoline (AZD0530; International Patent Application WO 01/94341) and N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-{6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-methylpyrimidin4-ylamino}thiazole-5-carboxamide (dasatinib, BMS-354825; J. Med. Chem., 2004, 47, 6658-6661), and metalloproteinase inhibitors like marimastat, inhibitors of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor function or antibodies to Heparanase);
  • [0244]
    (iv) inhibitors of growth factor function: for example such inhibitors include growth factor antibodies and growth factor receptor antibodies (for example the anti erbB2 antibody trastuzumab [HerceptinT], the anti-EGFR antibody panitumumab, the anti erbB1 antibody cetuximab [Erbitux, C225] and any growth factor or growth factor receptor antibodies disclosed by Stern et al. Critical reviews in oncology/haematology, 2005, Vol. 54, pp11-29); such inhibitors also include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, for example inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor family (for example EGFR family tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-methoxy-6-(3-morpholinopropoxy)quinazolin-4-amine (gefitinib, ZD 1839), N-(3-ethynylphenyl)-6,7-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)quinazolin-4-amine (erlotinib, OSI 774) and 6-acrylamido-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-7-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-quinazolin-4-amine (Cl 1033), erbB2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor family, inhibitors of the platelet-derived growth factor family such as imatinib, inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases (for example Ras/Raf signalling inhibitors such as farnesyl transferase inhibitors, for example sorafenib (BAY 43-9006)), inhibitors of cell signalling through MEK and/or AKT kinases, inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor family, c-kit inhibitors, abl kinase inhibitors, IGF receptor (insulin-like growth factor) kinase inhibitors; aurora kinase inhibitors (for example AZD1 152, PH739358, VX-680, MLN8054, R763, MP235, MP529, VX-528 AND AX39459) and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as CDK2 and/or CDK4 inhibitors;
  • [0245]
    (v) antiangiogenic agents such as those which inhibit the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor, [for example the anti vascular endothelial cell growth factor antibody bevacizumab (AvastinT) and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as 4-(4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino)-6-methoxy-7-(1-methylpiperidin-4-ylmethoxy)quinazoline (ZD6474; Example 2 within WO 01/32651), 4-(4-fluoro-2-methylindol-5-yloxy)-6-methoxy-7-(3-pyrrolidin-1-ylpropoxy)quinazoline (AZD2171; Example 240 within WO 00/47212), vatalanib (PTK787; WO 98/35985) and SU11248 (sunitinib; WO 01/60814), compounds such as those disclosed in International Patent Applications WO97/22596, WO 97/30035, WO 97/32856 and WO 98/13354 and compounds that work by other mechanisms (for example linomide, inhibitors of integrin avb3 function and angiostatin)];
  • [0246]
    (vi) vascular damaging agents such as Combretastatin A4 and compounds disclosed in International Patent Applications WO 99/02166, WO 00/40529, WO 00/41669, WO 01/92224, WO 02/04434 and WO 02/08213;
  • [0247]
    (vii) antisense therapies, for example those which are directed to the targets listed above, such as ISIS 2503, an anti-ras antisense;
  • [0248]
    (viii) gene therapy approaches, including for example approaches to replace aberrant genes such as aberrant p53 or aberrant BRCA1 or BRCA2, GDEPT (gene directed enzyme pro drug therapy) approaches such as those using cytosine deaminase, thymidine kinase or a bacterial nitroreductase enzyme and approaches to increase patient tolerance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy such as multi drug resistance gene therapy; and
  • [0249]
    (ix) immunotherapy approaches, including for example ex vivo and in vivo approaches to increase the immunogenicity of patient tumour cells, such as transfection with cytokines such as interleukin 2, interleukin 4 or granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, approaches to decrease T cell anergy, approaches using transfected immune cells such as cytokine transfected dendritic cells, approaches using cytokine transfected tumour cell lines and approaches using anti idiotypic antibodies
  • [0000]
    Administration
  • [0250]
    The active compound or pharmaceutical composition comprising the active compound may be administered to a subject by any convenient route of administration, whether systemically/peripherally or at the site of desired action, including but not limited to, oral (e.g. by ingestion); topical (including e.g. transdermal, intranasal, ocular, buccal, and sublingual); pulmonary (e.g. by inhalation or insufflation therapy using, e.g. an aerosol, e.g. through mouth or nose); rectal; vaginal; parenteral, for example, by injection, including subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intraarterial, intracardiac, intrathecal, intraspinal, intracapsular, subcapsular, intraorbital, intraperitoneal, intratracheal, subcuticular, intraarticular, subarachnoid, and intrasternal; by implant of a depot, for example, subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
  • [0251]
    The subject may be a eukaryote, an animal, a vertebrate animal, a mammal, a rodent (e.g. a guinea pig, a hamster, a rat, a mouse), murine (e.g. a mouse), canine (e.g. a dog), feline (e.g. a cat), equine (e.g. a horse), a primate, simian (e.g. a monkey or ape), a monkey (e.g. marmoset, baboon), an ape (e.g. gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-utan, gibbon), or a human.
  • [0000]
    Formulations
  • [0252]
    While it is possible for the active compound to be administered alone, it is preferable to present it as a pharmaceutical composition (e.g. formulation) comprising at least one active compound, as defined above, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants, excipients, diluents, fillers, buffers, stabilisers, preservatives, lubricants, or other materials well known to those skilled in the art and optionally other therapeutic or prophylactic agents.
  • [0253]
    Thus, the present invention further provides pharmaceutical compositions, as defined above, and methods of making a pharmaceutical composition comprising admixing at least one active compound, as defined above, together with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, excipients, buffers, adjuvants, stabilisers, or other materials, as described herein.
  • [0254]
    The term “pharmaceutically acceptable” as used herein pertains to compounds, materials, compositions, and/or dosage forms which are, within the scope of sound medical judgement, suitable for use in contact with the tissues of a subject (e.g. human) without excessive toxicity, irritation, allergic response, or other problem or complication, commensurate with a reasonable benefit/risk ratio. Each carrier, excipient, etc. must also be “acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation.
  • [0255]
    Suitable carriers, excipients, etc. can be found in standard pharmaceutical texts, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th edition, Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1990.
  • [0256]
    The formulations may conveniently be presented in unit dosage form and may be prepared by any methods well known in the art of pharmacy. Such methods include the step of bringing into association the active compound with the carrier which constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the formulations are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing into association the active compound with liquid carriers or finely divided solid carriers or both, and then if necessary shaping the product.
  • [0257]
    Formulations may be in the form of liquids, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, elixirs, syrups, tablets, losenges, granules, powders, capsules, cachets, pills, ampoules, suppositories, pessaries, ointments, gels, pastes, creams, sprays, mists, foams, lotions, oils, boluses, electuaries, or aerosols.
  • [0258]
    Formulations suitable for oral administration (e.g. by ingestion) may be presented as discrete units such as capsules, cachets or tablets, each containing a predetermined amount of the active compound; as a powder or granules; as a solution or suspension in an aqueous or non-aqueous liquid; or as an oil-in-water liquid emulsion or a water-in-oil liquid emulsion; as a bolus; as an electuary; or as a paste.
  • [0259]
    A tablet may be made by conventional means, e.g., compression or moulding, optionally with one or more accessory ingredients. Compressed tablets may be prepared by compressing in a suitable machine the active compound in a free-flowing form such as a powder or granules, optionally mixed with one or more binders (e.g. povidone, gelatin, acacia, sorbitol, tragacanth, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose); fillers or diluents (e.g. lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, calcium hydrogen phosphate); lubricants (e.g. magnesium stearate, talc, silica); disintegrants (e.g. sodium starch glycolate, cross-linked povidone, cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl cellulose); surface-active or dispersing or wetting agents (e.g. sodium lauryl sulfate); and preservatives (e.g. methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, sorbic acid). Moulded tablets may be made by moulding in a suitable machine a mixture of the powdered compound moistened with an inert liquid diluent. The tablets may optionally be coated or scored and may be formulated so as to provide slow or controlled release of the active compound therein using, for example, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose in varying proportions to provide the desired release profile. Tablets may optionally be provided with an enteric coating, to provide release in parts of the gut other than the stomach.
  • [0260]
    Formulations suitable for topical administration (e.g. transdermal, intranasal, ocular, buccal, and sublingual) may be formulated as an ointment, cream, suspension, lotion, powder, solution, past, gel, spray, aerosol, or oil. Alternatively, a formulation may comprise a patch or a dressing such as a bandage or adhesive plaster impregnated with active compounds and optionally one or more excipients or diluents.
  • [0261]
    Formulations suitable for topical administration in the mouth include losenges comprising the active compound in a flavoured basis, usually sucrose and acacia or tragacanth; pastilles comprising the active compound in an inert basis such as gelatin and glycerin, or sucrose and acacia; and mouthwashes comprising the active compound in a suitable liquid carrier.
  • [0262]
    Formulations suitable for topical administration to the eye also include eye drops wherein the active compound is dissolved or suspended in a suitable carrier, especially an aqueous solvent for the active compound.
  • [0263]
    Formulations suitable for nasal administration, wherein the carrier is a solid, include a coarse powder having a particle size, for example, in the range of about 20 to about 500 microns which is administered in the manner in which snuff is taken, i.e. by rapid inhalation through the nasal passage from a container of the powder held close up to the nose. Suitable formulations wherein the carrier is a liquid for administration as, for example, nasal spray, nasal drops, or by aerosol administration by nebuliser, include aqueous or oily solutions of the active compound.
  • [0264]
    Formulations suitable for administration by inhalation include those presented as an aerosol spray from a pressurised pack, with the use of a suitable propellant, such as dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichoro-tetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide, or other suitable gases.
  • [0265]
    Formulations suitable for topical administration via the skin include ointments, creams, and emulsions. When formulated in an ointment, the active compound may optionally be employed with either a paraffinic or a water-miscible ointment base. Alternatively, the active compounds may be formulated in a cream with an oil-in-water cream base. If desired, the aqueous phase of the cream base may include, for example, at least about 30% w/w of a polyhydric alcohol, i.e., an alcohol having two or more hydroxyl groups such as propylene glycol, butane-1,3-diol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol and polyethylene glycol and mixtures thereof. The topical formulations may desirably include a compound which enhances absorption or penetration of the active compound through the skin or other affected areas. Examples of such dermal penetration enhancers include dimethylsulfoxide and related analogues.
  • [0266]
    When formulated as a topical emulsion, the oily phase may optionally comprise merely an emulsifier (otherwise known as an emulgent), or it may comprises a mixture of at least one emulsifier with a fat or an oil or with both a fat and an oil. Preferably, a hydrophilic emulsifier is included together with a lipophilic emulsifier which acts as a stabiliser. It is also preferred to include both an oil and a fat. Together, the emulsifier(s) with or without stabiliser(s) make up the so-called emulsifying wax, and the wax together with the oil and/or fat make up the so-called emulsifying ointment base which forms the oily dispersed phase of the cream formulations.
  • [0267]
    Suitable emulgents and emulsion stabilisers include Tween 60, Span 80, cetostearyl alcohol, myristyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate and sodium lauryl sulphate. The choice of suitable oils or fats for the formulation is based on achieving the desired cosmetic properties, since the solubility of the active compound in most oils likely to be used in pharmaceutical emulsion formulations may be very low. Thus the cream should preferably be a non-greasy, non-staining and washable product with suitable consistency to avoid leakage from tubes or other containers. Straight or branched chain, mono- or dibasic alkyl esters such as di-isoadipate, isocetyl stearate, propylene glycol diester of coconut fatty acids, isopropyl myristate, decyl oleate, isopropyl palmitate, butyl stearate, 2-ethylhexyl palmitate or a blend of branched chain esters known as Crodamol CAP may be used, the last three being preferred esters. These may be used alone or in combination depending on the properties required.
  • [0268]
    Alternatively, high melting point lipids such as white soft paraffin and/or liquid paraffin or other mineral oils can be used.
  • [0269]
    Formulations suitable for rectal administration may be presented as a suppository with a suitable base comprising, for example, cocoa butter or a salicylate.
  • [0270]
    Formulations suitable for vaginal administration may be presented as pessaries, tampons, creams, gels, pastes, foams or spray formulations containing in addition to the active compound, such carriers as are known in the art to be appropriate.
  • [0271]
    Formulations suitable for parenteral administration (e.g. by injection, including cutaneous, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous and intradermal), include aqueous and non-aqueous isotonic, pyrogen-free, sterile injection solutions which may contain anti-oxidants, buffers, preservatives, stabilisers, bacteriostats, and solutes which render the formulation isotonic with the blood of the intended recipient; and aqueous and non-aqueous sterile suspensions which may include suspending agents and thickening agents, and liposomes or other microparticulate systems which are designed to target the compound to blood components or one or more organs. Examples of suitable isotonic vehicles for use in such formulations include Sodium Chloride Injection, Ringer's Solution, or Lactated Ringer's Injection. Typically, the concentration of the active compound in the solution is from about 1 ng/ml to about 10 μg/ml, for example from about 10 ng/ml to about 1 μg/ml. The formulations may be presented in unit-dose or multi-dose sealed containers, for example, ampoules and vials, and may be stored in a freeze-dried (lyophilised) condition requiring only the addition of the sterile liquid carrier, for example water for injections, immediately prior to use. Extemporaneous injection solutions and suspensions may be prepared from sterile powders, granules, and tablets. Formulations may be in the form of liposomes or other microparticulate systems which are designed to target the active compound to blood components or one or more organs.
  • [0000]
    Dosage
  • [0272]
    It will be appreciated that appropriate dosages of the active compounds, and compositions comprising the active compounds, can vary from patient to patient. Determining the optimal dosage will generally involve the balancing of the level of therapeutic benefit against any risk or deleterious side effects of the treatments of the present invention. The selected dosage level will depend on a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the activity of the particular compound, the route of administration, the time of administration, the rate of excretion of the compound, the duration of the treatment, other drugs, compounds, and/or materials used in combination, and the age, sex, weight, condition, general health, and prior medical history of the patient. The amount of compound and route of administration will ultimately be at the discretion of the physician, although generally the dosage will be to achieve local concentrations at the site of action which achieve the desired effect without causing substantial harmful or deleterious side-effects.
  • [0273]
    Administration in vivo can be effected in one dose, continuously or intermittently (e.g. in divided doses at appropriate intervals) throughout the course of treatment. Methods of determining the most effective means and dosage of administration are well known to those of skill in the art and will vary with the formulation used for therapy, the purpose of the therapy, the target cell being treated, and the subject being treated. Single or multiple administrations can be carried out with the dose level and pattern being selected by the treating physician.
  • [0274]
    In general, a suitable dose of the active compound is in the range of about 100 μg to about 250 mg per kilogram body weight of the subject per day. Where the active compound is a salt, an ester, prodrug, or the like, the amount administered is calculated on the basis of the parent compound and so the actual weight to be used is increased proportionately.
  • EXAMPLES
  • [0275]
    The following are examples are provided solely to illustrate the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention, as described herein.
  • [0000]
    Acronyms
  • [0276]
    For convenience, many chemical moieties are represented using well known abbreviations, including but not limited to, methyl (Me), ethyl (Et), n-propyl (nPr), iso-propyl (iPr), n-butyl (nBu), tert-butyl (tBu), n-hexyl (nHex), cyclohexyl (cHex), phenyl (Ph), biphenyl (biPh), benzyl (Bn), naphthyl (naph), methoxy (MeO), ethoxy (EtO), benzoyl (Bz), and acetyl (Ac).
  • [0277]
    For convenience, many chemical compounds are represented using well known abbreviations, including but not limited to, methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), iso-propanol (i-PrOH), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), ether or diethyl ether (Et2O), acetic acid (AcOH), dichloromethane (methylene chloride, DCM), trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), dimethylfonmamide (DMF), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO).
  • [0000]
    General Experimental Details
  • [0278]
    Chemicals were purchased from the Aldrich Chemical Company, Lancaster Synthesis Ltd and Acros Organics (Fisher Scientific UK Ltd). THF was freshly distilled from sodium/benzophenone. Methanol and ethanol were distilled from magnesium/iodine. DCM was dried by distillation over phosphorus pentoxide. Acetone was dried by distillation over calcium hydride. All solvents not used immediately were stored over molecular sieves (4 Å, 3-5 mm beads), under nitrogen. Anhydrous DMF was obtained from Aldrich in SureSeal™ bottles. Triethylamine was dried by distillation over calcium hydride and stored over potassium hydroxide, under nitrogen.
  • [0279]
    Thin layer chromatography (TLC), was performed using Merck silica gel 60F254 pre-coated on aluminium sheets which were subsequently dried and visualised using either short wave (254 nm) ultraviolet light or by treatment with either ninhydrin or sulphuric acid then vanillin. ‘Flash’ column chromatography was carried out at medium pressure using Davisil silica gel (40-63 μm).
  • [0280]
    Melting points were determined using a Stuart Scientific SMP3 apparatus and are uncorrected. 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained using a Bruker Spectrospin AC 300E spectrometer (1H 300 MHz or 13C 75 MHz) or a Bruker
  • [0281]
    Spectrospin AC 500E spectrometer (1H 500 MHz or 13C 125 MHz). Chemical shifts are reported in parts per million (δ) downfield of teramethylsulfone using residual solvent peaks as internal standards. Multiplicities are indicated by s (singlet), d (doublet), t (triplet), q (quartet), m (multiplet), br (broad) or combinations thereof. LC/MS spectra were obtained using a Micromass Platform instrument running in positive or negative ion electrospray mode. Separation was achieved using a C18 column (504.6 mm; Supelco Discovery or Waters Symmetry) and a 15 minute gradient elution of 0.05% formic acid and methanol (10-90%). IR spectra were recorded on a Bio-Rad FTS 3000MX diamond ATR as a neat sample.
  • [0000]
    Synthesis of Key Intermediates
  • (ii) Synthesis of 9-triflyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin4-one (5)
  • [0282]
  • (a) 2,9-dihydroxy-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (2)
  • [0283]
    A mixture of malonic acid bis-(2,4,6-trichloro-phenyl) ester (17.33 g; 37.5 mmol) and 3-hydroxy-2-amino-pyridine (1)(4.12 g; 37.5 mmol) dissolved in bromobenzene (37 mL) was heated at reflux for 3 hours. Upon cooling, the reaction mixture was filtered and the solid was washed with ethanol. The solid was solubilised in 1 M NaOH and drops of AcOH were added to precipitate the product as a pale yellow solid (6.53 g). Yield=98%. m.p.: 320 C. (degradation); R1=0.11, MeOH:DCM (3:17); UV: λmax=252 nm; IR: (cm−1) 2862, 1688, 1564, 1374, 1295, 1102, 783; 1H NMR, (DMSO, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 5.22 (1H, s, CH-3), 7.12 (1H, t, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-7), 7.27 (1H, d, JH7-H8=8 Hz, Harom-8), 8.43 (1H, d, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-6); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 103.25, 116.46, 117.05, 119.03, 143.97, 148.82, 157.26, 157.50.
  • (b) 2-Chloro-9-hydroxy-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (3)
  • [0284]
    In a round bottom flask, 2,9-dihydroxy-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (2)(1.07 g; 6.0 mmol) was dissolved in phosphorous oxychloride (7.5 mL). This solution was heated to reflux for 48 hours. Upon cooling, the reaction mixture was poured carefully into ice cold water (100 mL) and adjusted to pH 7 by addition of a saturated solution of sodium carbonate. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane. The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulphate and evaporated to yield a brown solid. This solid was purified by flash chromatography using dichloromethane as eluant to furnish the title compound as a white solid (712 mg). Yield═60%. m.p.: 162 C.; Rf=0.34, MeOH:DCM (1:19); Mass Spec.: (m/z) 196.93 [M+1]+ (Rt=4.67 min, 12 min gradient); UV: λmax=210 nm; IR: (cm−1) 3103, 1684, 1630, 1511, 1458, 1297, 1105; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 6.4 (1H, s, CH-3), 7.11 (1H, t, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-7), 7.25 (1H, d, JH7-H8=8 Hz, Harom-8), 8.51 (1H, d, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-6); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 103.25, 116.46, 117.05, 119.03, 143.97, 148.82, 157.26, 157.50.
  • (c) 9-Hydroxy-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (4)
  • [0285]
    In a round bottom flask, 2-chloro-9-hydroxy-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (3)(141.7 mg; 0.721 mmol) and morpholine (314 μL; 3.605 mmol) were dissolved in ethanol (5 mL). This solution was heated to reflux for 18 hours with vigorous stirring. Upon cooling, the solvent was evaporated. The yellow raw solid was recrystallised in ethanol, giving 173.8 mg of white crystals. Yield=97%. m.p.: 245 C.; Rf=0.27, MeOH:DCM (1:19); Mass Spec.: (m/z) 248.08 [M+1]+ (Rt=4.92 min, 12 min gradient); UV: λmax=267 nm ; IR: (cm−1) 3302, 1690, 1644, 1551, 1427, 1224, 1110.; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 500 MHz), δ (ppm): 3.56 (4H, m, N—CH2-morpholine), 3.75 (4H, m, O—CH2-morpholine), 5.55 (1H, s, CH-3), 6.80 (1H, t, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harm-7), 7.02 (1H, dd, JH7-H8=8 Hz, JH6-H8=1.3 Hz, Harom-8), 7.33 (1H, s, OH), 8.37 (1H, dd, JH6-H7=7 Hz, JH6-H8=1.3 Hz, Harom-6); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 125 MHz), δ (ppm): 45.27, 67.02, 82.16, 113.46, 114.18, 119.50, 143.00, 147.51, 159.00, 161.00.
  • (d) 9-Triflate-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (5)
  • [0286]
    In a three-neck round bottom flask with a thermometer, 9-hydroxy-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (4) (2.11 g; 8.54 mmol) was solubilised in DCM (70 mL), cooled to −30 C. and triethylamine (3.572 mL; 25.63 mmol) added. After 5 minutes triflic anhydride (2.101 mL; 12.81 mmol), solubilised in 10 ml of DCM, was added dropwise to the reaction mixture over 30 minutes, via an addition funnel. The temperature of the reaction mixture was kept under −20 C. during the addition. After 3 hours, the reaction mixture was washed with a saturated solution of Na2CO3 (50 mL) and extracted with DCM (330 mL). The organic layer was dried over magnesium sulphate and evaporated to yield a brown solid. This solid was purified by flash chromatography using dichloromethane as eluant to furnish the title compound as an orange solid (2.91 g). Yield=90%. m.p.: 146-147 C.; Rf=0.42; MeOH:DCM (1:19); Mass Spec.: (m/z) 380.16 [M+1]+ (Rt=3.34 min, 12 min gradient); UV: λmax=271 nm; IR: (cm−1) 1705, 1644, 1551, 1189, 1112, 939, 769; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 3.56 (4H, m, N—CH2-morpholine), 3.71 (4H, m, O—CH2-morpholine), 5.53 (1H, s, CH-3), 6.80 (1H, t, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-7), 7.46 (1H, dd, JH7-H8=8 Hz, JH6-H8=1.3 Hz, Harom-8), 8.79 (1H, dd, JH6-H7=7 Hz, JH6-H8=1.3 Hz, Harom-6); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 45.19, 66.87, 81.76, 110.16, 112.61, 116.85, 121.10, 125.34, 127.86, 128.13, 141.46, 145.79, 158.07, 160.42.
  • (iv) Synthesis of 8-bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-1H-quinolin-4-one (12)
  • [0287]
  • (a) 5-(Bis-methylsulfanyl-methylene)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxane-4,6-dione (8)
  • [0288]
    In a 250 mL two neck flask, a well stirred solution of 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (6) (Meldrum's acid) (4.09 g; 28.4 mmol) in DMSO (14 mL) was formed. Triethylamine (7.92 mL; 56.8 mmol) and carbon disulfide (1.71 mL; 28.4 mmol) were added to this mixture in quick succession. The mixture was then stirred vigorously for 1 hour at room temperature before being cooled in an ice-bath. Iodomethane (3.54 mL; 56.8 mL) was slowly added to the reaction mixture with cooling (ice-bath). When the addition was completed the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and was stirred for a further 4 hours before being diluted with ice cold water (25 mL). Scratching of the mixture precipitated the product which was filtered off and washed with petrol. The product was obtained as a yellow solid (2.76 g) and was pure enough for use in subsequent reactions. Yield=45%. m.p.: 118 C. (literature28: 116-118 C.); IR: (cm−1) 3728, 1668, 1373, 1302, 1264, 1199; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 1.54 (6H, s, 2CH3), 2.58 (6H, s, 2CH3—S); 12C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 21.86, 27.22, 103.32, 160.33, 194.
  • (b) 5-[2-Bromoanilino-(methylthio)-methylene]-2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dione (10)
  • [0289]
    In a 10 mL round bottom flask with cooler and nitrogen bubbler, isopropylidene bismethylthiolidene malonate (8)(900 mg; 3.63 mmol) and 2-bromoaniline (15)(624 mg; 3.63 mmol) were dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (3.6 mL). The mixture was stirred and heated to reflux for 22 hours. Upon cooling, the solvent was evaporated. The residue was recrystallised from methanol to yield the title compound as white crystals (1.192 g). Yield=88%. m.p.: 159 C.; Rf=0.31, DCM; IR: (cm−1) 2990, 1706, 1653, 1535, 1370, 1199; UV: λmax=313 nm; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 1.69 (6H, s, 2CH3), 2.15 (3H, s, CH3—S), 7.8 (1H, dt, JH4-H5=8 Hz, JH4-H6=2 Hz, Harom-4), 7.35 (2H, m, Harom-5 and Harom-6), 7,61 (1H, dd, JH3-H4=8 Hz, JH3-H5=1.2 Hz, Harom-3), 12.51 (1H, s, N—H); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 18.75, 26.48, 87.54, 103.32, 120.45, 127.78, 128.46, 129.48, 133.57, 136.91, 163.87, 178.70.
  • (c) 5-[(2-Bromo-anilino)-morpholin-4-yl-methylene]-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxane-4,6-dione (11)
  • [0290]
    In a 10 mL round bottom flask with cooler and nitrogen bubbler, 5-[2-bromoanilino-(methylthio)-methylene]-2,2-dimethyl-4,6-dione (10)(234 mg; 0.629 mmol) and morpholine (110 μL; 1.257 mmol) were dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (1 mL). The mixture was stirred and heated to reflux for 18 hours. Upon cooling, the solvents were evaporated. The residue was recrystallised from methanol to yield the title compound as white crystals (0.124 g). Yield=50%. m.p.: 212-213 C.; Rf=0.05; DCM; IR: (cm−1) 1627, 1342, 1305, 1100, 1022, 934; UV: λmax=241 nm; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 1.77 (6H, s, 2CH3), 3.24 (4H, t, Jab=5 Hz, 2CH2—N morpholine), 3.66 (4H, t, Jab=5 Hz, 2CH2—O morpholine), 7.18 (2H, m, Harom-4 and Harom-6), 7.40 (1H, t, JH5-H6=8 Hz, Harom-5), 7.69 (1H, dd, JH3-H4=8 Hz, JH3-H5=1.4 Hz, Harom-3), 9.62 (1H, s, N—H); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 26.83, 51.14, 65.62, 87.54, 102.84, 120.45, 127.15, 128.92, 129.03, 134.48, 138.46, 164.92, 178.70.
  • (d) 8-Bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-1H-quinolin-4-one (12)
  • [0291]
    In a Schlenk tube, 5-[(2-bromo-anilino)-morpholin-4-yl-methylene]-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxane-4,6-dione (11)(103.3 mg; 0.2513 mmol) was dissolved in diphenyl ether (0.7 mL). The mixture was stirred and heated to reflux for 4 hours. Upon cooling, petroleum ether was added. The product was collected by suction. The residue was purified by flash chromatography using dichloromethane/methanol (95:5) as eluant. The product was obtained as a brown oil (65.1 mg). Yield=84%. Rf=0.25, MeOH:DCM (1:19); Mass Spec.: (m/z) 310.98 [M+1]+ (Rt=5.24 min, 12 min gradient); IR: (cm−1) 3395, 2959, 2849, 1617, 1577, 1487, 1421, 1384, 1327, 1263, 1229, 1188, 1152, 1111, 1066, 999, 902, 785; UV: λmax=254 nm; 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 3.72 (4H, t, Jab=5 Hz, 2CH2—N morpholine), 3.75 (4H, t, Jab=5 Hz, 2CH2—O morpholine), 5.95 (1H, s, H-3), 7.04 (1H, t, JH6-H7=8 Hz, Harom-6), 7.69 (1H, dd, JH6-H7=8 Hz, JH5-H7=1.3 Hz, Harom-7), 8.09 (1H, d, JH5-H6=8 Hz, Harom-5); 13C NMR, (CDCl3, 75 MHz), δ (ppm): 46.35, 66.59, 92.50, 114.53, 123, 123.50, 124.73, 134.45, 138, 156.06, 172.6.
  • Example 1 Parallel Synthesis from 9-Triflate-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a] pyrimidin-4-one (5)
  • [0292]
  • [0293]
    An appropriate boronic acid (0.395 mmol) and potassium carbonate (109.3 mg; 0.7914 mmol) were introduced in to a carousel tube. The flask was evacuated and purged with argon. This operation was performed 3 times. In a Schlenk tube, 9-triflate-2-morpholin-4-yl-pyrido[2,1-a]pyrimidin-4-one (5)(100 mg; 0.2638 mmol; per carousel tube) was solubilized in dioxane (2 mL; per carousel tube). Argon was bubbled in to the solution, which was sonicated for 15 minutes. In another Schlenk tube, terakis-(triphenylphosphine)-palladium (15.2 mg; 0.013 mmol; per carousel tube) was solubilized in dioxane (2 mL; per carousel tube). Argon was bubbled in to the solution, which was sonicated for 15 minutes. 2 mL of each solution was mixed together in the carousel tube, stirred and heated at 95 C. for 48 hours. Upon cooling, the solution was filtered through a Radleys Discovery Technologie solid phase extraction column of 500 mg of silica, which was placed on a stalker parallel purification system. The column was washed with ethyl acetate (20 mL), and collected as Phase 1. The column was then washed with dichloromethane/methanol (85:15) (20 mL) and collected as Phase 2. Both phases were checked for product via LC/MS. In some cases, phase 2 contained only impurities, in other cases both phases were combined and evaporated. Depending on the product, the purification was performed by HPLC or by flash chromatography.
    Compound Ar
    13a

    NMR Results
  • [0294]
    13a: 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 3.42 (4H, m, N—CH2-morpholine); 3.56 (4H, m, O—CH2-morpholine); 5.40 (1H, s, CH-3); 6.87 (1H, t, JH6-H7=7 Hz, Harom-7); 7.26-7.83 (10H, m, Harom-biphenyl and Harom-8); 8.87 (1H, dd, JH6-H7=7.1 Hz, JH6-H8=1.6 Hz, Harom-6).
  • [0295]
    13C—NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 44.92 (CH2—N-morpholine); 66.87 (CH—O—morpholine);81.24 (CH-3); 112.90 (CH-7); 127.22; 127.35; 127.56; 127.91; 128.81; 129.01; 129.24; 129.39; 135.74; 136.74; 137.59; 141.11; 149.46; 159.41(Cq); 160.72 (Cq).
  • Example 2 Parallel Synthesis from 8-Bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-1H-quinolin-4-one (12)
  • [0296]
  • [0297]
    An appropriate boronic acid (0.486 mmol) and potassium carbonate (269.2 mg; 1.946 mmol) were introduced in to a carousel tube. The flask was evacuated and purged with argon. This operation was performed 3 times. In a Schlenk tube, 8-bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-1H-quinolin-4-one (12)(100 mg; 0.324 mmol; per carousel tube) was solubilized in dioxane (2 mL; per carousel tube). Argon was bubbled in to the solution, which was sonicated for 15 minutes. In another Schlenk tube, terakis-(triphenylphosphine)-palladium (18.7 mg; 0.016 mmol; per carousel tube) was solubilized in dioxane (2 mL; per carousel tube). Argon was bubbled in to the solution, which was sonicated for 15 minutes. 2 mL of each solution was mixed together in the carousel tube, stirred and heated at 95 C. for 48 hours. Upon cooling, the solution was filtered through a Radleys Discovery Technologie solid phase extraction column of 500 mg of silica, which was placed on a stalker parallel purification system. The column was washed with ethyl acetate (20 mL), and collected as Phase 1. The column was then washed with dichloromethane/methanol (85:15) (20 mL), and collected as Phase 2.
  • [0298]
    Both phases were checked for product via LC/MS. In some cases, phase 2 contained only impurities, in other cases both phases were combined and evaporated. Depending on the product, the purification was performed by HPLC or by flash chromatography.
    14a

    NMR Results
  • [0299]
    14a: 1H NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 3.13 (4H, s, N—CH2-morpholine); 3.70 (4H, s, O—CH2-morpholine); 5.78 (1H, s, CH-3); 7.28-7.47 (5H, m, Ham-biphenyl and Harom-7); 7.47-7.72 (6H, m, Harom-biphenyl); 8.14 (1H, s, Harom-8); 8.32 (1H, s, Harom-6).
  • [0300]
    13C-NMR, (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ (ppm): 46.73 (CH2—N-morpholine); 66.27 (CH—O-morpholine); 92.86 (CH-3); 122.72; 123.58; 124.17; 125.93; 127.39; 127.54; 127.81; 128.01; 128.45; 128.98; 129.16; 129.43; 129.81; 130.51; 132.65; 135.56; 137.42; 140.29; 143.16; 154.31; 178.88.
  • Example 3 (a) 8-(6-Hydroxy-biphenyl-3-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (17)
  • [0301]
  • (i) 5-Iodo-biphenyl-2-ol (15)
  • [0302]
    A solution of 6.02 g (35.37 mmol, 1 eq.) of 2-phenylphenol, 5.30 g of sodium iodide (35.37 mmol, 1 eq.), 1.56 g of sodium hydroxide (35.37 mmol, 1 eq.) in 150 mL methanol was cooled to 0 C. 26.32 g of NaOCl were added dropwise via syringe over 30 minutes. Upon addition of each drop, the solution develops an orange colouration that fades instantly. The reaction mixture was left to stir at 0 C. during 1 hour before heating with 10% aqueous sodium thiosulfate (60 mL). The pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted to pH 7 using HCl and diethyl ether (150 mL) was added. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. Chromatography over silica gel (elution: DCM) afforded the title compound as a white solid (9.27g, 89%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 5.51 (broad s, 1H); 6.79 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H); 7.37-7.53 (m, 7H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 83.9; 118.8; 129.2; 129.5; 129.8; 130.9; 135.8; 138.7; 139.5; 152.3.
  • (ii) 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-chromen-4-one (16)
  • [0303]
    A round bottom flask containing 500 mg (1.32 mmol, 1 eq.) of chromenone triflate (see WO 03/024949), 402 mg (1.58 mmol, 1.2 eq.) of bis(pinacolato)diboron, 388 mg (3.95 mmol, 3 eq.) of potassium acetate and 15 mL 1,4-dioxane was sonicated for 15 minutes. To the reaction mixture were added PdCl2dppf (54 mg, 0.07 mmol, 5 mol %) and dppf (39 mg, 0.07 mmol, 5 mol %). The reaction was heated at 90 C. under argon overnight. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was diluted with diethyl ether and the organic layer was washed with a saturated NaCl solution, dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated. Chromatography over silica gel (elution:ethyl acetate/methanol, gradient) afforded the title compound (378 mg, 1.06 mmol, 80%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.19 (s, 12H); 3.61-3.64 (m, 4H); 3.74-3.78 (m, 4H); 5.51 (s, 3H); 7.27 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 1H); 7.94 (d, J=7.2 Hz); 8.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 24.9; 25.4; 45.1; 66.5; 83.5; 84.3; 86.8; 124.7; 129.6; 140.6; 158.1; 162.0; 178.0.
  • (iii) 8-(6-Hydroxy-biphenyl-3-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (17)
  • [0304]
    In a Schlenk tube were placed 107 mg (0.30 mmol) of boronic ester (16), 80 mg (0.27 mmol) of iodide, 4 mg (0.023 mmol) of PdCl2(PPh3)2 and 3 mL of aqueous 2M Na2CO3. THF (12 mL) was degassed prior to addition and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was extracted with DCM (60 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. Purification by reprecicpitation afforded 89 mg (83% yield) of the title compound. M.p. 243-247 C.; UV λmax=304 nm; IR (cm−1) 2854, 1618, 1556, 1406, 1243, 1114, 989, 777, 557; H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.32 (m, 4H); 3.57 (m, 4H); 5.55 (s, 1H); 7.20-7.65 (m, 10H); 8.15 (d; J=7.3 Hz; 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 44.7; 60.4; 65.09; 86.4; 116.5; 123.3; 124.4; 124.9; 127.7; 128.4; 128.8; 129.0; 129.7; 130.0; 132.1; 133.1; 137.6; 150.6; 153.8; 162.6; 171.3; 177.6.
  • (b) 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(3-thiophen-3-yl-phenyl)-chromen-4-one (20) and 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(3-thiophen-2-yl-phenyl)-chromen-4-one (21)
  • [0305]
  • (i) 8-(3-Hydroxy-phenyl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (18)
  • [0306]
    In a Schlenk tube were placed equimolar amounts of boronic ester and triflate, along with PdCl2(PPh3)2 and aqueous 2M Na2CO3. THF was degassed prior to addition and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Water was added and the reaction mixture was extracted with DCM. The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. Purification by reprecipitation afforded 693 mg (90% yield). M.p. 203-205 C.; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.29 (s (broad), 4H); 3.64 (s (broad), 4H); 5.51 (s, 1H); 6.95 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H); 7.00 (d, J=8.6 Hz, 1H); 7.27-7.42 (m, 3H); 7.49 (d, J=7.5 Hz; 1H); 8.11 (d; J=7.5 Hz; 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 44.9; 66.2; 116.0; 117.1; 120.7; 125.0; 125.4; 130.3; 130.6; 131.0; 134.1; 137.3; 140.3; 151.2; 157.5; 162.7; UV λmax=302 nm; IR (cm−1) 2862, 1614, 1553, 1414, 1244, 1112, 993, 779.
  • (ii) Trifluoro-methanesulfonic acid 3-(2-morpholin-4-yl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl)-phenyl ester (19)
  • [0307]
    In a round bottom flask were placed 8-(3-Hydroxy-phenyl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (18)(277 mg, 0.86 mmol, 1 eq.), N-phenyl triflimide (1.224 g, 3.43 mmol, 4 eq.), Et3N (480 μL, 3.43 mmol, 4 eq.) and 10 mL THF. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and water was added (10 mL). The mixture was extracted with DCM and the organic layers were combined, dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. Chromatography over silica gel (elution: ethyl acetate/methanol gradient) afforded the title compound as a white solid (300 mg, 0.66 mmol, 77%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.28-3.31 (m, 4H); 3.69-3.72 (m, 4H); 5.49 (s, 1H); 7.28-7.60 (m, 6H); 8.18 (d; J=7.8 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 44.6; 65.4; 87.6; 120.8; 121.6; 124.6; 124.9; 126.0; 129.1; 130.9; 133.1; 139.5; 149.1; 150.4; 162.5; 171.1; 177.1.
  • (iii) 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(3-thiophen-3-yl-phenyl)-chromen-4-one 46 (20)
  • [0308]
    Suzuki-Miyaura coupling was carried out as above to yield the desired compound. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.31 (m; 4H); 3.64 (m; 4H); 5.54 (s; 1H); 7.43-7.60 (m; 6H); 7.64-7.68 (m; 2H); 7.80 (s; 1H); 8.22 (d; J=6.0 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 44.7; 65.8; 87.0; 120.6; 123.4; 124.9; 125.2; 125.9; 126.2; 126.3; 126.8; 127.7; 130.1; 133.3; 135.9; 136.8; 141.6; 150.6; 162.5; 177.2; UV λmax=301 nm; IR (cm−1) 3094, 2847, 1615, 1556, 1404, 1244, 1066, 985, 769.
  • (iv) 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(3-thiophen-2-yl-phenyl)-chromen-4-one 47 (21)
  • [0309]
    Suzuki-Miyaura coupling was carried out as above to yield the desired compound. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.34 (m; 4H); 3.65 (m; 4H); 5.56 (s; 1H); 7.09-7.12 (m; 1H); 7.26-7.52 (m; 5H); 7.62-7.68 (m; 2H); 7.92 (s; 1H); 8.20 (d; J=6.0 Hz, 1H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 44.7; 65.8; 87.0; 123.3; 123.4; 124.9; 125.3; 125.9; 127.1; 127.5; 128.3; 128.4; 129.2; 129.9; 133.4; 134.5; 136.9; 143.6; 150.5; 162.5; 177.1; UV λmax=296 nm; IR (cm−1) 2921, 2855, 1639, 1570, 1396, 1240, 1115, 1074, 765.
  • [0310]
    Hydroxy derivative (17) was dissolved in dry DMF. Potassium carbonate and methyl bromoacetate were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 60 C. overnight. The mixture was poured in water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with water, brine, dried over magnesium sulphate and concentrated to give the methyl ester. This ester was dissolved in methanol and aqueous NaOH was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 60 C. for one hour until completed before being evaporated to dryness to give the sodium salt. The sodium salt was dissolved in DMF and divided in equal portions in tubes containing appropriate amines, HOBT and TBTU. The reaction mixtures were stirred at room temperature overnight and diluted in methanol before being submitted for purification.
    Rt
    Compound R M/z (min) Purity (%)
    24a 568 4.64 89
    24b 554 4.12 68
    24c 545 4.39 86
    24d 570 4.03 78
    24e 525 5.49 90
    24f 547.9 4.16 70
    24g 541 5.13 86
    24h 555 3.69 90
    24i 527 3.67 87
    (d)
  • [0311]
    In a round-bottom flask were introduced compound 17, 1,2-dibromoethane, potassium carbonate and dry DMF. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was divided in aliquots that were added, together with the appropriate amines in reactions tubes. The resulting mixtures were stirred at room temperature overnight and diluted with methanol before being submitted for purification.
    Compound R M/z Rt (min) Purity (%)
    25a 531.5 3.9 90
  • Example 4 (a) 8-(6-Amino-biphenyl-3-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (27)
  • [0312]
  • (i) 5-Bromo-biphenyl-2-ylamine (26)
  • [0313]
    In a two-neck round-bottom flask were placed the starting material 2-phenylaniline (2.035 g, 12.03 mmol, 1 eq.), 1.295 g NH4Br (13.23 mmol, 1.1 eq.) and 24 mL glacial acetic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (1.64 g of 27.5% w/w solution, 13.23 mmol, 1.1 eq.) was added dropwise via a syringe and the reaction mixture was left to stir for 24 hours. Upon disappearance of the starting material, a saturated solution of Na2CO3 was added and the mixture was extracted with DCM. The combined organic layers were dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. The crude mixture was purified by flash chromatography over silica gel (elution petrol/DCM 4:1, then gradient) to afford the expected product as a beige solid (2.076 g, 70%).
  • [0314]
    1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.76 (broad s, 2H); 6.67 (d, J=7.3 Hz, 1H); 7.27 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 1H); 7.37-7.52 (m, 6H).
  • [0315]
    13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 110.6; 117.5; 128.1; 129.3; 129.4; 129.8; 131.5; 133.2; 138.5; 143.0.
  • (ii) 8-(6-Amino-biphenyl-3-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (27)
  • [0316]
    In a schlenk tube were placed 145 mg (0.41 mmol) of chromenone boronate (16), 101 mg (0.41 mmol) of biphenylamine bromide, 48 mg (0.041 mmol) of Pd(PPh3)4 and 338 mg (2.44 mmol) of K2CO3 dioxane (10 mL) was degassed prior to addition and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 12 hours. Water (10 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was extracted with DCM (60 mL). The combined organic layers were dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuum. Silica gel chromatography (elution Ethyl acetate/methanol 95:5 then gradient) afforded the title compound as a white powder in 52% yield.
  • [0317]
    1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 3.26-3.33 (m; 4H); 3.67-3.71 (m; 4H); 5.49 (s; 1H); 7.28-7.58 (m, 10H), 8.14 (d; J=7.4 Hz; 1H).
  • [0318]
    13C NMR (75 MHz, CDCl3) δ 45.0; 60.7; 66.3; 87.2; 116.7; 123.7; 124.4; 125.0; 127.9; 128.6; 128.7; 129.1; 129.8; 130.5; 132.0; 133.3; 136.6; 150.9; 154.0; 162.8; 171.5; 177.7.
  • [0319]
    UV: λmax=305 nm
  • [0320]
    IR: (cm−1) 1616, 1560, 1400, 1242, 983, 905, 700.
  • [0321]
    Mass Spectrum: (m/z) 399 [M+1]+.
  • [0322]
    HPLC assay system: LCMS R7=3.82 min, 5 min gradient.
  • [0323]
    TLC: Rf=0.54 (EA/MeOH, 9:1)
  • [0324]
    Amino derivative (27) was dissolved in dry DMA. Triethylamine and chloroacetyl chloride were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. Aliquots of the reaction mixture were added to tubes containing the appropriate amines. The reaction mixtures were stirred at room temperature overnight and diluted in methanol before being submitted for purification.
    Compound R M/z Rt (min) Purity (%)
    29a 526.4 4.3 96
    29b 554.4 4.62 95
    29c 567.4 4.33 95
    29d 553.5 4.12 99
    29e 544.5 3.94 99
    29f 540.6 4.04 100
    (c)
  • [0325]
    In a round-bottom flask were introduced compound 27, triethylamine, 3-bromopropionyl chloride and dry DMA. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Upon completion, the reaction mixture was divided in aliquots that were added, together with the corresponding amines in reactions tubes. The resulting mixtures were stirred at room temperature overnight and diluted with methanol before being submitted for purification.
    Compound R M/z Rt (min) Purity (%)
    31a 583.5 3.94 99
  • Example 5
  • [0326]
  • [0327]
    In order to synthesise compounds having a heteroaryl-phenyl substituent, a double Suzuki-coupling was used. The reaction was carried out in a microwave at 150 C. for 5 minutes, with the following reagents in addition to the reactive compounds: PdCl2(PPh3)2, Na2CO3 aq., DME/H2O/EtOh (7:3:2). The compounds were then submitted for purification.
    Compound R M/z Rt (min) Purity (%)
    32a 385 3.78 90
    32b 386 4.34 99
    32c 388 3.5 98
    32d 403.9 6.11 96
    32e 390.9 5.05 75
    32f 404 3.96 100
    32g 404 3.63 100
    32h 385 3.38 100
  • Example 6
  • [0328]
  • a) 8-(2-Chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (33)
  • [0329]
    To a solution of trifluoro-methanesulfonic acid 2-morpholin-4-yl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl ester (1.00 g, 2.64 mmol) in anhydrous dioxane (40 mL) under a N2 atmosphere was added 2-chloropyridine-4-boronic acid (0.436 g, 2.77 mmol) in one portion, followed by the addition of tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (0) (0.147 g, 0.132 mmol) and crushed potassium carbonate (1.093 g, 7.91 mmol) in one portion each successively. A condensor was fitted and the reaction was heated to 110 C. After 48 hours, the reaction was cooled to RT and filtered through celite with dichloromethane washings. The combined organics were washed with a saturated brine solution (110 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. On addition of hexanes, the precipitation of a solid occurred over 12 hours which was collected by filtration to yield the title compound (assumed 100%) and required no further purification.
  • b) 8-(2—Substituted-pyridin-4-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (34)
  • [0330]
    8-(2-Chloro-pyridin-4-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (0.30 g, 0.875 mmol) was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (10 mL). Aliquots (1 mL) were then added to vials containing crushed potassium carbonate (0.029 g, 0.210 mmol), the required boronic acid (0.096 mmol) and bis(tri-tbutylphosphine)palladium (0) (6 mg, 0.003 mmol). The mixtures were then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 300s. The resulting solutions were filtered through an SEP silica cartridge with methanol washing, and then subjected to purification via HPLC.
    Compound R M/z (M + H) Rt (min) Purity (%)
    34a 385.4 8.98 97
    34b 436.3 6.56 98
    34c 469.3 12.51 99
    34d 427.3 9.52 92
    34e 504.3 10.57 89
    34f 403.3 10.01 99
    34g 480.3 11.07 99
    34h 399.3 9.55 93
    34i 476.3 10.59 95
    34j 512.4 11.08 93
    34k 424.4 7.31 96
    34l 415.3 8.52 99
    34m 492.4 9.61 98
    34n 404.3 4.52 98
    34o 386.4 3.70 94
  • Example 7
  • [0331]
  • a) 8-(4-Bromo-pyridin-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (35)
  • [0332]
    To a solution of 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-chromen-4-one (0.321 g, 0.90 mmol) in a 1:1 mixture of toluene:ethanol (15 mL) was added 2,4-dibromopyridine (0.315 g, 0.99 mmol) in one portion, followed by the addition of trans-dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)palladium (II) (0.011 g, 0.015 mmol) and crushed potassium carbonate (0.435 g, 3.15 mmol) in one portion each successively. The reaction mixture was then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 300s. The resulting solution was filtered with ethanol washings and the combined organics were concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) (EtOAc:EtOH 100:1, then DCM:MeOH 20:1) to yield the title compound as a brown foam (0.275 g, 79%).
  • b) 8-(4-Substituted-pyridin-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (36)
  • [0333]
    8-(4-Bromo-pyridin-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (0.275 g, 0.710 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (10 mL). Aliquots (1 mL) were then added to vials containing crushed potassium carbonate (0.029 g, 0.210 mmol), the required boronic acid (0.105 mmol) and bis(tri-tbutylphosphine)palladium (0) (2 mg, 0.004 mmol). The mixtures were then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 300s. The resulting solutions were filtered through a SEP silica cartridge with methanol washing, and then subjected to purification via HPLC.
    Compound R M/z (M + H) Rt (min) Purity (%)
    36a 309.3 3.41 99
    36b 385.5 9.29 99
    36c 391.3 4.47 91
    36d 391.3 4.59 71
    36e 386.4 3.85 98
    36f 375.4 4.26 85
    36g 387.3 3.91 99
    36h 404.3 4.40 96
  • Example 8
  • [0334]
  • a) 8-(5-Chloro-thiophen-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (37)
  • [0335]
    To a solution of trifluoro-methanesulfonic acid 2-morpholin-4-yl-4-oxo-4H-chromen-8-yl ester (0.341 g, 0.90 mmol) in a 10:1 mixture of 1,4-dioxane:N,N-dimethylacetamide (15 mL) was added a catalytic amount of triethylamine, followed by the addition of 5-chloro-2-thiopheneboronic acid (0.292 g, 1.80 mmol). The mixture was then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 120s. The addition of a further amount of 5-chloro-2-thiopheneboronic acid (0.292 g, 1.80 mmol), followed by microwave irradiation at 150 C. for 120s was repeated twice. After filtration, the filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and the resulting solid triturated with tetrahydrofuran. A second filtration revealed the title compound (0.222 g, 71%) and required no further purification.
  • b) 8-(5-Substituted-thiophen-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (38)
  • [0336]
    8-(5-Chloro-thiophen-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (0.222 g, 0.64 mmol) was dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (10 mL). Aliquots (1 mL) were then added to vials containing crushed potassium carbonate (0.026 g, 0.19 mmol), the required boronic acid (0.066 mmol) and bis(tri-tbutylphosphine)palladium (0) (1-2 mg, 0.003 mmol). The mixtures were then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 120s. The resulting solutions were filtered through an SEP silica cartridge with methanol washing, and then subjected to purification via HPLC.
    Rt
    Compound R M/z (M + H) (min) Purity (%)
    38a 390.3 13.47 98
    38b 441.3 8.82 100
    38c 468.3 10.65 100
    38d 474.3 15.50 99
    38e 432.3 12.18 100
    38f 408.3 13.66 100
    38g 404.3 14.74 96
    38h 440.3 15.29 94
    38i 429.3 12.60 92
    38j 420.3 13.49 100
  • Example 9
  • [0337]
  • a) 8-(5-Bromo-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (39)
  • [0338]
    To a solution of 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-chromen-4-one (0.535 g, 1.50 mmol) in a 1:1 mixture of toluene:ethanol (25 mL) was added 2,5-dibromothiazole (0.400 g, 1.65 mmol) in one portion, followed by the addition of tetrakis(triphenyl phosphine)palladium (0) (0.087 g, 0.075 mmol) and crushed potassium carbonate (0.621 g, 4.50 mmol) in one portion each successively. The reaction mixture was then subjected to microwave radiation at 130 C. for 3600s. The resulting solution was filtered with ethanol washings and the combined organics were concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) (EtOAc:EtOH 20:1, then 20:3) to yield the title compound as a dark solid (0.255 g, 43%).
  • b) 8-(5—Substituted-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (40)
  • [0339]
    8-(5-Bromo-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (0.255 g, 0.650 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (10 mL). Aliquots (1 mL) were then added to vials containing crushed potassium carbonate (0.029 g, 0.210 mmol), the required boronic acid (0.098 mmol) and bis(tri-tbutylphosphine)palladium (0) (2 mg, 0.004 mmol). The mixtures were then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 300s. The resulting solutions were filtered through a SEP silica cartridge with methanol washing, and then subjected to purification via HPLC.
    Compound R M/z (M + H) Rt (min) Purity (%)
    40a 390.3 6.10 93
    40b 396.2 5.93 96
  • Example 10
  • [0340]
  • a) 8-(5-Bromo-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (41)
  • [0341]
    To a solution of 2-Morpholin-4-yl-8-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-[1,3,2]dioxaborolan-2-yl)-chromen-4-one (0.535 g, 1.50 mmol) in a 1:1 mixture of toluene:ethanol (25 mL) was added 2,5-dibromothiazole (0.400 g, 1.65 mmol) in one portion, followed by the addition of tetrakis(triphenyl phosphine)palladium (0) (0.087 9, 0.075 mmol) and crushed potassium carbonate (0.621 g, 4.50 mmol) in one portion each successively. The reaction mixture was then subjected to microwave radiation at 130 C. for 3600s. The resulting solution was filtered with ethanol washings and the combined organics were concentrated in vacuo. The crude product was purified by flash chromatography (SiO2) (EtOAc:EtOH 20:1, then 20:3) to yield the title compound as a dark solid (0.255 g, 43%).
  • b) 8-(5—Substituted-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (42)
  • [0342]
    8-(5-Bromo-thiazol-2-yl)-2-morpholin-4-yl-chromen-4-one (0.255 9, 0.650 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide (10 mL). Aliquots (1 mL) were then added to vials containing crushed potassium carbonate (0.029 g, 0.210 mmol), the required boronic acid (0.098 mmol) and bis(tri-tbutylphosphine)palladium (0) (2 mg, 0.004 mmol). The mixtures were then subjected to microwave radiation at 150 C. for 300s. The resulting solutions were filtered through a SEP silica cartridge with methanol washing, and then subjected to purification via HPLC.
    Compound R M/z (M + H) Rt (min) Purity (%)
    42a 397.3 5.55 99
    42b 397.3 5.72 92
    42c 392.3 4.34 82
    42d 381.3 5.26 97
    42e 392.3 3.92 99
    42f 391.3 5.76 95

    Biological Examples
    DNA-PK Inhibition
  • [0343]
    In order to assess the inhibitory action of the compounds against DNA-PK in vitro, the following assay was used to determine IC50 values.
  • [0344]
    Mammalian DNA-PK (500ng/ml) was isolated from HeLa cell nuclear extract (Gell, D. and Jackson S. P., Nucleic Acids Res. 27:3494-3502 (1999)) following chromatography utilising Q-sepharose, S-sepharose and Heparin agarose. DNA-PK (250 ng) activity was measured at 30 C., in a final volume of 40 μl, in buffer containing 25 mM Hepes, pH7.4, 12.5 mM MgCl2, 50 mM KCl, 1 mM DTT, 10% Glycerol, 0.1% NP-40 and 1 mg of the substrate GST-p53N66 (the amino terminal 66 amino acid resiudes of human wild type p53 fused to glutathione S-transferase) in polypropylene 96 well plates. To the assay mix, varying concentrations of inhibitor (in DMSO at a final concentration of 1%) were added. After 10 minutes of incubation, ATP was added to give a final concentration of 50 μM along with a 30mer double stranded DNA oligonucleotide (final concentraion of 0.5 ng/ml) to initiate the reaction. After 1 hour with shaking, 150 μl of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was added to the reaction and 5 μl then transferred to a 96 well opaque white plate containing 45 μl of PBS per well where the GSTp53N66 substrate was allowed to bind to the wells for 1 hour. To detect the phosphorylation event on the serine 15 residue of p53 elicited by DNA-PK a p53 phosphoserine-15 antibody (Cell Signaling Technology) was used in a basic ELISA procedure. An anti-rabbit HRP conjugated secondary antibody (Pierce) was then employed in the ELISA before the addition of chemiluminescence reagent (NEN Renaissance) to detect the signal as measured by chemiluminescent counting via a TopCount NXT (Packard).
  • [0345]
    The enzyme activity for each compound is then calculated using the following equation: % Inhibition = 100 - ( ( cpm of unknown - mean negative cpm ) 100 ( mean positive cpm - mean negative cpm ) )
  • [0346]
    The results are discussed below as IC50 values (the concentration at which 50% of the enzyme activity is inhibited). These are determined over a range of different concentrations, normally from 10 μM down to 0.001 μM. Such IC50 values are used as comparative values to identify increased compound potencies.
  • [0000]
    Survival Enhancement Ratio
  • [0347]
    The Survival Enhancement Ratio (SER) is a ratio of the enhancement of cell kill elicited by the DNA-PK inhibitor after 2 Grays of irradiation compared to unirradiated control cells. DNA-PK inhibitors were used at a fixed concentration of 500 nM. Radiation was delivered by a Faxitron 43855D machine at a dose rate of 1 Gy pre minute The SER at 2 Gray irradiation was calculated from the formula: SER = Cell survival in presence of DNA - PK inhibitor Cell survival of control cells Cell survival after IR Cell survival after IR in presence of DNA - PK inhibitor
  • [0348]
    The degree of cell killing was monitored by a standard clonogenic survival assay. Briefly, tissue culture treated 6-well plates were seeded with HeLa cells at an appropriate concentration to give 100-200 colonies per well and returned to the incubator in order to allow the cells to attach. Four hours later, compound or vehicle control was added to the cells. The cells were then incubated for 1 hour in the presence of inhibitor prior to irradiation at 2 Gray using a Faxitron 43855D cabinet X-ray machine. The cells were then incubated for a further 16 hours before the media was replaced with fresh media in the absence of DNA-PK inhibitor. After 8 days, colonies formed were fixed and stained with Giemsa (Sigma, Poole, UK) and scored using an automated colony counter (Oxford Optronics Ltd, Oxford, UK). The data was calculated as described above.
  • [0000]
    Results
  • [0349]
    All the compounds showed activity in DNA-PK inhibition, some exhibiting an IC50 of less than about 500 nM.
  • [0350]
    All the compounds showed an SER of 1 or more.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4954518 *Oct 7, 1988Sep 4, 1990Toyama Chemical Company, Ltd.4H-1-benzopyran-4-one derivative or its salt, process for producing the same and pharmaceutical composition comprising the same as active ingredient
US5252735 *Feb 25, 1992Oct 12, 1993The Upjohn CompanyAntiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic 2-amino-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-ones
US5284856 *Jul 24, 1992Feb 8, 1994Hoechst AktiengesellschaftOncogene-encoded kinases inhibition using 4-H-1-benzopyran-4-one derivatives
US5302613 *Apr 9, 1993Apr 12, 1994The Upjohn CompanyAntiatheroscleroic and antithrombotic 2-amino-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-4-ones
US5703075 *Jun 7, 1995Dec 30, 1997Pharmacia & Upjohn CompanyAntiatherosclerotic and antithrombotic 1-benzopyran-4-ones and 2-amino-1,3-benzoxazine-4-ones
US5733920 *Oct 31, 1995Mar 31, 1998Mitotix, Inc.Inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinases
US5922755 *Apr 7, 1994Jul 13, 1999Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd.Immunomodulator, cell adhesion inhibtor, and agent for treating, and preventing autoimmune diseases
US6348311 *Sep 21, 1999Feb 19, 2002St. Jude Childre's Research HospitalATM kinase modulation for screening and therapies
US6387640 *Feb 10, 1999May 14, 2002St. Jude Children's Research HospitalATM kinase modulation for screening and therapies
US6458569 *Aug 22, 2001Oct 1, 2002International Flavors & Fragrances Inc.Bioprocess for the high-yield production of food flavor-acceptable jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate, novel jasmonic acid isomer produced thereby and uses thereof
US7049313 *Feb 24, 2003May 23, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals Ltd.ATM inhibitors
US7056942 *Jan 16, 2004Jun 6, 2006Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.Carvedilol
US20040023968 *Apr 29, 2003Feb 5, 2004Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedPhthalazinone derivatives
US20040192687 *Aug 14, 2002Sep 30, 2004Martin Niall Morrison BarrDna-pk inhibitors
US20050054657 *Aug 13, 2004Mar 10, 2005Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedATM inhibitors
US20050107367 *Aug 14, 2002May 19, 2005Martin Niall M.B.Thiopyrane-4-ones as dna protein kinase inhibitors
US20060106025 *Sep 20, 2005May 18, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US20060178361 *Feb 9, 2006Aug 10, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedATM inhibitors
US20060264427 *Apr 13, 2006Nov 23, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US20070238729 *Jun 5, 2007Oct 11, 2007Cancer Research Technology LimitedDna-pk inhibitors
US20070238731 *Sep 20, 2005Oct 11, 2007Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDna-Pk Inhibitors
US20080242664 *Jun 5, 2008Oct 2, 2008Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDna-pk inhibitors
US20090042865 *Jul 18, 2008Feb 12, 2009Mark FrigerioDna-pk inhibitors
US20090043091 *Sep 19, 2008Feb 12, 2009Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedAtm inhibitors
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7642254Feb 9, 2006Jan 5, 2010Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedATM inhibitors
US7674823Jun 5, 2007Mar 9, 2010Cancer Research Technology LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US7696203Apr 13, 2006Apr 13, 2010Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US7732483Jun 5, 2008Jun 8, 2010Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US20060178361 *Feb 9, 2006Aug 10, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedATM inhibitors
US20060264427 *Apr 13, 2006Nov 23, 2006Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDNA-PK inhibitors
US20070238729 *Jun 5, 2007Oct 11, 2007Cancer Research Technology LimitedDna-pk inhibitors
US20070238731 *Sep 20, 2005Oct 11, 2007Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedDna-Pk Inhibitors
US20090042865 *Jul 18, 2008Feb 12, 2009Mark FrigerioDna-pk inhibitors
US20090043091 *Sep 19, 2008Feb 12, 2009Kudos Pharmaceuticals LimitedAtm inhibitors
Classifications
U.S. Classification544/114
International ClassificationC07D413/00
Cooperative ClassificationC07D413/00
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 1, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: KUDOS PHARMACEUTICALS LIMITED, UNITED KINGDOM
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MARTIN, NIALL MORRISON BARR;SMITH, GRAEME CAMERON MURRAY;FRIGERIO, MARK;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:018465/0007;SIGNING DATES FROM 20060905 TO 20060914
Oct 12, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: CANCER RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY LIMITED, UNITED KINGDOM
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GRIFFIN, ROGER JOHN;GOLDING, BERNARD THOMAS;DESAGE-EL MURR, MARINE;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:019952/0841;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070713 TO 20070828