US 20070053818 A1
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NOx storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO, emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NOx storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.
1. A NOx storage catalyst comprising cobalt and barium, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater.
2. The catalyst of
3. The catalyst of
4. The catalyst of
5. The catalyst of
6. The catalyst of
7. A NOx storage catalyst consisting essentially of cobalt, platinum and barium supported on an inorganic oxide, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater.
8. A NOx storage catalyst consisting essentially of cobalt and barium supported on an inorganic oxide, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater.
9. The NOx storage catalyst of
10. The NOx storage catalyst of
11. A method of reducing NOx emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines comprising contacting a NOx storage catalyst of
12. A method of reducing NOx emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines comprising contacting a NOx storage catalyst of
13. A method of reducing NOx emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines comprising contacting a NOx storage catalyst consisting essentially of cobalt in the form of Co3O4, barium in the form of BaCO3 and platinum supported on an inorganic oxide with the exhaust gas of the lean burn engines, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater.
14. The method of
15. A NOx storage catalyst consisting essentially of cobalt, platinum and barium supported on an inorganic oxide, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater and includes the following X-ray diffraction peaks: approximately 36.8 2θ; approximately 59.9 2θ; and approximately 46.0 2θ.
16. A catalyst consisting essentially of 1 wt % to 8 wt % cobalt; 2 wt % to 20 wt % barium; and 0.03 wt % to 1.0 wt % platinum supported on an inorganic oxide, the wt % determined on a metal basis with respect to the total weight of the catalyst, and the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater.
17. A catalytic converter for a vehicle comprising the catalyst of
18. A catalytic converter for a vehicle comprising the catalyst of
19. A catalytic converter for a vehicle comprising the catalyst of
20. A NOx storage catalyst consisting essentially of cobalt and barium supported on an inorganic oxide, wherein the catalyst has a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater and includes the following X-ray diffraction peaks: approximately 37.3 2θ; approximately 46.0 2θ; and approximately 59.0 2θ.
21. The catalyst of
22. The use of the catalyst of
23. The use of the catalyst of
24. The use of the catalyst of
25. The use of the catalyst of
26. The NOx storage catalyst of
27. The NOx storage catalyst of
28. The NOx storage catalyst of
29. The NOx storage catalyst of
This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional application 60/701,034, filed Jul. 21, 2005, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (Grant #0343758-CTS), and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S Department of Energy (Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15468).
The invention is related to nitrogen oxides (NOx) storage catalysts, and the use of such catalysts to treat exhaust gas containing nitrogen oxides.
Elimination of NOx from the exhaust of a lean-burn engine is a challenging problem because it can only be removed via reduction. For example, a diesel engine operating under lean conditions with excess oxygen provides excellent fuel economy, however the reduction of NOx in these oxidizing conditions is very difficult. For a gasoline engine operating under stoichiometric conditions three-way catalyst technology can be used to reduce HC (hydrocarbon), CO and NOx emissions. However, as with the diesel engine, the three-way catalyst is not able to reduce NOx under lean conditions. Therefore, with respect to both engine types there remains a need for the development of new catalyst systems to remove NOx from the exhaust gas under lean-burn conditions.
The conversion of NOx to stable nitrates, and storing the nitrates under lean conditions, followed by reducing the nitrates or “stored NOx” to dinitrogen under rich conditions has been investigated with some success. Some of the early NOx storage catalysts fitted to the exhaust systems of vehicles contained barium compounds. These catalyst systems stored NOx when the engines operated under lean conditions, and reduced the stored NOx when the gas was made rich. See, B. J. Cooper, et al. in Catalysis and Automotive Pollution Control, eds. A. Curcq and A. Frennet (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987) p. 117. Unfortunately, the present levels of sulfur compounds in fuel and the resulting SO2 in the exhaust gas has prevented the commercial introduction of these catalysts, which are relatively susceptible to sulfur poisoning.
A new generation of NOx storage catalysts tested against simulated exhaust gas from a lean-burn gasoline engine has provided an average NOx conversion of more than 90% over a test cycle in which the air/fuel ratio was cycled between lean and rich. See, W. Bogner, et al., Applied Catalysis B7 (1995) 153. The feed gas was alternated between oxidizing (lean) and a short reducing (rich) period every two minutes or so resulting in NOx storage during the lean period and conversion to dinitrogen during the rich period.
Over the past decade significant efforts have been made toward the development of NOx storage catalysts containing platinum as well as other noble metals as an oxidative and reductive catalyst. Barium has been used as the primary NOx storage material though other NOx storage components have also been investigated. The use of transition metals to improve resistance to sulfur poisoning has also been investigated. See, K. Yamazaki, et al., Applied Catalysis, B 30 (2001) 459.
Lean burn gasoline and diesel engines not only improve the fuel efficiency of automobiles, but also lead to a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. Impeding the widespread implementation of lean burn engines is the inability of current three-way catalytic converters to reduce nitrogen oxides under oxidizing lean conditions. Extensive research has been performed in search of alternative catalysts that will reduce NOx in oxygen rich environments under steady state conditions, but an acceptable catalyst has not yet been discovered.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NOx storage catalysts can be used to reduce NOx emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NOx storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.
This invention will be better understood by reference to the Detailed Description of the Invention when taken together with the attached drawings, wherein:
The addition of cobalt to traditional platinum/barium NOx storage catalysts has led to a significant increase in NOx storage. Also, by using cobalt as the oxidizing metal in NOx storage catalysts the amount of platinum in such catalysts can be reduced. In fact, the cobalt can completely replace the platinum in such catalyst systems. The substitution of cobalt for platinum, the later being about fifty times more expensive than cobalt, provides a significant cost reduction without a sacrifice in catalytic performance.
The NOx storage catalysts described and claimed in this application can be used to reduce NOx emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. In such a case, the catalysts are typically supported on a refractory inorganic oxide. The supported catalysts are used to treat the exhaust gas from gasoline and diesel engines thereby reducing NOx emissions. In one application, the supported catalysts can form part of a catalytic converter for a vehicle.
The NOx storage catalysts comprise cobalt and barium, and have a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. Other NOx storage catalysts of the invention can have a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.5 or greater. Still other NOx storage catalysts of the invention can have a lean NOx storage ratio of 2.0 or greater.
In one embodiment, the catalyst can further contain platinum. The platinum is typically present in smaller amounts than NOx storage traditional catalysts based solely on barium and platinum.
The presence of the cobalt in the catalyst provides the necessary oxidizing regions necessary to reduce NOx emissions. In one embodiment, the NOx storage catalysts are used in combination with a reduction catalyst containing rhodium. The two catalytic components of the catalyst system work together to reduce NOx emissions from exhaust gas.
In another embodiment, the NOx storage catalysts consist essentially of cobalt, platinum and barium supported on an inorganic oxide. Again, the catalyst has a lean NOxstorage ratio of 1.3 or greater. Typically, the cobalt is predominantly in the form of Co3O4 and the barium in the form of BaCO3.
The term “lean NOx storage ratio” is a catalytic performance ratio defined by the following relationship:
The lean NOx storage values are determined using the actual weight loadings for each of the prepared catalysts. The term “actual weight loading” defines a catalyst by the metal's actual weight percent loading, e.g., as measured by atomic absorption or another elemental analysis technique.
One of ordinary skill in the art understands that wet impregnation techniques used to prepare supported metal catalysts typically do not provide actual weight percent loadings based on the nominal weight loading. The term “nominal weight loading” is calculated in-part by the amount of metal precursor used to prepare the catalyst and the weight percentage of metal in the metal precursor. As shown in Example 2, Table 2, the actual weight loadings of a respective metal can be very similar to or very different from the nominal weight loadings. For example, in the case of platinum, the actual weight loading is less than the nominal weight loading in all of the catalysts presented in Table 2. In contrast, there is much less of a difference between actual weight loading and nominal weight loading for cobalt.
To calculate lean NOx storage values the actual weight loading for cobalt, barium and platinum in the inventive catalyst must be within 50% of the actual weight loadings for each of these metals in the non-inventive (comparative catalyst). In the example above, the non-inventive catalysts [1Pt/15Ba] and [Co] have actual weight loadings of 0.58%, 11.75% and 5.32% for platinum, barium and cobalt, respectively. The actual weight loadings of the inventive catalyst are 0.37%, 12.88% and 6.32% for platinum, barium and cobalt, respectively. Therefore, the actual weight loading of the metals: Pt, 0.58-0.37; Ba, 11.75-12.88; and Co, 5.32-6.32 are all within 50% for each respective metal. For example, in the case of platinum (0.58-0.37)/0.58=0.36 (36%).
The invention is directed to NOx storage catalysts comprising 1 wt % to 8 wt % cobalt, 2 wt % to 20 wt % barium and 0.03 wt % to 1.0 wt % platinum. In some instances, the NOx storage catalysts will comprise 2 wt % to 6 wt % cobalt, 3 wt % to 12 wt % barium and 0.05 wt % to 0.5 wt % platinum.
In some instances, the NOx storage catalysts consist essentially of 1 wt % to 8 wt % cobalt, 2 wt % to 20 wt % barium and 0.03 wt % to 1.0 wt % platinum. In some instances, the NOx storage catalysts will consist essentially of 2 wt % to 6 wt % cobalt, 3 wt % to 12 wt % barium and 0.05 wt % to 0.5 wt % platinum
The promotional effect provided by the addition of cobalt to a platinum/barium catalyst is shown by the near doubling of the NOx storage capacity of the catalyst 1Pt/5Co/15Ba compared to the traditional 1 Pt/15Ba catalyst. As shown in
It is believed that the Co2O4 sites adjacent to barium storage sites increase the interface contact area between the oxidizing and storage component of the catalysts. This is important for increasing the NO2 spillover to barium storage sites, another key step in NOx storage. Therefore, by increasing the NO oxidation and NO2 spillover to barium storage sites in the catalysts an increase in the NOx storage is observed.
The invention is also directed to NOx storage catalysts that are platinum-free (Pt-free) catalysts. A Pt-free catalyst contains less than 0.03 wt % platinum. The Pt-free catalysts comprise cobalt and barium. Again, these catalysts are typically supported on an inorganic oxide. The applicants were surprised to find that the NOx storage performance of the catalyst 5Co/15Ba was essentially equivalent to that of 1 Pt/15Ba suggesting that 5 wt % Co was comparable of 1 wt % Pt with respect to NOx storage.
The Pt-free catalysts will have a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. Other Pt-free catalysts can have a lean NOx storage ratio of 1.5 or greater. Still other Pt-free catalysts can have a lean NOx storage ratio of 2.0 or greater.
The lean NOx storage ratio for a Pt-free catalyst is defined by the following relationship:
Again, if one uses the catalytic data provided in
The catalyst can be supported on many types of inorganic oxides selected from the group consisting of alumina, silica, titania, zirconia aluminosilicates, and mixtures thereof with alumina being preferred. For example, high surface area alumina materials, also referred to as gamma alumina typically exhibit a BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) surface area in excess of 60 square meters per gram (m2/g), and often up to about 200 m2/g or more. Such activated alumina is usually a mixture of the gamma and delta phases of alumina. Metal oxides other than activated alumina can also be used as a catalyst support. For example, bulk ceria, zirconia, alpha alumina and other materials are known for such use. Although many of these materials have a lower BET surface area than activated alumina, that disadvantage tends to be offset by the greater durability of the resulting catalyst.
The inorganic oxides can also include zeolites, in particular, zeolites in admixture with one or more of the support oxide materials listed in the above paragraph. Zeolites coated with the cobalt, barium, and optionally platinum, are of particular importance for achieving as low a light-off temperature as possible for the hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust gas. Owing to their acid surface properties, zeolites have a high cracking activity for the long-chained hydrocarbons of the exhaust gas. The long-chained molecules are therefore broken down into smaller fragments by contact with the zeolites, which smaller fragments can then more readily be oxidized by the cobalt and/or platinum in the NOx storage catalysts. The weight ratios of the support oxides and the zeolites is from 10:1 to 2:1, and in most instances the weight ratios is from 8:1 to 3:1. Particuliarly advantageous and ageing-resistant oxidizing activities for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons can be achieved with a weight ratio of 7:1 to 5:1.
Of the large number of zeolites available, the following are especially suitable beta-zeolites, zeolites of the faujasite type, such as, for example, Y-zeolites, especially de-aluminized Y-zeolites, mordenites and zeolites, having a high silicon dioxide content, of the pentasil type, especially ZSM-5. Each of the above zeolites can be used alone or in an admixture of one or more zeolites. The zeolites are preferably used in their acid H+ form. De-aluminized Y-zeolites and ZSM-5 zeolites, each having a modulus of more than 30, typically more than 40, can have unique advantages. The modulus of a zeolite denotes its molar ratio of silicon dioxide to aluminum oxide.
The inorganic oxide can also be treated with a titanium-zirconium (Ti—Zr) composite oxide. The Ti—Zr composite oxide will contain a molar ratio of titanium to zirconium from 1/9 to 9/1. Preparation of a refractory inorganic support containing the Ti—Zr composite is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,804,152, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The oxide support can be in any configuration, shape, or size which exposes the metal components of the catalyst to the exhaust gas to be treated. The choice of configuration, shape and size of the support will depend in-part on the specific use of the catalysts. Convenient shapes that can be used include solid particulate forms such as pills, pellets, granules, rings, spheres, etc. The particulate form can be advantageous if large volume of catalyst is required, or if periodic replacement of the catalyst is required.
The catalysts of the invention are typically prepared by impregnating the inorganic oxide with one or more solutions containing cobalt, platinum and barium. The process of impregnating metals on and in inorganic supports, e.g., alumina, is well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
It is to be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that metal containing solutions of any metal concentration can be used, particularly, if a multiple loading impregnating procedure is used. For example, if a 5 w/w % cobalt nominal weight loading is desired, one or more impregnating steps can be used until the desired loading of cobalt is achieved.
The NOx storage catalysts can be used in combination with one or more reduction catalysts, in particular reduction catalysts containing rhodium. The reduction catalyst is needed to reduce the stored NOx under fuel rich conditions. For example a nitrogen storage and reduction catalyst can contain both platinum and cobalt as the oxidizing metals, barium as the NOx storage material, and rhodium as the reduction catalyst supported on a refractory inorganic oxide.
Alternatively, the NOx storage catalysts of the invention are “Pt-free” catalysts that contain cobalt as an oxidizing metal, barium as the NOx storage material, and rhodium as the reduction catalyst supported on an inorganic oxide.
High throughput Experimental Setup, and Testing Procedure
All catalytic tests were performed using a 16-channel parallel reactor. Details concerning the reactor has been described in J. Lauterbach et al., in Applied Catalysis, A 254, (2003) 357, of which the description and operation of the 16-channel parallel reactor is incorporated herein by reference. The reaction products from all 16 channels were analyzed simultaneously using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. The optical setup consists of a Bruker Equinox 55 FTIR spectrometer interfaced with a 64×64 pixel mercury cadmium telluride FPA detector (Santa Barbara Focalplane, Goleta, Calif., USA) capable of collecting IR spectra of the effluents from all 16 reactors in less than 2 seconds. Details of the optical setup and analytical methods can be found in previous publications.
A typical data set collected during a switch from fuel rich to fuel lean conditions for three different catalysts is shown in
Fuel rich and fuel lean conditions refer to the molar ratio of oxidizing to reducing molecules as defined by the stoichiometric ratio SR:
The 0.5Pt/7.5Ba/2.5Co catalyst was tested under 32 different reaction conditions with varying temperature and feed gas compositions provided in Table 1. This catalyst consistently showed an increase of three fold in the lean NOx storage as compared to the 0.5Pt/7.5Ba for nearly all of the reaction conditions. These experimental results further verify the promotional effect of cobalt on NOx storage over a wide range of reaction conditions. The space velocity for all of the testing in Table 1 was 42,500 (mL/hr/g catalyst)
1. Catalyst Preparation
The catalysts were synthesized via incipient wetness on gamma-Al2O3 (Catalox® Sba-200m2/g). A list of Pt/Co catalysts tested in this study is shown in Table 1. The naming convention for each catalyst throughout the paper is based on the nominal weight loading. Thus, a catalyst with a nominal weight loading of 1% w/w Pt and 15% w/w Ba is referred to as 1Pt/15Ba. Chloroplatinic acid hexahydrate, barium nitrate, cobalt nitrate, iron (III) nitrate nonahydrate, and magnesium nitrate precursors (Strem Chemicals) were disolved in distilled water prior to impregnation.
Details concerning the impregnation procedure is described in J. Lauterbach et al., in Catalysis Today, 98(3) (2004) 375, of which the impregnation procedure is incorporated herein by reference. The use of impregnating inorganic oxide supports with the desired weight loading of different metals is well known in the art. A catalyst with the desired weight loadings was prepared by dissolving the necessary amount of metal precursor in distilled water. The solutions were added to the dried oxide support until incipient wetness was obtained. The impregnated oxide supports were dried overnight in a vacuum oven at a temperature of about 393 K and then crushed before the next impregnation step. This process was repeated until the entire precursor solution had been added to the support. In particular, because of the low solubility of barium nitrate in water, it was necessary to utilize multiple impregnation steps to achieve the desired weight loadings.
After completion of the final impregnation step, the powders were crushed and calcined in a furnace. All catalysts were calcined by heating to 473 K over two hours, holding the temperature at 473 K for one hour, further heating to 823 K over three hours, holding at 823 K for two hours, and then cooling to 298 K. In addition, all catalysts were reduced in the high-throughput reactor for 1 hour in 10% v/v H2/He at 773 K before performing the reaction studies.
The preparation of 1.5 g of the NOx storage catalyst, 1Pt/15Ba/5Co, is provided below. Similar procedures were used to prepare the other catalysts listed in Table 2. An aqueous solution of chloroplatinic acid hexahydrate (0.0398 g) was used to obtain a nominal weight percent loading of 1% Pt on 1.5g of γ-alumina. For example, the weight fraction of platinum in chloroplatinic acid hexahydrate is 0.37. As a result, the amount of chloroplatinic acid hexahydrate required is (0.015/0.37) or 0.0398 g. Similarly, one can calculate the amount of barium nitrate (0.4282 g) and cobalt nitrate (0.3704 g) required for a nominal weight loading of Ba 15% and Co 5%, respectively.
The metal precursors were dissolved and mixed together with an appropriate amount of water based on their respective solubility. The mixture (solution) was then added to dried γ-alumina support in multiple steps based on the incipient wetness of the support material. The impregnated oxide support was dried overnight in a vacuum oven at a temperature of about 393 K and then crushed before the next impregnation step. This process was repeated until the entire precursor solution had been added to the support. In particular, because of the low solubility of barium nitrate in water, it was necessary to utilize multiple impregnation steps to achieve the desired weight loadings. After completion of the final impregnation step, the powder was crushed and then calcined as described above.
2. Characterization Procedures
The actual weight loadings of all catalysts were verified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (S series atomic absorption spectrometer, Thermo Electron), and are listed in Table 2. The actual platinum weight loadings of the catalysts were significantly less than the nominal loadings, implying that the oxidizing capacity demonstrated by the Pt/Co catalysts was mainly associated with Co. For example, if we attempted to prepare a catalysts with 1% Pt, which we call nominal loading, the actual amount of platinum actually present in the catalyst (as measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy) was significantly less (See, Table 2).
X-ray diffraction patterns were acquired under atmospheric conditions with a Philips X'Pert diffractometer using Cu Kα radiation at 40 kV and 40 mA.
We have used a simulated diesel exhaust gas with the component compositions indicated in Table 3. The data of
All catalysts were tested at 375° C. The error bars are calculated from the repeats of the same catalyst tested at a later time. It can be inferred from these results that a catalyst composition of 5% Co and 15% Ba catalysts actually performs better than all of the tested Pt/Ba and Rh/Ba catalyst compositions. The addition of 5% Co to catalysts containing 1Pt/15Ba effectively doubles the storage capacity. A similar increase has been observed with the 1Rh/15Ba catalyst composition.
The catalyst containing both platinum and rhodium did not perform as well as the inventive catalysts. Similar, results for Pt/Rh combinations have been reported in the literature by Fridell et. al., but for different reaction conditions.