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Publication numberUS2006640 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 2, 1935
Filing dateJun 14, 1933
Priority dateJun 14, 1933
Publication numberUS 2006640 A, US 2006640A, US-A-2006640, US2006640 A, US2006640A
InventorsDaniel D Hubbell
Original AssigneeDaniel D Hubbell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multifocal ophthalmic lens
US 2006640 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 2, 1935. D. D. HUBBELL MULTIFOCAL OPHTHALMIC LENS Filed June 14, 1935 5 Sheets Shes IN V EN T0 Daniel D [fl/56 BY I M y A TTORNEYS.

' July 2, 1935 D. D. HUBBELL MULTIFOCAL OPHTHALMIC LENS Filed June 14, 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN V EN TOR. Daniel 17. HubbeH;

BY ATTORNEYS? I July 2, 1935.

D. D. HUBBELL MULTIFOCAL OPHTHALMIC LENS Filed June 14, 1933 3 Sheets-$heet 3 IN V EN TOR. Dam'e/ D Hubbe/l.

W ATTORNEYS.

Patented July 2, 1935 r 2,006,640

' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE MULTIFQCAL OPHTHALMIC LENS Daniel D. Hubbell, Columbus, Ohio Application June 14, 1933, Serial No. 675,800

8 Claims. (01. 88-54) My invention relates to multifocal ophthaltion with the characteristics indicated and which mic lenses. It has to do particularly with biis, at the same time, free from undue jumping focal lenses, although it is capable of applior displacement of the image. cation to lenses having more than than two Another object of this invention is to provide fields of vision. a one-piece bifocal lens which combines the 6 In the prior art, various efforts have been characteristics indicated with a wider range of made to produce a satisfactory one-piece multiadaptability for prescribed corrections. focal ophthalmic lens. However, the lenses re- Various other objects will appear as this desulting from these efforts have all involved scription progresses.

' l0 structural and optical disadvantages which have In its preferred embodiment, my invention 10 either prevented marketing or greatly restricted comprises a one-piece bifocal lens wherein the the demand for such lenses. 7 upper edge of the reading segment is compara- One type of one-piece multifocal ophthalmic tively flat and is located a slight distance belenses which has been marketed has embodied a low the geometrical center of the lens. Also, this reading segment embodying the upper part of reading segment preferably extends to the base 15 a circle so that the dividing line between the of the lens and is of substantial width throughreading portion and the distance portion is of out its area and even at the base of the lens. arcuate form. In this type, the optical center These characteristics may, however, be altered of the reading portion is located at a marked and may be supplemented by other characterdistance below the dividing line. istics and advantageous features which will ap- 20 One resulting disadvantage is that the eye pear as this description progresses. experiences an apparent jump of the image This application is a continuation, in part, when it passes from the reading field to the of my application for Multifocal lenses and. distance field or vice versa together with blur method of making the same, filed November 19,

at and adjacent to this dividing line. Another 1931, Serial No. 576,071. 25 disadvantage arises from the factv that the di- Before describing the lenses preferably providing line between the reading field and the duced in accordance with the principles of my distance field is arcuate, which results in a invention, I deem itadvisable to describe the laterally restricted field of vision on either side method which is preferably used in the proof any point at which the vision crosses the diduction of the lenses and the characteristics of 30 viding line. the blanks in the various phases of formation It has been suggested that the reading segwhich ultimately result in attainment of the ment be made in the form of a half circle with object sought. This description will be supplethe fiat side uppermost in the lens, with the mented by more or less diagrammatic drawings optical center thereof at this dividing line and appended hereto. In these drawings, similar 35 with thearcuate edge of the segment merging characters of reference designate corresponding with the distance field. The advantages claimed parts. for this construction. involve the avoidance of Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view of the jump of the image, avoidance of blur at the concave side of a semi-finished blank showing dividing 'line and a wider field of vision immea central circular portionrepresenting the the- 40 diately below the dividing line. I oretical area from which the partially circular But this construction possesses certain imreading segment is to beformed.

portant drawbacks. Chief among these is the Figure 2 is'a diagrammatic plan view similar pronounced shoulder at the dividing line with to Figure 1 and showing the partially circular its tendency to collect dirt and create glare. reading segment button from which the reading One of-theobjects of my invention is to prosegment is, to be cut in the final cutting of the I vide a one-piece bifocal lens having a reading lens, the dotted line representation being the portion with a relatively elongated and subportion of the theoretical circle which is not stantially straight upper edge or dividing line actually. formed on the blank, U

- so as to provide a relatively wide fieldof vis- Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view of the 50 ion immediately below the dividing line while, blank shown in Figure 2.. I 7

at the same time, greatly decreasing or elim- Figure 4 is a sectional view similar to Figure 3 inating the shoulder at the dividing line. showing a subsequent stage in the formation Another object vof this invention is to provide of the blank. I a one-piece bifocal lens which has a reading por- Figure 5 is a perspective view of a portion of the blank of Figure 4, this view illustrating the partially submerged condition of the reading segment in such blank.

Figure 6 is a plan view of the concave side of the blank such as shown in Figures 3 and 4 with the outline of a lens placed thereon to show the portion of the reading segment button which is preferably eliminated in the cutting of the lens to final contour, for a purpose which will be more apparent as this description progresses.

Figure 7 is a perspective view of a lens produced from the blank of Figure 3 by cutting along the lines shown in Figure 6.

Figure 8 is a perspective view of a lens which is cut from a blank having the form shown in Figure 4 along the lines indicated in Figure 6.

Figure 9 is a diagrammatic representation of a lens blank such as shown in Figure 4 with the center of curvature of the inner surface of the reading segment so located that the optical center of the reading segment is on the dividing line between the reading portion and the distance portion.

Figure 10 is a view similar to Figure 9 with the center of curvature of the inner surface of the reading portion so located that the optical center of the reading segment is below the dividing line.

Figure 11 is a view similar to Figure 9 with the center of curvature of the inner surface of the reading segment so located that the optical center of the reading segment is above the dividing line.

Figure 12 is a perspective view of a lens made in accordance with my invention and having the reading segment of prismatic form with the prism base to the right.

Figure 13 is a perspective view of a lens made in accordance with my invention and havin the reading segment of prismatic form with the prism base to the left.

Figure 14 is a .plan view of a lens made in accordance with my invention and having the reading segment of modified form.

Figure 15 is a plan view of alens made in accordance with my invention and having the reading segment still further modified as to form.

Figure 16 is a perspective view, partly in section, of a further modification of the lens shown in Figure 7 of the drawings.

Figure 17 is a perspective view, partly in section, of a further modification ofthe lens shown in Figure 8 of the drawings.

Figure 18 is a vertical sectional view of a lens made in accordance with my invention and] having the minor lenticular surface provided upon the convex surface of the lens.

Figure 19 is a view similar to Figure 18 but showing the shoulder at the upper dividing line replaced by a chamfered surface.

Figure 20 is a vertical sectional view of a modified form of lens made in accordance with my invention wherein the minor lenticular surface is provided on the convex surface of the lens and designed for use as a distance vision portion.

Figure 21 is aperspective view of the lens shown in Figure 20.

In the making of this lens, I preferably provide a blank which is molded to have two surfaces of different curvature on one side thereof, a minor surface and a major surface. The minor surface is raised somewhat above th major surface and has an external contour of more than a.half circle and less than a full circle, as illustrated by the full line atl in Fig. 2. The blank is then mounted on a tumtable with its bifocal surface projecting upwardly and with the center of the reading segment located on the axis of rotation of the table.

A grinding tool is then brought to bear upon the surface 2 which surrounds the surface I and which is to ultimately form the concave surface of the distance vision portion of the lens. As the table rotates, the tool is brought closer to or further from the raised minor portion so as to grind not only the surface of the distance portion but also to grind the top edge of the minor portion I. Polishing of the distance portion may be effected by similar means. The

result of this operation is to impart to the minor portion a sharply defined outline of partially circular form, larger than a half circle and less than a full circle.

The minor surface may then be finished to produce the reading segment. This may be done in several ways, depending upon whether or not the semi-circular part of the portion l is to merge with the adjacent distance vision portion or to form a shoulder projecting therefrom. One method which may be used is to provide a collar with a hole therethrough of such a size that the collar will fit snugly around the minor portion. The collar should preferably cover and protect the distance vision portion. It has a thickness approximating the height of the wall formed on the rough blank. The ring is preferably cemented to the distance portion. The protective collar may be of glass, hard wax or plastic material and may be sub sequently removed in various ways.

) The reading segment is then finished by grinding and polishing in a manner similar to that used in forming a one-piece bifocal lens blank of the usual one-piece type, the collar acting as a support for the lap over that portion of the distance vision area adjacent the fiat dividing line. When the surface is finished, this collar will be ground through or practically so along an arcuate line which is a continuation of the semi-circular boundary line of the segment. Within the arcuate line and extending to the dividing line, there will be a thin wedgeshaped wafer left adjacent the fiat dividing line. The circular ring remaining and the wafer are removed, whereupon the. semi-finished lensblank is finished on the bifocal side. The semicircular dividing line forms a common line with both the reading and distance portions but a shoulder is present at the flat top which is shaped like a double wedge, thickest at the center and pointed at the ends.

Though the minor portion of the blank is preferably not formed as a complete circle, the

advantages of this invention will be best under- 'stood by considering the reading segment as though it had been cut from a segment button of circular form with a horizontal diameter line indicated at 33 of Figures 1 to 4, inclusive.

By reference to Figure 3, it will be noted that I the reading segment button and the distance portion. In other words, if the reading segment button had been terminated at the horizontal dividing line 3'3, the shoulder formed would be of maximum thickness. Byextending the reading segment a substantial distance above this horizontal diameter line, I have substantially decreased the height of the shoulder 4. If desired, I may cut the lens from the blank shown in Figure 3 along the lines illustrated in Figure 6.

A lens made from the blank shown in Figure 3 is illustrated by the perspective view shown in Figure '7. In this figure, it will be seen that the shoulder 4 is of slight height and that it merges at its ends with the distance portion of the lens. The arcuate edges 5 of this reading segment are shown to be merging throughout with the distance portion surface.

Preferably, however, I continue the grinding of the reading segment portion with the axis of the grinding tool at an angle so that there is produced the condition illustrated in Figure 4 wherein the shoulder 4 is practically eliminated while the lower part of the segment is submerged below the surrounding surface of the distance portion as at 6.

When this minor surface is formed as shown in Figure 4 and properly ground and polished,

a lens is cut from the blank so as to eliminate the lower portion of the minor surface of Figure 4, as illustrated in Figure 7 and by the line of cutting 1-1 of Figure 4. It will be noted that this eliminates a-substantial portion of the submerged area, which portion forms the area of greater submergence.

The result of this operation is the production of a lens suchas shown in Figure 8 wherein the reading segment has, at the dividing line, a shoulder 8 of insignificant height which merges at its ends with the surrounding surface of the distance portion. As will also be noted in this figure, the reading segment extends to the bottom of the lens and has a relatively wide area at this point. Likewise, the slight submergence at the lower part of the segment produces extremely slight shoulders l0 and ll.

' It will be seen from this description that I have devised a method of producing a one-piece bifocal lens which permits of the reduction and even the practical elimination of the shoulder at the dividing line. This may be accomplished merely by extending the reading segment portion a substantial distance above the horizontal diameter line of the circle or by submerging the lower portion of the reading segment or by both. The eliminatien of the lower part of the submerged area reduces the shoulders at the lower part 'of the segment sides to immaterial height.

I may readily locate the optical center of the reading segment at the dividing line, belowthe dividing line or above the dividing line, as desired, by altering the angle of the axis of the grinding tool for the reading segment portion. Thus, in figure 9, the optical center of the reading segment is shown as being at the dividing line, inasmuch as the radii R and R have centers on a straight line passing through the dividing line. In Figure 10, the optical center is shown located from 3 to 4 mm. below-the. dividing line while, in Figure 11, the optical center is shown located a similar distance above the dividing line.

In certain cases, it is .quite desirable that the optical center be located from 3 to 4 mm. below the dividing line, inasmuch as the pupil of the eye has this approximate radius. As shown in Figure 10, so locating the optical center from 3 to 4 mm. below the dividing line not only prevents the jumping of the image which apparently occurs as the vision passes over the dividing line, but it has the additional advantage of decreasing the submergence necessary to the production of a lens of the type illustrated in Figure 8, since it tends to tilt the lower portion of the reading segment more nearly toward vertical position.

Figures 12 and 13 illustrate the manner in which a lens made in accordance with my invention may be caused to have a prismatic reading segment. In Figure 12, the base of the segment is shown at the right thereof as indicated at II. In Figure 13, the base of the segment is shown at the left thereof as at l3. It will be apparent that it is possible to locate the base of the prism at any position with relation to the optical center of the distance portion of the lens. Furthermore, the optical center of the reading segment may be readily placed within or outside of the area of the reading segment.

The modifications illustrated in Figures 14 and 15 represent different shapes ofsegments which may be used in the embodiment of my invention. In Figure 14, the dividing line I4 is a straight line which is joined to the circular edge US by short arcs l6. In Figure 15, the dividing line is a long flat are I] which is joined to the circular edge l8 by short arcs l9.

Figure 16 shows a modified form of a lens of the shoulder which is thus removed makes possible the use of a chamfered surface of such slight area that the normally quick movement of the eye in transference of the vision across the upper dividing line of the minor lenticular surface will preclude any impairment of vision resulting from this chamfered surface.

Figure 1'? shows a further modified form of lens made in 'accordance with my invention, I

wherein the reading segment is partially submerged so that the shoulder which has been removed by chamfering at 2| was even of less height than in the form shown in Figure 16. Thus, the area of the chamfered surface 2| is even less than the corresponding surface in Figure 16 and also offers no impairment of vision as the eye moves in transference of vision across the upper dividing line. also be seen that chamfered surfaces 22 and 23 are used to remove the slight shoulder resulting from submergence along the side edges of the reading segment. It will also be appreciated that the shoulders replaced by the chamfered surfaces 22 and 23 are of less height than they would have been if the lowermost area of submergence had been retained in the cutting of the lens from the lens blank.

Figure 18 shows a modified form of my in- In this figure, it will vention wherein the reading segment is located lines;

distance portion, though'it will be noted that the lower edges of this segment merge with this surrounding surface. It shouldalso be noted that the shoulder 24 is located a substantial distance above the'horizontal diameter line 25-45 of the circle of which the reading segment forms a part so that theshoulder is, in consequence, substanlenticular portion. It will be understood, how-,

ever, that these reading segments may be partiallysubmerged in the surrounding convex lenticular surfaces for the purpose of further reducing the slight shoulders at their dividing The shoulder and the chamfered surface 26 of Figures 18 and 19,'respect ively, are

' exaggerated in these figures to facilitate reproduction. I

Figures 20 and 21 illustrate still further modifications of my invention. In these figures, the major lenticular portion, designated 21, constitutes the reading portion of the lens. The minor lenticular portion, designated 28, constitutes the distance portion. This distance portion is produced by generating on the convex surface of the lens a curved surface 29 of longer radius than that of 28. -It will be seen that the external contour of this surface takes the form of a part circle with its arcuate side uppermost. Preferably, its lower edge is located'a substantial distance below the horizontal diameter line of the circle from which it is formed. The optical center of this distance portion may be selectively located as desired.

It will be seen from the foregoing that I have produced a lens which hasnumerous important advantages. Some of these advantages have been made clear in the preceding description.

These advantages include the fact that by providing one of the lenticular surfaces with a partially circular contour with its main dividing line of an elongated nature and located above the horizontal diameter line of the circle from which it is formed, a wide area-of vision is provided imediately below this dividing line with a shoulder of much less height than would be possible if the dividing line were located directly at the horizontal diameter line of the circle.

Another advantage arises from thefact that the optical center may be placed at or adjacent the dividing line with the shape of segment shown by me with a much less submergence of the segment than is possible where the upper dividing line of the segment is a portion of the periphery of a circle. Stated another way, if the upper dividing line is a portion of the periphery of a circle, the location of the optical center of the segment at or adjacent to the dividing line can only be attained by submerging the lower part of the segment to a considerably greater degree than is necessary with a segment of the type used by me wherein the upper dividing line is a substanial distance below the periphery of the circle of which the reading se ment forms a theoretical part.

Another advantage of my invention arises from the fact that I have found a way of reducing .the shoulder at the dividing line by submerging the lower portion of the segment in the blank and then eliminating the relatively deep area of submergence by the manner in which the lens is cut from the blank.

A still further advantage of my invention arises from the fact that I have been able to produce such a slight shoulder at the upper dividing line, and, also, at the lower parts of the side dividing lines, that these shoulders may be eliminated by chamfered surfaces of such slight area that these chamfered surfaces will not impair the optical characteristics of the lenses to which they are applied. I

Various other advantages will be apparent from the preceding description and from the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:

1. A lens blank for making a one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens blank, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semi-circular are connected to said flat edge, said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially fiat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens blank than the edge simulating the semi-circular arc, said minor lenticular surface being submerged for a part of its area below the said major lenticular surface and the remainder of its area projecting above the said major lenticular surace. 7

2. A lens blank for making a one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens, comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens blank, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with .a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semi-circular are connected to said fiat edge, said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially flat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens blank than the edge simulating the semi-circular are, said minor lenticular surface being submerged for a part of its area below the said major lenticular surface and the remainder of its area projecting above the said major lenticular surface, the area of said minor surface which is submerged having a shoulder formed along the edge thereof which shoulder extends below the said major lenticular surface and the area of said minor surface which projects above the major lenticular surface having a shoulder along its edge which shoulder projects from the said major lenticular surface.

3. A lens blank for making a one-piece inulti focal ophthalmiclens, comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semi-circular arc connected to said flat edge, said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially flat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens blank than the edge simulating the semi-circular arc, said minor lenticular surface being submerged for a part of its area below the said major lenticular surface and the remainder of its area projecting above the said major lenticular surface, the area of said minor surface which is submerged having a shoulder formed along the edge thereof which shoulder extends below the said major lenticular surface and the area which projects above the major lenticular surface having a shoulder along its edge which shoulder projects from the said major lenticular surface, both of said shoulders being chamfered.

4. A one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens, comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semi-circular are connected to said fiat edge, the said minor lenticular surface being tilted with respect to the major lenticular surface so as to provide a prism in the minor portion of the finished lens with its base in a prescribed locacation and to thereby locate the optical center of said minor portion at a prescribed location.

5. A one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with a.

vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semi-circular are connected to said flat edge,

.said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially flat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens than the edge of arcuate form, said minor lenticular surface being of prismatic form.

6. A one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens, said minor lenticular. surface being less than a full circle with a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially fiat and another edge simulating a semicircular arc connected to said flat edge, said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially flat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens than the edge of arcuate form,'said minor lenticular surface being of prismatic form with the base of the prism located at or adjacen the substantially fiat edge.

'7. A one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens made from a blank comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a. minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens blank, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semicircular arc connected to said fiat edge, said minor lenticular surface being so disposed with relation to said major lenticular surface that the edge which is elongated and substantially fiat is more remote from the peripheral boundary of the lens blank than the edge simulating the semicircular arc, said minor lenticular surface being submerged for a part of its area below the said major lenticular surface and the remainder of its area projecting above the said major lenticular surface, the finished lens being cut from said blank in such a manner that a portion of the submerged area of the minor lenticular surface is removed so that the minor field of the finished lens will have the form of a circle with its upper portion and lower portion removed.

8. A lens blank for making a one-piece multifocal ophthalmic lens comprising a major lenticular surface having a selected radius of curvature and a minor lenticular surface having a different radius of curvature, both of said surfaces being generated on the same side of the lens blank, said minor lenticular surface being less than a full circle with a vertical dimension greater than a radius of the circle but less than the diameter of the circle and having an edge which is elongated and substantially flat and another edge simulating a semicircular are connected to said flat edge, the said minor lenticular surface being tilted with respect to the major lenticular surface so as to provide a prism in the minor portion of the finished lens with its base in a prescribed location and to thereby locate the optical center of said minor portion at a prescribed location.

DANIEL D. HUBBELL.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3037425 *Nov 18, 1957Jun 5, 1962Carle John Trevor DeBifocal corneal contact lens
US4288149 *Feb 24, 1978Sep 8, 1981Signet Optical CorporationResin ophthalmic lenses having a prismatic segment
US20120324631 *Jun 22, 2012Dec 27, 2012Beverly Diana PeperBra strap covering device
Classifications
U.S. Classification351/159.41, D16/101
International ClassificationG02C7/06
Cooperative ClassificationG02C7/06
European ClassificationG02C7/06