|Publication number||US20070016069 A1|
|Application number||US 11/431,093|
|Publication date||Jan 18, 2007|
|Filing date||May 8, 2006|
|Priority date||May 6, 2005|
|Also published as||CN101208045A, CN101208045B, EP1887940A2, EP1887940A4, EP1887940B1, EP2474268A1, EP2474268B1, US8409103, US20070016068, US20070016070, US20070016072, WO2006122001A2, WO2006122001A3|
|Publication number||11431093, 431093, US 2007/0016069 A1, US 2007/016069 A1, US 20070016069 A1, US 20070016069A1, US 2007016069 A1, US 2007016069A1, US-A1-20070016069, US-A1-2007016069, US2007/0016069A1, US2007/016069A1, US20070016069 A1, US20070016069A1, US2007016069 A1, US2007016069A1|
|Inventors||Sorin Grunwald, Bradley Hill|
|Original Assignee||Sorin Grunwald, Bradley Hill|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (14), Classifications (24), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/678,209 filed on May 6, 2005 by Sorin Grunwald, et al., entitled “Method and Apparatus for Intravascular Catheter Guiding and Positioning” and to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/682,002 filed on May 18, 2005, also by Sorin Grunwald, et al., entitled “Method and Apparatus for Intravascular Catheter Guiding and Positioning” each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The invention relates to the guidance, positioning and placement confirmation of intravascular devices, such as catheters, stylets, guidewires and other elongate bodies that are typically inserted percutaneously into the venous or arterial vasculature, including flexible elongate bodies. Currently these goals are achieved using x-ray imaging and in some cases ultrasound imaging. This invention provides a method to substantially reduce the need for imaging related to placing an intravascular catheter or other device. Reduced imaging needs also reduce the amount of radiation that patients are subjected to, reduce the time required for the procedure, and decrease the cost of the procedure by reducing the time needed in the radiology department.
The vasculature of mammals has long been accessed to provide therapy, administer pharmacological agents and meet other clinical needs. Numerous procedures exist in both venous and arterial systems and are selected based on patient need. One challenge common to all vascular-based therapies is health care provider access to the specific location or section of the vascular tree.
One common venous access procedure is central venous access. Central venous access is the placement of a venous catheter in a vein that leads directly to the heart. Central venous catheters are ubiquitous in modern hospital and ambulatory medicine, with up to 8 million insertions per year in the U.S. and a similar number outside the U.S.
Venous access devices are most often used for the following purposes:
Administration of medications, such as antibiotics, chemotherapy drugs, and other IV drugs
Administration of fluids and nutritional compounds (hyperalimentation)
Transfusion of blood products
Multiple blood draws for diagnostic testing.
Central venous access devices are small, flexible tubes placed in large veins for people who require frequent access to their bloodstream. The devices typically remain in place for long periods: week, months, or even longer.
Central venous access devices are usually inserted in 1 of 3 ways:
Central catheters and ports are usually inserted by a surgeon or surgical assistant in a surgical suite. An alternative is placement under the guidance of a special x-ray machine so that the person inserting the line can make sure that the line is placed properly. A PICC line can be put in at bedside, usually by a specially trained nurse. In this later case, confirmation by X-ray is currently required for assessing the success of the PICC placement.
Traditional surgically placed central catheters are increasingly being replaced by peripherally inserted central venous access devices. PICC lines usually cause fewer severe complications than central venous access devices. Peripherally-Inserted-Central-Catheter (PICC) is used in a variety of clinical procedures. The PICC line placement procedure is performed by interventional radiologists to deliver long-term drug delivery, chemotherapy procedures, delivery of intravenous medications or intravenous nutrition (hyperalimentation) and taking blood samples via a Hickman catheter. Insertion of PICC lines is a routine procedure in that it is carried out fairly often for a variety of treatments, and more than once in the same patient when the catheter is to be left in place for any length of time. Even though it is routine, it is a very time and labor-intensive procedure for the hospital staff, which also makes it expensive. During the procedure the physician or nurse places the catheter into a superficial arm vein such as the cephalic, basilic, antecubital, median cubital, or other superficial vein with the goal of having the distal end of the catheter reach the superior vena cava. After entering the superficial vein around the area where the arm bends (elbow), the catheter is advanced up the subclavian vein, then the brachiocephalic vein and finally it enters the superior vena cava. One caveat is to make sure that the PICC line does not enter the jugular vein via the subclavian vein.
Hemodialysis therapy via a hemodialysis catheter is another example of a procedure requiring central venous access. A dialysis catheter is a specialized type of central venous catheter used for dialysis. Dialysis catheter placement involves the insertion of a catheter into a large vessel, utilizing X-ray guidance. The challenges of inserting a hemodialysis catheter in terms of guidance and positioning are similar to those of a central venous catheter, only they are typically larger and require a peel-away sheath for insertion.
Another therapy achieved via providing access to the venous system is the percutaneous treatment of varicose veins. Published population studies indicate that approximately 25 million people in the U.S. and 40 million people in Western Europe suffer from symptomatic venous reflux disease. Percutaneous treatment of varicose veins involves the placement of an energy delivery catheter (laser or RF) after navigation the vasculature to locate the treatment site. One common treatment site is the sapheno-femoral junction and less common sites are the sapheno-popliteal junction and sites of perforator veins, which connect the superficial venous system to the deep venous system of the leg at a variety of different locations, mostly below the knee. As such, in the case of percutaneous treatment of varicose veins using specific venous junctions, the position the laser or the RF catheter at an optimal location with respect to the venous junction is critical for the success of the intervention. Currently X-ray or ultrasound imaging or both are used for such positioning.
In addition to guiding the catheter through the vasculature, the location of the catheter tip is very important to the success of the procedure. Catheters will generally function equally well for pressure measurement and fluid infusion if the tip is situated in any major vein, above or below the heart. For dialysis or the infusion of irritant/hypertonic fluids, a high rate of blood flow past the catheter tip is desirable and this requires the placement of the luminal opening in as large a vessel as possible. However, the package inserts of many central venous catheters give very strong warnings about the absolute requirement for catheter tips to lie outside the heart to avoid perforation and subsequent pericardial tamponade. Likewise positioning the catheter tip away from small peripheral veins is important to avoid damaging the vein wall or occluding the vein due the caustic effects of the infusing solution. It is also of major interest that the catheter tip stays in place after placement for the whole duration of the treatment. If the catheter tip moves, not only its effectiveness diminished but, in some situations, it can perforate the heart. In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration has issued advice emphasizing this point. Typically, the interventional radiologist uses a fluoroscopic agent to delineate the veins in the body and subsequently verifies the correct positioning of the catheter tip using a post-operative X-ray. Currently, post-operative X-ray is performed routinely while some studies have shown that only 1.5% of the cases are subject to complications that would indeed require X-ray imaging.
What is needed are methods and apparatuses to optimize guidance and placement of catheters in order to reduce the risk associated with wrong placement and the cost associated with the X-ray imaging. Further there remains a need for a catheter guidance and placement system that may be used to safely guide and place catheters in healthcare provider or clinical environments other than in the radiology department or surgical suite wherein a radiological or other external imaging modality is used to confirm catheter placement. As such, there remains a need in the medical arts for instruments, systems and associated methods for locating, guiding and placing catheters and other instruments into the vasculature generally. In addition remains a need in the medical arts for instruments, systems and associated methods for locating, guiding and placing catheters and other instruments into the vasculature to meet the challenges presented by the unique characteristics and attributes specific to the vascular system of interest.
An aspect of the invention includes an endovenous access and guidance system. The system comprises: an elongate flexible member adapted and configured to access the venous vasculature of a patient; a sensor disposed at a distal end of the elongate flexible member and configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient; a processor configured to receive and process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient provided by the sensor and to provide position information regarding the position of the distal end of the elongate flexible member within the venous vasculature of the patient; and an output device adapted to output the position information from the processor. In some embodiments, the elongate flexible member is further adapted to provide a catheter, a guidewire, and/or a stylet. In other embodiments, the device is adapted to deliver therapy to a patient, or provide venous access for another device. In still another embodiment, the system is adapted to further comprise a sensor attachment mechanism adapted to removably detach the sensor from the elongate flexible member while the elongate flexible member remains in the vasculature of the patient. In yet another embodiment, the system is configured such that the processor processes in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient provided by the sensor to indicate in the output information the proximity of the sensor to a structure within the vasculature of the patient. In still other embodiments, the processor can be further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient to indicate in the output information movement of the elongate flexible member in a desired direction within the vasculature of the patient. Alternatively, the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient based on a parameter selected from a group consisting of: a venous blood flow direction, a venous blood flow velocity, a venous blood flow signature pattern, a pressure signature pattern, A-mode information and a preferential non-random direction of flow. In another aspect of the invention, the system further comprises a divergent lens associated with the sensor, or a plurality of lenses associated with the sensor. The divergent lens can be adapted to attach the sensor to the elongate flexible member. The sensor may be further configured such that it is a first sensor adapted to transmit an ultrasound signal, the system further comprising a second sensor adapted to receive non-image based ultrasound information. Additionally, a sensor drive mechanism adapted drive the sensor in a plurality of ultrasound transmission modes can be provided. In some embodiments, the sensor is a first sensor, the system further comprising a second sensor disposed at the distal end of the elongate flexible member and configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient to the processor. In other embodiments, a centering element adapted to substantially center the distal end of the elongate member within a vessel. In some instances, two or more additional sensors wherein the sensor and the two or more additional sensors are attached to the elongate flexible member in an arrangement that mimics an endovascular junction. Additionally, a steering element for directing the device tip in response to feedback information derived from the acquired data. Further embodiments can include a torque control element for directing the device tip in response to feedback information derived from the acquired data.
According to another aspect of the invention, an endovascular access and guidance system, comprising: an elongate flexible member adapted and configured to access the vasculature of a patient; a sensor and an associated divergent lens disposed at a distal end of the elongate flexible member and configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient; a processor configured to receive and process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient provided by the sensor and to provide position information regarding the position of the distal end of the elongate flexible member within the venous vasculature of the patient; and an output device adapted to output the position information from the processor is provided. The elongate flexible member can be adapted to comprise a catheter, a guidewire, or a stylet. In some embodiments, the system can further be adapted such that the elongate flexible member is adapted to deliver a therapy to the patient and/or provides endovascular access for another device. In still other embodiments, a sensor attachment mechanism adapted to removably detach the sensor from the elongate flexible member while the elongate flexible member remains in the vasculature of the patient. Some embodiments of the system can be adapted such that the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient provided by the sensor to indicate in the output information the proximity of the sensor to a structure within the vasculature of the patient. In some instances, the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient to indicate in the output information movement of the elongate flexible member in a desired direction within the vasculature of the patient. In other instances, the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient to indicate in the output information the proximity of the sensor to a structure within the vasculature of the patient. In still other instances, the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient based on a parameter selected from a group consisting of a blood flow direction, a blood flow velocity, a blood flow signature pattern, a pressure signature pattern, A-mode information and a preferential non-random direction of flow. The divergent lens can be adapted in some embodiments to attach the sensor to the elongate flexible member. In other embodiments, the sensor is a first sensor adapted to transmit an ultrasound signal, the system further comprising a second sensor adapted to receive non-image based ultrasound information. In still other embodiments, the sensor is a first sensor adapted to receive non-image based ultrasound information, the system further comprising a second sensor adapted to transmit an ultrasound signal. The system can also be adapted such that it comprises a sensor drive mechanism adapted drive the sensor in a plurality of ultrasound transmission modes. In some embodiments, the sensor is a first sensor, the system further comprising a second sensor disposed at the distal end of the elongate flexible member and configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient to the processor. In other embodiments, the endovascular access and guidance system is adapted to further comprise a centering element adapted to substantially center the distal end of the elongate member within a vessel. The system can further comprise a steering element for directing the device tip in response to feedback information derived from the acquired data. In other embodiments, the system can be adapted to further comprise a torque control element for directing the device tip in response to feedback information derived from the acquired data. In still other embodiments, the system comprises a plurality of lenses associated with the sensor.
Another aspect of the invention includes an ultrasound sensor assembly comprising: an ultrasound sensor; and an airtight and ultrasound transparent seal encapsulating at least one side of the ultrasound sensor. The sensor assembly can be configured to include an airtight and ultrasound transparent seal shaped into an acoustic lens. Further, the acoustic lens can be adapted to be shaped to spread a beam generated by the ultrasound sensor. In some embodiments, the lens is made from epoxy. Other embodiments of the invention include an ultrasound sensor formed from a piezoelectric crystal, a piezoelectric ceramic, silicon, and/or a thin piezoelectric film. The lens of the system, in some embodiments, comprises a plurality of microlenses. In another aspect of the invention, the ultrasound sensor is attached to the catheter to provide a forward looking beam, and/or a lateral looking beam. In other embodiments, the ultrasound sensor is disposed in a recess formed in a wall of the catheter. The ultrasound sensor can, in some embodiments, be adapted to provide Doppler readings from a fluid passing over the external surface of the catheter. In some aspects of the invention an airtight and ultrasound transparent seal is shaped into an acoustic lens is provided. The acoustic lens is shaped, in some embodiments, to spread the beam generated by the ultrasound sensor.
Still another aspect of the invention includes a method for positioning an instrument in the venous system of a body. The method comprises the steps of: accessing the venous system of the body; positioning an instrument in the venous system of the body; using the instrument to transmit an ultrasound signal into the venous system of the body; using the instrument to receive a reflected ultrasound signal from the vasculature indicating flow rates between 2 and 20 cm/s; processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine one or more parameters from a group consisting of: a venous blood flow direction, a venous blood flow velocity, a venous blood flow signature pattern, a pressure signature pattern, A-mode information and a preferential non-random direction of flow; and advancing the instrument within the vasculature using the one or more of the determined parameter or parameters within the vasculature. Using the instrument to transmit an ultrasound signal into the vasculature of the body comprises, in some aspects of the invention, transmitting or receiving an A mode ultrasound signal into or from the vasculature of the body. In some embodiments, using the instrument to transmit an ultrasound signal into the vasculature of the body comprises transmitting or receiving Doppler ultrasound signal into or from the vasculature of the body. In other embodiments, using the instrument to transmit an ultrasound signal into the vasculature of the body comprises transmitting or receiving a non-imaging target tracking ultrasound signal into or from the vasculature of the body. In some embodiments, processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine a flow pattern determines a flow direction within the vasculature towards the instrument and further comprises processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine a flow pattern determines a flow direction away from the instrument. In other embodiments, the reflected ultrasound signal is processed to determine the presence of a signal indicating a specific blood flow pattern. In still other embodiments, processing the reflected ultrasound signal is performed to determine the presence of a signal indicating a specific pressure pattern. In yet other embodiments, processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the position of the instrument relative to the caval-atrial junction is performed. Other aspects of the invention can include processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of flow after processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of both antegrade and retrograde flow. Still other aspects can further comprise processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of flow away from the instrument and after processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of flow both away and towards the instrument. In some embodiments of the method, the method comprises processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of a signal indicating a specific structure. In other aspects of the invention, the specific target vasculature for positioning an instrument is included, for example, the specific structure is a valve of a heart, a blood vessel wall, a heart wall. In another aspect of the invention, the method further comprises processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of a signal indicating a position where two or more vessels join. For example, the two or more vessels can comprise a superior vena cava and an inferior vena cava, an inferior vena cava and a renal vein; a right common iliac vein and a left common iliac vein; an external iliac vein and an internal iliac vein; a right brachiocephalic vein and a left brachiocephalic vein; a superior vena cava and an azygous vein; a common femoral vein and a great saphenous vein; a superficial femoral vein and a deep femoral vein; a popliteal vein and a lesser saphenous vein; a perforator vein and a superficial vein; a perforator vein and a deep tibial vein; a great saphenous vein and a varicose vein; a jugular vein and a subclavian vein; or a cephalic vein and an axillary vein. In another aspect of the invention, the method can further comprise: using the instrument determine a location to secure a device within the vasculature of a body; and securing the device to the body to maintain the device in the location determined by the instrument. In still another aspect of the method, the method can further comprise: using the instrument to calculate the current position of the device; and determining if the device is in the location determined by the instrument by comparing the current calculated position of the device to the location determined by the instrument. In some aspects of the method, the method further comprises processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the position of the instrument within the right atrium relative to the coronary sinus. In still other aspects the method further comprising processing the reflected ultrasound signal to determine the position of the instrument within the left atrium relative to a pulmonary vein.
All patents, publications and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated by reference in their entirety to the same extent as if each individual patent, publication or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.
The novel features of the invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. A better understanding of the features and advantages of the present invention will be obtained by reference to the following detailed description that sets forth illustrative embodiments, in which the principles of the invention are utilized, and the accompanying drawings of which:
FIGS. 6F-G is a plan view of a distal portion of a guidewire in accordance with an exemplary embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 11A-B illustrate an embodiment of the invention with the sensor disposed in a recess of the elongate
FIGS. 12A-B illustrate an embodiment of the inventor in which the sensor is disposed at the distal end of a closed end catheter;
FIGS. 13A-C illustrate an embodiment of the invention in which sensors are disposed at the distal end of the catheter and one sensor is disposed on the side of the catheter;
FIGS. 14A-E illustrate illustrate a variety of sensor and lens arrangements;
FIGS. 16A-B illustrate illustrate the tip of a stylet, or other elongate body, in which a seal covers the sensors;
FIGS. 18A-C illustrate the use of a location device with a guidewire;
FIGS. 19A-B illustrate a sensor disposed on a convex side of a distal portion of a guidewire;
FIGS. 21A-B illustrate a guidewire having a hockey stick shaped distal portion with a sensor positioned thereon;
FIGS. 22A-B illustrates a sheath for use in introducing the guidewire of
FIGS. 23A-B illustrates an embodiment of the invention in which a plurality of sensors are disposed on the distal end of a stylet;
FIGS. 43A-B illustrate a parameter of the multi-single beam ultrasound system of the present invention;
Embodiments of the present invention provide guided vascular access devices, systems for processing signals from the guided vascular access devices and user interface for providing information to a user based on outputs from the processing system. Other aspects of embodiments the invention relate to the use of intravascularly measured physiological parameters for locating, guiding, and placing catheters in the vasculature (see
The present invention provides a new apparatus and method for intravascular guidance and placement of catheters and for monitoring their location within the vasculature based on the recognition of blood flow patterns at the locations of interest. A major benefit of the new apparatus and method introduced herein is that it increases the chances of correct placement of the devices in a procedure performed at the bedside without the need for imaging guidance, in particular without X-ray imaging. Another benefit is related to the fact that the guided vascular access devices and the systems described herein may be inserted into the existing healthcare workflow for placing instruments into the vasculature. More specifically, a new apparatus and method for intravascular guidance and placement of catheters and/or guide wires to then guide the deployment of other devices or therapies in the body such as, for example, location of heart valves for replacement heart valve procedures; identification of the renal veins and inferior vena cava for IVC filter placement; location of coronary sinus for placement of pacing leads or mitral valve modification devices; location of pulmonary veins for sensor placement and/or performance of therapy such as ablation treatment for atrial fibrillation; as well as the placement of device or performance of therapy at specific locations in the vasculature identified by the techniques described herein.
In some embodiments, the systems and methods of embodiments of the inventive guidance system described herein are utilized to locate, guide and position catheters and/or guide wires equipped with sensors described herein within the vessels of the venous system. The embodiments described herein may also be utilized in the vessels of the arterial system as well. In one aspect, the guided vascular access devices described herein may be used for the guidance, positioning, and placement confirmation of intravascular catheters used in a wide number of clinical applications. Exemplary clinical applications that would benefit from embodiments of the invention include the placement of, for example, central venous access catheters, hemodialysis catheters and the placement of catheters or therapy devices or treatment systems for percutaneous treatment of varicose veins.
The present invention is based on the ideas that: a) certain locations in the vasculature can be identified by specific blood flow patterns at those locations as quantified by blood pressure or Doppler measurements; and b) the direction of traveling of a catheter can be determined relative to the direction of blood flow by using the Doppler effect.
For example, in the case of a PICC line, by determining and real-time monitoring the direction of catheter movement in the blood vessels using the sensors, techniques, data acquisition and processing described herein, a user receives feedback on advancing a guided vascular access device to allow the PICC to advance along a desired path from the arm vein into the vena cava. The system may also recognize unintended entry into other veins because of the differences in flow patterns received from the sensors. As such, the system may recognize unintended entry into the jugular vein, the subclavian one or even if the sensor is against the vessel wall. By monitoring the data acquired from sensors positioned on the guided vascular access device, the user can be notified when the catheter tip reaches the ideal placement point next to the root of the vena cava. The system recognizes the root of the vena cava, and other vascular components, by analyzing sensor acquired data to identify unique patterns and signatures.
The technology described herein is essentially non-imaging, i.e., does not require all the elements that make imaging possible, e.g., scanning with a moving transducer or working with phased arrays and beam forming. Non-imaging ultrasound refers to the one dimensional representation of ultrasound information. In contrast, imaging ultrasound utilizes 2D or 3D ultrasound information, moving transducers, phased arrays and beam forming techniques. As such, embodiments of the present invention provide a venous ultrasound based guidance system for: endovascular characterization of venous blood flow; venous catheter guidance; endovascular characterization of slow moving anatomical targets; providing a disposable (single use) ultrasound data acquisition unit; and providing a hand-held, simple, inexpensive user interface.
Most prior art relating to the use of intravascular ultrasound for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes addresses problems on the arterial side of the vasculature where blood flow velocities are higher and artery diameters are smaller than their accompanying venous counterparts (
An exemplary arterial ultrasound system, such as that described by Franzin in Doppler-guided retrograde catheterization using transducer equipped guide wire (U.S. Pat. No. 5,220,924), uses a single crystal 20 MHz pulsed wave (PW) Doppler to detect peak velocities in the pulsatile flow in the arteries. Arterial measurement systems such as this system do not work for venous system (see
A third reason, related to PRF, involves the relatively large sample volume size needed to accurately characterize venous blood flow patterns according to the inventive processing techniques described herein. The PRF of 100 KHz required for high velocity detection produces a sample volume size on the order of only approximately 2 mm wide. Such a sample volume size is wholly inadequate for the accurate characterization of blood flow patterns in the large veins. A sample volume of approximately 15 mm is needed for the characterization of large veins and additional modifications are needed to ensure adequate penetration depth is obtained.
A fourth reason that conventional arterial ultrasound systems are not suited for the venous system monitoring techniques described herein are that arterial systems are optimized to detect the high arterial flow velocities or even just peak velocities. Using the Franzin arterial system as an example, such an arterial monitoring system would detect only the high peak velocities of the arterial flow and not the entire velocity pattern. Arterial systems are configured neither to discriminate low velocities and nor detect patterns of flow containing low velocities, e.g., venous flow.
Relevant Anatomic and Physiologic Considerations
For the placement of intravenous lines characterization of venous flow along the placement path is of importance, e.g., from the basilic and cephalic veins to the subclavian, brachial and into the superior vena cava. The internal jugular vein flow needs to also be characterized as does the inferior vena cava flow.
The superior and inferior vena cava are referred to as the “great veins” and are of special interest for central venous access applications. Their combined internal diameter at the right atrium is between 2.5 and 3 cm and their combined cross-sectional area of approximately 6 cm2. The blood velocities in the great veins can reach 15 cm/sec in order to allow for a blood flow of approximately 5 L/min. These are the highest velocities on the venous side. Moving away from the heart towards the capillaries, the venous velocities decrease because the total cross-sectional area of the blood vessels increases while the amount of blood flowing is the same. In the basilica or cephalic veins the blood flows at approximately 2 to 5 cm/sec. Venous flow is non-pulsatile. The variation in velocities are small and due mainly to the mechanism of propagation helped by the locally distributed venous valves and the effect of respiration which alters blood flow velocities within the deep and central veins proportional to changes in intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures.
In comparison, on the arterial side and in the heart blood flows at velocities around 50 cm/sec and can reach 80 cm/sec peak velocity. The mean velocities are higher in the arteries than in veins in addition to the fact that arterial flow is pulsatile with high peak velocities. The pulsatile pattern of the arterial flow follows the pulsatile pattern of the heart beats, which represent the centralized mechanism of propagation of blood through arteries.
The table below summarizes the parameters which can be used to characterize blood flow and the differences between these parameters in venous, arterial, and heart chamber flows. Because of these differences, different requirements are imposed on the technology in order to characterize venous flow vs. arterial or heart chamber flow.
TABLE 1 Large Heart Parameter Large Veins Arteries Chambers Velocities (cm/s) 2-15 40-80 40-80 Vessel inner SVC and IVC: Subclavian: 6 N/A diameter (mm) app. 20 Femoral: 8 Subclavian: app. 8 Internal Jugular: app. 10 Flow pattern Non-pulsatile Pulsatile Pulsatile Directionality Unidirectional Bidirectional Multi- (pulsatile) directional (pulsatile)
A catheter assembly is provided that has a sensor attached close to the catheter tip (distal end). The sensor can be a pressure, Doppler, or temperature sensor, or any other type of sensor that can be used to detect physiological parameters within the blood vessel. A wire is connected to the sensor that provides and electrical connection from the sensor to the outside of the body. This can be achieved for example through an electrical connection running through the catheter wall or lumen from the sensor to a connector placed at the proximal end of the catheter. The catheter assembly containing a sensor can be built in different ways and is described in more detail below.
The connector 1 in
In one embodiment, the catheter assembly is used in the sterile field while the device is non-sterile. Therefore, the device must be bagged with a sterile bag prior to use. The connector provides a means to pierce the bag and connect to the device in the sterile bag, such that sterility is ensured for the operation of the device in the sterile field. In another embodiment, the device is sterile and is attached to the sterile catheter directly.
The apparatus implements the data processing algorithm and indicates to the user the location of the catheter or catheter tip in the vascular tree a user interface or display. In one embodiment, the user interface may be colored lights that indicate the position or status of the guided vascular access device within the vasculature. For example, a green light may indicate blood flow away from the guided vascular access device, meaning that the guided vascular access device is being advanced in the correct or desired direction, e.g., toward the heart in some applications. A red light may indicate blood flow towards the guided vascular access device, meaning that the guided vascular access device is being advanced the wrong way or in a direction away from the heart. A blue light may indicate that a blood flow pattern or other unique signature or aspect has been detected that indicates that the guided vascular access device is in proximity of the desired position within the vasculature. The desired location may be any location within the vasculature where the multi-single beam ultrasound processing techniques and the guided vascular access devices may detect a blood flow pattern or other unique signature, aspect or anatomical landmark. For example, guided vascular access devices described herein may be used to identify the junction between the vena cava and the right atrium (see, e.g.,
While the techniques described herein may be practiced in a number of clinical settings, the placement method 300 will be described for bedside catheter placement. The workflow presented in catheter placement method 300 begins with step 305 to measure approximate needed length of catheter. This step is recommended in order to verify the location indicated by the apparatus. This step is currently performed by the medical professional in the beginning of the procedure.
Next, at step 310, unpack sterile catheter with placement wire inserted and the sensor attached. In a preferred embodiment, the packaged catheter already contains a modified stylet with Doppler sensors. Currently, some PICC catheters are already packaged with stylets which are used by the medical professionals to push the catheter through the vasculature. Currently such catheters and the corresponding stylets do not contain any sensors.
Next, at step 315, connect non-sterile user interface housing by bagging it with a sterile bag and piercing it with the connector end of the placement wire. In a preferred embodiment, the catheter containing the stylet with sensor is sterile and disposable while the user interface, control, and signal processing unit is reusable and potentially non-sterile. If the unit is not sterilized and cannot be used in the sterile field, it has to be bagged using a commercially available sterile bag. The catheter is then connected to the user interface unit by piercing the sterile bag with the stylet connector. Alternatively, a sterile cord or cable can be passed off the sterile field and subsequently attached to a non-sterile control unit without having to puncture a bag. Other aspects of connecting the components are described below with regard to
Next, at step 320, press self-test button on the user interface housing and wait to see the green LED blinking. Once the sensor is connected the system can execute a self test protocol to check connection and sensor.
Next, at step 325, insert catheter into the vessel. This step is similar to the catheter introduction currently performed by medical professionals. One preferred insertion point in the basilic is labeled “1” in
Next, at step 330, hold in position until green light stops blinking (e.g., becomes solid green light). Once the catheter is in the vessel, it must be held in position for a few seconds or be slowly pushed forward. This step ensures that the signal processing algorithm can calibrate the data acquisition and pattern recognition to the current patient data. Additionally, the processing system will analyze the sensor date to confirm that the sensor is placed in a vein not an artery. This placement confirmation aspect is described in greater detail below with regard to
Next, at step 335, after receiving confirmation from the system that the sensor/catheter has been introduced into a vein, the user may start advancing the catheter and watch the green light to stay on. If the green light is on, it means that blood flows away from the catheter tip. This “green light” indication is the desired indication while advancing the catheter/sensor to the end position.
Next, at step 340, if the light turns red, stop advancing and pull the catheter back until the light becomes green again. The light turns red when blood flows towards the catheter/sensor instead of away from it. This means that the catheter has been accidentally advanced into the jugular or other vein. In
Next, at step 345, advance while green light on. The user keeps pushing while the catheter/sensor remain on the proper path toward the heart.
Next, at step 350, the user stops advancing when light turns blue. As illustrated in
Next, at step 355, the user may verify actual length against the initially measured length. This step is used to double check the indication provided by the device and compare against the expected initially measured length for the target position.
Next, at step 360, remove stylet and attached sensor.
Next, at step 360, peel away introducer and then at step 370, secure catheter.
Guided Vascular Access Devices
Some embodiments make use of ultrasound-derived information to enable steering a device within a blood vessel. This can be accomplished by a integrating design features that enable steering along with a sensor or sensors that provide real-time feedback information indicating tip position within the vasculature.
An important design feature enables torque control. Guided vascular access devices equipped with acoustic sensors, including catheter devices and stylets/guidewires, may be constructed using high-torque materials to enable precise control of the distal tip by rotating the shaft of the catheter or device near the insertion site. More particularly, an embodiment of a stylet (i.e.,
Another device design goal is to minimize device profile while maximizing sensor size. In catheter embodiments, this goal may be achieved by disposing the sensor in a recess formed in the distal end of the catheter.
In some embodiments, the location device may be used solely to guide another device (such as a therapy device) to a particular location in the vasculature. In other embodiments, however, location devices may be integrated with therapy delivery devices. In such embodiments, the catheter or other device may be provided with lumens for therapy delivery in addition to the device location elements. Alternatively, the catheter may be provided with slits, valves, ports, etc. for purposes of therapy delivery. Groshong describes the use of valves in closed end catheters in U.S. Pat. No. 4,549,879 for Valved two-way catheter.
Some embodiments of the invention acquire directional data that may be used, e.g., to determine the direction of blood flow. In such catheter embodiments, one or more sensors may be tip mounted and forward looking, side mounted and lateral looking, and/or rearward looking sensors. There also may be multiple sensors in one or more locations. Stylet and guidewire embodiments may also have forward looking sensor(s), rearward looking sensor(s) or a combination.
Some embodiments may provide features to maximize the sensor data acquisition volume. For ultrasound based sensors, for example, the data acquisition volume may be increased by expanding the beam to insonify a greater volume (via, e.g., a divergent beam) and/or by collecting from a larger volume by converging the collection beam. Lenses and lens assemblies (e.g., acoustic lens assemblies, shaped epoxy lens assemblies, microlens arrays, machines crystal(s)) may be used or this purpose.
The location devices may use a variety of sensor numbers, shapes, and materials depending on the application. For example, the device may use one sensor, multiple sensors, rectangular sensors, rounded sensors, etc. Suitable ultrasound-based sensor material includes piezoelectric crystals (such as quartz), piezoelectric ceramics (such as lead zirconate titanate), silicon, and piezoelectric films (such as PVDF). The lenses (e.g., converging, diverging) may be made from epoxy toughened with varying weight fractions of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), Araldite® (Gy508/Hy956, Ciba), EPO-TEK® 353 ND (Epoxy Technology), or Rexolite® (Curbell Plastics). In some embodiments, the sensor may be made “non-flushing” (e.g., does not require flushing for purposes of purging air or other ultrasound limiting materials) by encapsulating the sensor in airtight and ultrasound transparent epoxy or other sealant. The encapsulation may also be used to attach the sensor to the catheter or other device and may be formed into the shape of a sensor lens. In addition, the seal material used for encapsulating the sensor in airtight ultrasound environment may be non-transparent to the acoustic energy generated by the sensor. As such, in some embodiments the material used to provide an air tight, sealed environment for sensor operation may also act as an acoustic lens to the sensor(s) being sealed.
The use of an array of microlenses of tens of micrometer diameter instead of a single lens with a diameter of 1-2 mm covering the entire surface of the crystal (see
In almost all cases, ultrasound sensors, such a ultrasound crystals, for example, use acoustical lens assemblies coupled to a piezoelectric (PZT) crystal. The use of laser micromachining of the PZT element is disclosed that produces a shaped crystal and hence alter the generated acoustic wave (
Catheter Based Guided Vascular Access Devices
Embodiments of the present also relate to the use of integrated Doppler sensors into catheters, such that these sensors can monitor the direction of the blood flow, i.e., towards or away from the catheter and detect Doppler flow patterns in order to determine the location of the Doppler sensor in the vasculature. Several types of Doppler techniques can be used to achieve these goals including continuous (CW) and pulsed (PW) wave Doppler. The references to continuous wave directional Doppler are as examples and are not be considered a limitation of the invention. From a catheter assembly point of view, CW requires two transducer elements: one that transmits the ultrasound wave and another one that receives it. One such two sensor embodiment is illustrated in
FIGS. 9A-D show a centering feature for a catheter with location devices according to this invention. In this embodiment, sensors 915A and 915B are disposed at the distal end 913 of a catheter 912. Expandable centering wires 930 (formed, e.g., from a superelastic material, such as the shape memory material Nitinol, or a biocompatible plastic) are disposed radially around catheter 912. The centering wires 930 may also take the form of narrow strips or be replaced by a balloon that may be selectively inflated to maintain centering. Selectively inflating the balloon allows the balloon to be more inflated when centering the device in a larger sized vessel and less inflated for centering the device within a smaller sized vessel. Whether strips, a balloon, or other inflatable element, the centering elements 930 expand substantially uniformly around catheter 912 to keep the catheter approximately in the center of the vessel 80.
FIGS. 10A-C show another feature for a catheter with location devices according to this invention to adapt the catheter for use in different size vessels. In this embodiment, a sensor 1015A is disposed on the side of catheter 1012, and a sensor 1015B is disposed at the distal end 1013 of the catheter. The distal end of catheter 1012 may be bent by the user, as shown in
The recess 1122 may be filled with a seal material, a lens material or a seal material having lens characteristics as indicated by the 1140/1130 reference numeral. An airtight, ultrasound transparent seal 1130 is provided over the recess 1122 and sensor 1115. Seal 1130 and/or the fill in recess 1122 may also serve as a lens for the sensor 1115. The sensor 1115 and its seal and/or lens is substantially or nearly flush with the outside surface of catheter 1112 in this embodiment. The size of the seal 1130 is not illustrated to scale and would in actuality not present so apparent an edge against the surface elongate body 1112 but would be atraumatic if it contacted a vessel wall.
FIGS. 14A-E show different sensor and lens arrangements. In FIGS. 14A-C, a different shaped lenses 1440 A-C are illustrated covering a sensor 1415. The shape of the lenses 1440A-C can be used to modify the acoustic waves transmitted or collected by the sensor 1415 to have the desired characteristics to accomplish the ultrasound techniques described herein. In
Guide Wire Based Guided Vascular Access Devices
FIGS. 18A-C show the use of a location device with a guidewire 1812. In
Stylet Based Guided Vascular Access Devices
As illustrated in
Steerable guide 6024 preferably includes an outer tube 6025 and an internal wire 6027 that runs from the distal end 6032 to steering control module 6030. Finger grips 6034 and thumb grip 6036 of control module 6030 are reciprocally movable relative to each other along the axis of steerable guide 6024. Thumb grip 6036 is affixed to the outer tube 6025 of guide 6024 and finger grips 6034 are affixed to the proximal end of the internal wire 6027. The distal end of the internal wire 6027 is affixed to the distal end of the outer tube 6025 of steerable guide 6024 in an axially offset manner as is known in the art. Alternatively, the outer tube 6025 can be eliminated and the internal wire 6027 instead affixed directly to the sheath 6021 of cannula 6020, in which case the thumb grip 6036 could be affixed to sheath 6021 with finger grips 6034 being affixed to wire 6027. By pulling finger grips 6034 toward thumb grip 6036, the internal wire 6027 is placed in tension, thereby deflecting the distal end of steering guide 6024, and hence sheath 6021 and cannula 6020, to one side. Through a combination of deflecting the distal end of cannula 6020 via grips 6034 and 6036, and rotating the entire catheter 6010 about its longitudinal axis, likewise via grips 6034 and 6036, the distal end of catheter 6010 can be steered anywhere within a 360 degree range. Other steering mechanisms as known in the art can also be used. The user may apply steering controls based on the output of the processing system of the present invention.
One blood characteristic sensor uses fiber optics to sense oxygen content, but alternatively or additionally, pH or CO2 sensors can be used. The fiber optic assembly 6028 includes a pair of optical fibers 6029 and 6031 encased in a tube 6033. These fibers—along with electrical connections to sensors 6015—run the entire length of assembly 6028 and are connected at their proximal end to a photodetector optical module 6038, and to processor and display 6041 (modified for generating, collecting and processing the ultrasound data of the inventive system), respectively.
According to a well known phenomenon, the color of the blood is a function of the percentage of oxygen saturation of the blood. Consequently, the color of the light absorbed by the blood, and hence the color of the light reflected back to the optical module 6038, is also a function of oxygen content of the blood. The photodetector in optical module 6038 is differentially responsive to different wavelengths of light, and generates an electrical signal indicative of the wavelength of the reflected light received via the optical fiber. The generated signal can be conveyed via suitable conductors 6039 to a processor and display module 6041 that can process the signal and display the percentage oxygen saturation in a form that is directly readable by a human, such as a digital display. The processor and display module 6041 also includes the necessary components for the operation of the illustrated sensors as described herein. The output of the oxygen content or other parameter measured herein may also be indicated as part of the user display, such as in
Steerable oximetric catheter 6010, which combines the inventive ultrasound sensors described herein with an oxygen sensing optical fiber assembly 6028 with a wire-steerable guide 6024 in a common cannula 6020. provides a new technique useful for locating the coronary sinus. The oxygen content of blood in the coronary sinus is known to be among the lowest in the human body. This phenomenon is exploited by the steerable oximetric catheter 6010 in cooperation with the sensor and processing abilities of the present invention to identify unique flow signatures and patterns to facilitate locating the coronary sinus. By monitoring the oxygen content along with flow pattern information, and other characteristic of the blood in the vicinity of the distal end of catheter 6010 in real time as catheter 6010 and the sensors 6015 are advanced through the right atrium (initially located using the techniques of
The guiding catheter 6110 comprises three primary components. The guiding catheter body 6111 defines a central lumen 6130 (shown and described with reference to
An exit hole 6114 is defined towards the distal end of the guiding catheter body 6111 through which the electrophysiology catheter 6115 exits the central lumen 6130. The electrophysiology catheter 6115 comprises a tip electrode 6116 at its distal end for mapping and/or ablating endocardial tissue and is mounted at its proximal end to a control handle 6119. Preferably, the electrophysiology catheter 6115 is steerable by longitudinal movement of the control handle 6119 relative to the body of the electrophysiology catheter 6115. Aberrant conductive pathway signals can be received from the tip electrode 6116 and transmitted to a remote detector and displayed via a molded electronic connector 6120. RF energy can be transmitted to the tip electrode 6116 via a remote RF source also connected to the molded connector 6120. An exemplary example of an electrophysiology catheter suitable for use with the present invention is a steerable open lumen catheter as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,431,168 to Webster, Jr. for Steerable open-lumen catheter, and manufactured by Cordis Webster, Inc., Baldwin Park Calif. However, many other electrophysiology catheters could be used without departing from the scope of the invention.
The guiding catheter body 6111 can be of any suitable length for intravascular insertion. In the described embodiment, a length of about 100 cm is used. Similarly, the exit hole 6114 can be of any suitable size to allow an electrophysiology catheter to exit the guiding catheter body 6111. In the described embodiment, a size of 0.04.+−.0.03 inches is used and the distance between the distal edge of the exit hole 6114 and the distal end of the catheter tip 6112 is approximately 2.5 cm. One or more ultrasound sensors 6118, 6117 are fixedly attached to the distal end of the guiding catheter body 6111. The sensors 6118, 6117 emits and receive ultrasound as determined by the control system described herein and in
The guiding catheter body 6111 comprises four main sections as follows (from proximal to distal end): a main body 6127, a first transitional tip 6126, a second transitional tip 6125 and the distal catheter tip section 6112. Each of these four sections can be of any suitable construction and dimensions.
A braided wire sleeve 6134 also runs the length of the guiding catheter body 6111 but only up through the second transitional tip 6125, ending slightly proximal to the end of the second transitional tip 6125 to form a proximal catheter tip joint section 6128. In the described embodiment, the width of the proximal catheter tip joint section 6128 is approximately 0.04+/−0.03 inches and the braided wire sleeve 6134 is preferably constructed of stainless steel.
A cross sectional view of the guiding catheter body 6111 taken along line 4-4 of
In the described embodiment, the central lumen 6130 has an inner diameter of about 0.110 inches. Preferably, the inner liner 6132 defines two longitudinal grooves 6136 on its outer surface at opposite sides from each other. A pair of small puller wire tubes 6133 are situated in the grooves 6136 to maintain their orientation. Preferably, the puller wire tubes 6133 are constructed of polyamide with an inner diameter of approximately 0.012 inches. Puller wires 6121 run axially within the puller wire tubes 6133. The puller wires 6121 (not shown for clarity) have a diameter of about 0.01 inches. The puller wires 6121 are constructed of stainless steel cable 6150 with a PTFE sleeve 6151 covering them to provide lubricity within the polyamide tubes 6133.
A layer 6135 of eight braided ribbon cables 6153 run longitudinally along either side of the puller wire tubes 6133 and arranged to surround the inner liner 6132. In the described embodiment, the lead wires for sensors 6118, 6117 may be disposed within the braided ribbon cable layer 6123 which may include ribbon cables bundled together and with individual microcoax wires 6152 of about 8 mils thickness. The braided wire sleeve 6134 runs longitudinally over the puller wire tubes 6133 and the braided ribbon cables layer 6135. Preferably, the braided wire sleeve is constructed of stainless steel. Finally, the above-described outer jacket 6127, preferably constructed of nylon, surrounds the braided wire sleeve layer 6134.
The catheter tip 6112 is steerable using the pair of puller wires 6121. To aid in steering, each of the puller wires is connected to a thumb slide 6170 which is slidably mounted on the outer surface of the handle, preferably proximate to its distal end (
Sliding of the thumb slides in the proximal direction relative to the catheter pulls on the puller wire to which it is connected and causes the catheter tip 6112 to deflect in a horizontal direction. The deflection is such that the catheter tip 6112 becomes concave on the side of the puller wire that was moved proximally. Reverse deflection of the catheter tip occurs by sliding the opposite thumb slide proximally relative to the guiding catheter. Deflection of the catheter tip 6112 may be used to alter the position of the sensors 6117, 6118 alter the divergent ultrasound beam produced for accurately characterizing the adjacent flow patterns. Bidirectional movement in a left-right horizontal plane is achieved using the thumb slides 6170 which are connected to puller wires 6121. As described, the catheter tip 6112 is capable of 1 to 4 movement degrees of freedom. In an embodiment having a single puller wire only a single thumb slide is needed.
Wire 6240 of guidewire 6200 includes a curved portion 152 disposed proximate distal end 6206 of guidewire 6200. In the illustrated embodiment, curved portion 6252 of wire 6240 is shown in a substantially unbiased position. In the embodiment shown, coil 6230 is urged into a substantially curved shape by curved portion 6252 of wire 6240. The curved portion 6252 of wire 6240 is biased to return to a generally curved shape after being deflected. It may be appreciated that coil 6230 is comprised of a plurality of turns 6254. The longitudinal axis of coil 6230 is disposed along a generally curved path. The coil 6230 defines a plurality of gaps 6256 disposed between adjacent turns of coil 6230. Those of skill in the art will appreciate that curved portion 6252 of wire 6240 may have any radius of curvature depending upon need. Likewise curved portion 6252 may have any bend angle depending upon need.
In a method in accordance with the present invention, guidewire 6200 may be inserted into the vascular system of a patient and urged forward through the vasculature until tip member 6250 of guidewire 6200 is proximate a desirable target site as determined through use of the inventive guidance techniques described herein. As guidewire 6200 is advanced through the vasculature of a patent, it may be necessary to “steer” the guidewire. For example, the distal end of guidewire 6200 may reach a branch in the vasculature. The physician may direct the distal end of the guidewire toward the desired branch of the vasculature based on feedback provided by processing the data acquired by sensors 6215A, 6215B. Curved portion 6208 of guidewire 6200 may facilitate the steering process. Torsional forces may be applied to the proximal portion of guidewire 6200 to alter the angular orientation of curved portion 6252 relative to the blood vessel. In this manner, the distal end of guidewire 6200 may be directed to place the sensors 6215A, 6215B into a different orientation within a vessel for the acquisition and processing of additional sensor data to aid in guiding guidewire 6200. Once guidewire 6200 is positioned within the vasculature, the proximal end 6202 of guidewire 6200 may be inserted into a guidewire lumen of a catheter (not shown). The tip of the catheter may be advanced along the length of the guidewire until it reaches a desirable target site. In this manner, guidewire 6200 may aid a physician in delivering the distal tip of a catheter to a desired target site, in particular target sites identified using the ultrasound signal processing techniques described herein.
The term “wire”, as used in describing wire 6240 and elsewhere in this application should not be mistaken as limiting wire 6240 to elements having a circular cross section. The cross section of wire 6240 may be any number of shapes. For example, the cross section of wire 6240 could be rectangular, elliptical, etc. Likewise, the term “wire”, as used in describing wire 6240 should not be mistaken as being limited to metallic materials. In fact, wire 6240 may comprise many metallic and non-metallic materials. Examples of metallic materials which may be suitable in some applications include stainless steel, tantalum, and titanium. Wire 6240 may also include a nickel-titanium alloy known in the art as Nitinol. Nitinol is commercially available from Memry Technologies (Brookfield, Conn.), TiNi Alloy Company (San Leandro, Calif.), and Shape Memory Applications (Sunnyvale, Calif.). Examples of non-metallic materials which may be suitable in some applications may be found in the list immediately below which is not exhaustive: polycarbonate, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLLA/PLA), poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLLA/PGA), poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLA/PGA), poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) (PGA/PTMC), polyethylene oxide (PEO), polydioxanone (PDS), polycaprolactone (PCL), polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHBT), poly(phosphazene), polyD,L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLA/PCL), poly(glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PGA/PCL), polyanhydrides (PAN), poly(ortho esters), poly(phoshate ester), poly(amino acid), poly(hydroxy butyrate), polyacrylate, polyacrylamid, poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate), polyurethane, polysiloxane and their copolymers. Additionally, guidewire 6200 may also include a wire 6240 having a tubular cross section. For example, wire 6240 may comprise Nitinol hypodermic tubing.
Examples of ultrasound control systems are described in the following patents: related to ultrasound imaging U.S. Pat. No. 6,896,658 to Ji et al. for Simultaneous multi-mode and multi-band ultrasonic imaging; U.S. Pat. No. 6,251,073 to Imran et al. for Miniaturized ultrasound apparatus and method; U.S. Pat. No. 5,492,125 to Kim et al. for Ultrasound signal processing apparatus; U.S. Pat. No. 6,561,979 to Wood et al. for Medical diagnostic ultrasound system and method; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,477,858 to Norris et al. for Ultrasound blood flow/tissue imaging system; related to Doppler ultrasound U.S. Pat. No. 4,324,258 to Huebscher et al. for Ultrasonic doppler flowmeters; U.S. Pat. No. 4,143,650 to Hatke for Directional doppler ultrasound systems for biosignal acquisition and method of using the same; U.S. Pat. No. 5,891,036 to Izumi for Ultrasonic wave Doppler diagnosing apparatus; related to guidance U.S. Pat. No. 5,220,924 to Frazin for Doppler-guided retrograde catheterization using transducer equipped guide wire; U.S. Pat. No. 6,704,590 to Haldeman for Doppler guiding catheter using sensed blood turbulence levels; U.S. Pat. No. 5,311,871 to Yock for Syringe with ultrasound emitting transducer for flow-directed cannulation of arteries and veins; U.S. Pat. No. 6,612,992 to Hossack et al. for Medical diagnostic ultrasound catheter and method for position determination related to tracking method U.S. Pat. No. 5,785,657 to Breyer et al. for Blood flow measurement device; and related to pressure estimation U.S. Pat. No. 5,749,364 to Sliwa Jr. et al. for Method and apparatus for mapping pressure and tissue properties.
The waveform synthesizer 2510, such as a programmable pulse sequence generator or the like, is used to generate electronic signals, such as electronic pulses in
The output of the wave synthesizer is coupled to a power amplifier included in the transmitter block 2520, such as a power amplifier, high speed FET, or the like where it is amplified and passed through a transmit/receive switch. The transmit and receive switch 2520 sends/receives signal data to and from the sensor(s) in the system and provides that acquired data to the components of the signal processing unit 160. Transmit/receive switch optionally includes a multiplexer configured to couple the signals from the waveform generator to the desired sensor and the desired sensor to the corresponding signal processing path in block 160. The ultrasound sensor 115 generates a single divergent ultrasound beam by transforming the electrical energy from the power amplifier into mechanical acoustical waves of frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz.
The sensor 115 is configured to transmit an ultrasound beam into a material under investigation. Echoes are generated in the material under investigation through the interaction between the single divergent ultrasound beam and back scattering objects such as blood or reflective objects such as blood vessel or heart walls. The sensor 115 receives the generated echoes and produces corresponding electrical signals by transforming the high frequency ultrasound mechanical wave into electrical energy. These electrical signals are received through the transmit/receive switch and multiplexed into the desired signal path by the block 2520.
The signal processing unit 160 receives the electrical signals representing ultrasound echoes from the multiplexer 2520 and distributes them to a processing path according to the mode selected by the mode control logic 2702. The processing path includes a Doppler velocity estimator 2530 for providing blood velocity and direction information used in determining direction and position. The signal processing unit 160 includes a target tracker 2540 for providing information about the movement of slow moving targets including vessel walls and blood clusters at low speeds. The signal processing unit 160 includes a target structure estimator 2550 for determining whether the sensor is in contact with the wall. The structure estimator 2550 is also used to provide information about the wall proximity and to estimate the blood vessel inner diameter. As indicated, outputs from the Doppler velocity estimator 2530, target tracker 2540 and the target structure estimator 2550 all received into the pattern analysis block 2560. The pattern analysis block estimates the blood pressure gradient from velocity gradient and vessel inner diameter information, determines the blood flow pattern and estimates the signature pattern of an ultrasound object of interest including a location within the blood vessel.
Next, at step 2610, the system will acquire data from the sensors. As shown, there may be one or more single beam sensors under control of the control and data acquisition unit. Next, at step 2615, calibrate and compute patterns/thresholds for direction identification.
Next, at step “2620, calibrate and compute patterns/thresholds for location identification. If needed, compare against pre-stored database of flow patterns identifying certain locations in the vasculature. Thereafter, at step 2625, store the patterns/thresholds.
Next, at step 2630, the system will provide an indication to the user to notify the user that calibration is done by turning the green LED into a solid green light.
After completing calibration, the next step 2635, is to acquire data from the sensor or sensors in the system. The acquired data is processed using one or more of the Doppler velocity estimator, the target tracker and the target structure estimator and calculate pressure as instructed by the system control logic.
Next, at step 2640, the acquired data undergoes pattern analysis to determine whether the data from the sensors contain a pattern that can be recognized by the system. If the result in step 2640 is NO indicating that a pattern cannot be recognized, then the system will proceed to step 2645 to compare the sensor date with the data provided by the target structure estimator to determine whether the sensor is against the vessel wall.
If the result of step 2650 is “Yes” and the wall is detected by the system, the yellow LED will illuminate to notify the user that the sensor is against the wall. Next, the system returns to step 2635 and acquires data from sensors.
If the result of step 2650 is “No” and neither the earlier processing steps nor the wall pattern match, then the system us unable to determine the location of the sensor, and the yellow LED will blink yellow to indicate to the user that the system is unable to determine the sensor location. Next, the system returns to step 2635 and acquires data from sensors.
If the result in step 2640 is YES indicating that a pattern in the sensor data can be recognized, then the system will proceed to step 2665 to compare the sensor data with the direction pattern. If the result of the query in step 2665 is YES that the sensor data indicates that wrong direction of travel, then notify user by illuminating the red LED. Thereafter, the system returns to step 2635 and acquires data from the sensor to determine whether the wrong direction indication can be cleared.
If the result in step 2640 is NO indicating that the direction pattern comparison indicates that the sensor is moving in the proper direction, then the green LED will be illuminated to notify that the current direction of catheter advancement is the correct direction of catheter advancement.
Next, the sensor data is compared to the position pattern (step 2680). If the result of that comparison is NO the catheter is not in position, then the system returns to processing at step 2685 and acquires data from the sensors.
If the result of that comparison in step 2680 is YES the catheter is in position, then the system continues to step 2690 and notifies the user that the sensor is in the proper position and illuminates the blue light.
The waveform synthesizer 2510 generates the excitation waveform for the sensors. The waveform depends on the operating mode: A-scan, Doppler, tracking and can be selected according to the desired mode. Any combination of operating modes can be selected at any given time.
The waveform synthesizer 2510 also allows for coded excitation. The coded excitation in
The Transmit/Receive Switch and Multiplexer 2520 are of conventional art. This functional block multiplexes the signal path alternatively to all connected sensors. In pulsed mode it also switches the signal path to the sensor between transmitting and receiving. Such functionality is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,896,658 to Ji et al. for Simultaneous multi-mode and multi-band ultrasonic imaging and is incorporated herein in its entirety for reference.
The functionality of the Target Tracking block 2735 is also known as “Cross-Correlation”, “Autocorrelation”, and “Correlation” methods. The proposed tracking algorithm is based on the idea of following a target in time, e.g., a blood cell or cluster and detect its position at two distinct moments in time. By determining the distance traveled by the target between the two moments in time, the target velocity can be calculated. This concept is illustrated in
Unlike Doppler methods that depend on the angle between the probe or sensor and the blood flow, the tracking methods described herein are angle independent. Angle independent tracking provides the ability to better detect locations in the vasculature independent of what the relative tip position is with respect to the vessel wall. Angle independent tracking also provides a technique to separate lower velocities from desired targets (i.e., blood) from lower velocities from undesired ones (i.e., vessel wall motion artifacts). Conventional Doppler techniques do not allow such a separations or distinctions in low velocity tracking. The angle independent tracking techniques of the inventive method rely on volumetric indications, not punctual indications as used in Doppler processing. With other words, the angle independent tracking techniques of the inventive method obtain and provide information from a larger sample volume of blood flow free of the sample volume size limits imposed by the Doppler processing methods.
In the embodiment illustrated in
Clutter removal removes low velocity/high intensity information so as not to diminish the accuracy of Doppler measurements. However, low velocity/high intensity information often includes data useful in the detection of other targets of interest including blood vessel walls. The proximity of the vessel wall to a sensor or device being guided in the vasculature must be known. One of the techniques used in the inventive system is to use two sensors for data acquisition from the blood flow. In one embodiment of the present invention, sensors are mounted on a guided vascular access device to optimize the data to be acquired by that sensor. In the case where velocity data is optimized, one or more forward looking or angled sensors are driven in Doppler mode to provide velocity information. In the case where wall position/distance data is optimized, one or more laterally looking or angled sensors are driven in A-scan mode to provide information about the proximity of the vessel wall. In another preferred embodiment, one sensor is driven in a sequence of modes: a) in Doppler mode to provide velocity and direction information and b) in A-scan mode to provide information about wall proximity, i.e., if the sensor is close to the vessel wall. In one embodiment, the sensor in a tip mounted sensor (e.g.,
In addition to the pulsed wave mode described above (PW), the Doppler shift estimator and the velocity and direction estimators can be programmed to work in continuous wave Doppler mode (CW). As is conventional in CW mode processing, two sensors are utilized. One sensor is continuously driven to transmit ultrasound energy and the other one is continuously receiving the ultrasound echoes. The guided vascular access device embodiments illustrated in
As illustrated in
The flow pattern estimator 2765 uses velocity and pressure estimations to determine blood flow patterns in real time: velocity profile, direction, power spectrum. It maintains a history buffer for theses values for at least 100 heart beats. It computes statistical averages of flow parameters over the history buffer and computes the Fourier Transform to provide power spectrum for velocity data. In one embodiment the Fourier Transform is computed a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. Results of flow pattern estimations are
The target signature estimator 2775 combines flow patterns and target structure information to determine a multidimensional signature of an anatomical target. For example
The location estimator 2770 compares the estimated target signature with a database of signatures or guidelines in order to estimate the location within the vessel. For example, the location estimator 2770 is used to determine if, when a guided vascular access device moves, the device moves in the same direction or in the opposite direction as the main blood stream flow in the vessel. Thereafter, the user is notified about the result of the location estimation. It is important to note that the user also has direct access to the flow patterns and A-scan information either on a dedicated display (i.e.,
The Signature Database 2755 is used to compare the determined target signature estimator with signatures in a database in order to identify the target. In another embodiment the database stores anatomical decision criteria, thresholds, and statistical decision making to provide identification of the target. The database and the decision making can be used independently. When used in combination, the information provided is correlated for safer target identification.
The calibration block 2760 serves to dynamically adapt the system settings relative to each patient. This component is needed to provide information about the flow patterns relative to the patient under examination. In this context, calibration means the determination of blood flow velocities and patterns at the access point or immediately behind it, i.e., at a known point in the vasculature. Such patterns include but are not limited to: average velocity, spectrum of velocities, velocity profile during a heart cycle, direct and reverse flow velocities and ratio, etc. In addition to determining velocity parameters at the access point, the calibration algorithm can compare and adjust these parameters against a database of values and patterns. Information about the relationship between the patterns at the point of access and the patterns at the end point may be retrieved from the database.
The Auto-optimization block 2780 serves for automatic adjustment of system settings in order to optimize system operation. In one embodiment the following parameters are automatically optimized: 1) Dynamic range for A-scan; 2) Clutter filter cut-off frequencies; 3) Sample volume size for optimizing velocity information. Additional suitable auto-optimization methods are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,733,454 to Bakircioglu et al. for Automatic optimization methods and systems for doppler ultrasound imaging and U.S. Pat. No. 6,542,626 to Brouwer et al. for Method and apparatus for adapting imaging system operation based on pixel intensity histogram.
In the FIGS. that follow, the methods described to access, navigate and locate structures within the vasculature will be described with reference to a guided endovascular access device 110. The guided endovascular access device 110 may be adapted to deliver a therapy to the patient and/or to provide endovenous access for another device. The device 110 may be a catheter, a guide wire or a stylet.
The guided endovascular access device 110 includes one or more sensors that may have an associated divergent lens disposed at a distal end thereof. The one or more sensors are configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient into which the guided endovascular access device 110 has been inserted. A divergent lens may be associated with the sensor or a plurality of lenses may be associated with the sensor. Additionally, there may also be provided a sensor attachment mechanism adapted to removably detach the sensor from the guided endovascular access device 110 while the guided endovascular access device 110 remains in the vasculature of the patient.
There is also a processor configured to receive and process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient provided by the sensor and to provide position information regarding the position of the distal end and/or sensor location on the guided endovascular access device 110 within the vasculature of the patient. the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient to indicate in the output information movement of the endovascular access device 110 in a desired direction within the vasculature of the patient. Additionally, the processor is further configured to process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the vasculature system of the patient based on a parameter selected from a group consisting of: a venous blood flow direction, a venous blood flow velocity, a venous blood flow signature pattern, a pressure signature pattern, A-scan information and a preferential non-random direction of flow. In each figure, a device progress or position indicator 50 acts as an output device adapted to output the position information and other indicators from the processor. The device progress or position indicator 50 is illustrated with the appropriate light configuration or the color of appropriate light configuration is indicated in the figures.
FIGS. 34 to 39 will be used to describe how the systems and techniques for vascular access may be applied to gain access to the central venous system. In this example, the intention is to enter the venous system in the basilic vein and advance the device 110 to a position at ⅓ of the superior vena cava as indicated in
When the guided endovascular access device 110 in first introduced into the vasculature it may not be apparent whether the device has accessed a vein or an artery. The waveform associated with 1′ indicates a pulsatile flow that includes flow both away from and toward the sensor on device 110. The device status indicator 50 illuminates a red light to indicate that the sensor is detecting a flow pattern of signature that is not in the desired direction. The system indicates a red light because the specified access method for this example intends to guide a device access along an antegrade venous flow path to provide central venous access. The waveform generated in 1′ clearly indicates that the sensor is not correctly positioned within the venous system.
Next, the device 110 is withdrawn from the brachial artery and is successfully inserted into the basilic vein 6. The waveform associated with 1 indicates a non-pulsatile, low velocity flow away from the sensor. The device status indicator 50 illuminates a green light to indicate that the sensor is detecting a flow pattern an/or signature that is in the desired direction. The system indicated that the sensor is in the desired position because the sensor is detecting flow patterns that indicate a position within the venous system with flow going away from the sensor which also indicates the sensor is correctly placed for the desired antegrade movement towards the SVC.
After the device 110 has been properly inserted into the venous system of a person, the data acquisition, signal processing techniques and systems described above in
Turning now to
As illustrated in
A position indicator 4 the device 110 is advancing through the superior vena cava 14 in the desired direction such that the device status indicator 50 indicates green. The illustrative waveform shows the recognizable non-pulsatile, unidirectional flow indicative of the venous system.
As the device 110 transitions along the SVC, the sensors begin to detect the presence of the venous flow coming towards the sensors from the inferior vena cava 16. As the device advances further, the signal from the IVC will grow and the sensors will also begin to detect the target signature or unique flow non-pulsatile bi-directional flow generated by the confluence of the venous flows within the vena cava. As a result of placing sensors in this location, processing the reflected ultrasound signal from those sensors may be used to determine the position of the sensors or an instrument coupled to the sensors relative to the caval-atrial junction. In addition, in this example, the device pathway is to have the sensors remain within antegrade flow. In this example, antegrade flow means that when the device follows a path such that the sensors predominately detect flow away from the sensors and towards the heart (i.e., a “green” indication for this configuration). Once the device advances past the right atrium 22 and into the inferior vena cava 16, the predominate flow is now towards the sensor causing the system to produce a device status indicator 50 that indicates red (i.e., positions 6 and 8).
It is to be appreciated that the method of detecting a sequence of flows may also be used to determine the position of the device within the vasculature. For example, a pattern indicating a strong non-pulsatile unidirectional green flow pattern (i.e., position 4), then non-pulsatile, bi-directional blue flow pattern (i.e., position 5) and then, with forward—not rearward device movement, a strong non-pulsatile unidirectional red flow pattern (i.e., position 8) could be used to indicate the proper pathway for a user desiring superior access the inferior vena cava 16. The pulsatile bidirectional flow of the atrium and the right ventricle may also be detected by the system. The unique pulsatile, bidirectional flow pattern present when the sensors are placed in position 7 may also be detected by the system and used to provide access to the vasculature.
As a result of aliasing of arterial flow alone or in combination with the removal of random, turbulent flow, the multi-single beam ultrasound systems of the present invention may be used to detect changes in structures and flow patterns within the heart and in the surrounding vessels. Compared to prior art methods that use turbulence indicators of random flow, as in U.S. Pat. No. 6,704,590 to Haldeman for Doppler guiding catheter using sensed blood turbulence levels the method presented in this invention provides a more reliable and more accurate, low velocity, low frequency identification method of transitions between flow in arteries or heart chambers and blood flow in veins. The waveform illustrated in
Treatment of Venous Disease
In the case of varicose vein treatment, a therapy catheter (i.e., a catheter adapted to delivery laser, the RF, or any other type of energy for the treatment of the veins) is positioned precisely at the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). The position of the catheter within the vein can be determined according to the present invention by using the Doppler effect and the difference in blood flow patterns between the great saphaneous vein (GSV) and the common femoral vein (CFV). For example, in the common femoral vein, the blood flow changes more dramatically with respiration than in the great saphaneous vein.
In the case of varicose vein treatment, a therapeutic catheter (i.e., a catheter adapted to delivery laser, the RF, or any other type of energy for the treatment of the veins) must be positioned precisely at the SFJ. The position of the catheter within the vein can be determined according to the present invention.
In the case of detecting the SFJ, the position detection algorithm identifies the differences between the flow patterns in the GSV and in the common femoral vein. The blood flow in the GSV is usually antegrade towards the heart in patients with GSV reflux when they are lying supine, which would be the case during a venous ablation procedure. It is when the calf is squeezed and then released that the blood flow will reverse for a brief instant—usually 1 to 4 seconds—as the blood rushes distally in the GSV to fill the empty veins below. This maneuver can be done during catheter placement with the patient in the reverse Trendelenberg position to help define the position of the SFJ.
In the CFV the flow pattern also changes more dramatically with respiration. CFV algorithm has a component that is able to detect the changes in the Doppler signal due to the blood vessel motion resulting from respiration. In addition, if the valve fails to function properly, some blood is able to flow back down into the leg, increasing the pressure in the superficial veins and their branches. The blood flow in a diseased patient shows more components of reverse flow in the GSV when compared to the CFV. In the Duplex scan of the SFJ the red color demonstrates forward flow in the CFV, and the blue color represents reversed flow in the incompetent long saphenous vein. (Caution here is important as mild reflux is often normally seen in the distal external iliac and common femoral veins.) The intervention catheter is positioned in the GSV before the SFJ. The tip of the catheter is located in the main blood stream of the CFV. The present invention discriminates between the two positions by using Doppler signal analysis and discrimination of flow patterns.
Once an appropriate sensor is placed in a position to properly detect venous flow in the diseased vein, then the procedure detailed above may be performed while the system monitors flow performance characteristics of the vein and the diseased vein. When the blood flows away from the transducer in more turbulent patterns. In the femoral vein the blood flows towards the catheter in a more stable flow pattern and with additional components due to respiratory movements. As such, embodiments of the system of the invention may be used to detect differences in flow patterns or flow signatures or other properties between a healthy vein and a diseased vein. As mentioned previously, the method also applies to the junction of the lesser saphenous vein and popliteal vein behind the knee and may also apply to identifying the junction of a perforator vein in the calf and a superficial vein or a perforator vein and a deep tibial vein.
The detection of the transition region flow patterns are based on recognizing characteristic flow signatures of the regions, e.g., average velocity, velocity spectrum, and ratios between direct and reverse flow, as well as the changes thereof in time. The inventive concept described herein of using physiological signatures or identifiers to detect specific locations in the vasculature from within the blood vessel can be also applied to other functional measurements other than Doppler velocity, e.g. to pressure and temperature profiles. In these cases, appropriate pressure and temperature sensors would be used. As described herein, the processing techniques and operation of the multi-single beam ultrasound system may be used to identify and discriminate the relative variation of pressure profiles at various locations in the vasculature. However, it has not been attempted though thus far to use these variations in order to identify the location in the vasculature as envisioned by embodiments of the present invention.
In additional alternative embodiments, there is provided a method for positioning an instrument in the vasculature of a body by processing a reflected ultrasound signal to determine the presence of a signal indicating a position where two or more vessels join. This method may be practiced in any of a wide variety of vascular junctions in both the venous and arterial vasculature. One exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a superior vena cava and an inferior vena cava. A second exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include an inferior vena cava and a renal vein. A third exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a right common iliac vein and a left common iliac vein. A fourth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include an external iliac vein and an internal iliac vein. A fifth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a right brachiocephalic vein and a left brachiocephalic vein. A sixth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a superior vena cava and an azygous vein. A seventh exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a common femoral vein and a great saphenous vein. An eighth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a superficial femoral vein and a deep femoral vein. An ninth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a popliteal vein and a lesser saphenous vein. An tenth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a perforator vein and a superficial vein. An eleventh exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a perforator vein and a deep tibial vein. An twelfth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a great saphenous vein and a varicose vein. An thirteenth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a jugular vein and a subclavian vein. An fourteenth exemplary position where two or more vessels join occurs where the two or more vessels include a cephalic vein and an axillary vein.
In one aspect, the multi-single beam ultrasound system described herein is an endovenous access and guidance system having an elongate flexible member that is adapted and configured to access the venous vasculature of a patient. One or more sensors are disposed about the elongate flexible member in various locations such as the distal end, along the sides or in recesses formed in the sidewall and in other configurations as described herein. These sensors are configured to provide in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient. In addition, a processor configured to receive and process in vivo non-image based ultrasound information of the venous vasculature of the patient provided by the one or more sensors and to provide position information regarding the position of the distal end of the elongate flexible member within the venous vasculature of the patient. Advantageously, the sensor, sensors and/or two or more additional sensors are attached to the elongate flexible member in an arrangement that mimics an endovascular junction. There is also an output device adapted to output the position information from the processor and to relate it, if desired, to the mimicked endovascular junction. The sensors may also be arranged to mimic other measurable or detectable features or parameters within the vasculature. In specific embodiments, the sensors are arranged on the elongate body to mimic one or more of the fourteen exemplary positions where two or more vessels join.
The ability of the system of the present invention to recognize and differentiate various flow patterns within the vasculature may be used in a wide variety of situations. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to locate and identify unique or signature portions of the venous system where the detectable flow pattern provides accurate information about the position of the sensor or device within the venous system. As has already been discussed, the present inventive multi-single beam ultrasound system may identify a central venous access pathway via the superior vena cava. In the illustrative examples of
Embodiments of the present invention may be used to detect, locate and guide devices within the portions of the venous system illustrated in
It is to be appreciated that the configurations of the guided vascular access devices 110 described above in
The description above relates to the use of sensors to mimic junctions or other system detectable parameters of the venous vasculature. It is to be appreciated that the invention is not so limited and that the concept of sensor placement to mimic the vasculature may also be applied to the arterial vasculature as well.
Speakers 4901 may be configured to provide an audible indication to the user that the device under user guidance is following the desired path. Sounds played may correspond to the indicator lights described elsewhere in this application. The audible indication may also be as simple as a monotone sound when the device is advancing properly and a stereo or other tone used to indicate when the device is no longer following the indicated path. The right audio channel may provide an audible indication of the Doppler frequencies and blood velocities away from the sensor and the left audio channel may provide an indication of the Doppler frequencies and blood velocities towards the sensor. Thus the right audio channel and the green LED provide indication that the device is following the desired path while the left audio channel and the red LED provide an indication that the device is on the wrong path.
Based on the signal processing results, the procedure specific user interface 4900 indicates to the user the location of the catheter or catheter tip in the vascular tree. In a simple embodiment colored lights may be used to indicate the position of the catheter tip, e.g., a green light may indicate blood flow away from the catheter meaning that the catheter is pushed the right way towards the heart. A red light may indicate blood flow towards the catheter meaning that the catheter is pushed the wrong way away from the heart. A blue light may indicate that a blood flow pattern has been detected that is indicative of the proximity of the junction between the vena cava and the right atrium.
For example, when a guided vascular access device is intended to be guided to the lower one-third of the SVC, then a specific display may be provided that can be used to indicated the likely guidance path from an entry in the basilic vein to the SVC as illustrated in
As illustrated in
In another alternative configuration, the components of the multi-single beam ultrasound system described herein are divided into two parts. One part is a reusable user interface having the processing system and the user interface functionality. The other part is a sterile single use guided vascular access device. The reusable user interface is maintained by a particular healthcare provider or as part of the equipment provided and maintained in an operating room or treatment area. Communication between the reusable user interface and the single use guided vascular access device may be provided using conventional wired or wireless techniques.
Wireless technology, such as the so called Bluetooth technology, may also be used to communicate information between components of the inventive multi-single beam ultrasound system described herein. In one embodiment, a wireless communication link is provided to allow communication between a grouping of disposable components on one side and the reusable components on the other side. The disposable side may, for example, include a guided vascular access device described herein (including one or more sensors), a data acquisition and control unit 5220 to control the high voltage and high frequency signal required to drive the ultrasound sensor and the connector C1 5230 used to communicate low throughput information via a Bluetooth wireless channel to the reusable side. The reusable side consist of the Bluetooth connector 5240 which communicate with its counterpart 5230, the processing and pattern analysis unit 5250 and the user interface 5260.
Bluetooth is a low-cost, flexible wireless platform for short-distance communication (<˜10 meters). The cost of a Bluetooth radio chip has dropped from $20 and is now approximately $5. Bluetooth uses Gaussian frequency shift keying (GFSK) to modulate the data to frequencies around 2.4 GHz. Data is transmitted at 1 Mbps. For security benefits and noise reduction, a Bluetooth transmitter employs frequency hopping, switching channels up to 1600 times a second. Bluetooth is capable of point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication. This flexibility allows Bluetooth to be used in a wide variety of applications. Because power consumption is always a concern for mobile devices, Bluetooth has three power classes that can be used depending on how far apart the communicating devices are from one another. Over the next few years, Bluetooth's use is expected to significantly grow. The Bluetooth consortium is currently writing the specifications for Bluetooth 2.0. Bluetooth 2.0 has been designed to complement existing Bluetooth devices and will offer data transmission rates up to 12 Mbps.
In one embodiment, the database used to store blood flow and other types of signature patterns is contained in the processing block. In this case the patterns are stored for the duration of a single procedure. In particular the calibration patterns stored in the beginning of the procedure are important in auto-scaling the signals through the procedure. In another embodiment the signature database is stored in the UI in flash memory. In yet another embodiment, the UI can communicate via conventional communication methods like Internet or LAN with any relevant database.
According to one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method for positioning an instrument in the vasculature of a body using the instrument determine a location to secure a device within the vasculature of a body; and securing the device to the body to maintain the device in the location determined by the instrument. After the passage of some period of time (as is common with patients who wear catheters for an extended period of time, the instrument may be used to calculate the current position of the device. Next, using the known original position and the now determined current position, the system can determine if the device has moved from the original position.
While preferred embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described herein, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that such embodiments are provided by way of example only. Numerous variations, changes, and substitutions will now occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the invention. It should be understood that various alternatives to the embodiments of the invention described herein may be employed in practicing the invention. It is intended that the following claims define the scope of the invention and that methods and structures within the scope of these claims and their equivalents be covered thereby.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7791254 *||Nov 23, 2007||Sep 7, 2010||William Gordon Gibson||Hybrid ultrasound transducer|
|US7794407||Oct 23, 2006||Sep 14, 2010||Bard Access Systems, Inc.||Method of locating the tip of a central venous catheter|
|US7900625||Aug 25, 2006||Mar 8, 2011||North Carolina State University||Inhaler system for targeted maximum drug-aerosol delivery|
|US7924150 *||Nov 4, 2005||Apr 12, 2011||Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.||Safe identification and association of wireless sensors|
|US8104341 *||Mar 25, 2009||Jan 31, 2012||Schmitt Measurement Systems, Inc.||Ultrasonic liquid level monitoring system|
|US8409103||May 8, 2006||Apr 2, 2013||Vasonova, Inc.||Ultrasound methods of positioning guided vascular access devices in the venous system|
|US8412473||Apr 11, 2011||Apr 2, 2013||Schmitt Industries, Inc.||Event monitoring and detection in liquid level monitoring system|
|US9089350 *||Nov 9, 2011||Jul 28, 2015||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Renal denervation catheter with RF electrode and integral contrast dye injection arrangement|
|US20100242593 *||Sep 30, 2010||Lagergren Peter J||Ultrasonic liquid level monitoring system|
|US20120123258 *||Nov 9, 2011||May 17, 2012||Willard Martin R||Renal denervation catheter with rf electrode and integral contrast dye injection arrangement|
|US20120190976 *||Jul 28, 2010||Jul 26, 2012||Clement Kleinstreuer||Methods and devices for targeted injection of microspheres|
|US20130184579 *||Aug 10, 2012||Jul 18, 2013||Pneumrx, Inc.||Method and System for Measuring Pulmonary Artery Circulation Information|
|WO2009003138A1||Jun 26, 2008||Dec 31, 2008||Vasonova Inc||Apparatus and method for endovascular device guiding and positioning using physiological parameters|
|WO2013019149A1||Jul 24, 2012||Feb 7, 2013||Obschestvo S Ogranichennoi Otvetstvennostju "Foras Lab"||Device for the painless and minimally invasive parenteral administration of pharmaceutical preparations and sampling of blood|
|U.S. Classification||600/468, 310/311|
|International Classification||A61B8/14, H01L41/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61B8/4472, A61B2019/5276, A61B8/461, A61B8/0841, A61B5/02152, A61B8/12, A61B8/42, A61B8/445, A61B5/06, A61B8/06, A61B5/1459, A61B2017/00106, A61B19/5244|
|European Classification||A61B8/12, A61B8/06, A61B8/44N2, A61B8/42, A61B8/08H2, A61B8/46B, A61B5/06|
|Jul 24, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: VASONOVA, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GRUNWALD, SORIN;HILL, BRADLEY;REEL/FRAME:017983/0702
Effective date: 20060716