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Publication numberUS20070048684 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/216,679
Publication dateMar 1, 2007
Filing dateAug 31, 2005
Priority dateAug 31, 2005
Also published asCN1923991A, EP1760139A1
Publication number11216679, 216679, US 2007/0048684 A1, US 2007/048684 A1, US 20070048684 A1, US 20070048684A1, US 2007048684 A1, US 2007048684A1, US-A1-20070048684, US-A1-2007048684, US2007/0048684A1, US2007/048684A1, US20070048684 A1, US20070048684A1, US2007048684 A1, US2007048684A1
InventorsDavid Cole, Bradley Barbera
Original AssigneeDavid Cole, Bradley Barbera
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Candle and method of making same
US 20070048684 A1
Abstract
A candle including regions made up of fuels which produce differing flame heights and/or flame levels when burned, and a method of making such a candle, are disclosed.
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Claims(26)
1. A candle, comprising:
a candle body comprising first and second regions, the first region formed of a first fuel producing a first flame height when burned, and the second region formed of a second fuel, different from the first fuel, producing a second, larger flame height when burned, wherein the first region is disposed over the second region; and
a wick disposed in the candle passing through the first and second regions, a portion of the wick protruding from the first region,
wherein the candle, when lit, provides an overall flame level lower, with respect to the base of the candle, than the flame level which would result from the same candle without the first region.
2. The candle of claim 1, further comprising a non-flammable, open-ended container, wherein the candle is disposed inside the container with the protruding portion of the wick exposed.
3. The candle of claim 2, wherein the candle, in lit use, will not ignite a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds.
4. The candle of claim 3, wherein the second region is such that an identical candle, omitting the first region, in lit use ignites a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds.
5. A candle according to claim 1, wherein the first region comprises less than 10% of the candle, based on the total weight of the fuel.
6. A candle according claim 1, wherein the first region has a smaller average cross-sectional area than the second region.
7. A candle according claim 1, wherein at least one of the fuels is non-liquid.
8. A candle according to claim 7, wherein at least one of the fuels comprises a wax.
9. A candle according to claim 7, wherein the first fuel is non-liquid and comprises vegetable oil triglycerides.
10. A candle according to claim 9, wherein the first fuel comprises palm oil triglycerides.
11. A candle according to claim 9, wherein the second fuel is non-liquid and comprises an aliphatic hydrocarbon.
12. A candle according to claim 11, wherein the second fuel comprises an alkane.
13. A candle according to claim 12, wherein the second fuel comprises a semi-refined paraffin.
14. A candle, comprising:
a candle body comprising first, second, and third regions formed of corresponding first, second, and third fuels, the first region disposed over the second region and the second region disposed over the third region, wherein the fuel forming the second region produces a flame height, when burned, different from the flame height produced by the fuel forming the first region and different from the flame height produced by the fuel forming the third region; and
a wick disposed in the candle passing through the first, second, and third regions, a portion of the wick protruding from the first region.
15. A candle according to claim 14, wherein at least one of the fuel regions is non-liquid.
16. A candle according to claim 15, wherein each of the first, second, and third fuel regions is solid.
17. A candle according to claim 16, wherein the second region has a smaller average cross-sectional area than the third region and wherein the fuel forming the second region produces a flame height smaller than the fuel forming the third region.
18. A candle according claim 17, wherein the first region has a larger average cross-sectional area than the second region and wherein the fuel forming the first region produces a flame height larger than the fuel forming the second region.
19. A candle according claim 17, wherein the first region has a smaller average cross-sectional area than the second region and wherein the fuel forming the first region produces a flame height smaller than the fuel forming the second region.
20. A candle according claim 16, wherein the fuel forming the second region produces a flame height larger than the fuel forming the first region and larger than the fuel forming the third region.
21. A candle according to claim 14, comprising a plurality of regions comprising respective fuels, wherein the wick passes through each of the regions, and wherein the size of the flame height produced by each of the fuel regions is in relative proportion to the average cross-sectional area of each of the regions.
22. A candle according to claim 14, wherein at least one of the differences in flame height is at least 20% of the flame height produced by produced by the fuel forming the second region.
23. A candle according to claim 22, wherein the difference in flame height is at least 33% of the flame height produced by produced by the fuel forming the second region.
24. A candle according to claim 23, wherein the difference in flame height is at least 100% of the flame height produced by produced by the fuel forming the second region.
25. A method of making a candle, comprising the steps of:
providing a body of first solid wax fuel disposed in a non-flammable container and having a wick disposed therein, a portion of the wick exposed at a top end of the body and the container;
forming a layer of second solid wax fuel over the top end of the body; and
selecting the second solid wax fuel to provide a flame height shorter than the flame height provided by the first solid wax fuel when burned under identical conditions.
26. The method of claim 25, further comprising selecting the first solid wax fuel and providing the body of first solid wax fuel such that the body of first solid wax fuel would, in lit use in the container, ignite a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds.
Description
BACKGROUND

1. Field of the Disclosure

The disclosure relates generally to candles. More particularly, the disclosure relates to candles engineered for particular burn characteristics, having candle regions made of differing materials.

2. Brief Description of Related Technology

The Uniform Fire Code “tissue test” examines whether a candle product will cause a hole to develop in a single ply tissue or ignite the tissue when placed over a lit candle product for ten seconds. (See, e.g., Uniform Fire Code, 1997 Edition, published by the International Fire Code Institute, Section 1109—“Control of Sources of Ignition”, subsection 1109.8.2, paragraph 5.2.) The candle is tested in conditions of intended use, with any accessories in place (e.g., anything that a candle is intended to be burned in or on, such as a jar and a globe).

For a candle product to pass the tissue test, the flame height must be of small enough size, or disposed at a distance sufficiently low enough to not cause ignition of the tissue. In general, maintaining flame distances far enough from the tissue has required the wax level to be placed relatively low in a container, resulting in decreased burn time per container volume. However, because flame height is also related to overall flame size and heat output from combustion, reducing flame size can also cause the reduction of percentage of consumption of the product and/or burn time, due to a smaller effective wax pool. To achieve a suitable percentage of consumption, a sufficiently large wax pool diameter must be created, which is typically addressed through increased flame size or lower melt point of fuel. However, having a wax with too low of a melt point can cause stability failure.

SUMMARY

One aspect of the disclosure provides a candle including a candle body including a top region and a bottom region and a wick disposed in the candle passing through the regions such that the candle, when lit, provides an overall flame level lower, with respect to the base of the candle, than the flame level which would result from the same candle without the top region.

Another aspect of the disclosure provides a candle including a candle body including first, second, and third regions and a wick disposed in the candle passing through the first, second, and third regions, wherein at least two of the regions have differing burn characteristics.

Still another aspect of the disclosure provides a method of making a candle including the steps of providing a body of first fuel disposed in a non-flammable container and having a wick disposed therein, a portion of the wick exposed at a top end of the body and the container; forming a layer of second fuel over the top end of the body; and selecting the second fuel to provide a flame height-shorter than the flame height provided by the first solid wax fuel when burned under identical conditions.

Further aspects and advantages will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art from a review of the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the drawings. While the candle and method are susceptible of embodiments in various forms, the description hereafter includes specific embodiments with the understanding that the disclosure is illustrative, and is not intended to limit the invention to the specific embodiments described herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

For further facilitating the understanding of the present invention, four drawing figures are appended hereto, wherein:

FIG. 1 illustrates a cross-section of a “Venetian”-style candle having two regions of two different fuels.

FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-section of an hourglass-shaped candle having three fuel regions.

FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section of another Venetian-style candle having three fuel regions.

FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-section of a conical or pyramidal free-standing candle having four fuel regions of four different fuels.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The candle includes regions having differing burn characteristics. The candle and method are contemplated to include embodiments including any combination of one or more of the additional optional elements, features, and steps further described below (including those shown in the figures), unless stated otherwise.

The various regions of the candle preferably are disposed generally one above the other, with respect to a wick running through them.

In a solid candle, flame temperature and size (e.g., approximated by height) affect the size of the resulting wax pool when the candle fuel is burned. Accordingly, the selection of fuel can be made with respect to the cross-sectional area (e.g., in cross section with respect to a wick disposed down the center) of the candle to provide a wax pool of a desired size. For example, in a candle having one region that has a smaller cross-sectional area than another region (e.g., average cross-sectional areas), a fuel providing a relatively small flame can be used in the region of smaller cross-sectional area. The control of the flame size and resulting wax pool can be used in a free-standing candle to improve stability, for example. In a candle in a container (such as a glass jar candle), the control over flame size can be used to ensure clean sidewalls in a container of varying cross-section, for example.

The burn characteristics of the various fuel regions can also be selected to meet safety goals. For example, a fuel providing a relatively small flame can be used in a region of relatively small cross-sectional area when the candle includes a container (e.g., a glass jar), to maintain the temperature of the container side walls below a desired limit.

As another example, a fuel providing a relatively small flame, especially a short flame, can be used in a top region of a candle disposed in a container, such that items placed over the container will be less subject to burn from the flame (e.g., to pass the U.F.C. tissue test). As the top region fuel burns off and the wax pool becomes increasingly higher in concentration of the fuel from the region below, a fuel providing a larger flame can be used in the lower region because the base of the flame will have been moved down by an amount at least approximately equivalent to the thickness of the first region, and often more due to blending (e.g., diffusion and dilution) of fuels as the melted wax pool begins to intersect the lower fuel region.

According to one configuration, the candle includes a first fuel which produces a flame of a first height when burned forming a first fuel region, and a second, different fuel which produces a flame of a second, different height when burned forming a second fuel region. The first fuel region can be equal in size (e.g., thickness or overall size; weight can be used to approximate size) to the second fuel region, or one can be larger than another. For example, the first fuel region can make up less than 50% of the candle, based on the total weight of the candle, and preferably 5 wt. % to 10 wt. %, e.g., 7 wt. %, especially when the first fuel produces a flame height shorter than the second fuel and the first fuel region is disposed above the second fuel region. A variation on such a candle, wherein the first fuel produces a flame height shorter than the second fuel and the first fuel region is disposed above the second fuel region, can be useful in improving the safety of a candle with respect to avoiding heating, burning, or igniting items above the candle.

In another, nonexclusive, variation on such a candle, the first fuel region has a smaller cross-sectional area (preferably the cross-sectional area of the top of the region, and more preferably the average cross-sectional area) than the second fuel region, and the first fuel produces a flame height smaller (e.g., shorter) than the second fuel. This variation can be useful in tapered, round-bottomed candles such as so-called “Venetian” candles to prevent the glass of the candle container in the narrow section from becoming dangerously hot. A third or more of such lower regions, with increasing flame size, can produce a stable cone-shaped candle, with or without a container therefor. This variation can also permit the manufacture of a candle having other variations on shape, such as an hourglass shape (e.g., wherein a third region having the same fuel as the second region is disposed as the top region), while maintaining stability and safety. The inverse composition in such a three-region candle (i.e., a three-layered candle wherein the middle layer produces a relatively large flame) can also find use, such as to increase (e.g., briefly) the flame size in a jar candle mid-burn (or during the burn in the lower half or lower third of the candle) to ensure clean side walls, for example.

Thus, in one particular type of embodiment, the candle includes a candle including first and second regions, the first region formed of a first fuel producing a first flame height when burned, and the second region formed of a second fuel, different from the first fuel, producing a second, larger flame height when burned, wherein the first region is disposed over the second region, and the candle further includes a wick disposed in the candle passing through the first and second regions, a portion of the wick protruding from the first region, wherein the candle, when lit, provides an overall flame level lower, with respect to the base of the candle, than the flame level which would result from the same candle without the first region. The flame level can be measured from the base of the candle to the tip of the flame.

The first region can, for example, make up less than 10% of the candle, based on the total weight of the fuel in the candle, to allow for a large flame size during the majority of the candle burn and thereby achieve better total fuel consumption.

This type of embodiment is particularly useful for use as a Venetian-style candle (wherein the first region would have a smaller average cross-sectional area than the second region), and preferably includes a non-flammable, open-ended container, wherein the candle is disposed inside the container with the protruding portion of wick exposed. In one variation on this embodiment, the candle, in lit use, will not ignite a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds. This embodiment is particularly useful when the second region is such that the same candle without the first region ignites a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds. At least one of the fuels in this type of embodiment preferably is non-liquid (e.g., a wax), and more preferably both are solid waxes, such as in typical Venetian-style candles.

Another type of embodiment includes a candle including first, second, and third regions formed of corresponding first, second, and third fuels, the first region disposed over the second region and the second region disposed over the third region, wherein the fuel forming the second region produces a flame height, when burned, different from the flame height produced by the fuel forming the first region and different from the flame height produced by the fuel forming the third region, and the candle further includes a wick disposed in the candle passing through the first, second, and third regions, a portion of the wick protruding from the first region. The first and third fuels can be the same or different. At least one of the fuels in this type of embodiment preferably is non-liquid (e.g., a wax), and more preferably all are solids, such as waxes. In one such candle having at least three regions, the second region has a smaller average cross-sectional area than the third region, and preferably the fuel forming the second region produces a flame height smaller than the fuel forming the third region. This type of configuration can be useful when the first region has a larger average cross-sectional area than the second region, such as in an hourglass shape, and preferably then the fuel forming the first region produces a flame height larger than the fuel forming the second region. In the alternative, this type of configuration can be useful when the first region has a smaller average cross-sectional area than the second region, such as in a pyramidal, conical, or Venetian-style candle, and preferably then the fuel forming the first region produces a flame height smaller than the fuel forming the second region. In this alternative, the fuel forming the second region can produce a flame height larger than the fuel forming the first region and larger than the fuel forming the third region, such as when the candle is disposed in a non-flammable container for use when burning and the second layer is used to melt off residual wax from the side wall(s) of the container. In such candles having at least three regions, the size of the flame produced by each of the regions can be selected (based on selection of fuels and/or wick) in relative proportion to the average cross-sectional area of each of the regions.

The difference in flame size (e.g., height) from a first fuel to a second fuel can be of any value useful for the intended purpose, such as the purposes described above as examples. Values of at least 20%, at least 33%, and at least 100% are contemplated. The height of a flame can be measured as the distance from its base at the top of the wax pool to its tip. For example, flame height can be evaluated visually, holding a non-flammable ruler behind the flame, but as close to the flame as possible, and observing the height of the flame from base to tip when the flame is steady.

Any suitable candle fuel can be used, animal, vegetable, mineral, and synthetic waxes. Solid waxes are preferred for all regions, and preferably all regions are opaque. The fuel regions can also include functional and aesthetic additives including, but not limited to, colorants, fragrances, and actives such as sanitizers and insect repellants.

Without intending to be bound to any particular theory, it is believed that flame size and height (all other elements being equal, such as wick material and size) are related to the rate of fuel movement during burning. Primary factors are believed to include fuel molecule size and factors influencing interaction of the fuel with the wick material (e.g., polarity of the fuel). Flame size (e.g., height) for a particular fuel can be determined through simple, routine experimentation, as can the relative difference in flame size (e.g., height) from one fuel to another, holding other elements constant.

Accordingly, preferred small (including short) flame fuels will have one or more characteristics such as long molecular chain length, molecular chain branching, and overall high molecular weight. Glycerides, and derivatives thereof are preferred. In particular, long-chain triglycerides, and derivatives thereof, are preferred. Vegetable oil triglycerides, such as palm oil triglycerides (e.g., primarily having C16-C18 fatty acid ester substituents), are suitable. The use of additives to a fuel to reduce flame size and height is contemplated. Such additives include hardeners and binders, typically polymers. Suitable hardeners include VYBAR hardeners available from Baker Petrolite Polymers Division, of Sugar Land, Tex., are believed to be polyethylene poly(alpha olefin) polymers. Hydrogenated oils are contemplated, especially for solid candles.

Likewise, preferred large (including tall) flame materials include aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, and derivatives thereof, especially relatively short-chained molecules. Paraffins, especially semi-refined paraffins, are preferred. Alcohols are also contemplated.

The candle preferably is made of non-liquid fuels (e.g., solids and gels), although liquid fuels can be used if desired. The state of the fuel, e.g., as a solid or a liquid, is defined as its state at room temperature. Regions formed from liquid fuels may naturally partition based on density, or may be separated, such as by a divider wall (e.g., of wax, another fuel, or a material which does not negatively affect the function of the candle).

Preferably, the candle in a container for use will pass the U.F.C. tissue test. More preferably, multiple samples of the candle will pass the U.F.C. tissue test by the following method. To evaluate whether a type of candle passes the tissue test, six samples are evaluated. If six out of six samples pass the tissue test, the candle is considered a “pass.” If five out of six samples pass the tissue test, the tissue test must be repeated. If four or fewer out of six samples pass the tissue test, the candle is considered a fail. If any fewer than six out of six samples pass the second round of testing, the candle is considered a “fail.” If six out of six samples pass the second round of testing, the candle is considered a “pass.”

The candle can be made by any candle-forming technique, such as by pouring one fuel over another into a mold (e.g., as liquid fuels or melted solid fuels), or by forming each fuel section separately, then combining the sections and inserting a wick.

For example, one method for forming a candle described above includes the step of providing a body of first solid wax fuel having a wick disposed therein. The body of first solid wax fuel can be formed by pouring wax into a non-flammable container having a wick already disposed therein and held in position during pouring. The method includes the step of forming a layer of second solid wax fuel over the top end of the body of wax. Preferably, the fuels are selected such that the second solid wax fuel provides a flame height shorter than the flame height provided by the first solid wax fuel when burned under identical conditions. The selection of first fuel and performance of the method preferably results in a body of first solid wax fuel in the container that, when lit, would ignite a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds, and preferably the selection of second fuel and performance of the method is such that the finished candle, when lit and throughout its burn life, would not ignite a single layer of tissue paper placed on the top of the container within ten seconds.

Various embodiments of the candle will now be described in connection with the drawing figures.

FIG. 1 illustrates a cross-section of a Venetian-style candle 10, including a glass candle container 12 having the typical shape. In this embodiment, a cap of low flame height fuel 14 is disposed over a base of relatively higher flame height fuel 18. A wick 20 runs through the center.

FIG. 2 illustrates a cross-section of an hourglass-shaped candle 22, including a similarly-shaped glass candle container 24. The candle includes regions 28 of fuel which provide relatively large flames, and region 30, in the vicinity of the narrow portion of the container 24, of fuel which provides a relatively small flame. The small flame reduces the temperature that the narrow portion of the container 24 will reach, making it safer both from the perspective of integrity of the container and from the perspective of a user who touches the container. A wick 32 runs through the center.

FIG. 3 illustrates a cross-section of another Venetian-style candle 34, including a glass candle container 38. In this embodiment, a region of relatively large flame size fuel 40 is disposed between regions of relatively smaller flame size fuel 42, towards the bottom of the container 38. A wick 44 runs through the center. The regions 42 can be made of fuels typical for such containers, and the smaller region 40 can be made of a fuel which burns with a larger flame than typical for such containers. The region 40 providing a relatively large flame can be useful in a solid candle for melting off any residual fuel on the side walls of the container 38, providing a cleaner appearance and higher percentage consumption.

FIG. 4 illustrates a cross-section of a conical or pyramidal free-standing candle 48. The candle has regions 50, 52, 54, and 58, of fuels which burn with progressively larger flames, to create larger wax pools as the cross-section of the candle becomes larger. A wick 70 runs through the center.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are provided for illustration and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.

Example 1

A single waxed wick was cut into three segments and placed into three separate wax blends: (1) 100% Palm Triglycerides 1; (2) 60% of a 1:1 mixture of Palm Triglycerides 1 to Palm Triglycerides and 40% paraffin; and (3) 100% refined paraffin. Palm Triglycerides 1 was a mixture of triglycerides having an iodine value of about 0.7 (g I2/100 g), a free fatty acid content of about 0.2%, and the typical and measured approximate fatty acid ester profile in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1
Palm Triglycerides 1 Fatty Acid Ester Profile
Chain length % (typical) % (analyzed)
C12 and lower 0.5 max 0.3
C14 2.5 max 1.3
C16 49-63 56.5
C18 38-48 40.9
C20 1.5 max 0.5
C22 and higher 1.5 max

Palm Triglycerides 2 was a mixture of triglycerides having an iodine value of about 0.24 (g I2/100 g), an acid value of about 209 (mg KOH/g), a saponification value of about 210 (mg KOH/g), and the typical and measured approximate fatty acid ester profile in Table 2 below.

TABLE 2
Palm Triglycerides 2 Fatty Acid Ester Profile
Chain length % (typical) % (analyzed)
C12 and lower 1 max trace
C14 2 max 0.7
C16 52-56 54.9
C18 42-47 43.8
C20 trace trace
C22 and higher 1 max 0.6

Measured flame heights were 12 mm, 16 mm, and 25+ mm, to a precision of within 1 mm, in samples one to three, respectively. Flame heights clearly reduced with increased concentration of palm triglycerides.

Example 2

15 grams of Palm Triglycerides 1 was poured onto “Venetian” type glass candle holders previously filled with 202 grams of paraffin. Two sample sets from two different sources were used. Both sample sets were previously found to fail the U.F.C. tissue test due to igniting of the tissue. Upon lighting samples and allowing burning for ten minutes, the U.F.C. tissue test was performed. Both sample sets passed.

Example 3

Three sample sets were made with: (1) 2 samples of 215 g semi-refined paraffin (EPIWAX EP858, available from EPChem International, Singapore) capped with 15 grams of Palm Triglycerides 1; (2) 1 sample of 215 g EP858 semi-refined paraffin capped with 10 g of Palm Triglycerides 1; (3) 1 sample of 230 g semi-refined paraffin capped with 10 g of Palm Triglycerides 1. Samples were made by pouring semi-refined paraffin into a Venetian-style glass candle holder, allowing cooling, then capping shrink depression with Palm Triglycerides 1.

Repeated tissue testing of samples resulted in no failures in sets 2 and 3. The samples of set 1 resulted in no ignition, passing the U.F.C. tissue test, but a visible hole was made in the tissue. As expected, sample flame heights increased to typical levels after several hours of burning due to the dilution and consumption of the Palm Triglycerides 1 cap.

The foregoing description is given for clearness of understanding only, and no unnecessary limitations should be understood therefrom, as modifications within the scope of the invention may be apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art. Throughout the specification, where compositions are described as including components or materials, it is contemplated that the compositions can also consist essentially of, or consist of, any combination of the recited components or materials, unless described otherwise.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7798808 *Nov 10, 2006Sep 21, 2010Robert Bruce KleveSectional candle apparatus
US8206150 *Mar 22, 2010Jun 26, 2012Travis Aaron WadeMethod for extinguishing a candle at timed intervals using a combustible material
US8651855 *Jun 8, 2010Feb 18, 2014The Yankee Candle Company, Inc.Candle with wax beads and solid wax topping
US20100173254 *Mar 22, 2010Jul 8, 2010Travis Aaron WadeMethod for extinguishing a candle at timed intervals using a combustible material
US20110300496 *Jun 8, 2010Dec 8, 2011The Yankee Candle Company, Inc.Candle With Wax Beads And Solid Wax Topping
US20120148967 *Dec 13, 2010Jun 14, 2012Thomas Thomas JCandle wick including slotted wick members
Classifications
U.S. Classification431/291, 431/325, 431/289
International ClassificationF23D3/16
Cooperative ClassificationC11C5/008, C11C5/02
European ClassificationC11C5/00F, C11C5/02
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 31, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: CANDLE CORPORATION OF AMERICA, ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BARBERA, BRADLEY D.;COLE, DAVID C.;REEL/FRAME:017156/0025;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051012 TO 20051013
Oct 3, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: THE STERNO GROUP, LLC, ILLINOIS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CANDLE CORPORATION OF AMERICA;REEL/FRAME:021617/0751
Effective date: 20080703