US 20060275342 A1
This invention describes the use of polymerizable surfactants at percent by weight of less than 15% as comonomers in forming ophthalmic devices such as contact lenses, intraocular lenses, corneal implants, etc.
1. An ophthalmic device comprising:
a polymerized comonomer mixture comprising at least one polymerizable surfactant selected from the group consisting of poloxamers having at least one end terminal functionalized, reverse poloxamers having at least one end terminal functionalized, poloxamines having at least one end terminal functionalized, reverse poloxamines having at least one end terminal functionalized and mixtures thereof, wherein the polymerizable surfactant is present in comonomer mixture prior to polymerization at less than 15% by weight.
2. The ophthalmic device of
3. The ophthalmic device of
4. The ophthalmic device of
5. The ophthalmic device of
6. The ophthalmic device of
7. The ophthalmic device of
8. The ophthalmic device of
9. The ophthalmic device of
10. The ophthalmic device of
11. The ophthalmic device of
12. The ophthalmic device of
13. The ophthalmic device of
14. The ophthalmic device of
wherein X is hydrogen or methyl and Y is —O—, —OQ—, —NH—, —NQ— and —NH(Q)—, and Q is an alkyl or substituted alkyl group; and mixtures thereof.
15. The ophthalmic device of
16. The ophthalmic device of
17. The ophthalmic device of
18. The ophthalmic device of
19. The ophthalmic device of
20. The ophthalmic device of
21. The ophthalmic device of
22. The ophthalmic device of
23. A method of forming an ophthalmic device comprising:
providing a polymerizable mixture comprising a comonomer mixture comprising at least one polymerizable surfactant selected from the group consisting of poloxamers having at least one end terminal functionalized, reverse poloxamers having at least one end terminal functionalized, poloxamines having at least one end terminal functionalized, reverse poloxamines having at least one end terminal functionalized and mixtures thereof, wherein the polymerizable surfactant is present in an amount of less than 15% by weight of the polymerizable monomer mixture;
subjecting the polymerizable mixture to polymerizing conditions; and, shaping the polymerizable mixture into the desired shape of the ophthalmic device.
24. The method of
25. The method of
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30. The method of
This application is a Continuation-in-Part of co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/002,541, filed Dec. 22, 2004, herein incorporated by reference.
This invention describes the use of polymerizable poloxamers and poloxamines as comonomers in forming polymeric devices such as contact lenses, intraocular lenses, bio-filters, etc.
Poloxamer block copolymers are known compounds and are generally available under the trademark PLURONIC. Poloxamers generally have the following general formula:
Poloxamers and reverse poloxamers have end terminal hydroxyl groups that can be functionalized. An example of an end terminal functionalized poloxamer is poloxamer dimethacrylate (Pluronic F-127 dimethacrylate) as disclosed in U.S. Patent Publication No. 2003/0044468 to Cellesi et al. U.S. Pat. No. 6,517,933 discloses glycidyl-terminated copolymers of polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol. U.S. Pat. No. 5,334,681 discusses the use of vinyl telechelic polyethers in combination with fluorine containing monomers and silicone containing monomers to form hydrogels that have high oxygen permeability, resiliency, flexibility and wettability to make biocompatible polymers, particularly contact lenses. In all of the examples the polyethers are used as a main component in the formulation to obtain the desirable bulk material properties for the device, such as water content, and oxygen and water permeability. This disclosure specifically mentions the use of the polyether at concentration ranges from 15% to 69.9%.
U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/020,541, filed Dec. 22, 2004, discloses the use of polymerizable surfactants, based on block copolymers of PEO and PPO, in device forming formulations as surface modifying agents. For this reason, the polyether must be a surfactant and have an HLB associated with it as we are primarily interested in modifying the surface properties of the formed device.
Poloxamers and reverse poloxamers are surfactants with varying HLB values based upon the varying values of a and b, a representing the number of hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) units (PEO) being present in the molecule and b representing the number of hydrophobic poly(propylene oxide) units (PPO) being present in the molecule. While poloxamers and reverse poloxamers are considered to be difunctional molecules (based on the terminal hydroxyl groups) they are also available in a tetrafunctional form known as poloxamines, trade name TETRONIC. For poloxamines, the molecules are tetrafunctional block copolymers terminating in primary hydroxyl groups and linked by a central diamine. Poloxamines have the following general structure:
Hydrophilic polyethers that are present at the surface of substrates have long been known to inhibit bacterial adhesion and to reduce the amount of lipid and protein deposition (non-fouling surface). In the present invention, we chemically modify poloxamer and poloxamine block copolymers (BASF Corp.) and include them in ophthalmic device forming formulations.
Medical devices such as ophthalmic lenses can generally be subdivided into two major classes, namely hydrogels and non-hydrogels. Non-hydrogels do not absorb appreciable amounts of water, whereas hydrogels can absorb and retain water in an equilibrium state.
Hydrogels are widely used as soft contact lens materials. It is known that increasing the hydrophilicity of the contact lens surface improves the wettability of the contact lenses. This in turn is associated with improved wear comfort of contact lenses. Additionally, the surface of the lens can affect the overall susceptibility of the lens to deposition of proteins and lipids from the tear fluid during lens wear. Accumulated deposits can cause eye discomfort or even inflammation. In the case of extended wear lenses (i.e. lenses used without daily removal of the lens before sleep), the surface is especially important, since extended wear lenses must be designed for high standards of comfort and biocompatibility over an extended period of time. Thus new formulations that have the potential to yield improved surface qualities are still desirable in this field of art.
We are particularly interested in hydrogel compositions comprising from about 0.1 to less than 15 weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines, more preferably from about 0.1 to about 10 weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines, and most preferably from about 0.1 to about 2-5% weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines. The incorporation of small amounts of polymerizable poloxamers and/or poloxamines have been shown to dramatically effect the surface as is demonstrated in the surface analysis using XPS spectroscopy, as well as by the lipid deposition profile of the modified lens materials. Lenses that are modified with a lower HLB (more lipophilic) surfactant adsorb a significantly higher amount of lipid than do the lenses modified with a higher HLB surfactant (more hydrophilic). This data taken together demonstrate that there is a surface enhancement of the polymerizable surfactant near the surface of the lens than in the bulk and that the presence of the surfactant at the surface changes the surface properties.
Comonomers and Oligomers
Examples of biomaterials useful in the present invention are taught in U.S. Pat. No. 5,908,906 to Kunzler et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,714,557 to Kunzler et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,710,302 to Kunzler et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,708,094 to Lai et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,616,757 to Bambury et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,610,252 to Bambury et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,512,205 to Lai; U.S. Pat. No. 5,449,729 to Lai; U.S. Pat. No. 5,387,662 to Kunzler et al. and U.S. Pat. No. 5,310,779 to Lai; which patents are incorporated by reference as if set forth at length herein.
Rigid gas-permeable (RGP) materials typically comprise a hydrophobic cross-linked polymer system containing less than 5 wt. % water. RGP materials useful in accordance with the present invention include those materials taught in U.S. Pat. No. 4,826,936 to Ellis; U.S. Pat. No. 4,463,149 to Ellis; U.S. Pat. No. 4,604,479 to Ellis; U.S. Pat. No. 4,686,267 to Ellis et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 4,826,936 to Ellis; U.S. Pat. No. 4,996,275 to Ellis et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,032,658 to Baron et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,070,215 to Bambury et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,165 to Valint et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,177,168 to Baron et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,219,965 to Valint et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,336,797 to McGee and Valint; U.S. Pat. No. 5,358,995 to Lai et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,364,918 to Valint et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,610,252 to Bambury et al.; U.S. Pat. No. 5,708,094 to Lai et al; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,981,669 to Valint et al. U.S. Pat. No.5,346,976 to Ellis et al. teaches a preferred method of making an RGP material.
The invention is applicable to a wide variety of polymeric materials, either rigid or soft. Especially preferred polymeric materials are lenses including contact lenses, phakic and aphakic intraocular lenses and corneal implants although all polymeric materials including biomaterials are contemplated as being within the scope of this invention. Hydrogels comprise hydrated, crosslinked polymeric systems containing water in an equilibrium state. Such hydrogels could be silicone hydrogels, which generally have water content greater than about five weight percent and more commonly between about ten to about eighty weight percent. Such materials are usually prepared by polymerizing a mixture containing at least one siloxane-containing monomer and at least one hydrophilic monomer. Applicable siloxane-containing monomeric units for use in the formation of silicone hydrogels are well known in the art and numerous examples are provided in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,136,250; 4,153,641; 4,740,533; 5,034,461; 5,070,215; 5,260,000; 5,310,779; and 5,358,995. Moreover, the use of siloxane-containing monomers having certain fluorinated side groups, i.e. —(CF2)—H, have been found to improve compatibility between the hydrophilic and siloxane-containing monomeric units, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,387,662 and 5,321,108.
The poloxamer and/or poloxamine is functionalized to provide the desired reactivity at the end terminal of the molecule. The functionality can be varied and is determined based upon the intended use of the functionalized PEO- and PPO-containing block copolymers. That is, the PEO- and PPO-containing block copolymers are reacted to provide end terminal functionality that is complementary with the intended device forming monomer mixture. By block copolymer we mean to define the poloxamer and/or poloxamine as having two or more blocks in their polymeric backbone(s).
Selection of the functional end group is determined by the functional group of the reactive molecule in the monomer mix. For example, if the reactive molecule contains a carboxylic acid group, glycidyl methacrylate can provide a methacrylate end group. If the reactive molecule contains hydroxy or amino functionality, isocyanato ethyl methacrylate or (meth)acryloyl chloride can provide a methacrylate end group and vinyl chloro formate can provide a vinyl end group. A wide variety of suitable combinations of ethylenically unsaturated end groups and reactive molecules will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. For example, the functional group may comprise a moiety selected from amine, hydrazine, hydrazide, thiol (nucleophilic groups), carboxylic acid, carboxylic ester, including imide ester, orthoester, carbonate, isocyanate, isothiocyanate, aldehyde, ketone, thione, alkenyl, acrylate, methacrylate, acrylamide, sulfone, maleimide, disulfide, iodo, epoxy, sulfonate, thiosulfonate, silane, alkoxysilane, halosilane, and phosphoramidate. More specific examples of these groups include succinimidyl ester or carbonate, imidazolyl ester or carbonate, benzotriazole ester or carbonate, p-nitrophenyl carbonate, vinyl sulfone, chloroethylsulfone, vinylpyridine, pyridyl disulfide, iodoacetamide, glyoxal, dione, mesylate, tosylate, and tresylate. Also included are other activated carboxylic acid derivatives, as well as hydrates or protected derivatives of any of the above moieties (e.g. aldehyde hydrate, hemiacetal, acetal, ketone hydrate, hemiketal, ketal, thioketal, thioacetal). Preferred electrophilic groups include succinimidyl carbonate, succinimidyl ester, maleimide, benzotriazole carbonate, glycidyl ether, imidazoyl ester, p-nitrophenyl carbonate, acrylate, tresylate, aldehyde, and orthopyridyl disulfide.
Further provided herein are certain exemplary, but non-limiting, examples of reactions for providing functionalized termini for PEO- and PPO-containing block copolymers. It is to be understood that one of ordinary skill in the art would be able to determine other reaction methods without engaging in an undue amount of experimentation. It should also be understood that any particular block copolymer molecule shown is only one chain length of a polydispersed population of the referenced material.
PEO- and PPO-containing block copolymers are presently preferred. One such copolymer that can be used with the method of the invention, is Pluronic® F127, a block copolymer having the structure [(polyethylene oxide)99-(polypropylene oxide)66-(polyethylene oxide)99]. The terminal hydroxyl groups of the copolymer are functionalized to allow for the reaction of the copolymer with other device forming monomers.
Device Forming Additives and Comonomers
The polymerizable composition may, further as necessary and within limits not to impair the purpose and effect of the present invention, contain various additives such as antioxidant, coloring agent, ultraviolet absorber and lubricant.
In the present invention, the polymerizable composition may be prepared by using, according to the end-use and the like of the resulting shaped polymer articles, one or at least two of the above comonomers and oligomers and functionalized surfactants: and, when occasions demand, one or more crosslinking agents.
Where the shaped polymer articles are for example medical products, in particular a contact lens, the polymerizable composition is suitably prepared from one or more of the silicon compounds, e.g. siloxanyl (meth)acrylate, siloxanyl (meth)acrylamide and silicone oligomers, to obtain contact lenses with high oxygen permeability.
The monomer mix of the present invention may include additional constituents such as crosslinking agents, internal wetting agents, hydrophilic monomeric units, toughening agents, and other constituents as is well known in the art.
Although not required, compositions within the scope of the present invention may include toughening agents, preferably in quantities of less than about 80 weight percent e.g. from about 5 to about 80 weight percent, and more typically from about 20 to about 60 weight percent. Examples of suitable toughening agents are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,327,203. These agents include cycloalkyl acrylates or methacrylates, such as: methyl acrylate and methacrylate, t-butylcyclohexyl methacrylate, isopropylcyclopentyl acrylate, t-pentylcyclo-heptyl methacrylate, t-butylcyclohexyl acrylate, isohexylcyclopentyl acrylate and methylisopentyl cyclooctyl acrylate. Additional examples of suitable toughening agents are described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,355,147. This reference describes polycyclic acrylates or methacrylates such as: isobornyl acrylate and methacrylate, dicyclopentadienyl acrylate and methacrylate, adamantyl acrylate and methacrylate, and isopinocamphyl acrylate and methacrylate. Further examples of toughening agents are provided in U.S. Pat. No. 5,270,418. This reference describes branched alkyl hydroxyl cycloalkyl acrylates, methacrylates, acrylamides and methacrylamides. Representative examples include: 4-t-butyl-2-hydroxycyclohexyl methacrylate (TBE);: 4-t-butyl-2-hydroxycyclopentyl methacrylate; methacryloxyamino-4-t-butyl-2-hydroxycyclohexane; 6-isopentyl-3-hydroxycyclohexyl methacrylate; and methacryloxyamino-2-isohexyl-5-hydroxycyclopentane.
Internal wetting agents may also be used for increasing the wettability of such hydrogel compositions. Examples of suitable internal wetting agents include N-alkyenoyl trialkylsilyl aminates as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,652,622. These agents can be represented by the general formula:
E is hydrogen or methyl,
G is (CH2)rC(O)OSi(V)3 or hydrogen,
V is methyl, ethyl or propyl,
q is an integer form 1 to 15,
r is an integer form 1 to 10,
q+r is an integer form 1 to 15, hereinafter referred to as NATA.
Acryloxy- and methacryloxy-, mono- and dicarboxylic amino acids, hereinafter NAA, impart desirable surface wetting characteristics to polysiloxane polymers, but precipitate out of monomer mixtures that do not contain siloxane monomers before polymerization is completed. NAA can be modified to form trialkylsilyl esters which are more readily incorporated into polysiloxane polymers. The preferred NATAs are trimethylsilyl-N-methacryloxyglutamate, triethylsilyl-N-methacryloxyglutamate, trimethyl-N-methacryloxy-6-aminohexanoate, trimethylsilyl-N-methacryloxyaminododecanoate, and bis-trimethyl-silyl-N-methacryloxyaspartate.
Preferred wetting agents also include acrylic and methacylic acids, and derivatives thereof. Typically, such wetting agents comprise less than 5 weight percent of the composition.
Other preferred internal wetting agents include oxazolones as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,810,764 to Friends et al. issued Mar. 7, 1989, the contents of which are incorporated by reference herein. These preferred internal wetting agents specifically include 2-isopropenyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (IPDMO), 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolin-5-one (VDMO), cyclohexane spiro-4′-(2′isopropenyl-2′-oxazol-5′-one) (IPCO), cyclohexane-spiro-4′-(2′-vinyl-2′-oxazol-5 ′-one) (VCO), and 2-(-1-propenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-oxazol-5-one (PDMO). The preparation of such oxazolones is known in the art and is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,810,764.
These preferred internal wetting agents have two important features which make them particularly desirable wetting agents: (1) they are relatively non-polar and are compatible with the hydrophobic monomers (the polysiloxanes and the toughening agents), and (2) they are converted to highly polar amino acids on mild hydrolysis, which impart substantial wetting characteristics. When polymerized in the presence of the other components, a copolymer is formed. These internal wetting agents polymerize through the carbon-carbon double bond with the endcaps of the polysiloxane monomers, and with the toughening agents to form copolymeric materials particularly useful in biomedical devices, especially contact lenses.
As indicated, the subject hydrogel compositions includes hydrophilic monomeric units. Examples of appropriate hydrophilic monomeric units include those described in U.S. Pat. Nos.: 4,259,467; 4,260,725; 4,440,918; 4,910,277; 4,954,587; 4,990,582; 5,010,141; 5,079,319; 5,310,779; 5,321,108; 5,358,995; 5,387,662; all of which are incorporated herein by reference. Examples of preferred hydrophilic monomers include both acrylic- and vinyl-containing monomers such as hydrophilic acrylic-, methacrylic-, itaconic-, styryl-, acrylamido-, methacrylamido- and vinyl-containing monomers
Preferred hydrophilic monomers may be either acrylic- or vinyl-containing. Such hydrophilic monomers may themselves be used as crosslinking agents. The term “vinyl-type” or “vinyl-containing” monomers refers to monomers containing the vinyl grouping (CH2═CQH), and are generally highly reactive. Such hydrophilic vinyl-containing monomers are known to polymerize relatively easily. “Acrylic-type” or “acrylic-containing” monomers are those monomers containing the acrylic group represented by the formula:
wherein X is preferably hydrogen or methyl and Y is preferably —O—, —OQ—, —NH—, —NQ— and —NH(Q)—, wherein Q is typically an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. Such monomers are known to polymerize readily.
Preferred hydrophilic vinyl-containing monomers which may be incorporated into the hydrogels of the present invention include monomers such as N-vinyllactams (e.g. N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP)), N-vinyl-N-methylacetamide, N-vinyl-N-ethylacetamide, N-vinyl-N-ethylformamide, N-vinylformamide, with NVP being the most preferred.
Preferred hydrophilic acrylic-containing monomers which may be incorporated into the hydrogel of the present invention include hydrophilic monomers such as N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, glycerol methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylamide, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid, with DMA being the most preferred.
Suitable ethylenically unsaturated hydrophilic monomers include ethylenically unsaturated polyoxyalkylenes, polyacrylamides, polyvinylpyrrolidones, polyvinyl alcohols, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) or poly (HEMA), and N-alkyl-N-vinylacetamides. Ethylenic unsaturation may be provided by (meth)acrylate, (meth)acrylamide, styrenyl, alkenyl, vinyl carbonate and vinyl carbamate groups. Preferred hydrophilic macromonomers include methoxypolyoxyethylene methacrylates of molecular weights from 200 to 10,000, more preferred are methoxypolyoxyethylene methacrylates of molecular weight range of 200 to 5,000 and most preferred are methoxypolyoxyethylene methacrylates of molecular weight range of 400 to 5,000. Additional preferred hydrophilic macromonomers include poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) methacrylates of molecular weights of 500 to 10,000. More preferred are poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone methacrylates) of molecular weights of 500 to 5,000 and most preferred are poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) methacrylates of molecular weights of 1000 to 5,000. Other preferred hydrophilic macromonomers include poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide methacrylates) of molecular weights of 500 to 10,000. More preferred are poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide methacrylates) of molecular weights of 500 to 5,000 and most preferred are poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide methacrylates) of molecular weights of 1000 to 5,000.
Suitable ethylenically unsaturated hydrophobic monomers include alkyl (meth)acrylates, N-alkyl (meth)acrylamides, alkyl vinylcarbonates, alkyl vinylcarbamates, fluoroalkyl (meth)acrylates, N-fluoroalkyl (meth)acrylamides, N-fluoroalkyl vinylcarbonates, N-fluoroalkyl vinylcarbamates, silicone-containing (meth)acrylates, (meth)acrylamides, vinyl carbonates, vinyl carbamates, styrenic monomers [selected from the group consisting of styrene, α-methyl styrene, ρ-methyl styrene, ρ-t-butylmonochlorostyrene, and ρ-t-butyldichlorostyrene] and poly[oxypropylene (meth)acrylates]. Preferred hydrophobic monomers include methyl methacrylate, dodecyl methacrylate, octafluoropentyl methacrylate, hexafluoroisopropyl methacrylate, perfluorooctyl methacrylate, methacryoyloxypropyltris(trimethylsiloxy)silane (TRIS).
When both an acrylic-containing monomer and a vinyl-containing monomer are incorporated into the invention, a further crosslinking agent having both a vinyl and an acrylic polymerizable group may be used, such as the crosslinkers which are the subject of U.S. Pat. No. 5,310,779, issued May 10, 1994, the entire content of which is incorporated by reference herein. Such crosslinkers help to render the resulting copolymer totally UV-curable. However, the copolymer could also be cured solely by heating, or with a combined UV and heat regimen. Photo and/or thermal initiators required to cure the copolymer will be included in the monomer mix, as is well-known to those skilled in the art. Other crosslinking agents which may be incorporated into the silicone-containing hydrogel including those previously described. Other techniques for increasing the wettability of compositions may also be used within the scope of the present invention, e.g. plasma surface treatment techniques which are well known in the art.
Particularly preferred hydrogel compositions comprise from about 0.1 to less than 15 weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines, from about 0.1 to about 10 weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines, and from about 0.1 to about 4.9% weight percent of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines. An advantage of using less than 5% of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines is that the optical transmission of the device tends to decrease at higher concentrations of functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines.
The monomer mixes employed in this invention, can be readily cured to desired shapes by conventional methods such as UV polymerization, or thermal polymerization, or combinations thereof, as commonly used in polymerizing ethylenically unsaturated compounds. Representative free radical thermal polymerization initiators are organic peroxides, such as acetyl peroxide, lauroyl peroxide, decanoyl peroxide, stearoyl peroxide, benzoyl peroxide. t-butyl peroxypivalate, peroxydicarbonate, and the like, employed in a concentration of about 0.01 to 1 percent by weight of the total monomer mixture. Representative UV initiators are those known in the field such as, benzoin methyl ether, benzoin ethyl ether, DAROCUR 1173, 1164, 2273, 1116, 2959, 3331 (EM Industries) and IGRACUR 651 and 184 (Ciba-Geigy).
Polymerization of the end-functionalized poloxamers and/or poloxamines with other comonomers is generally performed in the presence of a diluent. The polymerization product will then be in the form of a gel. If the diluent is nonaqueous, the diluent must be removed from the gel and replaced with water through the use of extraction and hydration protocols well known to those of ordinary skill in the art. It is also possible to perform the polymerization in the absence of diluent to produce a xerogel. These xerogels may then be hydrated to form the hydrogels as is well known in the art.
In addition to the above-mentioned polymerization initiators, the copolymer of the present invention may also include other monomers as will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. For example, the monomer mix may include colorants, or UV-absorbing agents such as those known in the contact lens art.
The present invention provides materials which can be usefully employed for the fabrication of prostheses such as heart valves and intraocular lenses, films, surgical devices, heart valves, vessel substitutes, intrauterine devices, membranes and other films, diaphragms, surgical implants, blood vessels, artificial ureters, artificial breast tissue and membranes intended to come into contact with body fluid outside of the body, e.g., membranes for kidney dialysis and heart/lung machines and the like, catheters, mouth guards, denture liners, ophthalmic devices, and especially contact lenses.
The polymers of this invention can be formed into ophthalmic devices by spincasting processes (such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,408,429 and 3,496,254), cast molding, lathe cutting, or any other known method for making the devices. Polymerization may be conducted either in a spinning mold, or a stationary mold corresponding to a desired shape. The ophthalmic device may be further subjected to mechanical finishing, as occasion demands. Polymerization may also be conducted in an appropriate mold or vessel to form buttons, plates or rods, which may then be processed (e.g., cut or polished via lathe or laser) to give an ophthalmic device having a desired shape.
When used in the formation of hydrogel (soft) contact lenses, it is preferred that the subject hydrogels have water contents of from about 20 to about 90 weight percent. Furthermore, it is preferred that such hydrogels have a modulus from about 20 g/mm2 to about 150 g/mm2, and more preferably from about 30 g/mm2 to about 100 g/mm2.
As an illustration of the present invention, several examples are provided below. These examples serve only to further illustrate certain aspects of the invention and should not be construed as limiting the invention.
Synthesis of Functionalized Surfactants
6.00 g of PLURONIC F127 was placed in a round bottom flask and dried thoroughly via azeotropic distillation of toluene (100 ml). The round bottom flask was then fitted with a reflux condenser and the reaction was blanketed with Nitrogen gas. Anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) (60 ml) was added to the flask and the reaction was chilled to 5° C. with 15 equivalents (based upon the hydroxyl endgroups) of triethylamine (TEA) was added (2.0 ml). 1.4 ml of methacryoyl chloride (15 equivalents) was dropped into the reaction mixture through an addition funnel and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature and then stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was then heated to 65° C. for 3 hours. Precipitated salt (TEA-HCl) was filtered from the reaction mixture and the filtrate was concentrated to a volume of around 355 mL and precipitated into cold heptane. Two further reprecipitations were performed to reduce the amount of TEA-HCl salt to less than 0.2% by weight. NMR analysis of the final polymer showed greater than 90% conversion of the hydroxyl endgroups to the methacrylated endgroups.
Synthesis of Surfactant Epoxides
10.00 gms of PLURONIC F38 (2.13E-03 mol) are placed in a round bottom flask and dried thoroughly via azeotropic distillation of toluene and then dissolved in 100 mL of THF. 10 equivalents of solid NaH were added into the flask (0.51 gm; 2.13E-02 mol). Next 1.67 mL of epichlorohydrin (2.13E-03 mol) was added to the reaction mixture and mixed well and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 24 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled and a scoop of magnesium sulfate and silica gel was added to remove any water. Mixed well for 5 minutes and then filtered off the insolubles. Filtrate was concentrated to around 30 mL final volume and the product was precipitated into heptane and isolated by filtration. NMR confirms the presence of epoxide groups on the termini of the polymer
Purification of Functionalized Surfactants
Different PLURONICS and TETRONICS had to be purified by different techniques depending upon their ability to precipitate and their solubility in water. The purification technique used for each example is listed in the table below:
In the above examples the abbreviations used are described below, unless otherwise specified all numbers represent parts by weight: Tint=Visibility tint
Several formulations were prepared as described in Examples 4-13. The sample formulations were cast between polypropylene molds or prepared as polymerized buttons that were then lathe cut to provide sample lenses.
Surface Analysis of Pre- and Post-Sterilized Samples.
The surface of contact lenses, prepared from some of the formulations disclosed as Examples 4-14 in the previous table, was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Lenses were measured both before autoclave sterilization and after several sterilization cycles. As shown in
Further key results of these studies are summarized below:
XPS Analysis of Entire Family of Modified PLURONIC and TETRONICS in a Lens Formulation
Hydrogel lenses that had the modified PLURONICS and TETRONICS included in their formulations (disclosed as example 6 of the above table) were analyzed using XPS. Three sections from both the anterior surface (side of lens facing air) and the posterior surface (side of lens in contact with eye) were analyzed. The results are summarized in
The general trends evident in the C1s region are that the broadening of the peak demonstrates the presence of PLURONIC/TETRONIC by the enhanced contribution of C—O. As the HLB ratio is lowered there is an increase in the surface activity of the functionalized surfactants (greater concentration). From the survey data, as the HLB ratios of the added PLURONIC or TETRONIC are lowered, the nitrogen content is greatly reduced (and occasionally even masked) at the surface with a corresponding increase in C/N ratios. Taken together this demonstrates that the surface is greatly enriched with PLURONIC/TETRONIC (see
Optical Transparency Study
Using a hydrogel contact lens formulation, it was noted that when unmodified PLURONICS and TETRONICS were incorporated into the lens during polymerization, that upon hydration the lenses would become cloudy. This differed from their methacrylated counterparts that maintained optical clarity after hydration. The optical transparency was measured at 500 nm (4 nm slit width) on a UV-Visible spectrophotometer for lenses containing both unmodified and modified PLURONICS and TETRONICS and the results are shown in
Effect of Adding Functionalized Surfactants on Mechanical Properties
In order to determine if there was an effect of adding a functionalized surfactant to the lens formulation on the modulus or tear strength of the resulting lens, 5 lots of lenses were submitted for analysis. These included one control lot and four lots with 1% by weight of an added functionalized surfactant. (F127-DM; T904-TM; P123-DM; and L121-DM) Ten measurements for each lot were run for both tear strength and modulus and the results are shown below. As shown in
Effect of Additive on Lipid Deposition of Lenses
Lenses made in example 6 were subjected to a lipid deposition analysis that determines the total micrograms of lipid that are adsorbed to the lens. The method is described briefly below.
GC Sample Preparation
Five control lenses were coated individually using the lipid deposition solution that contains PAEE (palmitic acid ethyl ester), squalene, and cholesterol. Crimped lens vials containing 1.5 mL of deposition solution and individual lenses were placed onto a laboratory rotator in a 37° C. oven. After incubating for twenty-four hours, the vials containing the lenses were removed from the oven. Each lens was removed from the vial using the wood shaft of a swab. The lenses were rinsed with borate buffered saline, the buffer wicked off the lens surface by touching one edge to lens paper and placed into a GC auto sampler vials. This was repeated for each lens. Into each vial, 1.5 mL of 50/50 HPLC Methanol/HPLC Chloroform solvent mix was added. The lenses were allowed to extract for six hours. The lenses were removed from the vials at the end of the six hours, capped tightly and analyzed by GC.
The same procedure was applied to the sample lenses.
The analysis of the standards and solvent extracts was performed on a Hewlett-Packard 6890 Series Gas Chromatograph using Chemstation Software Version Rev. A.10.01. The GC is equipped with a 7683 Series Auto Injector. Standards of the three lipids used in the deposition solutions (PAEE, Squalene and cholesterol) were prepared in 50/50 HPLC Methanol/HPLC Chloroform. The standards ranged from approximately 500 μg/mL to 5.0 μg/mL, with five standards used to generate the calibration curve. Correlation coefficients of 0.999 were achieved for each lipid. The height of the peaks from the sample injections was used to determine the total amount of lipid adsorbed to the lens.
The total amount of lipid adsorption to the lenses modified with 1% of the varying HLB Pluronic and Tetronic copolymers is listed in the Table 3 above and shown in
The above examples are intended to illustrate but not limit certain embodiments of the invention as described in the claims attached hereto. For example, other comonomers that can be added to the polymerizable surfactant comonomer mixtures would be obvious to one of skill in the art. Also, as additional ophthalmic devices are developed it would be expected that polymerizable surfactants will also be useful in other ophthalmic devices.