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Publication numberUS20070055514 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/222,493
Publication dateMar 8, 2007
Filing dateSep 8, 2005
Priority dateSep 8, 2005
Publication number11222493, 222493, US 2007/0055514 A1, US 2007/055514 A1, US 20070055514 A1, US 20070055514A1, US 2007055514 A1, US 2007055514A1, US-A1-20070055514, US-A1-2007055514, US2007/0055514A1, US2007/055514A1, US20070055514 A1, US20070055514A1, US2007055514 A1, US2007055514A1
InventorsValerie Beattie, Marilyn Adams
Original AssigneeBeattie Valerie L, Adams Marilyn J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Intelligent tutoring feedback
US 20070055514 A1
Abstract
Methods and related computer program products, systems, and devices for providing intelligent feedback to a user based on audio input associated with a user reading a passage are disclosed. The method can include assessing a level of fluency of a user's reading of the sequence of words using speech recognition technology to compare the audio input with an expected sequence of words and providing feedback to the user related to the level of fluency for a word.
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Claims(31)
1. A computer based method comprising:
receiving a first portion of audio input associated with a user reading a first portion of a sequence of words prior to a particular word, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface;
receiving a second portion of audio input associated with a user reading a second portion of the sequence of words subsequent to the particular word;
measuring a parameter triggered from the received first portion of audio input;
determining if the measured parameter is greater than a threshold; and
displaying a visual intervention on the user interface if the parameter is greater than the threshold.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein the threshold is time.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein the threshold is in a range of about 400 to 700 milliseconds.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the threshold is a word count of words in the second portion of the passage.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein threshold is in a range of 3-6 words.
6. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input since receiving audio input identified as a portion of the sequence of words.
7. The method of claim 6, further comprising displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising generating an audio intervention if the amount of time since the visual intervention is greater than a third threshold, and audio input associated with the particular word has still not been received.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the visual intervention includes applying a visual indicium to the assessed word.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the visual indicium includes a visual indicium selected from the group consisting of highlighting the assessed word, underlining the assessed word, or coloring the text of the assessed word.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the visual intervention includes applying a visual indicium to the assessed word after the user has finished the text or has indicated to the tutoring software that he/she has stopped reading.
12. The method of claim 11 wherein presenting a deferred indicium includes placing the assessed word on a review list.
13. A computer program product, tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor, the computer program product being operable to cause a machine to:
receive a first portion of audio input associated with a user reading a first portion of a sequence of words prior to a particular word, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface;
receive a second portion of audio input associated with a user reading a second portion of the sequence of words subsequent to the particular word;
measure a parameter triggered from the received first portion of audio input;
determine if the measured parameter is greater than a threshold; and
display a visual intervention on the user interface if the parameter is greater than the threshold.
14. The computer program product of claim 13 wherein the threshold is time.
15. The computer program product of claim 13 wherein the threshold is a word count of words in the second portion of the passage.
16. A computer based method comprising:
receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word;
determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as a preceding word in the sequence of words;
determining if the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout boundary;
displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold and the assessed word is not located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout; and
displaying the visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold and the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold.
17. The method of claim 16 wherein the syntactic boundary comprises a punctuation boundary.
18. The method of claim 16 wherein the syntactic boundary comprises a phrase boundary.
19. The method of claim 16 wherein determining if the assessed word is located near the syntactic boundary comprises determining if the assessed word is within two words of at least one of a punctuation or phrase boundary.
20. The method of claim 16 wherein determining if the assessed word is located near the syntactic boundary comprises determining if the assessed word adjacent to at least on of a punctuation or phrase boundary.
21. A computer program product, tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor, the computer program product being operable to cause a machine to:
receive audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word;
determine an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as a preceding word in the sequence of words;
determine if the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout;
display a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold and the assessed word is not located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout; and
display the visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold and the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold.
22. A computer based method comprising:
receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word;
determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words;
determining if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold;
determining if the received audio corresponds to a speech input generated by the user or to silence input;
if the received audio corresponds to speech input setting a delay to a value greater than zero;
if the received audio corresponds to silence input setting the delay to zero; and
displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface after the delay, or providing an audio intervention to the user, if a recognition for the expected word has still not been received.
23. The method of claim 22 wherein the absence of input associated with the assessed word comprises at least one of silence, filler, foil words, or words other than the assessed word.
24. The method of claim 22 wherein setting a delay to a value greater than zero comprises setting the delay at a value from about 700 milliseconds to about 800 milliseconds.
25. A computer program product, tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor, the computer program product being operable to cause a machine to:
receive audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word;
determine an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words;
determine if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold;
determine if the received audio corresponds to a speech input generated by the user or to silence input;
if the received audio corresponds to speech input set a delay to a value greater than zero;
if the received audio corresponds to silence input set the delay to zero; and
display a visual intervention on the graphical user interface after the delay.
26. A computer based method comprising:
determining that a visual intervention is needed for an assessed word based on a fluency indication for a user reading a sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface;
storing audio input in a buffer for a predetermined period of time before and during the visual intervention;
displaying the visual intervention on the graphical user interface;
subsequent to displaying the visual intervention, joining the stored audio from the buffer with audio received subsequent to displaying the visual intervention; and
determining, by evaluating the audio from the buffer joined to the subsequently received audio, if a correct input for the assessed word was received during the visual intervention.
27. The method of claim 26 wherein determining based on a fluency indication that a visual intervention is needed comprises:
receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word;
determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words; and
determining if the amount of time is greater than a threshold.
28. The method of claim 27, further comprising subsequent to displaying a visual intervention, generating an audio intervention if the amount of time since the visual indication is greater than a second threshold, and audio input associated with the assessed word has still not been received.
29. The method of claim 26 wherein the visual intervention includes applying a visual indicium to the assessed word.
30. The method of claim 26 wherein the visual indicium includes a visual indicium selected from the group consisting of highlighting the assessed word, underlining the assessed word, or coloring the text of the assessed word.
31. A computer program product, tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor, the computer program product being operable to cause a machine to:
determine that a visual intervention is needed for an assessed word based on a fluency indication for a user reading a sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface;
store audio input in a buffer for a predetermined period of time before and during the visual intervention;
display the visual intervention on the graphical user interface;
subsequent to displaying the visual intervention, join the stored audio from the buffer with audio received subsequent to displaying the visual intervention; and
determine, by evaluating the audio from the buffer joined to the subsequently received audio, if a correct input for the assessed word was received during the visual intervention.
Description
    BACKGROUND
  • [0001]
    Reading software tends to focus on reading skills other than reading fluency. A few reading software products claim to provide benefit for developing reading fluency. One component in developing reading fluency is developing rapid and correct recognition and pronunciation of words included in a passage.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0002]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer based method includes receiving a first portion of audio input associated with a user reading a first portion of a sequence of words prior to a particular word, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface and receiving a second portion of audio input associated with a user reading a second portion of the sequence of words subsequent to the particular word. The method also includes measuring a parameter triggered from the received first portion of audio input, determining if the measured parameter is greater than a threshold, and displaying a visual intervention on the user interface if the parameter is greater than the threshold.
  • [0003]
    Embodiments can include one or more of the following.
  • [0004]
    The threshold can be a time-based threshold. The threshold can be in a range of about 400 to 700 milliseconds. The threshold can be a word count of words in the second portion of the passage. The threshold can in a range of 3-6 words.
  • [0005]
    The method can also include determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input since receiving audio input identified as a portion of the sequence of words. The method can also include displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold. The method can also include generating an audio intervention if the amount of time since the visual intervention is greater than a third threshold, and audio input associated with the particular word has still not been received. Displaying the visual intervention can include applying a visual indicium to the assessed word. The visual indicium can include a visual indicium selected from the group consisting of highlighting the assessed word, underlining the assessed word, or coloring the text of the assessed word. Applying the visual intervention can include applying a visual indicium to the assessed word after the user has finished the text or has indicated to the tutoring software that he/she has stopped reading. Presenting a deferred indicium can include placing the assessed word on a review list.
  • [0006]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer program product can be tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor. The computer program product can be operable to cause a machine to receive a first portion of audio input associated with a user reading a first portion of a sequence of words prior to a particular word, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface and receive a second portion of audio input associated with a user reading a second portion of the sequence of words subsequent to the particular word. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to measure a parameter triggered from the received first portion of audio input, determine if the measured parameter is greater than a threshold, and display a visual intervention on the user interface if the parameter is greater than the threshold.
  • [0007]
    Embodiments can include one or more of the following. The threshold can be a time-based threshold. The threshold can be a word count of words in the second portion of the passage.
  • [0008]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer based method can include receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word. The method can also include determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as a preceding word in the sequence of words and determining if the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout boundary. The method can also include displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold and the assessed word is not located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout and displaying the visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold and the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold.
  • [0009]
    Embodiments can include one or more of the following. The syntactic boundary can be a punctuation boundary. The syntactic boundary can be a phrase boundary. Determining if the assessed word is located near the syntactic boundary can include determining if the assessed word is within two words of at least one of a punctuation or phrase boundary. Determining if the assessed word is located near the syntactic boundary can include determining if the assessed word adjacent to at least on of a punctuation or phrase boundary.
  • [0010]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer program product can be tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor. The computer program product can be operable to cause a machine to receive audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to determine an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as a preceding word in the sequence of words and determine if the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to display a visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold and the assessed word is not located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout and display the visual intervention on the graphical user interface if the amount of time is greater than a second threshold and the assessed word is located near at least one boundary selected from the group consisting of a syntactic boundary or a text layout, the second threshold being greater than the first threshold.
  • [0011]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer based method can include receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word. The method can also include determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words, determining if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold, and determining if the received audio corresponds to a speech input generated by the user or to silence input. The method can also include, if the received audio corresponds to speech input, setting a delay to a value greater than zero and if the received audio corresponds to silence input, setting the delay to zero. The method can also include displaying a visual intervention on the graphical user interface after the delay, or providing an audio intervention to the user.
  • [0012]
    Embodiments can include one or more of the following. The absence of input associated with the assessed word can include at least one of silence, filler, foil words, or words other than the assessed word. Setting a delay to a value greater than zero can include setting the delay at a value from about 700 milliseconds to about 800 milliseconds.
  • [0013]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer program product can be tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor. The computer program product can be operable to cause a machine to receive audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to determine an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words, determine if the amount of time is greater than a first threshold, and determine if the received audio corresponds to a speech input generated by the user or to silence input. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to set a delay to a value greater than zero if the received audio corresponds to speech input and set the delay to zero if the received audio corresponds to silence input. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to display a visual intervention on the graphical user interface after the delay.
  • [0014]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer based method includes determining that a visual intervention is needed for an assessed word based on a fluency indication for a user reading a sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, storing audio input in a buffer for a predetermined period of time before and during the visual intervention, and displaying the visual intervention on the graphical user interface. The method also includes joining the stored audio from the buffer with audio received subsequent to displaying the visual intervention subsequent to displaying the visual intervention and determining, by evaluating the audio from the buffer joined to the subsequently received audio, if a correct input for the assessed word was received during the visual intervention.
  • [0015]
    Embodiments can include one or more of the following.
  • [0016]
    Determining based on a fluency indication that a visual intervention is needed can include receiving audio input associated with a user reading a sequence of words, the sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, and including an assessed word, determining an approximate amount of time corresponding to an absence of input associated with the assessed word, since receiving audio input identified as the preceding word in the sequence of words, and determining if the amount of time is greater than a threshold. The method can also include generating an audio intervention if the amount of time since the visual indication is greater than a second threshold, and audio input associated with the assessed word has still not been received. The visual intervention can include a visual indicium applied to the assessed word. The visual indicium can include a visual indicium selected from the group consisting of highlighting the assessed word, underlining the assessed word, or coloring the text of the assessed word.
  • [0017]
    According to an aspect of the present invention, a computer program product can be tangibly embodied in an information carrier, for executing instructions on a processor. The computer program product can be operable to cause a machine to determine that a visual intervention is needed for an assessed word based on a fluency indication for a user reading a sequence of words displayed on a graphical user interface, store audio input in a buffer for a predetermined period of time before and during the visual intervention, and display the visual intervention on the graphical user interface. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to join the stored audio from the buffer with audio received subsequent to displaying the visual intervention subsequent to displaying the visual intervention. The computer program product can also be operable to cause a machine to determine, by evaluating the audio from the buffer joined to the subsequently received audio, if a correct input for the assessed word was received during the visual intervention.
  • [0018]
    The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
  • DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0019]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a computer system adapted for reading tutoring.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a network of computer systems.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 3 is a screenshot of a passage for use with the reading tutor software.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram of inputs and outputs to and from the speech recognition engine or speech recognition process.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 5 is a flow chart of a location tracking process.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 6 is a flow chart of visual and audio interventions.
  • [0025]
    FIG. 7A and 7B are portions of a flow chart of an intervention process based on elapsed time.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 8 is a screenshot of a set up screen for the tutor software.
  • [0027]
    FIG. 9 is a flow chart of environmental weighting for a word based on a reader's location in a passage.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 10 is a block diagram of word categories.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 11 is a table of exemplary glue words.
  • [0030]
    FIGS. 12A and 12B are portions of a flow chart of a process using word categories to assess fluency.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 13 is a screenshot of a passage.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 14 is a flow chart of an intervention process.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 15 is a flow chart of an intervention process.
  • [0034]
    FIGS. 16A is a flow chart of visual and audio interventions.
  • [0035]
    FIGS. 16B is a block diagram of received audio.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 17 is a flow chart of an intervention timing process.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0037]
    Referring to FIG. 1, a computer system 10 includes a processor 12, main memory 14, and storage interface 16 all coupled via a system bus 18. The interface 16 interfaces system bus 18 with a disk or storage bus 20 and couples a disk or storage media 22 to the computer system 10. The computer system 10 would also include an optical disc drive or the like coupled to the bus via another interface (not shown). Similarly, an interface 24 couples a monitor or display device 26 to the system 10. Other arrangements of system 10, of course, could be used and generally, system 10 represents the configuration of any typical personal computer. Disk 22 has stored thereon software for execution by a processor 12 using memory 14. Additionally, an interface 29 couples user devices such as a mouse 29 a and a microphone/headset 29 b, and can include a keyboard (not shown) to the bus 18.
  • [0038]
    The software includes an operating system 30 that can be any operating system, speech recognition software 32 which can be an open source recognition engine or any engine that provides sufficient access to recognizer functionality, and tutoring software 34 which will be discussed below. A user would interact with the computer system principally though mouse 29 a and microphone/headset 29 b.
  • [0039]
    Referring now to FIG. 2, a network arrangement 40 of such systems 10 is shown. This configuration is especially useful in a classroom environment where a teacher, for example, can monitor the progress of multiple students. The arrangement 40 includes multiple ones of the systems 10 or equivalents thereof coupled via a local area network, the Internet, a wide-area network, or an Intranet 42 to a server computer 44. An instructor system 45 similar in construction to the system 10 is coupled to the server 44 to enable an instructor and so forth access to the server 44. The instructor system 45 enables an instructor to import student rosters, set up student accounts, adjust system parameters as necessary for each student, track and review student performance, and optionally, to define awards.
  • [0040]
    The server computer 44 would include amongst other things a file 46 stored, e.g., on storage device 47, which holds aggregated data generated by the computer systems 10 through use by students executing software 34. The files 46 can include text-based results from execution of the tutoring software 34 as will be described below. Also residing on the storage device 47 can be individual speech files resulting from execution of the tutor software 34 on the systems 10. In other embodiments, the speech files being rather large in size would reside on the individual systems 10. Thus, in a classroom setting, an instructor can access the text-based files over the server via system 45, and can individually visit a student system 10 to play back audio from the speech files if necessary. Alternatively, in some embodiments the speech files can be selectively uploaded to the server 44.
  • [0041]
    Like many complex skills, reading depends on an interdependent collection of underlying knowledge, skills, and capabilities. The tutoring software 34 fits into development of reading skills based on existence of interdependent areas such as physical capabilities, sensory processing capabilities, and cognitive, linguistic, and reading skills and knowledge. In order for a person to learn to read written text, the eyes need to focus properly and the brain needs to properly process resulting visual information. A person learning to read should also possess basic vocabulary and language knowledge in the language of the text, such as may be acquired through oral language experience or instruction in that language, as well as phonemic awareness and a usable knowledge of phonics. In a typical classroom setting, a person should have the physical and emotional capability to sit still and “tune out” distractions and focus on a task at hand. With all of these skills, knowledge, and capabilities in place, a person can begin to learn to read with fluency and comprehension and, through such reading, to acquire the language, vocabulary, information, and ideas of texts. The tutor software 34 described below, while useful for students of reading in general, is specifically designed for the user who has developed proper body mechanics and sensory processing and has acquired basic language, alphabet, and phonics skills. The tutor software 34 can develop fluency by supporting frequent and repeated oral reading. The reading tutor software 34 provides this frequent and repeated supported oral reading, using speech recognition technology to listen to the student read and provide help when the student struggles and by presenting records of how much and how accurately and fluently the student has read. In addition, the reading tutor software 34 can assist in vocabulary development by providing definitions of words in the built-in dictionary, by keeping track of the user's vocabulary queries, and by providing assistance that may be required to read a text that is more difficult than the user can easily read independently. The tutor software 34 can improve reading comprehension by providing a model reader to which the user can listen, and by assisting with word recognition and vocabulary difficulties. The reading tutor 34 can also improve comprehension by promoting fluency, vocabulary growth, and increased reading. As fluency, vocabulary, and reading experience increase, so does reading comprehension which depends heavily on reading fluency. The software 34 can be used with persons of all ages including children in early though advanced stages of reading development.
  • [0042]
    Referring now to FIG. 3, the tutor software 34 includes passages such as passage 47 that are displayed to a user on a graphical user interface. The passages can include both text and related pictures. The tutor software 34 includes data structures that represent a passage, a book, or other literary work or text. The words in the passage are linked to data structures that store correct pronunciations for the words so that utterances from the user of the words can be evaluated by the tutor software 34. The speech recognition software 32 verifies whether a user's oral reading matches the words in the section of the passage the user is currently reading to determine a user's level of fluency.
  • [0043]
    Referring to FIG. 4, the speech recognition engine 32 in combination with the tutor software 34 analyzes speech or audio input 50 from the user, and generates a speech recognition result 66. The speech recognition engine 32 uses an acoustic model 52, a language model 64, and a pronunciation dictionary 70 to generate the speech recognition result 66.
  • [0044]
    The acoustic model 52 represents the sounds of speech (e.g., phonemes). Due to differences in speech for different groups of people or individual users, the speech recognition engine 32 includes multiple user acoustic models 52 such as an adult male acoustic model 54, an adult female acoustic model 56, a child acoustic model 58, and a custom acoustic model 60. In addition, although not shown in FIG. 4, acoustic models for various regional accents, various ethnic groups, or acoustic models representing the speech of users for which English is a second language could be included. A particular one of the acoustic models 52 is used to process audio input 50, identify acoustic content of the audio input 50, and convert the audio input 50 to sequences of phonemes 62 or sequences of words 68.
  • [0045]
    The pronunciation dictionary 70 is based on words 68 and phonetic representations. The words 68 come from the story texts or passages, and the phonetic representations 72 are generated based on human speech input or models. Both the pronunciation dictionary 70 and the language model 64 are derived from the story texts to be recognized. For the pronunciation dictionary 70, the words are taken independently from the story texts. In contrast, the language model 64 is based on sequences of words from the story texts or passages. The recognizer uses the language model 64 and the pronunciation dictionary 70 to constrain the recognition search and determine what is considered from the acoustic model when processing the audio input from the user 50. In general, the speech recognition process 32 uses the acoustic model 52, a language model 64, and a pronunciation dictionary 70 to generate the speech recognition result 66.
  • [0046]
    Referring to FIG. 5, a process 80 for tracking a user's progress through the text and providing feedback to the user about the current reading location in a passage (e.g., a passage as shown in FIG. 2) is shown. As the student reads the passage, the tutor software 34 guides the student through the passage on a sentence-by-sentence basis using sentence-by-sentence tracking. In order to provide sentence-by-sentence tracking, a passage is displayed 82 to the user. The sentence-by-sentence tracking provides 84 a visual indication (e.g., changes the color of the words, italicizes, etc.) for an entire sentence to be read by the user. The user reads the visually indicated portion and the system receives 86 the audio input. The system determines 88 if a correct reading of the indicated portion has been received. The portion remains visually indicated 90 until the speech recognition obtains an acceptable recognition from the user. After the sentence has been completed, the visual indication progresses 92 to a subsequent (e.g., the next) sentence or clause. In some embodiments, the visual indication may progress to the next sentence before the user completes the current sentence, e.g. when the user reaches a predefined point in the first sentence. Sentence-by-sentence tracking can provide advantages over word-by-word tracking (e.g., visually indicating only the current word to be read by the user, or ‘turning off’ the visual indication for each word as soon as it has been read correctly). Word-by-word tracking may be more appropriate in some situations, e.g., for users who are just beginning to learn to read. However, sentence-by-sentence tracking can be particularly advantageous for users who have mastered a basic level of reading and who are in need of developing reading fluency and comprehension. Sentence-by-sentence tracking promotes fluency by encouraging students to read at a natural pace without the distraction of having a visual indication change with every word. For example, if a child knows a word and can quickly read a succession of multiple words, word-by-word tracking may encourage the user to slow his or her reading because the words may not be visually indicated at the same rate as the student would naturally read the succession of words. Sentence-by-sentence feedback minimizes the distraction to the user while still providing guidance as to where s/he should be reading within the passage.
  • [0047]
    In order to provide sentence-by-sentence tracking, sentence transitions or clause transitions are indicated in the software's representation of the passage. These transitions can be used to switch the recognition context (language model) and provide visual feedback to the user. The tracking process 80 aligns the recognition result to the expected text, taking into account rules about what words the tutor software recognizes and what words can be skipped or misrecognized (as described below).
  • [0048]
    While the tutor software 34 is described as providing visual feedback based on a sentence level, other segmentations of the passage are possible and can be treated by the system as sentences. For example, the tutor software can provide the visual indication on a phrase-by-phrase basis, a clause-by-clause basis, or a line-by-line basis. The line-by-line segmentation can be particularly advantageous for poetry passages. Phrase-by-phrase and clause-by-clause segmentation can be advantageous in helping the student to process the structure of long and complex sentences.
  • [0049]
    In some embodiments, in addition to the visual indication of the portion of the passage currently being read, a visual indication is also included to distinguish the portions previously read by the user from the portions not yet completed. For example, the previously read portions could be displayed in a different color or could be grayed. The difference in visual appearance of the previously read portions can be less distracting for the user and help the user to easily track the location on the screen.
  • [0050]
    In some embodiments, the highlighting can shift as the user progresses in addition to changing or updating the highlighting or visual indication after the recognition of the completion of the sentence. For example, when the user reaches a predetermined transition point within one sentence the visual indication may be switched off for the completed part of that sentence and some or all of the following sentence may be indicated.
  • [0051]
    As described above, the location of a student's reading within the passage is visually indicated to the user on a sentence-by-sentence basis. However, the system tracks where the user is on a word-by-word basis. The location is tracked on a word-by-word basis to allow the generation of interventions. In general, interventions are processes by which the application assists a user when the user is struggling with a particular word in a passage. It also tracks on a word-by-word basis so as to allow evaluation, monitoring and record-keeping of reading accuracy and fluency, and to generate reports to students and teachers about same.
  • [0052]
    The tutor software 34 provides multiple levels of interventions, for example, the software can include a visual intervention state and audio intervention state, as shown in FIG. 6. When the tutor software 34 does not receive a valid recognition on an expected word after a specified duration has elapsed, the tutor software 34 intervenes 106 by applying a visual indication to the expected word. For example, a yellow or other highlight color may be applied over the word. Words in the current sentence that are before the expected word may also be turned from black to gray to enable the user to quickly identify where he/she should be reading. The user is given a chance to self-correct or re-read the word. The unobtrusive nature of the visual intervention serves as a warning to the student without causing a significant break in fluent reading. If the tutor software 34 still fails 108 to receive an acceptable recognition of the word, an audio intervention takes place 110. A recording or a synthesized version of the word plays with the correct pronunciation of the word and the word is placed 114 on a review list. Alternatively, a recording indicating “read from here” may be played, particularly if the word category 190 indicates that the word is a short common word that the user is likely to know. In this case, the user is likely struggling with a subsequent, more difficult word or is engaged in extraneous vocalization, so likewise the software may not place the word on a review list depending on the word category (e.g. if the word is a glue word 194). The tutor software 34 gives the student the opportunity to re-read the word correctly and continue with the current sentence. The tutor software 34 determines if a valid recognition for the word has been received and if so, proceeds 102 to a subsequent word, e.g., next word. If a valid recognition is not received, the software will proceed to the subsequent word after a specified amount of time has elapsed.
  • [0053]
    As described above, the reading tutor software 34 provides visual feedback to the user on a sentence-by-sentence basis as the user is reading the text (e.g. the sentence s/he is currently reading will be black and the surrounding text will be gray). This user interface approach minimizes distraction to the user compared to providing feedback on a word-by-word basis (e.g., having words turn from black to gray as s/he is recognized). With the sentence-by-sentence feedback approach, however, it can be desirable to non-disruptively inform the user of the exact word (as opposed to sentence) where the tutor software expects the user to be reading. The software may need to resynchronize with the user due to several reasons. For example, the user may have read a word but stumbled or slurred the word and the word was not recognized, the application may have simply misrecognized a word, the user may have lost his/her place in the sentence, the user may have said something other than the word, and the like. It can be preferable to provide an intervention to help to correct such errors, but a full intervention that plays the audio for the word and marks the word as incorrect and puts the word on the review list may not be necessary. Thus, a visual intervention allows the user or the application to get back in synchronization without the interruption, distraction, and/or penalty of a full intervention on the word.
  • [0054]
    As described above, there will be a time gap from the time that a valid recognition is received for one (previous) word, during which a valid recognition for the expected (next) word has not yet been received. If there is no relevant previous word, there will be a time gap from the time the current utterance (i.e. audio file or audio buffer) was initiated, during which the expected word has not yet been received. This time gap can become significant or large for a number of reasons, e.g. a user may pause during the reading of a passage because s/he does not know the expected word, the user may mispronounce or skip the expected word, or the recognition engine may not correctly identify the expected word in the audio stream. The tutor software 34 can provide an intervention based on the length of time elapsed since the previous word, or since the start of the audio buffer or file, during which the tutor software 34 has not yet received a valid recognition for the expected word.
  • [0055]
    Referring to FIG. 7, a process 130 for determining an intervention based on an elapsed amount of time or a pause is shown. Process 130 includes initializing 132 a timer, e.g., a software timer or a hardware timer can be used. The timer can be initialized based on the start of a silence (no voice input) period, the start of a new audio buffer or file, the completion of a previous word, or another audio indication. The timer determines 136 a length of time elapsed since the start of the timer. Process 130 determines 140 if the amount of time on the timer since the previous word is greater than a threshold. If the time is not greater than the threshold, process 130 determines 138 if valid recognition has been received. If a valid recognition has not been received, process 130 returns to determining the amount of time that has passed. This loop is repeated until either a valid recognition is received or the time exceeds the threshold. If a valid recognition is received (in response to determination 138), process 130 proceeds 134 to a subsequent word in the passage and re-initializes 132 the timer. If the time exceeds the threshold, process 130 provides 142 a first/visual intervention. For example, the tutor software highlights the word, changes the color of the word, underlines the word, etc.
  • [0056]
    After providing the visual intervention, process 130 determines 144 an amount of time since the intervention or a total time. Similar to the portion of the process above, process 130 determines 148 if the amount of time on the timer is greater than a threshold. This threshold may be the same or different than the threshold used to determine if a visual intervention is needed. If the time is not greater than the threshold, process 130 determines 150 if a valid recognition has been received. If input has not been received, process 130 returns to determining 148 the amount of time that has passed. This loop is repeated until either a valid recognition is received or the time exceeds the threshold. If a valid recognition is received (in response to determination 148), process 130 proceeds 146 to a subsequent word in the passage and re-initializes 132 the timer. If the time exceeds the threshold, process 130 provides 152 an audio intervention.
  • [0057]
    After providing the audio intervention, process 130 determines 156 an amount of time since the intervention or a total time and determines 148 if the amount of time is greater than a threshold (e.g., a third threshold). This threshold may be the same or different from the threshold used to determine if a visual intervention or audio intervention is needed. If the time is not greater than the threshold, process 130 determines 158 if a valid recognition has been received. If input has not been received, process 130 returns to determining 160 the amount of time that has passed. This loop is repeated until either a valid recognition is received or the time exceeds the threshold. If a valid recognition is received (in response to determination 160), process 130 proceeds 154 to a subsequent word in the passage and re-initializes 132 the timer. If the time exceeds the threshold, process 130 proceeds 162 to a subsequent word in the passage, but the word is indicated as not receiving a correct response within the allowable time period.
  • [0058]
    In some embodiments, the visual intervention state and the full audio intervention state are used in combination. A visual intervention is triggered after a time-period has elapsed in which the tutor software 34 does not recognize a new sentence word. The “visual intervention interval” time period can be about 1-3 seconds, e.g., 2 seconds as used in the example below. However, the interval can be changed in the application's configuration settings (as shown in FIG. 8). For example, if the sentence is “The cat sat” and the tutor software 34 receives a recognition for the word “The”, e.g., 0.9 seconds from the time the user starts the sentence, no intervention will be triggered for the word “The” since the time before receiving the input is less than the set time period. However, if 2.0 seconds elapses from the time the software received a recognition for “The”, during which the tutor software does not receive a recognition for the word “cat” the tutor software 34 triggers a visual intervention on the word “cat” (the first sentence word that has not been recognized). For the visual intervention, words in the current sentence which are prior to the intervened word are colored gray. The word that triggered the visual intervention (e.g. cat) is colored black and additionally has a colored (e.g., yellow) oval “highlight” overlaid over the word. The remainder of the sentence is black. Other visual representations could, however, be used.
  • [0059]
    From the point of view of speech recognition, a new recording (starting with “cat”) starts with the visually intervened word and the tutor software re-synchronizes the recognition context (language model) so that the recognizer expects an utterance beginning with the intervened word.
  • [0060]
    If the user reads the word that has received visual intervention successfully before the audio intervention is triggered, the intervened word is coded, e.g., green, or correct unless the word is a member of a certain word category. For example if the word is a target word, it can be coded in a different color, and/or placed on a review list, indicating that the word warrants review even though it did not receive a full audio intervention. If the user does not read the word successfully, a full audio intervention will be triggered after a time period has elapsed. This time period is equal to the Intervention Interval (set on a slider in the application, e.g., as shown in FIG. 8) minus the visual intervention interval. The time periods before the visual intervention and between the visual intervention and the full intervention would be a minimum of about 1-5 seconds so that these events do not trigger before the user has been given a chance to say a complete word. The optimum time period settings will depend upon factors including the reading level of the text, the word category, and the reading level, age, and reading rate of the user. If the Intervention Interval is set too low (i.e. at a value which is less than the sum of the minimum time period before the visual intervention, and the minimum time period between the visual intervention and the full intervention), the visual intervention state will not be used and the first intervention will be an audio intervention.
  • [0061]
    Referring to FIG. 8, a screenshot 170 of a user interface for setting speech recognition characteristics for the tutor software 34 is shown. The speech recognition screen 170 allows a user or administrator to select a particular user (e.g., using selection boxes 171) and set speech recognition characteristics for the user. The user or administrator can select an acoustic model by choosing between acoustic models included in the system by selecting one of the acoustic model boxes 172. In addition, the user can select a level of pronunciation correctness using pronunciation correctness continuum or slider 173. The use of a pronunciation correctness slider 173 allows the level of accuracy in pronunciation to be adjusted according to the skill level of the user. In addition, the user can select an intervention delay using intervention delay slider 174. The intervention delay slider 174 allows a user to select an amount of time allowed before an intervention is generated.
  • [0062]
    As described above, speech recognition is used for tracking where the user is reading in the text. Based on the location in the text, the tutor software 34 provides a visual indication of the location within the passage where the user should be reading. In addition, the speech recognition can be used in combination with the determination of interventions to assess at what rate the user is reading and to assess if the user is having problems reading a word. In order to maximize speech recognition performance, the tutor software dynamically defines a “recognition configuration” for each utterance (i.e. audio file or buffer that is processed by the recognizer).
  • [0063]
    A new utterance will be started when the user starts a new sentence or after a visual intervention or audio intervention. The recognition configuration includes the set of items that can be recognized for that utterance, as well as the relative weighting of these items in the recognizer's search process. The search process may include a comparison of the audio to acoustic models for all items in the currently active set. The set of items that can be recognized may include expected words, for example, the words in the current sentence, words in the previous sentence, words in the subsequent sentence, or words in other sentences in the text. The set of items that can be recognized may also include word competition models. Word competition models are sequences of phonemes derived from the word pronunciation but with one or more phonemes omitted, or common mispronunciations or mis-readings of words. The set of recognized sounds include phoneme fillers representing individual speech sounds, noise fillers representing filled pauses (e.g. “um”) and non-speech sounds (e.g. breath noise).
  • [0064]
    For some recognition items in the active set, for example phoneme fillers, the relative weighting of these items is independent of prior context (independent of what has already been recognized in the current utterance, and of where the user started in the text). For other items, the relative weighting of items is context-dependent, i.e. dependent on what was recognized previously in the utterance and/or on where the user was in the text when the utterance started.
  • [0065]
    The context-dependent weighting of recognition items is accomplished through language models. The language models define the words and competition models that can be recognized in the current utterance, and the preferred (more highly weighted) orderings of these items, in the recognition sequence. Similar to a statistical language model that would be used in large-vocabulary speech recognition, the language model 64 defines the items (unigrams—a single word), ordered pairs of items (bigrams—a two word sequence), and ordered triplets of items (trigrams—a three word sequence) to be used by the recognition search process. It also defines the relative weights of the unigrams, bigrams, and trigrams which is used in the recognition search process. Additionally, the language model defines the weights to be applied when recognizing a sequence (bigram or trigram) that is not explicitly in the language model. However, unlike a statistical language model, the language model 64 is not based on statistics derived from large amounts of text. Instead it is based on the sequence of words in the text and on patterns of deviation from the text that are common among readers.
  • [0066]
    Referring to FIG. 9, the language model generation process 177 takes the current text 178 that the user is reading and divides it into segments 179. In one embodiment, each segment includes the words in a single sentence and one or more words from the following sentence. In other implementations, the segment could be based on other units such as paragraph, a page of text, or a phrase. The unigram, bigram, and trigram word sequences and corresponding weights are defined 180 based on the sequence of words in the sentence, and the word competition models for those words. The language model generation process uses rules about which words in the sentence may be skipped or not recognized in oral reading (based on word category). The speech recognition process selects the language model to use based on where the user is reading in the text 186 (e.g., the process selects the language model for the current sentence). The recognition process adjusts the probability or score of recognition alternatives currently being considered in the recognition search based on the language model 185. Once the user starts an utterance, the “prior context” used by the language model to determine weightings comes from recognition alternatives for the utterance up until that point. For example, if the sentence is “The cat sat on the mat” and a recognition alternative for the first part of the utterance is “The cat”, then the weightings provided by the language model will typically prefer a recognition for “sat” as the next word over other words in the sentence.
  • [0067]
    At the very start of the utterance however, no prior context from the recognizer is yet available. In this case, the tutor software uses the prior context based on where the user was in the text at the start of this utterance. This “initial recognition context” information is also included in the language model. Therefore, if the user just received an intervention on “sat” and is therefore starting an utterance with that word, the initial recognition context of “the cat” (the preceding text words) will mean that the weightings applied will prefer recognition for “sat” as the first word of the utterance.
  • [0068]
    There are multiple ways that the recognizer configuration is dynamically changed to adjust to both the current text that is being read, and the current user. The language model 64 is sentence-based and is switched dynamically 186 each time the user enters a new sentence. The “initial recognition context” is based on the precise point in the text where the current utterance was started. In addition, the “pronunciation correctness slider” can control many aspects of the relative weighting of recognition items, as well as the content of the language model, and this setting can be changed either by the user or by the teacher during operation. Weightings or other aspects of recognition configuration that can be controlled include the relative weighting of sequences including word competition models in the language model, the relative weighting of word sequences which are explicitly in the language model (represented in bigrams and trigrams) vs. sequences which are not, and the content of the language model. The content of the language model is chosen based on how competition models are generated, what word sequences are explicitly in the language model and how s/he are weighted relative to one another. The “pronunciation correctness slider” setting may also control the relative weighting of silence, noise, or phoneme filler sequences vs. other recognition items.
  • [0069]
    In the current implementation, the language model includes the words in the current sentence and one or more words from the subsequent sentence (up to and including the first non-glue word in the subsequent sentence). The subsequent sentence words are included to help the tutor software 34 determine when the user has transitioned from the current sentence into the next sentence, especially in cases where the reader does not pause between sentences.
  • [0070]
    Referring to FIG. 10, a set of word classifications or categories 190 is shown. The word categories can have different settings in the speech recognition and tutor software 34. The settings can be used to focus on particular words or sets of words in a passage. Word categories 190 include target words 192, glue words 194, and other words 196. Words in a passage or story are segmented into one or more of these categories or other word categories according to his or her type as described below. Based on the category, the acoustic match confidence score may be used to determine the color coding of the word and whether the word is placed on a review list. For example, if the passage is focusing on a particular set of words to expand the student's vocabulary, a higher acoustic confidence match score may be required for the words in the set.
  • [0071]
    Glue words 194 include common words that are expected to be known by the student or reader at a particular level. The glue words 194 can include prepositions, articles, pronouns, helping verbs, conjunctions, and other standard/common words. A list of common glue words 194 is shown in FIG. 11. Since the glue words 194 are expected to be very familiar to the student, the tutor software and speech recognition engine may not require a strict acoustic match confidence on the glue words 194. In some examples, the software may not require any recognition for the glue words 194. The relaxed or lenient treatment of glue words 194 allows the reader to focus on the passage and not be penalized or interrupted by an intervention if a glue word is read quickly, indistinctly, or skipped entirely.
  • [0072]
    Target words 192 also can be treated differently than other words in the passage. Target words 192 are the words that add content to the story or are the new vocabulary for a passage. Since the target words are key words in the passage, the acoustic match confidence required for the target words 192 can be greater than for non-target words. Also, the word competition models may be constructed or weighted differently for target words. In addition, the target words 192 may be further divided into multiple sub-classifications, each sub-classification requiring different treatment by the speech recognizer and the tutoring software.
  • [0073]
    Additional word categories may also be defined, such as a category consisting of words which the user has mastered based on the user's past reading history. For example, the time gap measurement may not be used to color code words or place words on the review list if the words are in the mastered word category. Instead, if the time gap measurement for the mastered word exceeds a threshold, it will be used as an indication that the user struggled with a different word in the sentence or with the overall interpretation of the sentence.
  • [0074]
    Words in a text can be assigned to a word category based on word lists. For example, words can be assigned to the glue word category if the are on a list such as the common glue word list (FIG. 11), assigned to the mastered word category if s/he are on a list of words already mastered by that user, and assigned to a target word category if s/he are in a glossary of new vocabulary for a passage. However, to be more effective, word categorization can also take into account additional factors such as the importance of a word to the meaning of a particular sentence, the lesson focus, and the reading level of the user and of the text. Therefore a word may be assigned to a particular category (e.g. the glue word category) in one sentence or instance, and the same word may assigned to a different category in another sentence or instance, even within the same text.
  • [0075]
    Referring to FIG. 12, a process 200 related to the progression of a reader through a story is shown. For the location of the user within the story, the speech recognition software determines 202 the word category for the next or subsequent word in the passage. The speech recognition software determines 204 if the word is a target word.
  • [0076]
    The speech recognition software 32 receives 208 audio from the user and generates a recognition sequence corresponding to the audio. If a valid recognition for an expected word is not received, the software will follow the intervention processes outlined above, unless the word is a glue word. If the word is a glue word, a valid recognition may not be required for the word. In this example, the speech recognition software receives 210 audio input including the expected glue word or a subsequent word and proceeds 216 to a subsequent word.
  • [0077]
    If a valid recognition for the expected word is received, and the word is not a glue word, the tutor software analyzes additional information obtained from the speech recognition sequence. The software measures 222 and 224 if there was a time gap exceeding a predetermined length prior to or surrounding the expected word. If there is such a time gap, the word is placed 220 on a review list and coded a color to indicate that it was not read fluently. Typically this color is a different color from that used for ‘correct’ words (e.g. green), and also different from the color used to code words that have received an audio intervention (e.g. red). In addition, if the word is a target word, the software analyzes the acoustic match confidence 214 that has been generated for the word. The acoustic match confidence is used to determine if the audio received from the user matches the expected input (as represented by the acoustic model for that word) closely enough to be considered as a correct pronunciation. The speech recognition software determines 218 if the acoustic match confidence for the particular target word is above a predefined level. If the match confidence is not above the level, the word is placed on a review list 220 and coded a color to indicate that it was not read correctly or fluently. After determining the coding of the word, the tutor software 34 proceeds 226 to the subsequent word.
  • [0078]
    While in the above example, only target words were evaluated using acoustic match confidence, other words in the glue word category or other word category could also be evaluated using acoustic match confidence. The implementation of word categories may include additional different treatment of words and may include more or fewer word categories 190. In addition, the treatment of different categories of words can be controlled dynamically at the time the software is run. As described above, the tutor software 34 generates a list of review words based on the student's reading of the passage. A word may also be placed on the review list for reasons not directly related to the student's reading of the passage, for example if the student requested a definition of the word from the tutor software, the word could be placed on the review list. The review list can include one or more classifications of words on the review list and words can be placed onto the review list for multiple reasons. The review list can be beneficial to the student or to an administrator or teacher for providing feedback related to the level of fluency and specific difficulties for a particular passage. The review list can be used in addition to other fluency assessment indications such as number of total interventions per passage or words per minute. In some embodiments, the list of review words can be color-coded (or distinguished using another visual indication such as a table) based on the reason the word was included in the review list. For example, words can be included in the review list if an acoustic match confidence for the word was below a set value or if the user struggled to say the word (e.g., there was a long pause prior to the word). Words can also be placed on the review list if the user received a full audio intervention for the word (e.g., if the tutor software did not receive a valid recognition for the word in a set time, or the user requested an audio intervention for that word). Words that have been included on the review list due an audio intervention can be color coded in a one color while words placed on the review list based on the analysis of a valid recognition for the word (either time gaps associated with the word, or acoustic match confidence measurements) can be color coded in a second color.
  • [0079]
    Referring to FIG. 13, in addition to color coding words on a review list, the words can also be color coded directly in the passage as the student is reading the passage. For example, in passage 323 shown on screenshot 230 the word 234 ‘huge’ is coded in a different manner than the word 236 ‘wolf.’ The first color-coding on word 234 is related to a pause exhibited in the audio input between the word ‘what’ and the word ‘huge’. The second color-coding on word 236 is related to the user receiving an audio intervention for the word 236. Both words 234 and 236 would also be included on a list of review words for the user.
  • [0080]
    While the language models and sentence tracking have been described above based on a sentence, other division points within a passage could be used. For example, the language models and sentence-by-sentence tracking could be applied to sentence fragments as well as to complete sentences. For example, s/he could use phrases or lines as the “sentence.” For example, line-by-line type sentence-by-sentence tracking can be useful to promote fluency in poetry reading. In addition, tracking sentences by clauses or phrases can allow long sentences to be divided and understood in more manageable linguistic units by the user. In some embodiments, single words may be used as the unit of tracking. Furthermore, the unit of tracking and visual feedback need not be the same as the unit of text used for creating the language models. For example, the language models could be based on a complete sentence whereas the tracking could be phrase-by-phrase or word-by-word.
  • [0081]
    Referring to FIG. 14, a process 250 related to situations in which a user has continued reading a portion of a passage subsequent to an error (e.g., the user has made an error or the software has not correctly recognized a word) is shown. Process 250 initializes 251 counters and so forth. Process 250 receives input from the user and starts 254 a software based timer. The software based timer is started after a correctly received word and measures 256 the duration (e.g., a number of milliseconds) of “continuation speech” after the next expected word. Continuation speech includes speech input generated by the user and recognized by the software to match words in the text that occur subsequent to a word for which there was a potential error. In general, the timer is started after each correctly received word and the next expected word is assumed to be a potential “error.” Therefore, the software looks for continuation speech after each correctly received word.
  • [0082]
    The timer does not count the total elapsed time, but instead counts the time (e.g., in milliseconds) of matched “continuation speech”. For example, if the recognized word sequence was “A car sat in the <pause> mat” and the expected text sequence was “A cat sat on the mat” only the duration of sat, the, and mat would count towards the continuation speech measurement to be compared to the threshold in the case where the next expected word is “cat”. The time elapsed while the user is speaking incorrect words or when the user pauses is not counted as continuation speech by the timer. The timer counts from the last correctly recognized word in a sentence, e.g., the last word before the word for which a successful recognition has not yet been received. The recognition of continuation speech is determined by extending the alignment process past the about-to-be intervened or expected word to include words in the text subsequent to the expected word. The alignment process determines how the sequence of recognized words in the input audio match to the sequence of expected text words. Process 250 includes determining 258 if the measured time is greater than a threshold. The threshold can be set as desired. For example the threshold can be a length of time from about 500 milliseconds to about 700 milliseconds (e.g., 600 milliseconds). Longer thresholds can be used as desired. For example, the threshold could be a length of time from about 700 milliseconds to 5 seconds.
  • [0083]
    If the measured time is greater than or equal to the threshold, process 250 provides 262 an accelerated intervention. If the measured time is not greater than the threshold, process 260 continues to increment the total time of continuation speech and determines 260 if a correct recognition for the next expected word (potential error word) has been received. If a correct recognition is received, process 250 ends 264 counting the continuation text for that word. If a correct recognition is not received, process 250 returns to determining 258 if the time is greater than the threshold.
  • [0084]
    The use of accelerated interventions as described in relation to FIG. 14 allows the software to alert the reader of a skipped or incorrectly pronounced word when the reader has continued reading a portion of the passage subsequent to the skipped or incorrectly pronounced word. Accelerating the intervention allows the intervention to be provided before the user progresses too far past to the error word in the text. In general, the amount of time used as a threshold for the accelerated intervention is less than the amount of time used for providing a visual intervention when the user has not continued reading a subsequent portion of the text.
  • [0085]
    Referring to FIG. 15, a process for alerting the reader when the reader has continued to read past an error word is shown. Process 280 initializes 251 counters etc. and is similar to process 250 shown in FIG. 14. However, while process 250 provides an accelerated intervention based on a time measurement, process 280 provides an accelerated intervention based on word count. Process 280 includes counting 286 the number of words of “continuation speech” after the expected word. Process 280 determines 288 if the count of the number of words is greater than a threshold. The threshold is configurable. For example, the threshold can be any number or words from, e.g., about two words to about five or six words (e.g., three words). If the count of the number of words is greater than or equal to the threshold, process 280 provides 292 an accelerated intervention. If the number of words is not greater than a threshold, process 280 continues to increment the word count for additional received continuation speech and determines 290 if a correct recognition for the error word is received. If a correct recognition is received, process 280 ends 294. If a correct recognition is not received, process 280 returns to determining 288 if the number of words of continuation speech is greater than the threshold.
  • [0086]
    In some embodiments, a user may speak a word in about the same timeframe as a pre-intervention (e.g., a visual intervention) is triggered. This can result in a false negative for the reader because the reader has correctly spoken the word, but the software has not recognized the word. Such a false negative can occur because the user is still in the process of saying the word when the pre-intervention is triggered, e.g. by a timer. It can also be due to various sources of delay that exist in the system. In some embodiments, a fixed amount of audio prior to a pre-intervention is saved and re-used at the start of the new utterance after the intervention. The audio input can be re-joined with truncated audio for a word. In this case, the pre-intervention does occur, but combining the overlapped audio from before the pre-intervention to the audio immediately after the pre-intervention enables the system to correctly recognize the word and avoid providing a full intervention (e.g., an audio intervention) on the word.
  • [0087]
    Referring to FIGS. 16A, a process 300 for determining an intervention based on an elapsed amount of time is shown. Process 300 includes continuously buffering 302 audio received from the user. Process 300 includes providing 304 a visual intervention to the user (e.g., as described above). After providing the visual intervention, process 300 rejoins 306 the stored audio in the buffer file with the received audio and compares 308 the rejoined audio to the expected audio, as discussed in FIG. 16B below. Process 300 determines 310 if the re-joined audio provides audio input that corresponds to valid recognized speech. If valid recognized speech is included in the re-joined audio, process 300 proceeds 312 to a subsequent word or portion of the passage. If valid recognized speech was not received, process 300 determines 314 if an audio intervention is needed (e.g., as described above).
  • [0088]
    Referring to FIG. 16B, a block diagram of stored audio 328 and received audio 331 is shown. As described above, prior to providing a visual intervention (indicated by line 327) the system begins recording audio input from the input. The recorded audio is stored in a buffer file 328. When the visual intervention occurs (indicated by line 331), the system begins receiving and analyzing the audio 331 received after the visual intervention 329. In order to analyze the audio received during the visual intervention, the system joins the audio buffer file 328 with the audio received after the intervention 331 and determines if the combination of the audio in the buffer file 328 and the audio received after the intervention 331 includes audio input that corresponds to valid recognized speech.
  • [0089]
    Referring to FIG. 17, a process 330 for delaying a pre-intervention or audio intervention if the user may be speaking the word is shown. Process 330 includes determining 332 that a pre-intervention (e.g., a visual intervention), or audio intervention, is needed. For example, the determination can be based on a timer that counts a length of time since a valid recognition. After determining 332 that an intervention is needed, process 330 determines 334 if the most recent audio input result ends with a recognition unit corresponding to speech (e.g., filler, foil, or word). If the most recent recognition does not correspond to speech input (e.g., the most recent recognition includes silence), then process 330 provides 336 the intervention. If the most recent recognition corresponds to speech input, process 330 defers 338 the intervention for a fixed time period (e.g., 700 to 800 milliseconds). Deferring the intervention allows a reader time to finish pronouncing a word. After the fixed time period, process 330 determines 340 if a correct recognition was received for the word. If a correct recognition was received, process 330 proceeds 342 to a subsequent word or portion of the passage. If a correct recognition was not received, process 330 provides 344 the intervention.
  • [0090]
    A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
  • [0091]
    While in some embodiments described above the threshold for receiving a visual or audio input was constant the threshold can vary dependent on the user's location within the text. For example, the threshold for triggering a visual or audio intervention can be greater when the user is at a boundary in the text. Examples of boundaries can include syntactic boundaries such as sentence boundaries, clause boundaries, or other punctuation based boundaries and text layout boundaries such as the end of a line, end of paragraph, or the end of a page.
  • [0092]
    In some embodiments, the system can provide support to people who are learning to read a second language. The system can support people who are learning to read in a language other than English, whether as a first or second language. The system can have a built-in dictionary that-will explain a word's meaning as it is used in the text. The built-in dictionary can provide information about a word's meaning and usage in more than one language including, for example, the language of the text and the primary language of the user.
  • [0093]
    Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification704/235, 704/E15.014, 704/E15.043
International ClassificationG10L15/26
Cooperative ClassificationG10L15/08, G10L15/26
European ClassificationG10L15/26, G10L15/08
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