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Publication numberUS20060287496 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/391,659
Publication dateDec 21, 2006
Filing dateMar 28, 2006
Priority dateJun 17, 2005
Also published asCN103755930A, DE602006007345D1, DE602006007346D1, DE602006009268D1, DE602006009396D1, DE602006009514D1, DE602006009519D1, DE602006009816D1, DE602006010552D1, DE602006011332D1, DE602006012319D1, DE602006012496D1, DE602006013146D1, DE602006013971D1, DE602006014160D1, DE602006015813D1, DE602006018314D1, DE602006018945D1, DE602006019597D1, DE602006020720D1, EP1891131A1, EP1891132A1, EP1891133A1, EP1891134A1, EP1891135A1, EP1891135B1, EP1891136A1, EP1891136B1, EP1891137A1, EP1891137B1, EP1891138A1, EP1891138B1, EP1891157A1, EP1891157B1, EP1898972A1, EP1898972B1, EP1899399A1, EP1899399B1, EP1899400A1, EP1899400B1, EP1899401A1, EP1904549A1, EP1904549B1, EP1904550A2, EP1904550B1, EP1904551A1, EP1907439A1, EP1907439B1, EP1907440A1, EP1907440B1, EP1907441A1, EP1907442A1, EP1907442B1, EP1907442B9, EP1907443A1, EP1910441A1, EP1910441B1, EP1910442A1, EP1910442B1, EP1913051A1, EP1913051B1, EP1913052A1, EP1913053A1, EP1913053B1, EP1913054A1, EP1913054B1, EP1913055A1, EP1913056A1, EP1913056B1, EP1913057A1, EP1913057B1, EP2138523A1, EP2138523B1, EP2138524A1, EP2147763A1, EP2156934A2, EP2156934A3, EP2156934B1, EP2159029A2, EP2159029A3, EP2192140A1, EP2192141A1, EP2233657A2, EP2233657A3, EP2260887A1, EP2272888A2, EP2272888A3, EP2272888B1, EP2277935A2, EP2277935A3, EP2277935B1, EP2305732A2, EP2305732A3, EP2329856A1, EP2865398A1, EP2907640A1, US7510768, US7576171, US7740941, US7781562, US7803439, US7803440, US7803441, US7807774, US7807775, US7812111, US7812112, US7834129, US7838620, US7842776, US7855267, US7868128, US7893187, US7893188, US7902320, US7906212, US7906610, US7915376, US7951900, US7985827, US8063172, US8063173, US8067525, US8101705, US8119761, US8119762, US8133967, US8354491, US8415450, US8507638, US20060286322, US20060286326, US20060286327, US20060286328, US20060286329, US20060286330, US20060286331, US20060286332, US20060286384, US20060286389, US20060286394, US20060287474, US20060287476, US20060287477, US20060287478, US20060287479, US20060287480, US20060287481, US20060287482, US20060287483, US20060287484, US20060287485, US20060287486, US20060287487, US20060287488, US20060287489, US20060287490, US20060287491, US20060287492, US20060287493, US20060287494, US20060287495, US20060293494, US20060293495, US20070010649, US20070010650, US20070270569, US20090093573, US20090093574, US20090137723, US20100092705, US20100120979, US20100174030, US20100174034, US20100227971, US20110017751, US20110054091, US20110108503, US20110146022, US20110189415, US20110306730, US20120021158, US20120108715, US20130101773, US20130225762, WO2006137954A1, WO2007001528A1, WO2007001529A1, WO2007001530A1, WO2007001531A1, WO2007001532A1, WO2007001533A1, WO2007001535A1, WO2007001536A1, WO2007001537A1, WO2007001537A8, WO2007001541A1, WO2007001542A1, WO2007001544A1, WO2007001545A1, WO2007001547A1, WO2007001548A1, WO2007001549A1, WO2007001549A8, WO2007001550A1, WO2007001550A8, WO2007001552A1, WO2007001553A1, WO2007001554A1, WO2007001555A1, WO2007001556A1, WO2007001556A8, WO2007001557A1, WO2007001557A8, WO2007001559A1, WO2007001560A1, WO2007001560A8, WO2007001562A1, WO2007001562A8, WO2007001563A1, WO2007001564A1, WO2007001564A8, WO2007001565A1, WO2007001566A1, WO2007001566A8, WO2007001567A1, WO2007001568A1, WO2007001568A8, WO2007001569A1, WO2007001570A1, WO2007001571A1, WO2007001572A1, WO2007001573A1, WO2007001573A8, WO2007001575A1, WO2007001575A8
Publication number11391659, 391659, US 2006/0287496 A1, US 2006/287496 A1, US 20060287496 A1, US 20060287496A1, US 2006287496 A1, US 2006287496A1, US-A1-20060287496, US-A1-2006287496, US2006/0287496A1, US2006/287496A1, US20060287496 A1, US20060287496A1, US2006287496 A1, US2006287496A1
InventorsEmmett Crawford, David Porter, Gary Connell
Original AssigneeCrawford Emmett D, Porter David S, Connell Gary W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Polyester compositions comprising minimal amounts of cyclobutanediol
US 20060287496 A1
Abstract
Described are polyester compositions comprising (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising terephthalic acid residues; optionally, aromatic dicarboxylic acid or aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues; minimal amounts of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; ethylene glycol, and optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues.
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Claims(68)
1. A polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:
(a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
(b) a glycol component comprising:
i) 0.1 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
ii) optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
ii) ethylene glycol;
wherein the total mole % of said dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of said glycol component is 100 mole %; and
wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g; and
wherein said polyester has a Tg of from 60 to 120° C.
2. A polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:
(a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
(b) a glycol component comprising:
i) 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
ii) 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
ii) ethylene glycol;
wherein the total mole % of said dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of said glycol component is 100 mole %; and
wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g; and
wherein said polyester has a Tg of from 60 to 120° C.
3. A polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:
(a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
(b) a glycol component comprising:
i) 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
ii) 0.01 to 5 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
ii) ethylene glycol;
wherein the total mole % of said dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of said glycol component is 100 mole %; and
wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g.
4. A polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:
(a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms, and
iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
(b) a glycol component comprising:
i) 0.01 to 10 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues;
ii) ethylene glycol residues, or 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues or mixtures thereof;
wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %; and
wherein the intrinsic viscosity of the polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g; and
wherein the polyester has a Tg of from 70 to 105° C.
5. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.35 to 1.1 dL/g.
6. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.5 to 1.2 dL/g.
7. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.40 to 0.90 dL/g.
8. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from greater than 0.42 to 0.80 dL/g.
9. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.45 to 0.75 dL/g.
10. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.50 to 0.70 dL/g.
11. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.50 to 0.68 dL/g.
12. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.35 to 0.75 dL/g.
13. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.60 to 0.72 dL/g.
14. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 0.50.
15. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 0.45.
16. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 0.40
17. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the intrinsic viscosity of said polyester is from 0.10 to 0.35.
18. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 70 to 120° C.
19. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 80 to 120° C.
20. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 90 to 110° C.
21. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 95 to 115° C.
22. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 60 to 110° C.
23. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, oe 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 60 to 100° C.
24. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 60 to 90° C.
25. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, or 3 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 70 to 105° C.
26. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 70 to 100° C.
27. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 70 to 90° C.
28. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester has a Tg of 70 to 90° C.
29. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 4.5 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
30. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 4 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
31. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4, wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 3.5 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
32. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 3 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
33. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4, wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 5 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol
34. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 4.5 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanoll.
35. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 4 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.
36. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 3.5 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.
37. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the glycol component of said polyester comprises 1 to 3 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanoll.
38. The polyester composition of claim 1, comprising 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.
39. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 80 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues.
40. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 90 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues.
41. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 95 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues.
42. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 99 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues.
43. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues.
44. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 1 to 30 mole % of isophthalic acid residues.
45. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the dicarboxylic acid component comprises 0.01 o 5 mole % of isophthalic acid residues.
46. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester comprises 1,3-propanediol residues, 1,4-butanediol residues, or mixtures thereof.
47. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is a mixture comprising 20 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or greater and 80 mole % or less of trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
48. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is a mixture comprising 40 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or greater and 60 mole % or less of trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol.
49. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester composition comprises at least one polymer chosen from at least one of the following: chosen from at least one of the following: nylons; other polyesters other than those of claims 1, 2, or 3; polyamides; polystyrene; polystyrene copolymers; styrene acrylonitrile copolymers; acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymers; poly(methylmethacrylate); acrylic copolymers; poly(ether-imides); polyphenylene oxides, such as poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide); or poly(phenylene oxide)/polystyrene blends; polyphenylene sulfides; polyphenylene sulfide/sulfones; poly(estercarbonates); polycarbonates; polysulfones; polysulfone ethers; and poly(ether-ketones) of aromatic dihydroxy compounds; or mixtures thereof.
50. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester composition comprises at least one polycarbonate.
51. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester comprises residues of at least one branching agent for said polyester.
52. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester comprises at least one branching agent residue in an amount of 0.01 to 10 weight % based on the total weight of the the diacid residues or diol residues.
53. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester composition comprises at least one thermal stabilizer and/or reaction products thereof
54. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein said polyester composition comprises at least one chain extending agent.
55. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, or 4 wherein the yellowness index of said polyester according to ASTM D-1925 is less than 50.
56. A container comprising the polyester composition according to claims 1, 2, 3, or 4.
57. A container according to claim 56 which is a bottle.
58. The polyester composition of claim 57, wherein said bottle is chosen from at least one of the following: two liter bottles, 20 ounce bottles, 16.9 ounce bottles; medical bottles; personal care bottles, carbonated soft drink bottles; hot fill bottles; water bottles; alcoholic beverage bottles such as beer bottles and wine bottles; and bottles comprising at least one handle.
59. The polyester composition of claim 58, wherein said alcoholic beverage bottles are chosen from at least one of the following: beer bottles and wine bottles.
60. The polyester composition of claim 59, wherein said polyester composition is chosen from at least one of the following: bottles, jars, vials and tubes.
61. A polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:
(a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
(b) a glycol component comprising:
i) 0.01 to 10 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
ii) optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
ii) ethylene glycol;
wherein the total mole % of said dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and
the total mole % of said glycol component is 100 mole %;
wherein said polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of from about 0.70 dL/g to about 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process comprising 0.01 to 10 mole % 2,2,4,4,-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediol.
62. The polyester composition of claim 1, 2, 3, or 61 wherein said polyester comprises 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues.
63. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, 61, or 62 wherein said polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of from about 0.72 dL/g to about 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process.
64. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, 61, or 62 wherein said polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of from about 0.76 dL/g to about 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process.
65. The polyester composition of claims 61 wherein said polyester has not been solid stated.
66. The polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3, 61 wherein said 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is fed to a melt processing zone for making articles.
67. A shipping container comprising solid particles of at least one polyester composition of claims 1, 2 or 3 wherein said polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of at least 0.70 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process.
68. A shipping container-used to transport particles comprising the polyester composition of claims 1, 2, 3 or 4 from one city to another city or from one state to another state or from one country to another country.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/691,567 filed on Jun. 17, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/731,454 filed on Oct. 28, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/731,389, filed on Oct. 28, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/739,058, filed on Nov. 22, 2005, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/738,869, filed on Nov. 22, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/750,692 filed on Dec. 15, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/750,693, filed on Dec. 15, 2005, U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/750,682, filed on Dec. 15, 2005, and U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/750,547, filed on Dec. 15, 2005, all of which are hereby incorporated by this reference in their entireties.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention generally relates to polyester compositions comprising a polyester composition made from terephthalic acid, or an ester thereof, or mixtures thereof, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, ethylene glycol, and/or 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, having a certain combination of two or more of good impact strengths, good glass transition temperature (Tg), toughness, certain inherent and/or intrinsic viscosities, good ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures, good color and clarity, low densities, chemical resistance, hydrolytic stability, and long crystallization half-times, which allow them to be easily formed into articles.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Poly(1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene) terephthalate (PCT), a polyester based solely on terephthalic acid or an ester thereof and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, is known in the art and is commercially available. This polyester crystallizes rapidly upon cooling from the melt, making it very difficult to form amorphous articles by methods known in the art such as extrusion, injection molding, and the like. In order to slow down the crystallization rate of PCT, copolyesters can be prepared containing additional dicarboxylic acids or glycols such as isophthalic acid or ethylene glycol. These ethylene glycol- or isophthalic acid-modified PCTs are also known in the art and are commercially available.

One common copolyester used to produce films, sheeting, and molded articles is made from terephthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, and ethylene glycol. While these copolyesters are useful in many end-use applications, they exhibit deficiencies in properties such as glass transition temperature and impact strength when sufficient modifying ethylene glycol is included in the formulation to provide for long crystallization half-times. For example, copolyesters made from terephthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, and ethylene glycol with sufficiently long crystallization half-times can provide amorphous products that exhibit what is believed to be undesirably higher ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures and lower glass transition temperatures than the compositions revealed herein.

Polymers containing 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol have also been generally described in the art. Generally, however, these polymers exhibit high inherent and/or intrinsic viscosities, high melt viscosities and/or high Tgs (glass transition temperatures) such that the equipment used in industry can be insufficient to manufacture or post polymerization process these materials. Also, compositions containing higher amounts of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol are not useful for many end use applications for example, certain types of bottles and/or containers because of the high glass transition temperature and/or because of the low crystallininity or no crystallinity of such polyesters.

Thus, there is a need in the art for polyester compositions comprising at least one polymer having a combination of two or more properties, chosen from at least one of the following: toughness, good glass transition temperatures, good impact strength, hydrolytic stability, chemical resistance, good ductile to brittle transition temperatures, good color, and clarity, lower density, and/or thermoformability of polyesters while retaining processability on the standard equipment used in the industry.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is believed that certain polyester compositions formed from terephthalic acid, an ester thereof, or mixtures thereof, and/or 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and/or ethylene glycol, and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol with certain monomer compositions, inherent viscosities and/or intrinsic viscosities, and/or glass transition temperatures are superior to certain polymers known in the art.

In one aspect, this invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues;
      • ii) ethylene glycol residues, and
      • iii) optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues
        wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %; and
        wherein the intrinsic viscosity of the polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g.

In one aspect, this invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues;
      • ii) ethylene glycol residues, and
      • iii) 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues
        wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %; and
        wherein the intrinisic viscosity of the polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g.

In one aspect, this invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues;
      • ii) ethylene glycol residues, and
      • iii) 0.01 to 5 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues
        wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %; and

wherein the intrinsic viscosity of the polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g.

In one aspect, this invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to 10 mole % or 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues;
      • ii) ethylene glycol residues, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues or mixtures thereof;
        wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %; and
        wherein the intrinisic viscosity of the polyester is from 0.10 to 1.2 dL/; and
        wherein the polyester has a Tg of from 70 to 105° C. In other embodiments, the Tg can be from 70 to 100° C.; or 70 to 95° C.; or 70 to 90° C.; or 70 to 100° C.; or 70 to 95° C.; or 70 to 90° C.; 75 to 100° C.; or 75 to 95° C.; or 75 to 90° C.; 80 to 105° C.; or 80 to 100° C.; or 80 to 95° C.; or 80 to 90° C.

In one aspect, the invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to 10 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
      • ii) optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
      • ii) ethylene glycol;
    • wherein the total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and
    • the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %;
    • wherein the polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of from about 0.70 dL/g to about 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process.

In one aspect, this invention relates to a polyester composition comprising at least one polyester which comprises:

    • (a) a dicarboxylic acid component comprising:
      • i) 70 to 100 mole % of terephthalic acid residues;
      • ii) 0 to 30 mole % of aromatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 20 carbon atoms; and
      • iii) 0 to 10 mole % of aliphatic dicarboxylic acid residues having up to 16 carbon atoms; and
    • (b) a glycol component comprising:
      • i) 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues; and
      • ii) optionally, 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues,
      • ii) ethylene glycol;
    • wherein the total mole % of said dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %, and
    • the total mole % of the glycol component is 100 mole %;
    • wherein the polyester has an intrinsic viscosity of from about 0.70 dL/g to about 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process.

In one aspect, the polyesters useful in the invention contain less than 15 mole % ethylene glycol residues, such as, for example, 0.01 to less than 15 mole % ethylene glycol residues.

In one aspect, where the mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is less than 5 mole %, the polyesters useful in the invention can contain no 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues.

In one aspect the polyester compositions useful in the invention contain at least one thermal stabilizer and/or reaction products thereof.

In one aspect, the polyesters useful in the invention contain no branching agent, or alternatively, at least one branching agent is added either prior to or during polymerization of the polyester.

In one aspect, the polyesters useful in the invention contain at least one branching agent without regard to the method or sequence in which it is added.

In one aspect, the polyesters useful in the invention are made from no 1,3-propanediol, or, 1,4-butanediol, either singly or in combination. In other aspects, 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol, either singly or in combination, may be used in the making of the polyesters useful in this invention.

In one aspect of the invention, the mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol useful in certain polyesters useful in the invention is greater than 50 mole % or greater than 55 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or greater than 70 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol; wherein the total mole percentage of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol and trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is equal to a total of 100 mole %.

In one aspect of the invention, the mole % of the isomers of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol useful in certain polyesters useful in the invention is from 30 to 70 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or from 30 to 70 mole % of trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, or from 40 to 60 mole % of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or from 40 to 60 mole % of trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, wherein the total mole percentage of cis-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol and trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is equal to a total of 100 mole %.

In one aspect, the polyester compositions are useful in many end use applications including but not limited to extruded, calendered, and/or molded articles including but not limited to injection molded articles, thermoformed articles, extruded articles, cast extrusion articles, profile extrusion articles, melt spun articles, extrusion molded articles, injection blow molded articles, injection stretch blow molded articles, extrusion blow molded articles and extrusion stretch blow molded articles.

In one aspect, certain polyesters useful in the invention may be amorphous or semicrystalline. In one aspect, certain polyesters useful in the invention can have a relatively low crystallinity. Certain polyesters useful in the invention can thus have a substantially amorphous morphology, meaning that the polyesters comprise substantially unordered regions of polymer.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a graph showing the effect of comonomer on the fastest crystallization half-times of modified PCT copolyesters.

FIG. 2 is a graph showing the effect of comonomer on the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (Tbd) in a notched Izod impact strength test (ASTM D256, ⅛-in thick, 10-mil notch).

FIG. 3 is a graph showing the effect of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol composition on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the copolyester.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention may be understood more readily by reference to the following detailed description of certain embodiments of the invention and the working examples. In accordance with the purpose(s) of this invention, certain embodiments of the invention are described in the Summary of the Invention and are further described herein below. Also, other embodiments of the invention are described herein.

It is believed that polyesters and/or polyester composition(s) can have a unique combination of two or more physical properties such as moderate or high impact strengths, high glass transition temperatures, chemical resistance, hydrolytic stability, toughness, low ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures, good color and clarity, low densities, and long crystallization half-times, and good processability thereby easily permitting them to be formed into articles. In some of the embodiments of the invention, the polyesters have a unique combination of the properties of good impact strength, heat resistance, chemical resistance, density and/or the combination of the properties of good impact strength, heat resistance, and processability and/or the combination of two or more of the described properties, that have never before been believed to be present in the polyester compositions which comprise the polyester(s) as disclosed herein.

The term “polyester”, as used herein, is intended to include “copolyesters” and is understood to mean a synthetic polymer prepared by the reaction of one or more difunctional carboxylic acids and/or multifunctional carboxylic acids with one or more difunctional hydroxyl compounds and/or multifunctional hydroxyl compounds. Typically the difunctional carboxylic acid can be a dicarboxylic acid and the difunctional hydroxyl compound can be a dihydric alcohol such as, for example, glycols and diols. The term “glycol” as used herein includes, but is not limited to, diols, glycols, and/or multifunctional hydroxyl compounds. Alternatively, the difunctional carboxylic acid may be a hydroxy carboxylic acid such as, for example, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and the difunctional hydroxyl compound may be an aromatic nucleus bearing 2 hydroxyl substituents such as, for example, hydroquinone. The term “residue”, as used herein, means any organic structure incorporated into a polymer through a polycondensation and/or an esterification reaction from the corresponding monomer. The term “repeating unit”, as used herein, means an organic structure having a dicarboxylic acid residue and a diol residue bonded through a carbonyloxy group. Thus, for example, the dicarboxylic acid residues may be derived from a dicarboxylic acid monomer or its associated acid halides, esters, salts, anhydrides, or mixtures thereof. As used herein, therefore, the term “dicarboxylic acid” is intended to include dicarboxylic acids and any derivative of a dicarboxylic acid, including its associated acid halides, esters, half-esters, salts, half-salts, anhydrides, mixed anhydrides, or mixtures thereof, useful in a reaction process with a diol to make polyester. Furthermore, as used herein, the term “diacid” includes includes multifunctional acids, for example, branching agents. As used herein, the term “terephthalic acid” is intended to include terephthalic acid itself and residues thereof as well as any derivative of terephthalic acid, including its associated acid halides, esters, half-esters, salts, half-salts, anhydrides, mixed anhydrides, or mixtures thereof or residues thereof useful in a reaction process with a diol to make polyester.

As used herein, the intrinsic viscosity (It.V) values described throughout this description are set forth in dL/g unit as calculated from the inherent viscosity (Ih.V.) measured at 25° C. in 60/40 wt/wt phenol/tetrachloroethane. The inherent viscosity is calculated from the measured solution viscosity. The following equations describe these solution viscosity measurements, and subsequent calculations to Ih.V. and from Ih.V. to It.V:
ηinh=[ln(t s /t o)]/C

    • where
      • ηinh=Inherent viscosity at 25° C. at a polymer concentration of 0.5 g/100 mL of 60% phenol and 40% 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane by weight
      • ln=Natural logarithm
      • ts=Sample flow time through a capillary tube
      • to=Solvent-blank flow time through a capillary tube
      • C=Concentration of polymer in grams per 100 mL of solvent (0.50%)
        The intrinsic viscosity is the limiting value at infinite dilution of the specific viscosity of a polymer. It is defined by the following equation: η int = lim C -> 0 ( η sp / C ) = lim C -> 0 ( ln η r ) / C where η int = Intrinsic viscosity η r = Relative viscosity = t s / t o η sp = Specific viscosity = η r - 1
        Instrument calibration involves triplicate testing of a standard reference material and then applying appropriate mathematical equations to produce the “accepted” Ih.V. values. The three values used for calibration shall be within a range of 0.010; if not, correct problems and repeat testing of standard until three consecutive results within this range are obtained.
        Calibration Factor=Accepted Ih.V. of Reference Material/Average of Triplicate Determinations
        The uncorrected inherent viscosity (ηinh) of each sample is calculated from the Viscotek Model Y501 Relative Viscometer using the following equation:
        ηinh=[ln(P 2 /KP 1)]/C
    • where
      • P2=The pressure in capillary P2
      • P1=The pressure in capillary P1
      • ln=Natural logarithm
      • K=Viscosity constant obtained from baseline reading
      • C=Concentration of polymer in grams per 100 mL of solvent
        The corrected Ih.V., based on calibration with standard reference materials, is calculated as follows:
        Corrected Ih.V.=Calculated Ih.V.×Calibration Factor
        The intrinsic viscosity (It.V. or ηint) may be estimated using the Billmeyer equation as follows:
        ηint=0.5[e 0.5×corrected Ih.V.−1]+(0.75×Corrected Ih.V.)

In one embodiment, terephthalic acid may be used as the starting material. In another embodiment, dimethyl terephthalate may be used as the starting material. In yet another embodiment, mixtures of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate may be used as the starting material and/or as an intermediate material.

The polyesters used in the present invention typically can be prepared from dicarboxylic acids and diols which react in substantially equal proportions and are incorporated into the polyester polymer as their corresponding residues. The polyesters of the present invention, therefore, can contain substantially equal molar proportions of acid residues (100 mole %) and diol (and/or multifunctional hydroxyl compound) residues (100 mole %) such that the total moles of repeating units is equal to 100 mole %. The mole percentages provided in the present disclosure, therefore, may be based on the total moles of acid residues, the total moles of diol residues, or the total moles of repeating units. For example, a polyester containing 30 mole % isophthalic acid, based on the total acid residues, means the polyester contains 30 mole % isophthalic acid residues out of a total of 100 mole % acid residues. Thus, there are 30 moles of isophthalic acid residues among every 100 moles of acid residues. In another example, a polyester containing 30 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, based on the total diol residues, means the polyester contains 30 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues out of a total of 100 mole % diol residues. Thus, there are 30 moles of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues among every 100 moles of diol residues.

In other aspects of the invention, the Tg of the polyesters useful in the invention can be at least one of the following ranges: 60 to 120° C.; 60 to 115° C.; 60 to 110° C.; 60 to 105° C.; 60 to 100° C.; 60 to 95° C.; 60 to 90° C.; 60 to 85° C.; 60 to 80° C.; 60 to 75° C.; 65 to 120° C.; 65 to 115° C.; 65 to 110° C.; 65 to 105° C.; 65 to 100° C.; 65 to 95° C.; 65 to 90° C.; 65 to 85° C.; 65 to 80° C.; 65 to 75° C.; 70 to 120° C.; 70 to 115° C.; 70 to 110° C.; 70 to 105° C.; 70 to 100° C.; 70 to 95° C.; 70 to 90° C.; 70 to 85° C.; 70 to 80° C.; 70 to 75° C.; 75 to 120° C.; 75 to 115° C.; 75 to 110° C.; 75 to 105° C.; 75 to 100° C.; 75 to 95° C.; 75 to 90° C.; 75 to 85° C.; 75 to 80° C.; 80 to 120° C.; 80 to 115° C.; 80 to 110° C.; 80 to 105° C.; 80 to 100° C.; 80 to 95° C.; 80 to 90° C.; 80 to 85° C.; 85 to 120° C.; 85 to 115° C.; 85 to 110° C.; 85 to 105° C.; 85 to 100° C.; 85 to 95° C.; 85 to 90° C.; 90 to 120° C.; 90 to 115° C.; 90 to 110° C.; 90 to 105° C.; 90 to 100° C.; 90 to 95° C.; 95 to 120° C.; 95 to 115° C.; 95 to 110° C.; 95 to 105° C.; 95 to 100° C.; 100 to 120° C.; 100 to 115° C.; 100 to 110° C.; 105 to 120° C.; 105 to 115° C.; 105 to 110° C.; 110 to 120° C.; 110 to 115° C.; 115 to 120° C.; 120 to 200° C.

In other aspects of the invention where the mole percent of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is present at 0.01 to less than 5 mole % based on the mole percentages for the diol component equaling 100 mole % and where the presence of CHDM is optional, the glycol component for the polyesters useful in the invention include but are not limited to at least one or more of the following combinations of ranges: 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 95 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 0 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 99.98 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 0.01 to 99.97 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater 90 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 5 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 85 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 10 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 80 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 15 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 75 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 20 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 70 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 25 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to greater than 65 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 30 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 60 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 35 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 55 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 40 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 50 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 45 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 45 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 50 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 40 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 55 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 35 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 60 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 30 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 65 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 25 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 70 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 20 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 75 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 15 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 80 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 10 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 85 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 0.01 to greater than 5 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 90 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to less than 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, and 0.01 to greater than 5 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 90 to 99.98 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.

In embodiments where the mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, is 0.01 to 5 mole % based on the mole percentages for the diol component equaling 100 mole % and where the presence of CHDM is required, the glycol component for the polyesters useful the invention include but are not limited to at least of the following combinations of ranges: 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 89 to 94.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 5 to 10 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 89 to 94.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 5 to 10 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 84 to 89.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 10 to 15 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 79 to 84.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 15 to 20 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 74 to 79.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 20 to 25 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 69 to 74.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 25 to 30 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 64 to 69.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 30 to 35 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 59 to 64.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 35 to 40 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 54 to 59.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 40 to 45 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 49 to 54.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 45 to 50 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 44 to 49.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 50 to 55 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 39 to 44.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 55 to 60 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 34 to 39.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 60 to 65 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 29 to 34.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 65 to 70 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 24 to 29.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 70 to 75 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 19 to 24.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 75 to 80 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 14 to 19.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 80 to 85 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 9 to 14.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 85 to 90 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 4 to 9.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 90 to 95 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; 0.01 to 5 mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, 95 to 99.99 mole % of ethylene glycol residues, and 0 to 5 mole % of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol;

In any embodiment In embodiments where the mole % of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, is 0.01 to 5 mole % based on the mole percentages for the diol component equaling 100 mole % and where the presence of CHDM is required, the glycol component for the polyesters useful the invention can also include embodiments where 0.01 to less than 5 mole % TMCD is present and a corresponding reduction in either 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and/or ethylene glycol would be contemplated within the scope of this invention.

The glycol component may also contain one of the following ranges of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues: 0.01 to 10 mole %; 0.01 to 9.5 mole % 0.01 to 9 mole %; 0.01 to 8.5 mole %; 0.01 to 8 mole %; 0.01 to 7.5 mole %; 0.01 to 7.0; 0.01 to 6.5 mole %; 0.01 to 6 mole %; 0.01 to 5.5 mole %; 0.01 to 5 mole %; 0.01 to less than 5 mole %; 0.01 to 4.5 mole %; 0.01 to 4 mole %; 0.01 to 3.5 mole %; 0.01 to 3 mole %; 0.01 to 2.5 mole %; 0.01 to 2.0 mole %; 0.01 to 2.5 mole %; 0.01 to 2 mole %; 0.01 to 1.5 mole %; 0.01 to 1.0 mole %; and 0.01 to 0.5 mole %.

In certain embodiments, the remainder of the glycol component can include, but is not limited, to any amount of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol and/or ethylene glycol so long as the total amount of the glycol component equals 100 mole %.

In addition to the diols set forth above, the polyesters useful in the polyester compositions of the invention may be made from 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, or mixtures thereof. It is contemplated that compositions of the invention made from 1,3-propanediol, 1,4-butanediol, or mixtures thereof can possess at least one of the Tg ranges described herein, at least one of the intrinsic viscosity ranges described herein, and/or at least one of the glycol or diacid ranges described herein. In addition or in the alternative, the polyesters made from 1,3-propanediol or 1,4-butanediol or mixtures thereof may also be made from 1,4-cyclohexanedmethanol in at least one of the following amounts: from 0.1 to 95 mole %; 0.1 to 90 mole %; from 0.1 to 80 mole %; from 0.1 to 70 mole %; from 0.1 to 60 mole %; from 0.1 to 50 mole %; from 0.1 to 40 mole %; from 0.1 to 35 mole %; from 0.1 to 30 mole %; from 0.1 to 25 mole %; from 0.1 to 20 mole %; from 0.1 to 15 mole %; from 0.1 to 10 mole %; from 0.1 to 5 mole %; from 1 to 99 mole %; from 1 to 90 mole %; from 1 to 80 mole %; from 1 to 70 mole %; from 1 to 60 mole %; from 1 to 50 mole %; from 1 to 40 mole %; from 1 to 35 mole %; from 1 to 30 mole %; from 1 to 25 mole %; from 1 to 20 mole %; from 1 to 15 mole %; from 1 to 10 mole %; from 1 to 5 mole %; from 5 to 80 mole %; 5 to 70 mole %; from 5 to 60 mole %; from 5 to 50 mole %; from 5 to 40 mole %; from 5 to 35 mole %; from 5 to 30 mole %; from 5 to 25 mole %; from 5 to 20 mole %; and from 5 to 15 mole %; from 5 to 10 mole %; from 10 to 95 mole %; from 10 to 90 mole %; from 10 to 80 mole %; from 10 to 70 mole %; from 10 to 60 mole %; from 10 to 50 mole %; from 10 to 40 mole %; from 10 to 35 mole %; from 10 to 30 mole %; from 10 to 25 mole %; from 10 to 20 mole %; from 10 to 15 mole %; 20 to 95 mole %; from 20 to 80 mole %; from 20 to 70 mole %; from 20 to 60 mole %; from 20 to 50 mole %; from 20 to 40 mole %; from 20 to 35 mole %; from 20 to 30 mole %; and from 20 to 25 mole %.

For embodiments of the invention, the polyesters useful in the invention may exhibit at least one of the following intrinsic viscosities as determined in 60/40 (wt/wt) phenol/tetrachloroethane at a concentration of 0.5 g/100 ml at 25° C.: 0.10 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.10 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.10 to 1 dL/g; 0.10 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.10 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.10 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.10 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.6 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.55 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.5 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.4 dL/g; 0.10 to 0.35 dL/g; 0.20 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.20 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.20 to 1 dL/g; 0.20 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.20 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.20 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.20 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.6 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.55 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.5 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.4 dL/g; 0.20 to 0.35 dL/g; 0.35 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.35 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.35 to 1 dL/g; 0.35 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.35 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.35 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.35 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.35 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.40 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.40 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.40 to 1 dL/g; 0.40 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.40 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.40 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.40 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.40 to 0.65 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 1.2 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 1.1 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 1 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to less than 1 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.98 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.95 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.90 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.85 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.80 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.75 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to less than 0.75 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.72 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.70 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to less than 0.70 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to 0.68 dL/g; greater than 0.42 to less than 0.68 dL/g; and greater than 0.42 to 0.65 dL/g.

For embodiments of the invention, the polyesters useful in the invention may exhibit at least one of the following intrinsic viscosities as determined in 60/40 (wt/wt) phenol/tetrachloroethane at a concentration of 0.5 g/100 ml at 25° C.: 0.45 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.45 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.45 to 1 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.45 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.45 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.45 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.45 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.50 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.50 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.50 to 1 dL/g; 0.50 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.50 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.50 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.50 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.50 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.55 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.55 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.55 to 1 dL/g; 0.55 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.55 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.55 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.55 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.55 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.58 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.58 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.58 to 1 dL/g; 0.58 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.58 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.58 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.58 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.58 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.60 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.60 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.60 to 1 dL/g; 0.60 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.60 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.60 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.68 dL/g; 0.60 to less than 0.68 dL/g; 0.60 to 0.65 dL/g; 0.65 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.65 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.65 to 1 dL/g; 0.65 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.65 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.72 dL/g; 0.65 to 0.70 dL/g; 0.65 to less than 0.70 dL/g; 0.68 to 1.2 dL/g; 0.68 to 1.1 dL/g; 0.68 to 1 dL/g; 0.68 to less than 1 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.98 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.95 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.90 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.85 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.80 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.75 dL/g; 0.68 to less than 0.75 dL/g; 0.68 to 0.72 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 1.2 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 1.1 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 1 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to less than 1 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 0.98 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 0.95 dL/g; greater than 0.76 dL/g to 0.90 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 1.2 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 1.1 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 1 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to less than 1 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 1.2 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 0.98 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 0.95 dL/g; greater than 0.80 dL/g to 0.90 dL/g.

For the desired polyester, the molar ratio of cis/trans 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol can vary from the pure form of each or mixtures thereof. In certain embodiments, the molar percentages for cis and/or trans 2,2,4,4,-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol are greater than 50 mole % cis and less than 50 mole % trans; or greater than 55 mole % cis and less than 45 mole % trans; or 30 to 70 mole % cis and 70 to 30% trans; or 40 to 60 mole % cis and 60 to 40 mole % trans; or 50 to 70 mole % trans and 50 to 30% cis; or 50 to 70 mole % cis and 50 to 30% trans; or 60 to 70 mole % cis and 30 to 40 mole % trans; or greater than 70 mole % cis and less than 30 mole % trans; wherein the total sum of the mole percentages for cis- and trans-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is equal to 100 mole %. The molar ratio of cis/trans 1,4-cyclohexandimethanol can vary within the range of 50/50 to 0/100, for example, between 40/60 to 20/80.

It is contemplated that the polyesters useful in the polyester composition(s) of the invention can possess at least one of the intrinsic viscosity ranges described herein and at least one of the monomer ranges for the compositions described herein unless otherwise stated. It is also contemplated that polyesters useful in the container(s) of the invention can possess at least one of the Tg ranges described herein and at least one of the monomer ranges for the compositions described herein unless otherwise stated. It is also contemplated that compositions useful in the container(s) of the invention can possess at least one of the intrinsic viscosity ranges described herein, at least one of the Tg ranges described herein, and at least one of the monomer ranges for the compositions described herein unless otherwise stated.

In certain embodiments, terephthalic acid or an ester thereof, such as, for example, dimethyl terephthalate or a mixture of terephthalic acid residues and an ester thereof can make up a portion or all of the dicarboxylic acid component used to form the polyesters useful in the invention. In certain embodiments, terephthalic acid residues can make up a portion or all of the dicarboxylic acid component used to form the present polyester at a concentration of at least 70 mole %, such as at least 80 mole %, at least 90 mole % at least 95 mole %, at least 99 mole %, or even 100 mole %. In certain embodiments, higher amounts of terephthalic acid can be used in order to produce a higher impact strength polyester. For purposes of this disclosure, the terms “terephthalic acid” and “dimethyl terephthalate” are used interchangeably herein. In one embodiment, dimethyl terephthalate is part or all of the dicarboxylic acid component used to make the polyesters useful in the present invention. For the purposes of this disclosure, the terms: “terephthalic acid” and “dimethyl terephthalate” are used interchangeably herein. In all embodiments, ranges of from 70 to 100 mole %; or 80 to 100 mole %; or 90 to 100 mole %; or 99 to 100 mole %; or 100 mole % terephthalic acid and/or dimethyl terephthalate and/or mixtures thereof may be used.

In addition to terephthalic acid, the dicarboxylic acid component of the polyester useful in the invention can comprise up to 30 mole %, up to 20 mole %, up to 10 mole %, up to 5 mole %, or up to 1 mole % of one or more modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acids. Yet another embodiment contains 0 mole % modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acids. Thus, if present, it is contemplated that the amount of one or more modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acids can range from any of these preceding endpoint values including, for example, from 0.01 to 30 mole %, 0.01 to 20 mole %, from 0.01 to 10 mole %, from 0.01 to 5 mole % and from 0.01 to 1 mole. In one embodiment, modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acids that may be used in the present invention include but are not limited to those having up to 20 carbon atoms, and which can be linear, para-oriented, or symmetrical. Examples of modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acids which may be used in this invention include, but are not limited to, isophthalic acid, 4,4′-biphenyldicarboxylic acid, 1,4-, 1,5-, 2,6-, 2,7-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, and trans-4,4′-stilbenedicarboxylic acid, and esters thereof. In one embodiment, the modifying aromatic dicarboxylic acid is isophthalic acid. In another embodiment, the amount of isophthalic acid is present in an amount from 0.01 to 5 mole %.

The aliphatic dicarboxylic acid component of the polyesters useful in the invention can be further modified with up to 10 mole %, such as up to 5 mole % or up to 1 mole % of one or more aliphatic dicarboxylic acids containing 2-16 carbon atoms, such as, for example, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic and dodecanedioic dicarboxylic acids. Certain embodiments can also comprise 0.01 or more mole %, such as 0.1 to 30 mole %, 1 to 30, 5 to 30 mole %, or 10 to 30 mole % of one or more modifying aliphatic dicarboxylic acids. Yet another embodiment contains 0 mole % modifying aliphatic dicarboxylic acids. Thus, if present, it is contemplated that the amount of one or more modifying aliphatic dicarboxylic acids can range from any of these preceding endpoint values including, for example, from 0.01 to 10 mole % and from 0.1 to 10 mole %. The total mole % of the dicarboxylic acid component is 100 mole %.

Esters of terephthalic acid and the other modifying dicarboxylic acids or their corresponding esters and/or salts may be used instead of the dicarboxylic acids. Suitable examples of dicarboxylic acid esters include, but are not limited to, the dimethyl, diethyl, dipropyl, diisopropyl, dibutyl, and diphenyl esters. In one embodiment, the esters are chosen from at least one of the following: methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and phenyl esters.

The 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol may be cis, trans, or a mixture thereof, for example, a cis/trans ratio of 60:40 to 40:60. In another embodiment, the trans-1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol can be present in an amount of 60 to 80 mole %.

The glycol component of the polyester portion of the polyester composition useful in the invention can contain 25 mole % or less of one or more modifying glycols which are not 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol or 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol or ethylene glycol; in one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention may contain less than 15 mole % or of one or more modifying glycols. In another embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can contain 10 mole % or less of one or more modifying glycols. In another embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can contain 5 mole % or less of one or more modifying glycols. In another embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can contain 3 mole % or less of one or more modifying glycols. In another embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can contain 0 mole % modifying glycols. Certain embodiments can also contain 0.01 or more mole %, such as 0.1 or more mole %, 1 or more mole %, 5 or more mole %, or 10 or more mole % of one or more modifying glycols. Thus, if present, it is contemplated that the amount of one or more modifying glycols can range from any of these preceding endpoint values including, for example, from 0.01 to 15 mole % and from 0.1 to 10 mole %.

Modifying glycols useful in the polyesters useful in the invention refer to diols other than 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol or ethylene glycol and can contain 2 to 16 carbon atoms. Examples of suitable modifying glycols include, but are not limited to, 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, neopentyl glycol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol, 1,6-hexanediol, p-xylene glycol, or mixtures thereof. In another embodiment, the modifying glycols include, but are not limited to, 1,3-propanediol and 1,4-butanediol. In another embodiment, ethylene glycol is excluded as a modifying diol. In another embodiment, 1,3-propanediol and 1,4-butanediol are excluded as modifying diols. In another embodiment, 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol is excluded as a modifying diol.

The polyesters and/or the polycarbonates useful in the polyesters compositions of the invention can comprise from 0 to 10 mole percent, for example, from 0.01 to 5 mole percent, from 0.01 to 1 mole percent, from 0.05 to 5 mole percent, from 0.05 to 1 mole percent, or from 0.1 to 0.7 mole percent, based the total mole percentages of either the diol or diacid residues; respectively, of one or more residues of a branching monomer, also referred to herein as a branching agent, having 3 or more carboxyl substituents, hydroxyl substituents, or a combination thereof. In certain embodiments, the branching monomer or agent may be added prior to and/or during and/or after the polymerization of the polyester. The polyester(s) useful in the invention can thus be linear or branched. The polycarbonate can also be linear or branched. In certain embodiments, the branching monomer or agent may be added prior to and/or during and/or after the polymerization of the polycarbonate.

Examples of branching monomers include, but are not limited to, multifunctional acids or multifunctional alcohols such as trimellitic acid, trimellitic anhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride, trimethylolpropane, glycerol, pentaerythritol, citric acid, tartaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and the like. In one embodiment, the branching monomer residues can comprise 0.1 to 0.7 mole percent of one or more residues chosen from at least one of the following: trimellitic anhydride, pyromellitic dianhydride, glycerol, sorbitol, 1,2,6-hexanetriol, pentaerythritol, trimethylolethane, and/or trimesic acid. The branching monomer may be added to the polyester reaction mixture or blended with the polyester in the form of a concentrate as described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,654,347 and 5,696,176, whose disclosure regarding branching monomers is incorporated herein by reference.

The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyesters useful in the invention was determined using a TA DSC 2920 from Thermal Analyst Instrument at a scan rate of 20° C./min.

In one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can have a crystallization half-time of 1.5 minutes or less at 170° C.

Increasing the content of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol in a copolyester based on terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol, and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol can improve toughness which can be determined by the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature in a notched Izod impact strength test as measured by ASTM D256. This toughness improvement, by lowering of the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature with 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, is believed to occur due to the flexibility and conformational behavior of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol in the copolyester. Incorporating 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol into PCT is believed to improve toughness, by lowering the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, as shown in Table 2 and FIG. 2 of the Examples.

In one embodiment, the melt viscosity of the polyester(s) useful in the invention is less than 30,000 poise as measured a 1 radian/second on a rotary melt rheometer at 290° C. In another embodiment, the melt viscosity of the polyester(s) useful in the invention is less than 20,000 poise as measured a 1 radian/second on a rotary melt rheometer at 290° C.

In one embodiment, the melt viscosity of the polyester(s) useful in the invention is less than 15,000 poise as measured at 1 radian/second (rad/sec) on a rotary melt rheometer at 290° C. In one embodiment, the melt viscosity of the polyester(s) useful in the invention is less than 10,000 poise as measured at 1 radian/second (rad/sec) on a rotary melt rheometer at 290° C. In another embodiment, the melt viscosity of the polyester(s) useful in the invention is less than 6,000 poise as measured at 1 radian/second on a rotary melt rheometer at 290° C. Viscosity at rad/sec is related to processability. Typical polymers have viscosities of less than 10,000 poise as measured at 1 radian/second when measured at their processing temperature. Polyesters are typically not processed above 290° C. Polycarbonate is typically processed at 290° C. The viscosity at 1 rad/sec of a typical 12 melt flow rate polycarbonate is 7000 poise at 290° C.

In one embodiment, certain polyesters useful in this invention can be visually clear. The term “visually clear” is defined herein as an appreciable absence of cloudiness, haziness, and/or muddiness, when inspected visually. In another embodiment, when the polyesters are blended with polycarbonate, including but not limited to, bisphenol A polycarbonates, the blends can be visually clear.

In other embodiments of the invention, the polyesters useful in the invention may have a yellowness index (ASTM D-1925) of less than 50 or less than 20.

In one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention and/or the polyester compositions of the invention, with or without toners, can have color values L*, a* and b* which were determined using a Hunter Lab Ultrascan Spectra Colorimeter manufactured by Hunter Associates Lab Inc., Reston, Va. The color determinations are averages of values measured on either pellets of the polyesters or plaques or other items injection molded or extruded from them. They are determined by the L*a*b* color system of the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) (translated), wherein L* represents the lightness coordinate, a* represents the red/green coordinate, and b* represents the yellow/blue coordinate. In certain embodiments, the b* values for the polyesters useful in the invention can be from −10 to less than 10 and the L* values can be from 50 to 90. In other embodiments, the b* values for the polyesters useful in the invention can be present in one of the following ranges: from −10 to 9; −10 to 8; −10 to 7; −10 to 6; −10 to 5; −10 to 4; −10 to 3; −10 to 2; from −5 to 9; −5 to 8; −5 to 7; −5 to 6; −5 to 5; −5 to 4; −5 to 3; −5 to 2; 0 to 9; 0 to 8; 0 to 7; 0 to 6; 0 to 5; 0 to 4; 0 to 3; 0 to 2; 1 to 10; 1 to 9; 1 to 8; 1 to 7; 1 to 6; 1 to 5; 1 to 4; 1 to 3; and 1 to 2. In other embodiments, the L* value for the polyesters useful in the invention can be present in one of the following ranges: 50 to 60; 50 to 70; 50 to 80; 50 to 90; 60 to 70; 60 to 80; 60 to 90; 70 to 80; 79 to 90.

In one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the invention can exhibit at least one of the following densities: a density of less than 1.2 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of less than 1.18 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 0.8 to 1.3 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 0.80 to 1.2 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 0.80 to less than 1.2 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 1.0 to 1.3 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 1.0 to 1.2 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 1.0 g/ml to 1.1 at 23° C.; a density of 1.13 to 1.3 g/ml at 23° C.; a density of 1.13 to 1.2 at 23° C.

The polyester portion of the polyester compositions useful in the invention can be made by processes known from the literature such as, for example, by processes in homogenous solution, by transesterification processes in the melt, and by two phase interfacial processes. Suitable methods include, but are not limited to, the steps of reacting one or more dicarboxylic acids with one or more glycols at a temperature of 100° C. to 315° C. at a pressure of 0.1 to 760 mm Hg for a time sufficient to form a polyester. See U.S. Pat. No. 3,772,405 for methods of producing polyesters, the disclosure regarding such methods is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

In another aspect, the invention relates to polyester compositions comprising a polyester produced by a process comprising:

(I) heating a mixture comprising the monomers useful in any of the polyesters useful in the invention in the presence of a catalyst at a temperature of 150 to 240° C. for a time sufficient to produce an initial polyester;

    • (II) heating the initial polyester of step (I) at a temperature of 240 to 320° C. for 1 to 4 hours; and
    • (III) removing any unreacted glycols.

Suitable catalysts for use in this process include, but are not limited to, organo-zinc or tin compounds. The use of this type of catalyst is well known in the art. Examples of catalysts useful in the present invention include, but are not limited to, zinc acetate, butyltin tris-2-ethylhexanoate, dibutyltin diacetate, and dibutyltin oxide. Other catalysts may include, but are not limited to, those based on titanium, zinc, manganese, lithium, germanium, and cobalt. Catalyst amounts can range from 10 ppm to 20,000 ppm or 10 to 10,000 ppm, or 10 to 5000 ppm or 10 to 1000 ppm or 10 to 500 ppm, or 10 to 300 ppm or 10 to 250 based on the catalyst metal and based on the weight of the final polymer. The process can be carried out in either a batch or continuous process.

Typically, step (I) can be carried out until 50% by weight or more of the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol has been reacted. Step (I) may be carried out under pressure, ranging from atmospheric pressure to 100 psig. The term “reaction product” as used in connection with any of the catalysts useful in the invention refers to any product of a polycondensation or esterification reaction with the catalyst and any of the monomers used in making the polyester as well as the product of a polycondensation or esterification reaction between the catalyst and any other type of additive.

Typically, Step (II) and Step (III) can be conducted at the same time. These steps can be carried out by methods known in the art such as by placing the reaction mixture under a pressure ranging, from 0.002 psig to below atmospheric pressure, or by blowing hot nitrogen gas over the mixture.

The invention further relates to a polyester product made by the process described above.

The invention further relates to a polymer blend. The blend comprises:

    • (a) from 5 to 95 wt % of at least one of the polyesters described above; and
    • (b) from 5 to 95 wt % of at least one of the polymeric components.

Suitable examples of the polymeric components include, but are not limited to, nylon, other polyesters other than those described herein; polyamides such as ZYTEL®) from DuPont; polystyrene, polystyrene copolymers, styrene acrylonitrile copolymers, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene copolymers, poly(methylmethacrylate), acrylic copolymers, poly(ether-imides) such as ULTEM®) (a poly(ether-imide) from General Electric); polyphenylene oxides such as poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) or poly(phenylene oxide)/polystyrene blends such as NORYL 1000® (a blend of poly(2,6-dimethylphenylene oxide) and polystyrene resins from General Electric); other polyesters; polyphenylene sulfides; polyphenylene sulfide/sulfones; poly(ester-carbonates); polycarbonates such as LEXAN®) (a polycarbonate from General Electric); polysulfones; polysulfone ethers; and poly(ether-ketones) of aromatic dihydroxy compounds; or mixtures of any of the foregoing polymers. The blends can be prepared by conventional processing techniques known in the art, such as melt blending or solution blending. In one embodiment, polycarbonate is not present in the polyester composition. If polycarbonate is used in a blend in the polyester compositions of the invention, the blends can be visually clear. However, polyester compositions useful in the invention also contemplate the exclusion of polycarbonate as well as the inclusion of polycarbonate.

Polycarbonates useful in the invention may be prepared according to known procedures, for example, by reacting the dihydroxyaromatic compound with a carbonate precursor such as phosgene, a haloformate or a carbonate ester, a molecular weight regulator, an acid acceptor and a catalyst. Methods for preparing polycarbonates are known in the art and are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,452,933, where the disclosure regarding the preparation of polycarbonates is hereby incorporated by reference herein.

Examples of suitable carbonate precursors include, but are not limited to, carbonyl bromide, carbonyl chloride, or mixtures thereof; diphenyl carbonate; a di(halophenyl)carbonate, e.g., di(trichlorophenyl)carbonate, di(tribromophenyl)carbonate, and the like; di(alkylphenyl)carbonate, e.g., di(tolyl)carbonate; di(naphthyl)carbonate; di(chloronaphthyl)carbonate, or mixtures thereof; and bis-haloformates of dihydric phenols.

Examples of suitable molecular weight regulators include, but are not limited to, phenol, cyclohexanol, methanol, alkylated phenols, such as octylphenol, para-tertiary-butyl-phenol, and the like. In one embodiment, the molecular weight regulator is phenol or an alkylated phenol.

The acid acceptor may be either an organic or an inorganic acid acceptor. A suitable organic acid acceptor can be a tertiary amine and includes, but is not limited to, such materials as pyridine, triethylamine, dimethylaniline, tributylamine, and the like. The inorganic acid acceptor can be either a hydroxide, a carbonate, a bicarbonate, or a phosphate of an alkali or alkaline earth metal.

The catalysts that can be used include, but are not limited to, those that typically aid the polymerization of the monomer with phosgene. Suitable catalysts include, but are not limited to, tertiary amines such as triethylamine, tripropylamine, N,N-dimethylaniline, quaternary ammonium compounds such as, for example, tetraethylammonium bromide, cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide, tetra-n-heptylammonium iodide, tetra-n-propyl ammonium bromide, tetramethyl ammonium chloride, tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide, tetra-n-butyl ammonium iodide, benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride and quaternary phosphonium compounds such as, for example, n-butyltriphenyl phosphonium bromide and methyltriphenyl phosphonium bromide.

The polycarbonates useful in the polyester compositions of the invention also may be copolyestercarbonates such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,169,121; 3,207,814; 4,194,038; 4,156,069; 4,430,484, 4,465,820, and 4,981,898, where the disclosure regarding copolyestercarbonates from each of the U.S. Patents is incorporated by reference herein.

Copolyestercarbonates useful in this invention can be available commercially and/or may be prepared by known methods in the art. For example, they can be typically obtained by the reaction of at least one dihydroxyaromatic compound with a mixture of phosgene and at least one dicarboxylic acid chloride, especially isophthaloyl chloride, terephthaloyl chloride, or both.

In addition, the polyester compositions and the polymer blend compositions useful in the polyester compositions of this invention may also contain from 0.01 to 25% by weight of the overall composition common additives such as colorants, dyes, mold release agents, flame retardants, plasticizers, nucleating agents, stabilizers, including but not limited to, UV stabilizers, thermal stabilizers and/or reaction products thereof, fillers, and impact modifiers. Examples of typical commercially available impact modifiers well known in the art and useful in this invention include, but are not limited to, ethylene/propylene terpolymers, functionalized polyolefins such as those containing methyl acrylate and/or glycidyl methacrylate, styrene-based block copolymeric impact modifiers, and various acrylic core/shell type impact modifiers. Residues of such additives are also contemplated as part of the polyester composition

The polyesters of the invention can comprise at least one chain extender. Suitable chain extenders include, but are not limited to, multifunctional (including, but not limited to, bifunctional) isocyanates, multifunctional epoxides, including for example epoxylated novolacs, and phenoxy resins. In certain embodiments, chain extenders may be added at the end of the polymerization process or after the polymerization process. If added after the polymerization process, chain extenders can be incorporated by compounding or by addition during conversion processes such as injection molding or extrusion. The amount of chain extender used can vary depending on the specific monomer composition used and the physical properties desired but is generally about 0.1 percent by weight to about 10 percent by weight, such as about 0.1 to about 5 percent by weight, based on the total weight of the polyester.

Thermal stabilizers are compounds that stabilize polyesters during polyester manufacture and/or post polymerization, including but not limited to phosphorous compounds including but not limited to phosphoric acid, phosphorous acid, phosphonic acid, phosphinic acid, phosphonous acid, and various esters and salts thereof. These can be present in the polyester compositions useful in the invention. The esters can be alkyl, branched alkyl, substituted alkyl, difunctional alkyl, alkyl ethers, aryl, and substituted aryl. In one embodiment, the number of ester groups present in the particular phosphorous compound can vary from zero up to the maximum allowable based on the number of hydroxyl groups present on the thermal stabilizer used. The term “thermal stabilizer” is intended to include the reaction product(s) thereof. The term “reaction product” as used in connection with the thermal stabilizers of the invention refers to any product of a polycondensation or esterification reaction between the thermal stabilizer and any of the monomers used in making the polyester as well as the product of a polycondensation or esterification reaction between the catalyst and any other type of additive.

Reinforcing materials may be useful in the compositions of this invention. The reinforcing materials may include, but are not limited to, carbon filaments, silicates, mica, clay, talc, titanium dioxide, Wollastonite, glass flakes, glass beads and fibers, and polymeric fibers and combinations thereof. In one embodiment, the reinforcing materials include glass, such as, fibrous glass filaments, mixtures of glass and talc, glass and mica, and glass and polymeric fibers.

In one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the polyester compositions of the invention have an intrinsic viscosity of at least 0.70 to 1.2 dL/g or at least 0.72 to 1.2 dL/g or at least 0.76 dL/g to 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process. Melt phase polymerization can be defined as a process for increasing molecular weight of a polymer in the melt phase

In one embodiment, the polyesters useful in the polyester compositions of the invention have an intrinsic viscosity of at least 0.70 to 1.2 dL/g or at least 0.72 to 1.2 dL/g or at least 0.76 dL/g to 1.2 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process and are not solid stated to obtain the described intrinsic viscosities. Solid state polymerization is a process known to one of ordinary skill in the art.

In one embodiment, the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol used to make the polyesters useful in the invention is fed to a melt processing zone for making articles of manfacture

In one embodiment, the invention includes, but is not limited to, a shipping container containing particles of at least one of the polyester compositions of the invention wherein at least one of the polyesters useful in the invention has an intrinsic viscosity of at least 0.72 dL/g or at least 0.76 dL/g obtained from a melt phase polymerization-process which is not solid stated for the purpose of obtaining the stated intrinsic viscosities process.

The polyester particles (which term includes pellets) of the invention are directly or indirectly packaged as a bulk into shipping containers, which are then shipped to customers or third parties, such as converters for converting the particles into articles such as bottle preforms or other molded articles, or as dual overnable food trays or lids; through such procedures as injection molding or thermoforming.

It is preferred to subject the polyester particles to any process embodiment described herein without solid state polymerizing the particles at any point prior to packaging the particles into shipping containers, and also preferably at any point prior to melt processing the particles (solids) to make articles. By making a high It.V polyester polymer in the melt phase (e.g. at least 0.70 dL/g, or at least 0.72 dL/g, or at least 0.74 dL/g, or at least 0.76 dL/g), increasing the molecular weight or the It.V of the polymer in the solid state as a step can be altogether avoided. Solid stating is commonly used for increasing the molecular weight (and the It.V) of the pellets in the solid state, usually by at least 0.05 It.V units, and more typically from 0.1 to 0.5 It.V. units. Typically, the It.V of solid stated polyester solids ranges from 0.70 dL/g to 1.15 dL/g. In a typical SSP process, the crystallized pellets are subjected to a countercurrent flow of nitrogen gas heated to 180° C. to 220° C., over a period of time as needed to increase the It.V to the desired target. In one embodiment, the It.V of the polyester polymer particles are not increased by more than 0.1 dL/g units, or by not more than 0.05 dL/g units, or by not more than 0.03 dL/g units, or not subjected to solid state polymerization at all prior to loading into a shipping container or prior to introducing the polyester polymer particles into an melt processing zone for making articles.

Shipping containers are containers used for shipping over land, sea or air. Examples include railcars, semi-tractor trailer containers, Gaylord boxes, ship hulls, or any other container which is used to transport finished polyester particles to a customer.

The shipping containers contain a bulk of polyester polymer particles. A bulk occupies a volume of at least 3 cubic meters. In preferred embodiments, the bulk in the shipping container occupies a volume of at least 5 cubic meters, or at least 10 cubic meters.

The melt phase polyester polymers are solidified to a desired form. The shape of the polyester polymer particles from the melt phase or in a shipping container is not limited, and can include regular or irregular shaped discrete pellets without limitation on their dimensions, including stars, spheres, spheroids, globoids, cylindrically shaped pellets, conventional pellets, pastilles, and any other shape, but particles are distinguished from a sheet, film, preforms, strands or fibers. These shapes regarded as articles. In one embodiment, the particles are in the shape of spheres.

The number average weight (not to be confused with the number average molecular weight) of the particles is not particularly limited. By number average weight is meant the number of particles per given unit of weight. Desirably, the particles have a number average weight of at least 0.10 g per 100 particles, more preferably greater than 1.0 g per 100 particles, and up to about 100 g per 100 particles.

The method for solidifying the polyester polymer from the melt phase process is not limited. For example, molten polyester polymer from the melt phase may be directed through a die, or merely cut, or both directed through a die followed by cutting the molten polymer. A gear pump may be used as the motive force to drive the molten polyester polymer through the die. Instead of using a gear pump, the molten polyester polymer may be fed into a single or twin screw extruder and extruded through a die, optionally at a temperature of 190° C. or more at the extruder nozzle. Once through the die, the polyester polymer can be drawn into strands, contacted with a cool fluid, and cut into pellets, or the polymer can be pelletized at the die head, optionally underwater. The polyester polymer melt is optionally filtered to remove large particulates over a designated size before being cut. Any conventional hot pelletization or dicing method and apparatus can be used, including but not limited to dicing, strand pelletizing and strand (forced conveyance) pelletizing, pastillators, water ring pelletizers, hot face pelletizers, underwater pelletizers and centrifuged pelletizers.

In another embodiment, the polyester polymer is one which is crystallizable. The method and apparatus used to crystallize the polyester polymer is not limited, and includes thermal crystallization in a gas or liquid. The crystallization may occur in a mechanically agitated vessel; a fluidized bed; a bed agitated by fluid movement; an un-agitated vessel or pipe; crystallized in a liquid medium above the Tg of the polyester polymer, preferably at 140° C. to 190° C.; or any other means known in the art. Also, the polymer may be strain crystallized. The polymer may also be fed to a crystallizer at a polymer temperature below its Tg (from the glass), or it may be fed to a crystallizer at a polymer temperature above its Tg. For example, molten polymer from the melt phase polymerization reactor may be fed through a die plate and cut underwater, and then immediately fed to an underwater thermal crystallization reactor where the polymer is crystallized underwater. Alternatively, the molten polymer may be cut, allowed to cool to below its Tg, and then fed to an underwater thermal crystallization apparatus or any other suitable crystallization apparatus. Or, the molten polymer may be cut in any conventional manner, allowed to cool to below its Tg, optionally stored, and then crystallized.

One type of solidification technique integrates cutting with crystallization by not allowing the heat energy imparted to the polymer in the melt phase manufacture to drop below the Tg before the polymer is both cut and crystallized to at least 20% degree of crystallinity. In one integrated solidification technique, the molten polyester polymer is directed through a die, cut at the die plate under water at high temperature and greater than atmospheric pressure, swept away from the cutter by the hot water and through a series of pipes to provide residence time to thermally crystallize the particles in the hot liquid water at a temperature greater than the Tg of the polymer and preferably at about 130 to 180° C., after which the water is separated from the crystallized particles and the particles are dried. In another integrated solidification technique, the molten polyester polymer is cut underwater, the particles are immediately separated from the liquid water after cutting, the particles are dried, and while the particles are still hot and before the temperature of the particles drops below the Tg of the polymer and desirably while the particle temperature is above 140° C., the particles are directed from the dryer onto a surface or vessel which allows the particles to form a moving bed with a bed height sufficient to allow the latent heat within the particles to crystallize the particles without the external application of a heating medium or pressurizing means. Such a surface or vessel is desirably an at least partially enclosed vibrating conveyor, such as is available from Brookman Kreyenborg GmbH.

The degree of crystallinity is optionally at least 20%, or at least 25%, or at least 30%, or at least 35%, or at least 40%. In another embodiment, the degree of crystallinity does not exceed 70%, or does not exceed 65%, or does not exceed 60%.

The residual acetaldehyde level of the polyester polymer particles can also be reduced by any conventional technique, such as by gas stripping or the use of AA scavengers or trapping agents. Desirably, the residual AA level of the particles is 10 ppm or less, or 8 ppm or less, or 5 ppm or less, or 4 ppm or less, or 3 ppm or less, or 2 ppm or less, or 1 ppm or less, prior to loading into a shipping container or prior to introducing the particles into a dryer hopper associated with a melt processing zone for making articles or prior to introducing the particles into a melt processing zone for making articles.

In one embodiment, the shipper container can transport particles comprising the polyester compositions of the invention from one city to another city or from one state to another state or from one country to another country.

The invention further relates to articles of manufacture described herein. These articles of manufacture can include, but are not limited to, injection blow molded articles, injection stretch blow molded articles, extrusion blow molded articles, extrusion stretch blow molded articles. Methods of making such articles include, but are not limited to, extrusion blow molding, extrusion stretch blow molding, injection blow molding, and injection stretch blow molding.

In some embodiments, the invention relates to articles of manufacture for example, including at least one article of manufacture chosen from containers, film, sheet, and/or coatings

In another embodiment, the invention further relates to articles of manufacture comprising the film(s) and/or sheet(s) containing polyester compositions described herein.

The films and/or sheets useful in the present invention can be of any thickness which would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art. In one embodiment, the films(s) of the invention have a thickness of no more than 40 mils. In one embodiment, the sheet(s) of the invention have a thickness of no less than 20 mils.

The invention further relates to the film(s) and/or sheet(s) comprising the polyester compositions of the invention. The methods of forming the polyesters into film(s) and/or sheet(s) are well known in the art. Examples of film(s) and/or sheet(s) of the invention including but not limited to extruded film(s) and/or sheet(s), calendered film(s) and/or sheet(s), compression molded film(s) and/or sheet(s), solution casted film(s) and/or sheet(s). Methods of making film and/or sheet include but are not limited to extrusion, calendering, compression molding, and solution casting.

Examples of potential articles made from film and/or sheet include, but are not limited, to uniaxially stretched film, biaxially stretched film, shrink film (whether or not uniaxially or biaxially stretched).

The invention further relates to containers described herein. The methods of forming the polyesters into containers are well known in the art.

The term “container” as used herein is understood to mean a receptacle in which material is held or stored. “Containers” include but are not limited to bottles, bags, vials, tubes and jars. Applications in the industry for these types of containers include but are not limited to food, beverage, cosmetics and personal care applications.

The invention further relates to bottles described herein. The term “bottle” as used herein is understood to mean a receptacle containing plastic which is capable of storing or holding liquid.

The methods of forming the polyesters into bottles are well known in the art. Examples of bottles include but are not limited to bottles such as baby bottles; water bottles; juice bottles; large commercial water bottles having a weight from 200 to 800 grams; beverage bottles which include but are not limited to two liter bottles, 20 ounce bottles, 16.9 ounce bottles; medical bottles; personal care bottles, carbonated soft drink bottles; hot fill bottles; water bottles; alcoholic beverage bottles such as beer bottles and wine bottles; and bottles comprising at least one handle. These bottles include but are not limited to injection blow molded bottles, injection stretch blow molded bottles, extrusion blow molded bottles, and extrusion stretch blow molded bottles. Methods of making bottles include but are not limited to extrusion blow molding, extrusion stretch blow molding, injection blow molding, and injection stretch blow molding. In each case, the invention further relates to the preforms (or parisons) used to make each of said bottles.

Other examples of containers include, but are not limited to, containers for cosmetics and personal care applications including bottles, jars, vials and tubes; sterilization containers; buffet steam pans; food pans or trays; frozen food trays; microwaveable food trays; hot fill containers, amorphous lids or sheets to seal or cover food trays; food storage containers; for example, boxes; tumblers, pitchers, cups, bowls, including but not limited to those used in restaurant smallware; beverage containers; retort food containers; centrifuge bowls; vacuum cleaner canisters, and collection and treatment canisters.

For the purposes of this invention, the term “wt” means “weight”.

The following examples further illustrate how the containers of the invention can be made and evaluated, and are intended to be purely exemplary of the invention and are not intended to limit the scope thereof. Unless indicated otherwise, parts are parts by weight, temperature is in degrees C. or is at room temperature, and pressure is at or near atmospheric.

EXAMPLES

Measurement Methods

The inherent viscosity of the polyesters was determined in 60/40 (wt/wt) phenol/tetrachloroethane at a concentration of 0.5 g/100 ml at 25° C.

Unless stated otherwise, the glass transition temperature (Tg) was determined using a TA DSC 2920 instrument from Thermal Analyst Instruments at a scan rate of 20° C./min according to ASTM D3418.

The glycol content and the cis/trans ratio of the compositions were determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All NMR spectra were recorded on a JEOL Eclipse Plus 600 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer using either chloroform-trifluoroacetic acid (70-30 volume/volume) for polymers or, for oligomeric samples, 60/40(wt/wt) phenol/tetrachloroethane with deuterated chloroform added for lock. Peak assignments for 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol resonances were made by comparison to model mono- and dibenzoate esters of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol. These model compounds closely approximate the resonance positions found in the polymers and oligomers.

The crystallization half-time, t½, was determined by measuring the light transmission of a sample via a laser and photo detector as a function of time on a temperature controlled hot stage. This measurement was done by exposing the polymers to a temperature, Tmax, and then cooling it to the desired temperature. The sample was then held at the desired temperature by a hot stage while transmission measurements were made as a function of time. Initially, the sample was visually clear with high light transmission and became opaque as the sample crystallized. The crystallization half-time was recorded as the time at which the light transmission was halfway between the initial transmission and the final transmission. Tmax is defined as the temperature required to melt the crystalline domains of the sample (if crystalline domains are present). The Tmax reported in the examples below represents the temperature at which each sample was heated to condition the sample prior to crystallization half time measurement. The Tmax temperature is dependant on composition and is typically different for each polyester. For example, PCT may need to be heated to some temperature greater than 290° C. to melt the crystalline domains.

Density was determined using a gradient density column at 23° C.

The melt viscosity reported herein was measured by using a Rheometrics Dynamic Analyzer (RDA II). The melt viscosity was measured as a function of shear rate, at frequencies ranging from 1 to 400 rad/sec, at the temperatures reported. The zero shear melt viscosity (ηo) is the melt viscosity at zero shear rate estimated by extrapolating the data by known models in the art. This step is automatically performed by the Rheometrics Dynamic Analyzer (RDA II) software.

The polymers were dried at a temperature ranging from 80 to 100° C. in a vacuum oven for 24 hours and injection molded on a Boy 22S molding machine to give ⅛×½×5-inch and ¼×½×5-inch flexure bars. These bars were cut to a length of 2.5 inch and notched down the ½ inch width with a 10-mil notch in accordance with ASTM D256. The average Izod impact strength at 23° C. was determined from measurements on 5 specimens.

In addition, 5 specimens were tested at various temperatures using 5° C. increments in order to determine the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. The brittle-to-ductile transition temperature is defined as the temperature at which 50% of the specimens fail in a brittle manner as denoted by ASTM D256.

Color values reported herein were determined using a Hunter Lab Ultrascan Spectra Colorimeter manufactured by Hunter Associates Lab Inc., Reston, Va. The color determinations were averages of values measured on either pellets of the polyesters or plaques or other items injection molded or extruded from them. They were determined by the L*a*b* color system of the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) (translated), wherein L* represents the lightness coordinate, a* represents the red/green coordinate, and b* represents the yellow/blue coordinate.

In addition, 10-mil films were compression molded using a Carver press at 240° C.

Unless otherwise specified, the cis/trans ratio of the 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol used in the following examples was approximately 30/70, and could range from 35/65 to 25/75. Unless otherwise specified, the cis/trans ratio of the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol used in the following examples was approximately 50/50.

The following abbreviations apply throughout the working examples and figures:

TPA Terephthalic acid
DMT Dimethyl therephthalate
TMCD 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol
CHDM 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol
IV Inherent viscosity
η0 Zero shear melt viscosity
Tg Glass transition temperature
Tbd Brittle-to-ductile transition temperature
Tmax Conditioning temperature for
crystallization half time measurements

Example 1

This example illustrates that 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is more effective at reducing the crystallization rate of PCT than ethylene glycol or isophthalic acid. In addition, this example illustrates the benefits of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol on the glass transition temperature and density.

A variety of copolyesters were prepared as described below. These copolyesters were all made with 200 ppm dibutyl tin oxide as the catalyst in order to minimize the effect of catalyst type and concentration on nucleation during crystallization studies. The cis/trans ratio of the 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol was 31/69 while the cis/trans ratio of the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is reported in Table 1.

For purposes of this example, the samples had sufficiently similar inherent viscosities thereby effectively eliminating this as a variable in the crystallization rate measurements.

Crystallization half-time measurements from the melt were made at temperatures from 140 to 200° C. at 10° C. increments and are reported in Table 1. The fastest crystallization half-time for each sample was taken as the minimum value of crystallization half-time as a function of temperature, typically occurring around 170 to 180° C. The fastest crystallization half-times for the samples are plotted in FIG. 1 as a function of mole % comonomer modification to PCT.

The data shows that 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is more effective than ethylene glycol and isophthalic acid at decreasing the crystallization rate (i.e., increasing the crystallization half-time). In addition, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol increases Tg and lowers density.

TABLE 1
Crystallization Half-times (min)
at at at at at at at
Comonomer IV Density Tg Tmax 140° C. 150° C. 160° C. 170° C. 180° C. 190° C. 200° C.
Example (mol %)1 (dl/g) (g/ml) (° C.) (° C.) (min) (min) (min) (min) (min) (min) (min)
1A 20.2% A2 0.630 1.198 87.5 290 2.7 2.1 1.3 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.5
1B 19.8% B 0.713 1.219 87.7 290 2.3 2.5 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.7
1C 20.0% C 0.731 1.188 100.5 290 >180 >60 35.0 23.3 21.7 23.3 25.2
1D 40.2% A2 0.674 1.198 81.2 260 18.7 20.0 21.3 25.0 34.0 59.9 96.1
1E 34.5% B 0.644 1.234 82.1 260 8.5 8.2 7.3 7.3 8.3 10.0 11.4
1F 40.1% C 0.653 1.172 122.0 260 >10 days >5 days >5 days 19204 >5 days >5 days >5 days
1G 14.3% D 0.6463 1.188 103.0 290 55.0 28.8 11.6 6.8 4.8 5.0 5.5
1H 15.0% E 0.7284 1.189 99.0 290 25.4 17.1 8.1 5.9 4.3 2.7 5.1

1The balance of the diol component of the polyesters in Table 1 is 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; and the balance of the dicarboxylic acid component of the polyesters in Table 1 is dimethyl terephthalate; if the dicarboxylic acid is not described, it is 100 mole % dimethyl terephthalate.

2100 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.

3A film was pressed from the ground polyester of Example 1G at 240° C. The resulting film had an inherent viscosity value of 0.575 dL/g.

4A film was pressed from the ground polyester of Example 1H at 240° C. The resulting film had an inherent viscosity value of 0.0.652 dL/g.

where:

A is Isophthalic Acid

B is Ethylene Glycol

C is 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (approx. 50/50 cis/trans)

D is 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (98/2 cis/trans)

E is 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (5/95 cis/trans)

As shown in Table 1 and FIG. 1, 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol is more effective than other comonomers, such ethylene glycol and isophthalic acid, at increasing the crystallization half-time, i.e., the time required for a polymer to reach half of its maximum crystallinity. By decreasing the crystallization rate of PCT (increasing the crystallization half-time), amorphous articles based on 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol-modified PCT as described herein may be fabricated by methods known in the art. As shown in Table 1, these materials can exhibit higher glass transition temperatures and lower densities than other modified PCT copolyesters.

Preparation of the polyesters shown on Table 1 is described below.

Example 1A

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 80 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 20 mol % dimethyl isophthalate residues, and 100 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (28/72 cis/trans).

A mixture of 56.63 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 55.2 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 14.16 g of dimethyl isophthalate, and 0.0419 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 210° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 210° C. for 5 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 290° C. over 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 290° C. for 60 minutes and then vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 5 minutes. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 90 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 87.5° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.63 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 100 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 20.2 mol % dimethyl isophthalate residues.

Example 1B

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 20 mol % ethylene glycol residues, and 80 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (32/68 cis/trans).

A mixture of 77.68 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 50.77 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 27.81 g of ethylene glycol, and 0.0433 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 200° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 200° C. for 60 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 210° C. over 5 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 210° C. for 120 minutes and then heated up to 280° C. in 30 minutes. Once at 280° C., vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 10 minutes. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 90 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 87.7° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.71 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 19.8 mol % ethylene glycol residues.

Example 1C

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 20 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, and 80 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (31/69 cis/trans).

A mixture of 77.68 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 48.46 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 17.86 g of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, and 0.046 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. This polyester was prepared in a manner similar to that described in Example 1A. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 100.5° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.73 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 80.5 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 19.5 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues.

Example 1D

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 40 mol % dimethyl isophthalate residues, and 100 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (28/72 cis/trans).

A mixture of 42.83 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 55.26 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 28.45 g of dimethyl isophthalate, and 0.0419 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 210° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 210° C. for 5 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 290° C. over 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 290° C. for 60 minutes and then vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 5 minutes. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 90 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 81.2° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.67 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 100 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 40.2 mol % dimethyl isophthalate residues.

Example 1E

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 40 mol % ethylene glycol residues, and 60 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (31/69 cis/trans).

A mixture of 81.3 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 42.85 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 34.44 g of ethylene glycol, and 0.0419 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 200° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 200° C. for 60 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 210° C. over 5 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 210° C. for 120 minutes and then heated up to 280° C. in 30 minutes. Once at 280° C., vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 10 minutes. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 90 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 82.1° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.64 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 34.5 mol % ethylene glycol residues.

Example 1F

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 40 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues, and 60 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (31/69 cis/trans).

A mixture of 77.4 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 36.9 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 32.5 g of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, and 0.046 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 210° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 210° C. for 3 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 260° C. over 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 260° C. for 120 minutes and then heated up to 290° C. in 30 minutes. Once at 290° C., vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 5 minutes. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 90 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 122° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.65 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 59.9 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 40.1 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues.

Example 1G

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 20 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues (98/2 cis/trans), and 80 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (31/69 cis/trans).

A mixture of 77.68 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 48.46 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 20.77 g of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, and 0.046 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 210° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM throughout the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 210° C. for 3 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 260° C. over 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 260° C. for 120 minutes and then heated up to 290° C. in 30 minutes. Once at 290° C., vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes until the pressure inside the flask reached 100 mm of Hg and the stirring speed was also reduced to 100 RPM. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 5 minutes and the stirring speed was reduced to 50 RPM. A pressure of 0.3 mm of Hg was maintained for a total time of 60 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. A high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer was obtained with a glass transition temperature of 103° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.65 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 85.7 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 14.3 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues.

Example 1H

This example illustrates the preparation of a copolyester with a target composition of 100 mol % dimethyl terephthalate residues, 20 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues (5/95 cis/trans), and 80 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues (31/69 cis/trans).

A mixture of 77.68 g of dimethyl terephthalate, 48.46 g of 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol, 20.77 g of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol, and 0.046 g of dibutyl tin oxide was placed in a 500-milliliter flask equipped with an inlet for nitrogen, a metal stirrer, and a short distillation column. The flask was placed in a Wood's metal bath already heated to 210° C. The stirring speed was set to 200 RPM at the beginning of the experiment. The contents of the flask were heated at 210° C. for 3 minutes and then the temperature was gradually increased to 260° C. over 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was held at 260° C. for 120 minutes and then heated up to 290° C. in 30 minutes. Once at 290° C., vacuum was gradually applied over the next 5 minutes with a set point of 100 mm of Hg and the stirring speed was also reduced to 100 RPM. The pressure inside the flask was further reduced to a set point of 0.3 mm of Hg over the next 5 minutes and the stirring speed was reduced to 50 RPM. This pressure was maintained for a total time of 60 minutes to remove excess unreacted diols. It was noted that the vacuum system failed to reach the set point mentioned above, but produced enough vacuum to produce a high melt viscosity, visually clear and colorless polymer with a glass transition temperature of 99° C. and an inherent viscosity of 0.73 dl/g. NMR analysis showed that the polymer was composed of 85 mol % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues and 15 mol % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues.

Example 2

This example illustrates that 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol improves the toughness of PCT-based copolyesters (polyesters containing terephthalic acid and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol).

Copolyesters based on 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol were prepared as described below. The cis/trans ratio of the 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol was approximately 31/69 for all samples. Copolyesters based on ethylene glycol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol were commercial polyesters. The copolyester of Example 2A (Eastar PCTG 5445) was obtained from Eastman Chemical Co. The copolyester of Example 2B was obtained from Eastman Chemical Co. under the trade name Spectar. Example 2C and Example 2D were prepared on a pilot plant scale (each a 15-lb batch) following an adaptation of the procedure described in Example 1A and having the inherent viscosities and glass transition temperatures described in Table 2 below. Example 2C was prepared with a target tin amount of 300 ppm (Dibutyltin Oxide). The final product contained 295 ppm tin. The color values for the polyester of Example 2C were L*=77.11; a*=−1.50; and b*=5.79. Example 2D was prepared with a target tin amount of 300 ppm (Dibutyltin Oxide). The final product contained 307 ppm tin. The color values for the polyester of Example 2D were L*=66.72; a*=−1.22; and b*=16.28.

Materials were injection molded into bars and subsequently notched for Izod testing. The notched Izod impact strengths were obtained as a function of temperature and are also reported in Table 2.

For a given sample, the Izod impact strength undergoes a major transition in a short temperature span. For instance, the Izod impact strength of a copolyester based on 38 mol % ethylene glycol undergoes this transition between 15 and 20° C. This transition temperature is associated with a change in failure mode; brittle/low energy failures at lower temperatures and ductile/high energy failures at higher temperatures. The transition temperature is denoted as the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, Tbd, and is a measure of toughness. Tbd is reported in Table 2 and plotted against mol % comonomer in FIG. 2.

The data shows that adding 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol to PCT lowers Tbd and improves the toughness, as compared to ethylene glycol, which increases Tbd of PCT.

TABLE 2
Notched Izod Impact Energy (ft-lb/in)
Comonomer IV Tg Tbd at at at at at at at at at at
Example (mol %)1 (dl/g) (° C.) (° C.) −20° C. −15° C. −10° C. −5° C. 0° C. 5° C. 10° C. 15° C. 20° C. 25° C. at 30° C.
2A 38.0% B 0.68 86 18 NA NA NA 1.5 NA NA 1.5 1.5 32   32   NA
2B 69.0% B 0.69 82 26 NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.1 NA 2.4 13.7 28.7
2C 22.0% C 0.66 106 −5 1.5 NA 12 23   23 NA 23   NA NA NA NA
2D 42.8% C 0.60 133 −12 2.5 2.5 11 NA 14 NA NA NA NA NA NA

1The balance of the glycol component of the polyesters in the Table is 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol. All polymers were prepared from 100 mole % dimethyl terephthalate.

NA = Not available.

where:

B is Ethylene glycol

C is 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (50/50 cis/trans)

Example 3 Comparative Example

This example illustrates that a polyester based on 100% 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol has a slow crystallization half-time.

A polyester based solely on terephthalic acid and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol was prepared in a method similar to the method described in Example 1A with the properties shown on Table 3. This polyester was made with 300 ppm dibutyl tin oxide. The trans/cis ratio of the 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol was 65/35.

Films were pressed from the ground polymer at 320° C. Crystallization half-time measurements from the melt were made at temperatures from 220 to 250° C. at 10° C. increments and are reported in Table 3. The fastest crystallization half-time for the sample was taken as the minimum value of crystallization half-time as a function of temperature. The fastest crystallization half-time of this polyester is around 1300 minutes. This value contrasts with the fact that the polyester (PCT) based solely on terephthalic acid and 1,4 cyclohexanedimethanol (no comonomer modification) has an extremely short crystallization half-time (<1 min) as shown in FIG. 1.

TABLE 3
Crystallization Half-times (min)
at at at at
Comonomer IV Tg Tmax 220° C. 230° C. 240° C. 250° C.
(mol %) (dl/g) (° C.) (° C.) (min) (min) (min) (min)
100 mol %F 0.63 170.0 330 3291 3066 1303 1888

where:

F is 2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol (65/35 Trans/Cis)

Example 4 Comparative Example

Sheets comprising a polyester that had been prepared with a target composition of 100 mole % terephthalic acid residues, 80 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues, and 20 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 177 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. Inherent viscosity and glass transition temperature were measured on one sheet. The sheet inherent viscosity was measured to be 0.69 dl/g. The glass transition temperature of the sheet was measured to be 106° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 2 weeks. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example G). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 106° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by these sheets having at least 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 86 145 501 64 N
B 100 150 500 63 N
C 118 156 672 85 N
D 135 163 736 94 N
E 143 166 760 97 N
F 150 168 740 94 L
G 159 172 787 100 L

Example 5 Comparative Example

Sheets comprising a polyester that had been prepared with a target composition of 100 mole % terephthalic acid residues, 80 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues, and 20 mole % 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3-cyclobutanediol residues were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 177 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. Inherent viscosity and glass transition temperature were measured on one sheet. The sheet inherent viscosity was measured to be 0.69 dl/g. The glass transition temperature of the sheet was measured to be 106° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 100% relative humidity and 25° C. for 2 weeks. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 60/40/40% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example G). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 106° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having at least 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 141 154 394 53 N
B 163 157 606 82 N
C 185 160 702 95 N
D 195 161 698 95 N
E 215 163 699 95 L
F 230 168 705 96 L
G 274 174 737 100 H
H 275 181 726 99 H

Example 6 Comparative Example

Sheets consisting of Kelvx 201 were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. Kelvx is a blend consisting of 69.85% PCTG (Eastar from Eastman Chemical Co. having 100 mole % terephthalic acid residues, 62 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues, and 38 mole % ethylene glycol residues); 30% PC (bisphenol A polycarbonate); and 0.15% Weston 619 (stabilizer sold by Crompton Corporation). A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 177 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 100° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 2 weeks. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example E). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 100° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having at least 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 90 146 582 75 N
B 101 150 644 83 N
C 111 154 763 98 N
D 126 159 733 95 N
E 126 159 775 100 N
F 141 165 757 98 N
G 148 168 760 98 L

Example 7 Comparative Example

Sheets consisting of Kelvx 201 were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 177 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 100° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 100% relative humidity and 25° C. for 2 weeks. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 60/40/40% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example H). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 100° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 110 143 185 25 N
B 145 149 529 70 N
C 170 154 721 95 N
D 175 156 725 96 N
E 185 157 728 96 N
F 206 160 743 98 L
G 253 NR 742 98 H
H 261 166 756 100 H

NR = Not recorded

Example 8 Comparative Example

Sheets consisting of PCTG 25976 (100 mole % terephthalic acid residues, 62 mole % 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol residues, and 38 mole % ethylene glycol residues) were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 87° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.17 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 87° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 102 183 816 100 N
B 92 171 811 99 N
C 77 160 805 99 N
D 68 149 804 99 N
E 55 143 790 97 N
F 57 138 697 85 N

Example 9 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 20 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate (a bisphenol-A polycarbonate), 79.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 94° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.25 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 94° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 92 184 844 100 H
B 86 171 838 99 N
C 73 160 834 99 N
D 58 143 787 93 N
E 55 143 665 79 N

Example 10 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 30 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 69.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 99° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.25 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 99° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 128 194 854 100 H
B 98 182 831 97 L
C 79 160 821 96 N
D 71 149 819 96 N
E 55 145 785 92 N
F 46 143 0 0 NA
G 36 132 0 0 NA

NA = not applicable.

A value of zero indicates that the sheet was not formed because it did not pull into the mold (likely because it was too cold).

Example 11 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 40 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 59.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 105° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.265 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Examples 8A to 8E). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 105° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 111 191 828 100 H
B 104 182 828 100 H
C 99 179 827 100 N
D 97 177 827 100 N
E 78 160 826 100 N
F 68 149 759 92 N
G 65 143 606 73 N

Example 12 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 50 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 49.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 111° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.225 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Examples A to D). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 111° C. can be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the production of sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 118 192 815 100 H
B 99 182 815 100 H
C 97 177 814 100 L
D 87 171 813 100 N
E 80 160 802 98 N
F 64 154 739 91 N
G 60 149 0 0 NA

NA = not applicable.

A value of zero indicates that the sheet was not formed because it did not pull into the mold (likely because it was too cold).

Example 13 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 60 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 39.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 117° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.215 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 117° C. cannot be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the inability to produce sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 114 196 813 100 H
B 100 182 804 99 H
C 99 177 801 98 L
D 92 171 784 96 L
E 82 168 727 89 L
F 87 166 597 73 N

Example 14 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 65 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 34.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 120° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.23 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 120° C. cannot be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the inability to produce sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 120 197 825 100 H
B 101 177 820 99 H
C 95 174 781 95 L
D 85 171 727 88 L
E 83 166 558 68 L

Example 15 Comparative Example

A miscible blend consisting of 70 wt % Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate, 29.85 wt % PCTG 25976, and 0.15 wt % Weston 619 was produced using a 1.25 inch single screw extruder. Sheets consisting of the blend were then produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 123° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.205 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw, and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Examples A and B). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 123° C. cannot be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the inability to produce sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 126 198 826 100 H
B 111 188 822 100 H
C 97 177 787 95 L
D 74 166 161 19 L
E 58 154 0 0 NA
F 48 149 0 0 NA

NA = not applicable.

A value of zero indicates that the sheet was not formed because it did not pull into the mold (likely because it was too cold).

Example 16 Comparative Example

Sheets consisting of Teijin L-1250 polycarbonate were produced using a 3.5 inch single screw extruder. A sheet was extruded continuously, gauged to a thickness of 118 mil and then various sheets were sheared to size. The glass transition temperature was measured on one sheet and was 149° C. Sheets were then conditioned at 50% relative humidity and 60° C. for 4 weeks. The moisture level was measured to be 0.16 wt %. Sheets were subsequently thermoformed into a female mold having a draw ratio of 2.5:1 using a Brown thermoforming machine. The thermoforming oven heaters were set to 70/60/60% output using top heat only. Sheets were left in the oven for various amounts of time in order to determine the effect of sheet temperature on the part quality as shown in the table below. Part quality was determined by measuring the volume of the thermoformed part, calculating the draw and visually inspecting the thermoformed part. The draw was calculated as the part volume divided by the maximum part volume achieved in this set of experiments (Example A). The thermoformed part was visually inspected for any blisters and the degree of blistering rated as none (N), low (L), or high (H). The results below demonstrate that these thermoplastic sheets with a glass transition temperature of 149° C. cannot be thermoformed under the conditions shown below, as evidenced by the inability to produce sheets having greater than 95% draw and no blistering, without predrying the sheets prior to thermoforming.

Thermoforming
Conditions Part Quality
Sheet Part
Heat Time Temperature Volume Blisters
Example (s) (° C.) (mL) Draw (%) (N, L, H)
A 152 216 820 100 H
B 123 193 805 98 H
C 113 191 179 22 H
D 106 188 0 0 H
E 95 182 0 0 NA
F 90 171 0 0 NA

NA = not applicable.

A value of zero indicates that the sheet was not formed because it did not pull into the mold (likely because it was too cold).

The invention has been described in detail with reference to the embodiments disclosed herein, but it will be understood that variations and modifications can be effected within the spirit and scope of the invention.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7753518Mar 7, 2008Jul 13, 2010Okia Optical Co., LtdEyeglasses and eyeglass frames comprising glycol modified copolyesters
US8110265Dec 2, 2009Feb 7, 2012The Coca-Cola CompanyPet container and compositions having enhanced mechanical properties and gas barrier properties
US8685511Jan 5, 2012Apr 1, 2014The Coca-Cola CompanyPet container and compositions having enhanced mechanical properties and gas barrier properties
US9051116Mar 28, 2014Jun 9, 2015The Coca-Cola CompanyContainer and composition for enhanced gas barrier properties
US9062197Mar 22, 2010Jun 23, 2015Eastman Chemical CompanyPolyester blends
US20110091705 *Apr 21, 2011Eastman Chemical CompanyRadio-frequency sealable polymer and articles thereof
WO2012166376A1 *May 17, 2012Dec 6, 2012Eastman Chemical CompanyHigh strength bottle
WO2013055862A1 *Oct 11, 2012Apr 18, 2013Eastman Chemical CompanyPolyester compositions containing furandicarboxylic acid or an ester thereof and 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-1,3.-cyclobutanediol
Classifications
U.S. Classification528/302
International ClassificationC08G63/16
Cooperative ClassificationY10T428/31504, Y10T428/31786, Y10T428/31507, Y10T428/31663, Y10T428/162, Y10T428/1352, Y10T428/139, Y10T428/24107, Y10T428/24479, Y10T428/161, Y10T428/1397, Y10T428/24942, A61M1/16, E04D13/03, C08L67/02, C08K2201/014, C08J7/047, B29C49/00, A01G9/1438, C08L69/00, B01D61/30, G02F1/133606, B32B27/36, G02B1/105, B29K2067/00, G02B5/3083, C08J2367/00, C08J7/123, C08J2367/02, C08J2483/00, B32B17/10018, A61J17/00, A47F5/00, C08K3/32, B65D1/0207, B29B2911/14986, C08J5/18, C08K5/521, C08L101/00, E01F8/0005, B29L2031/7542, B65D25/00, C08G63/199, B65D43/00, B65D23/10
European ClassificationC08L67/02, B01D61/30, C08J7/12A, A01G9/14E, E04D13/03, C08J7/04L, B32B17/10C2, E04H1/12B, A47J36/04, A61J17/00, B32B27/36, C08L69/00, G02F1/1336B4, A47F5/00, C08J5/18, B65D1/02B, E01F8/00A, A47J43/07D, C08K3/32, C08K5/521, C08G63/199