US 20070035565 A1
Embodiments of the present invention comprise systems, methods and devices for independently increasing the perceived brightness of a view in a multiple-view display. In some embodiments this increase compensates for a decrease in display light-source illumination.
1. A method for adjusting the brightness of an image in a multiple-view display, said method comprising:
a) changing the brightness of a view of said multiple-view display by adjusting the code values of sub-pixels related to said view.
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10. A method for adjusting the brightness of a view in a multiple-view display, said method comprising:
a) applying a tone scale adjustment model to the image of said view to produce a tone scale adjusted image;
b) computing a high-pass image and a low-pass image from said tone scale adjusted image;
c) applying a gain map function to said high-pass image to produce an adjusted high-pass image; and
d) adding said low-pass image to said adjusted high-pass image to form an enhanced image.
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16. A method for adjusting a view of a multiple-view display, said method comprising:
a) applying a tone scale adjustment model to a low-pass (LP) version of a view image to form an adjusted LP image;
b) applying a constant gain factor to a high-pass (HP) version of said view image to form an adjusted HP image;
c) adding said adjusted LP image to said adjusted HP image to form an enhanced view image.
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Embodiments of the present invention comprise methods and systems for independently enhancing the brightness, contrast and other qualities of each view of a multiple-view display.
A typical display device displays an image using a fixed range of luminance levels. For many displays, the luminance range has 256 levels that are uniformly spaced from 0 to 255. Image code values are generally assigned to match these levels directly.
Many display devices, such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs), use light valves which are backlit, side-lit or front-lit in one way or another. In a backlit light valve display, such as an LCD, a backlight is positioned behind a liquid crystal panel. The backlight radiates light through the LC panel, which modulates the light to register an image. Both luminance and color can be modulated in color displays. The individual LC pixels modulate the amount of light that is transmitted from the backlight and through the LC panel to the user's eyes or some other destination. In some cases, the destination may be a light sensor, such as a coupled-charge device (CCD).
Some displays may also use light emitters to register an image. These displays, such as light emitting diode (LED) displays and plasma displays use picture elements that emit light rather than reflect light from another source.
Some embodiments of the present invention comprise systems and methods for varying a light-valve-modulated pixel's luminance modulation level to vary the brightness of a displayed image independent of a light source (backlight) or to improve the image quality at a fixed light source illumination level.
Some embodiments of the present invention may also be used with displays that use light emitters to register an image. These displays, such as light emitting diode (LED) displays and plasma displays use picture elements that emit light rather than reflect light from another source. Embodiments of the present invention may be used to enhance the image produced by these devices. In these embodiments, the brightness of pixels may be adjusted to enhance the dynamic range of specific image frequency bands, luminance ranges and other image subdivisions.
Some embodiments of the present invention comprise dual-view or multiple-view displays that display multiple images on a single display. These displays display a different image depending on the orientation of the viewer to the display screen. In some embodiments, a viewer located to the right side of a display will perceive one image while a viewer located to the left side of the display will perceive a second image. Similarly, a display can be “split” vertically with a viewer located above the display perceiving an image different than one seen by a viewer located below the display. This is typically achieved by constructing groups or patterns of pixel light-valves that project light in a particular viewing direction or allow light to be projected through them in a particular viewing direction.
Some embodiments of the present invention comprise systems and methods for adjusting the perceived brightness of one image on a multiple-view display independent of the other views and independent of the light source (e.g., backlight).
The foregoing and other objectives, features, and advantages of the invention will be more readily understood upon consideration of the following detailed description of the invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Embodiments of the present invention will be best understood by reference to the drawings, wherein like parts are designated by like numerals throughout. The figures listed above are expressly incorporated as part of this detailed description.
It will be readily understood that the components of the present invention, as generally described and illustrated in the figures herein, could be arranged and designed in a wide variety of different configurations. Thus, the following more detailed description of the embodiments of the methods and systems of the present invention is not intended to limit the scope of the invention but it is merely representative of the presently preferred embodiments of the invention.
Elements of embodiments of the present invention may be embodied in hardware, firmware and/or software. While exemplary embodiments revealed herein may only describe one of these forms, it is to be understood that one skilled in the art would be able to effectuate these elements in any of these forms while resting within the scope of the present invention.
Display devices using light valve modulators, such as LC modulators and other modulators may be reflective, wherein light is radiated onto the front surface (facing a viewer) and reflected back toward the viewer after passing through the modulation panel layer. Display devices may also be transmissive, wherein light is radiated onto the back of the modulation panel layer and allowed to pass through the modulation layer toward the viewer. Some display devices may also be transflexive, a combination of reflective and transmissive, wherein light may pass through the modulation layer from back to front while light from another source is reflected after entering from the front of the modulation layer. In any of these cases, the elements in the modulation layer, such as the individual LC elements, may control the perceived brightness of a pixel.
In backlit, front-lit and side-lit displays, the light source may be a series of fluorescent tubes, an LED array or some other source. Once the display is larger than a typical size of about 18″, the majority of the power consumption for the device is due to the light source. For certain applications, and in certain markets, a reduction in power consumption is important. However, a reduction in power means a reduction in the light flux of the light source, and thus a reduction in the maximum brightness of the display.
A basic equation relating the current gamma-corrected light valve modulator's gray-level code values, CV, light source level, Lsource, and output light level, Lout, is:
Where g is a calibration gain, dark is the light valve's dark level, and ambient is the light hitting the display from the room conditions. From this equation, it can be seen that reducing the backlight light source by x % also reduces the light output by x %.
The reduction in the light source level can be compensated by changing the light valve's modulation values; in particular, boosting them. In fact, any light level less than (1-x %) can be reproduced exactly while any light level above (1-x %) cannot be reproduced without an additional light source or an increase in source intensity.
Similarly, an image's brightness can be increased or decreased with a constant light source luminance level by adjusting the light valve modulation values. In multiple-view displays that have a common light source, the brightness of a single view can be adjusted by light valve modulation value adjustment.
In the exemplary case of a reduced light source level, setting the light output from the original and reduced sources gives a basic code value correction that may be used to correct code values for an x % reduction (assuming dark and ambient are 0). This may be expressed mathematically as:
Using this simple adjustment model, code values below the clipping point 15 (input code value 230 in this exemplary embodiment) will be displayed at a luminance level equal to the level produced with a full power light source while in a reduced source light illumination mode. The same luminance is produced with a lower power resulting in power savings. If the set of code values of an image are confined to the range below the clipping point 15 the power savings mode can be operated transparently to the user.
Similarly, when the light source level is constant and the light valve values are boosted to increase brightness or other characteristics, clipping will occur for those values that are boosted above the maximum value acceptable to the light valve.
Unfortunately, when values exceed the clipping point 15, luminance is reduced and detail is lost. Embodiments of the present invention provide an algorithm that can alter the LCD or light valve code values to provide increased brightness (or a lack of brightness reduction in power save mode) while reducing clipping artifacts that may occur at the high end of the luminance range.
Some embodiments of the present invention may eliminate the reduction in brightness associated with reducing display light source power by matching the image luminance displayed with low power to that displayed with full power for a significant range of values. In these embodiments, the reduction in source light or backlight power which divides the output luminance by a specific factor is compensated for by a boost in the image data by a reciprocal factor.
Ignoring dynamic range constraints, the images displayed under full power and reduced power may be identical because the division (for reduced light source illumination) and multiplication (for boosted code values) essentially cancel across a significant range. Dynamic range limits may cause clipping artifacts whenever the multiplication (for code value boost) of the image data exceeds the maximum of the display. Clipping artifacts caused by dynamic range constraints may be eliminated or reduced by rolling off the boost at the upper end of code values. This roll-off may start at a function transition point (FTP), above which the luminance is no longer matched to the original luminance or above which the boosted luminance function changes to a different function for the purpose of avoiding clipping artifacts.
In some embodiments of the present invention, the following steps may be executed to compensate for a light source illumination reduction or a virtual light source reduction (code value boost) for image enhancement:
The primary advantage of these light-source-reduction compensation embodiments is that power savings can be achieved with only small changes to a narrow category of images. (Differences only occur above the FTP and consist of a reduction in peak brightness and some loss of bright detail). Image values below the FTP can be displayed in the power savings mode with the same luminance as the full power mode making these areas of an image indistinguishable from the full power mode.
In embodiments that provide light-source-independent brightness adjustment, as in multiple-view display embodiments, the brightness of the image may be increased uniformly (if desired) over a wide range of values up to the FTP. Values above the FTP are typically boosted by an increasingly smaller amount as the values increase to the maximum, at which point no increase is achievable.
Some embodiments of the present invention may use a tone scale map that is dependent upon the power reduction or brightness boost and display gamma, and which is independent of image data. These embodiments may provide two advantages. Firstly, flicker artifacts which may arise due to processing frames differently do not arise, and, secondly, the algorithm may have a very low implementation complexity. In some embodiments, an off-line tone scale design and on-line tone scale mapping may be used. Clipping in highlights may be controlled by the specification of the FTP and the function(s) used above the FTP.
Some aspects of light-source-reduction compensation embodiments of the present invention may be described in relation to
In this exemplary embodiment, shown in
In some embodiments of the present invention, the tone scale curve may be defined by a linear relation with gain, g, below the Function Transition Point (FTP). The tone scale may be further defined above the FTP so that the curve and its first derivative are continuous at the FTP. This continuity implies the following form on the tone scale function:
The gain may be determined by display gamma and brightness reduction ratio as follows:
In some embodiments, the FTP value may be tuned by balancing highlight detail preservation with absolute brightness preservation.
The FTP can be determined by imposing the constraint that the slope be zero at the maximum point. This implies:
In some exemplary embodiments, the following equations may be used to calculate the code values for simple boosted data, boosted data with clipping and corrected data, respectively, according to an exemplary embodiment.
Using these concepts, luminance values represented by the display with a light source operating at 100% power may be represented by the display with a light source operating at a lower power level. This is achieved through a boost of the tone scale, which essentially opens the light valves further to compensate for the loss of light source illumination. Likewise, the brightness of a displayed image can be adjusted by boosting or lowering the code values for that image. However, a simple application of this boosting across the entire code value range results in clipping artifacts at the high end of the range. To prevent or reduce these artifacts, the tone scale function may be rolled-off smoothly. This roll-off may be controlled by the FTP parameter. Large values of FTP give luminance matches over a wide interval but increase the visible quantization/clipping artifacts at the high end of code values.
Embodiments of the present invention may operate by adjusting code values. In a simple gamma display model, the scaling of code values gives a scaling of luminance values, with a different scale factor. To determine whether this relation holds under more realistic display models, we may consider the Gamma Offset Gain-Flair (GOG-F) model. Scaling the backlight power corresponds to linear reduced equations where a percentage, p, is applied to the output of the display, not the ambient. It has been observed that reducing the gain by a factor p is equivalent to leaving the gain unmodified and scaling the data, code values and offset, by a factor determined by the display gamma. Mathematically, the multiplicative factor can be pulled into the power function if suitably modified. This modified factor may scale both the code values and the offset.
Some embodiments of the present invention may be described with reference to
Once the adjustment model 58 has been created, it may be applied to the image data. The application of the adjustment model may be described with reference to
Some embodiments of the present invention comprise systems and methods for enhancing images (e.g., brightness and contrast enhancement) displayed on displays using light-emitting pixel modulators, such as LED displays, plasma displays and other types of displays. These same systems and methods may be used to enhance images displayed on displays using light-valve pixel modulators with light sources operating in full power mode or otherwise.
These embodiments work similarly to the previously-described embodiments, however, rather than compensating for a reduced light source illumination, these embodiments simply increase the luminance of a range of pixels as if the light source had been reduced. In this manner, the overall brightness of the image is improved.
In these embodiments, the original code values are boosted across a significant range of values. This code value adjustment may be carried out as explained above for other embodiments, except that no actual light-source-illumination reduction occurs. Therefore, the image brightness is increased significantly over a wide range of code values.
Some of these embodiments may be explained with reference to
Some embodiments of the present invention comprise an unsharp masking process. In some of these embodiments the unsharp masking may use a spatially varying gain. This gain may be determined by the image value and the slope of the modified tone scale curve. In some embodiments, the use of a gain array enables matching the image contrast even when the image brightness cannot be duplicated due to limitations on the display power.
Some embodiments of the present invention may take the following process steps:
Other embodiments of the present invention may take the following process steps:
Using some embodiments of the present invention, power savings can be achieved with only small changes on a narrow category of images. (Differences only occur above the FTP and consist of a reduction in peak brightness and some loss of bright detail). Image values below the FTP can be displayed in the power savings mode with the same luminance as the full power mode making these areas of an image indistinguishable from the full power mode. Other embodiments of the present invention improve this performance by reducing the loss of bright detail.
These embodiments may comprise spatially varying unsharp masking to preserve bright detail. As with other embodiments, both an on-line and an off-line component may be used. In some embodiments, an off-line component may be extended by computing a gain map in addition to the Tone Scale function. The gain map may specify an unsharp filter gain to apply based on an image value. A gain map value may be determined using the slope of the Tone Scale function. In some embodiments, the gain map value at a particular point “P” may be calculated as the ratio of the slope of the Tone Scale function below the
FTP to the slope of the Tone Scale function at point “P.” In some embodiments, the Tone Scale function is linear below the FTP, therefore, the gain is unity below the FTP.
Some embodiments of the present invention may be described with reference to
An exemplary tone scale adjustment model may be described in relation to
In some embodiments, a gain map 77 may be calculated in relation to the tone scale adjustment model, as shown in
In these embodiments, the gain map function is equal to one below the FTP where the tone scale adjustment model results in a linear boost. For code values above the FTP, the gain map function increases quickly as the slope of the tone scale adjustment model tapers off. This sharp increase in the gain map function enhances the contrast of the image portions to which it is applied.
The exemplary tone scale adjustment factor illustrated in
In some embodiments of the present invention, an unsharp masking operation may be applied following the application of the tone scale adjustment model. In these embodiments, artifacts are reduced with the unsharp masking technique.
Some embodiments of the present invention may be described in relation to
In some of these embodiments, for each component of each pixel of the image, a gain value is determined from the Gain map and the image value at that pixel or sub-pixel. The original image 102, prior to application of the tone scale adjustment model, may be used to determine the Gain. Each component of each pixel of the high-pass image may also be scaled by the corresponding gain value before being added back to the low pass image. At points where the gain map function is one, the unsharp masking operation may not modify the image values. At points where the gain map function exceeds one, the contrast may be increased.
Some embodiments of the present invention address the loss of contrast in high-end code values, when increasing code value brightness, by decomposing an image into multiple frequency bands. In some embodiments, a Tone Scale Function may be applied to a low-pass band increasing the brightness of the image data to compensate for source-light luminance reduction on a low power setting or simply to increase the brightness of a displayed image. In parallel, a constant gain may be applied to a high-pass band preserving the image contrast even in areas where the mean absolute brightness is reduced due to the lower display power. The operation of an exemplary algorithm is given by:
The Tone Scale Function and the constant gain may be determined off-line by creating a photometric match between the full power display of the original image and the low power display of the process image for source-light-illumination reduction applications. The Tone Scale Function may also be determined off-line for brightness enhancement applications.
For modest FTP values, these constant-high-pass gain embodiments and the unsharp masking embodiments can be nearly indistinguishable in their performance. These constant-high-pass gain embodiments have three main advantages compared to the unsharp masking embodiments: reduced noise sensitivity, ability to use larger FTPs and use of processing steps currently in the display system. The unsharp masking embodiments may use a gain which is the inverse of the slope of the Tone Scale Curve. When the slope of this curve is small, this gain incurs a large amplifying noise. This noise amplification may also place a practical limit on the size of the FTP. The second advantage is the ability to extend to arbitrary FTP values. The third advantage comes from examining the placement of the algorithm within a system. Both the constant-high-pass gain embodiments and the unsharp masking embodiments use frequency decomposition. The constant-high-pass gain embodiments perform this operation first while some unsharp masking embodiments first apply a Tone Scale Function before the frequency decomposition. Some system processing such as de-contouring will perform frequency decomposition prior to the brightness preservation algorithm. In these cases, that frequency decomposition can be used by some constant-high-pass embodiments thereby eliminating a conversion step while some unsharp masking embodiments must invert the frequency decomposition, apply the Tone Scale Function and perform additional frequency decomposition.
Some embodiments of the present invention prevent the loss of contrast in high-end code values by splitting the image based on spatial frequency prior to application of the tone scale function. In these embodiments, the tone scale function with roll-off may be applied to the low pass (LP) component of the image. In light-source-illumination reduction compensation applications, this will provide an overall luminance match of the low pass image components. In these embodiments, the high pass (HP) component is uniformly boosted (constant gain). The frequency-decomposed signals may be recombined and clipped as needed. Detail is preserved since the high pass component is not passed through the roll-off of the tone scale function. The smooth roll-off of the low pass tone scale function preserves head room for adding the boosted high pass contrast. Clipping that may occur in this final combination has not been found to reduce detail significantly.
Some embodiments of the present invention may be described with reference to
In these embodiments, an input image 110 is decomposed into spatial frequency bands 111. In an exemplary embodiment, in which two bands are used, this may be performed using a low-pass (LP) filter 111. The frequency division is performed by computing the LP signal via a filter 111 and subtracting 113 the LP signal from the original to form a high-pass (HP) signal 118. In an exemplary embodiment, a spatial 5×5 rect filter may be used for this decomposition though another filter may be used.
The LP signal may then be processed by application of tone scale mapping as discussed for previously described embodiments. In an exemplary embodiment, this may be achieved with a Photometric matching LUT. In these embodiments, a higher value of FTP can be used compared to some previously described unsharp masking embodiments since most detail has already been extracted in filtering 111. Clipping should not generally be used since some head room should typically be preserved in which to add contrast.
In some embodiments, the FTP may be determined automatically and may be set so that the slope of the Tone Scale Curve is zero at the upper limit. A series of tone scale functions determined in this manner are illustrated in
In some embodiments of the present invention, described with reference to
In some embodiments, once the tone scale mapping 112 has been applied to the LP signal, through LUT processing or otherwise, and the constant gain 116 has been applied to the HP signal, these frequency components may be summed 115 and, in some cases, clipped. Clipping may be necessary when the boosted HP value added to the LP value exceeds 255. This will typically only be relevant for bright signals with high contrast. In some embodiments, the LP signal is guaranteed not to exceed the upper limit by the tone scale LUT construction. The HP signal may cause clipping in the sum, but the negative values of the HP signal will never clip maintaining some contrast even when clipping does occur.
Some embodiments of the present invention may be used with multiple-view displays to enhance one view of the display independently of the other view. A simple single-view display 134, illustrated in
A multiple-view display 144, illustrated in
Some multiple-view displays may comprise a backlight 150, an opaque mask or screen 152 and individually addressable pixel or sub-pixel elements 153-158. As in a single-view display, the backlight 150 radiates light through the sub-pixel elements 153-158 to a viewer that perceives an image that is registered by the sub-pixel elements 153-158. Unlike single-view displays, these multiple-view displays also comprise a mask or screen 152. The mask or screen functions to restrict light passing through the sub-pixel elements 153-158 so that each sub-pixel can only be seen by a viewer in one of the viewing areas 160 & 163. For example, mask 152A restricts light passing through green sub-pixel 154 such that the modulated light passing through it can only be seen by a viewer in right viewing area 163, which is bounded by lines 164 & 165. Similarly, mask 152A restricts light from backlight 150 as it passes through sub-pixel element 156 such that the modulated light passing through sub-pixel 156 can only be seen by a viewer in left viewing area 160, which is bounded by lines 161 & 162. This pattern is repeated for each sub-pixel on the display so that each pixel or sub-pixel is directed to one of the multiple-views of the display. Generally, the addressing pattern is configured to avoid artifacts in the displayed images.
Similar, multiple-view display embodiments are illustrated in
Using traditional, known techniques that adjust the brightness using the backlight, the brightness of the two views cannot be adjusted independently. However, using embodiments of the present invention, the brightness, contrast or other attributes of any view or section of a view can be adjusted independently of any other view or view section.
Still other embodiments of the present invention may be described with reference to
The terms and expressions which have been employed in the forgoing specification are used therein as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding equivalence of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the claims which follow.