US 20070100801 A1
A method is disclosed for providing advertising content for display in a page over a network. The advertising content is displayed based on a category assigned to the advertising content. The category correlating to a given search may be based on the search results. The search results may be associated with one or more categories and the category associated with the highest count of search results is the category for that search.
1. A method for matching a search query to an advertisement, the method comprising:
receiving a search term for the search query;
determining search results for the search term;
correlating each of the search results to at least one search category;
determining an amount of the search results that correlate to the search category;
selecting one of the search categories in accordance with the determined amount; and
providing advertiser content in accordance with the selected search category.
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10. A system for matching a search query to an advertisement, comprising:
a user interface to receive a search term;
a search algorithm engine connected with the user interface, the search algorithm engine to determine search results for the search term; and
a category engine connected with the search algorithm engine, the category engine to correlate each of the search results to at least one search category, determine an amount of the search results that correlate to the search category, select one of the search categories in accordance with the determined amount, and provide advertiser content in accordance with the selected search category.
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18. A method for matching a query term and location of a user to an ad of an advertiser, the method comprising:
performing a search algorithm on the query term and location received from the user to obtain search results;
determining if the query term correlates to a determined advertiser category;
requesting advertiser content for the advertiser category if the query term correlates to the determined advertiser category and if the location correlates to a determined advertiser location;
determining each search category associated with the search results if the query term did not correlate to the determined advertiser category;
determining a count for each search category of the associations with the search results; and
requesting advertiser content for the search category based on the count.
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The present invention relates generally to providing advertising content over a computer network, and more particularly, but not exclusively, to selecting relevant advertisements for limited advertisement spaces.
Online advertising may be an important source of revenue for enterprises engaged in electronic commerce. A number of different kinds of page-based online advertisements are currently in use, along with various associated distribution requirements, advertising metrics, and pricing mechanisms. Processes associated with technologies such as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) enable a page to be configured to contain a location for inclusion of an advertisement. An advertisement can be selected for display each time the page is requested, for example, by a browser or server application.
One common variety of online advertisement is the display of advertisements based on a user's query term and/or query location. For example, a user may conduct an on-line search for a coffee shop in San Francisco. In this way, ads may be displayed for advertisers having relevant businesses located near the user's query location. Often the advertisement space for displaying the ads of the local businesses is limited in space. Only a certain number of relevant business advertisements may be displayed. A problem may occur in that there may be more businesses near the query location than can be displayed in the ad space shown to the user. A problem may arise in determining which business ads to display.
By way of introduction, the embodiments described below include a method and system for advertising. The embodiments relate to advertisement listings based on categories associated with search results. The embodiments further relate to geographic limitations of those advertisements. In one embodiment, the advertisements displayed may be rotated so that ads from one company are not shown together, but rather ads from multiple companies can be shown.
In a first aspect, a method is disclosed that provides advertising content for display in a page over a computer network includes: establishing a portion of the page to display an advertisement; determining an advertisement that is qualified for display in the portion of the page; determining whether any qualified advertisement is for an advertiser having more than one advertisement; and rotating the advertisements for the advertiser such that only one advertisement per advertiser is displayed at any one time.
In a second aspect, an ad server is disclosed for providing advertising content for display in a page over a computer network to a user includes: a database to store a plurality of advertisements; and a computer executed program, including: a first routine to determine a qualified advertisement from the plurality of advertisements for display in a portion of the page; a second routine to determine whether the qualified advertisement is one of a plurality of qualified advertisements that are for a single advertiser; and a third routine to rotate advertisements for the single advertiser such that only one advertisement from the single advertiser is displayed at any one time.
In a third aspect, a method is disclosed for displaying advertisements on a page, the method including: determining a plurality of advertisements that are qualified for display on the page; determining whether more than one of the advertisements are for a single advertiser; and rotating the advertisements for the single advertiser such that only one advertisement for the single advertiser is displayed to the user at any one time.
In a fourth aspect, a method is disclosed for providing advertising content for display in a page over a network to a user, the method including: providing an input selector for an advertiser to input a search category, wherein the search category corresponds to a query term of the user; providing an input selector for an advertiser to input a region, wherein the region corresponds to a location of the user; and displaying the advertising content of the advertiser if the user searches for the query term corresponding to the inputted search category and the location corresponds to the inputted region.
In a fifth aspect, a method is disclosed for matching a search query to an advertisement, the method including: receiving a search term for the search query; determining search results for the search term; correlating each of the search results to at least one search category; determining an amount of the search results that correlate to the search category; selecting one of the search categories in accordance with the determined amount; and providing advertiser content in accordance with the selected search category.
In a sixth aspect, a system is disclosed for matching a search query to an advertisement, including: a user interface to receive a search term; a search algorithm engine connected with the user interface, the search algorithm engine to determine search results for the search term; and a category engine connected with the search algorithm engine, the category engine to correlate each of the search results to at least one search category, determine an amount of the search results that correlate to the search category, select one of the search categories in accordance with the determined amount, and provide advertiser content in accordance with the selected search category.
In a seventh aspect, a method is disclosed for matching a query term and location of a user to an ad of an advertiser, the method including: performing a search algorithm on the query term and location received from the user to obtain search results; determining if the query term correlates to a determined advertiser category; requesting advertiser content for the advertiser category if the query term correlates to the determined advertiser category and if the location correlates to a determined advertiser location; determining each search category associated with the search results if the query term did not correlate to the determined advertiser category; determining a count for each search category of the associations with the search results; and requesting advertiser content for the search category based on the count.
Other systems, methods, features and advantages will be, or will become, apparent to one with skill in the art upon examination of the following figures and detailed description. It is intended that all such additional systems, methods, features and advantages be included within this description, be within the scope of the invention, and be protected by the following claims and be defined by the following claims. Nothing in this section should be taken as a limitation on those claims. Further aspects and advantages are discussed below in conjunction with the preferred embodiments.
Non-limiting and non-exhaustive embodiments are described with reference to the following drawings. In the drawings, like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the various figures unless otherwise specified.
The principles described herein may be embodied in many different forms. The methods and systems may allow businesses to have ads displayed on a web page in accordance with a context of the page. The methods and systems may allow advertising on search results pages by enabling advertisers to select an advertising category and advertising region for the ad to be displayed. An algorithm may be used to determine a category of the search results resulting from a consumer query term and query location. The methods and systems may allow geographically dense chain businesses to advertise in limited ad spaces by rotating the relevant ad listings. The method and system may also serve the ad listing for the closest location, based on the user query, user query location and/or the advertiser location.
Some or all of advertisement services server 110, portal server 104, and third-party server 102 may be in communication with each other by way of network 108. The advertisement services server 110 and portal server 104 may each represent multiple linked computing devices, and multiple third-party servers, such as third-party server 102, may be included in environment 100. Network 108 may be regarded as a public or private network connection and may include, for example, a virtual private network or an encryption or other security mechanism employed over the public Internet, or the like.
User device 106 and mobile user device 112 are represented by user-interactive devices that typically run browser applications, and the like, to display requested pages received over a network. The user may be a consumer of goods of services that is searching for a business such as a business of the advertiser. Such devices are in communication with portal server 104 and/or third-party server 102 by way of network 109. Network 109 may include the Internet and may include all or part of network 108; network 108 may include all or part of network 109.
Portal server 104, third-party server 102, advertisement services server 110, user device 106, and mobile user device 112 represent computing devices of various kinds. Such computing devices may generally include any device that is configured to perform computation and that is capable of sending and receiving data communications by way of one or more wired and/or wireless communication interfaces. Such devices may be configured to communicate in accordance with any of a variety of network protocols, including but not limited to protocols within the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite. For example, user device 106 may be configured to execute a browser application that employs HTTP to request information, such as a web page, from a web server, which may be a process executing on portal server 104 or third-party server 102.
Networks 108, 109 may be configured to couple one computing device to another computing device to enable communication of data between the devices. Networks 108, 109 may generally be enabled to employ any form of machine-readable media for communicating information from one device to another. Each of networks 108, 109 may include one or more of a wireless network, a wired network, a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), a direct connection such as through a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port, and the like, and may include the set of interconnected networks that make up the Internet. Networks 108, 109 may include any communication method by which information may travel between computing devices.
The web page 202 may display featured listings 204, 206 and/or non-featured results 208 at various locations on the web page 202. The featured listings 204, 206 are listings that an advertiser pays to have placed in the featured listing part of the web page 202. The featured listings 204, 206 may be set apart from the rest of the web page 202 by displaying behind the content a color or shading different than the rest of the web page 202 or by displaying the content of the featured listings 204, 206 in a visually different manner than the content on the rest of the web page 202 such as by changing the color of the background or the font. Featured listings may be displayed at a predetermined part of the page such as at the top 204 of the web page 202 and/or at the bottom 206 of the web page. The featured listings 204, 206 may be advertisements that display an advertiser's information, described in more detail below. The web page 202 may also display non-featured results 208, such as those determined by a search algorithm of search algorithmic engine 244 without an advertiser paying to have their advertisement positioned in a featured part of the web page 202. The featured listings 204, 206 may be related, however, to the non-featured results 208, as described in more detail below.
In one example, there are three available slots for featured listings to be displayed at the top 204 of the page. One listing 304 is purchased by an advertiser as a featured listing. The remaining two listings 306, 308 are back-fill advertisements. In one embodiment, the featured listing 304 is paid for based on placement in the featured listings section of the page 202. The back-fill advertisement listings 306, 308 may be paid for in other ways, such as based on the number of users who click a link of the advertisement. Additional featured listings may also be displayed at the bottom of the page under the non-featured results 208. In alternative embodiments, the number of slots available for featured listings may vary to include room for more or less than three listings. For example, for a Personal Digital Assistant (“PDA”) or a cell phone browser, there may be only one slot available for a featured listing.
The purchased featured listings such as listing 204 may be determined by an algorithm. The algorithm may consider a determined category of the user's search term, as described in more detail below. In one embodiment, the featured listings are displayed if they match or correlate to the geographic location and the category of the user's search. A category is a grouping of one or more related search terms or keywords. One example would be an advertiser who purchased the category “florist.” The “florist” category may include the keywords roses, daisies, lilies or other types of flowers. The advertiser may purchase a featured listing based on the category. The advertiser does not have to think of keywords that a consumer will search for, but rather just the category. The purchase of a category may make advertising easier and more effective.
The featured listings may include, but are not limited to, a business name, tagline, display URL with potentially different click-thru URL, telephone number, street address (may be suppressed), city, state, map link, directions link, Send-to-Phone link, or logo. The listing elements may include a click thru to either a hosted business details page or an advertiser's web page. The map, directions and Send-to-Phone links may click thru to a maps page, directions page, send-to-phone page, or a pop-up page, respectively. In an alternative embodiment, the featured listings may apply to industry specific local listings, or local event listings. Examples of industry specific local listings may be job listings, real estate listings, auto-related listings, personals listings, or any other industry specific listings. Local event listings add the dimension of date and time to the typical business or service listing.
A non-featured result 310 can be one of many search results (the rest of which are not shown). In one embodiment, there can be a total of ten search results per page with multiple pages. A non-featured result 310, or other non-purchased listing may be shown as a basic listing with listing information such as address and phone number. Alternatively, a link to a web page and possibly, a two line quote may be included with a basic listing. A non-featured result 310, or other purchased listing may also be shown as an enhanced listing which may include a link to a web page, and potentially a tagline and additional promotional links or information. The non-featured result 310 need not be enhanced. Enhancement of a basic listing is similar to an advertisement in that the advertiser pays to have its listing enhanced, however, the listing may still appear as a non-featured result of the search. The non-featured results, whether basic or enhanced may include a different variety of information.
The search shown in
The web page 202 in
The web page 202 may display options to the user 106, 112 that are related to the geographic information. The map 322 may show the location of each of the algorithmic search results. The box with a “1” in the map 322 may correspond to the first search result 310. The map 322 may also display the location of the featured listings. The featured listing 304 may be labeled with an “a” and there may be a corresponding box with an “a” on the map 322 to show the location of the business advertised in the featured listing 304. The map 322 may be expandable for easier viewing and may allow for both zooming in and zooming out for the user 106, 112 to view different features. The neighborhood 320 lists an area shown in the map 322. The neighborhood link allows a user to refine the search by limiting the search results to a particular neighborhood. For example, if the map had been of Manhattan, the user may see neighborhoods labeled for SoHo, East Village, etc. The result radius 318 may be modified to find results over a greater area, or to narrow the search results over a smaller area. The results displayed are those results that are within the selected result radius 318. A default value for the result radius 318 can be modified by the user.
The advertiser may be a self-serve advertiser 210 or an invoice advertiser/reseller 216. An invoice advertiser/reseller 216 may include an advertiser who buys large quantities of advertisements. An advertiser may also be referred to as a business, company, organization, holding company or store. In general, an advertiser is someone or something that purchases an advertisement. The self-serve advertiser 210 may include a smaller advertiser who does not buy large quantities of ads. Typically, the self-serve advertiser 210 may be a small business with limited locations, whereas an invoice advertiser/reseller 216 may be a national corporation.
The self-serve advertiser 210 may purchase advertising space via the self-serve interface 212. The self-serve interface 212 helps the advertiser to determine available advertisement inventory.
The map 818 shows a geographic area. In this case, the area shown is “San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Calif.” The map 818 may display available inventory, which is also shown in the results spreadsheet 816. The locations on the map 818 correspond with the regions shown in the results spreadsheet 816. The map 818 may display available, unavailable and an advertiser's already booked inventory for particular regions. An advertiser may click on the map 818 to select and purchase featured advertisements for a particular region for a given category 804. The map 818 can be resized and the advertiser can zoom in and zoom out when selecting a region. As shown in map 818, the advertiser has selected the “Santa Clara, Calif.” region associated with number 8 in the results spreadsheet 816. The details 820 of that particular region are shown including the inventory available, the price, and the location of the featured listings available.
The inventory management 230 may confirm the inventory with the account management platform 218. The inventory management 230 may also communicate with the ad server 232 when the ad is displayed as will be discussed below as related to
Unlike a self-serve advertiser 210, an invoice advertiser/reseller 216 may be an advertiser that buys large quantities of advertisements. The method in which they purchase ads may be different from the self-serve advertiser. The invoice advertiser/reseller 216 may use the account management platform 218 to check or confirm inventory with inventory management 230.
In addition to selecting a category for an advertisement, the advertiser may select a geographic location or region for which the advertiser determines to advertise. The area 908, the state 910, or the region 912 can be selected from the pull-down menus to narrow the geographic location for which the ad will be displayed. The advertiser may select a location from any or all of the area 908, the state 910, or the region 912 and selects the show available inventory button 914. This is just one embodiment of the selection of geographic location. Alternatively, the advertiser may be provided a limited set of advertising region choices from which to choose based on the advertiser's business address. The advertiser may also select a location in other ways such as by pointing a curser to a location on a map displayed on the page 212 and clicking. Different geographic locations and the determination of regions and the size of regions will be discussed below in association with
The map 918 shows the selected region 912. In this case, the region 912 is “San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, Calif.” The map 918 may display available inventory, which is also shown in the results spreadsheet 916. The locations on the map 912 correspond with the regions shown in the results spreadsheet 916. The map 912 may display available, unavailable, or an advertiser's already booked inventory for particular regions. An advertiser may click on the map 912 to select and purchase featured advertisements for a particular region for a given category 904 or sub-category 906. The map 918 can be resized and the advertiser can zoom in and zoom out when selecting a region. As shown in map 918, the advertiser has selected the “Santa Clara, Calif.” region associated with number 8 in the results spreadsheet 916. The details 920 of that particular region are shown including the inventory available, the price, and the location of the featured listings available.
A user or consumer query 240 may be entered into a consumer interface 242. The consumer query 240 includes a search term to be searched and may include a location for the search, such that search results relate to the search term and entered location. Alternatively, a location may be determined implicitly or not used at all. The location may be used to limit the results for the search term to include relevant results located in the location selected by the user. In one embodiment the consumer interface 242 is an interface to a website that may be used to search over the Internet. The consumer interface 242 may supply the search parameters to the search algorithmic engine 244 to perform the search. The results from the search are displayed on the web page 202. The indexing & feed processing 224 may have enhanced listings that are added to the algorithmic results 208 through the search algorithmic engine 244.
The ad server 232 receives the search terms for the search from the consumer interface 242 in order to display the appropriate advertisements in the web page 202. The ad server may check and confirm inventory from inventory management 230. The ad server 232 provides featured listings 204, 206 to the web page 202.
The embodiments described above discuss the use of geographic limitations such as regions or zip codes in a search engine to determine advertisements, and also to determine search results or non-featured listings. As discussed above, when a consumer searches within a particular region such as a zip code, the search engine first looks within that zip code for available advertisements. If there are no advertisements in the zip code, then the geographic area is expanded and the search engine looks for advertisements in the same region. If no advertisements are available in the region, then the search engine may expand further to a region group. This is one embodiment of dynamic expansion of geographic location. In an alternative embodiment, a search may have very few listings for a small neighborhood, so the geographic limits used by the search engine are automatically expanded to encompass a greater area. Likewise, the geographic area covered may be expanded in determining which advertisements are displayed. The applicable geographic area for advertisements may be systematically expanded in order to find an advertisement that matches the user's location. The ad-server displays the geographically relevant ads by starting from a close range (e.g. zip code) and then expanding outwards to a limited geographic area (e.g. region or region group) to display advertisements within those geographic limits.
This example shows that the search result is independent of the featured listings 1311, 1321 or advertisements. In one embodiment, regardless of which advertisements are shown on a web page, the search results are based on an algorithm within a search engine. In web page 1320, the search result 1302 correlates to the featured listing 1321. As discussed below, the advertiser category which determines the featured listings that are shown may be influenced by the search results, but the search results may not be influenced by the advertisements. The search results may be enhanced, but the list does not change, merely the appearance for an enhanced listing changes.
In the example from
In an alternative embodiment, if an exact geographic location of the user is known, such as a street address, then the featured listing that is shown may be the closest location to the user. In the KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN example, the store with the closest address to the user may be shown. However, if the exact address or geographic location is not known, such as a search within a zip code when there are multiple KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN store's in the zip code, then the featured listings may rotate the stores in that zip code that are shown as a featured listing.
An advertiser has the option of selecting the geographic location in which they display featured listings. A national chain advertiser may choose to purchase ads for geographic locations across the U.S. despite not having stores in every region, or any other geographical boundary (zip code, state, county, etc.). Examples of such advertisers include a hardware chain or a furniture chain. If a user performs a search in a category covered by the furniture chain, but not in a region where the store is located, a featured listing may be shown for the closest store from the furniture chain despite the fact the store is not located within the designated geographical boundary.
In yet another example, the featured advertisement shown may be rotated, however, the ad may contain a link so that the user can view multiple locations of the business. In the example from
The rotation may be accomplished for companies that are advertising more than one brand. For example, GAP, OLD NAVY and BANANA REPUBLIC are all part of the same holding company. However, to consumers, the three brands are three different entities. Therefore, the holding company may purchase multiple advertisements for the three brands in the same category and location. If there are three featured listings slots open, then they may be each filled with one ad for GAP, OLD NAVY and BANANA REPUBLIC. This example illustrates that the advertiser purchasing an ad can have many different forms, and consequently, the ad listings shown and whether there is a rotation may be dependent on the relevant facts. In this case, the holding company is the advertiser, but there may not be rotation because the advertisements are for three different brands. Therefore, rotation may not be based on the company that is the advertiser, but may be based on the brand that is being advertised.
The rotation described above is not just for featured listings. Alternatively, there may be rotation of any advertisements on a page regardless of their location. Further, the search results or non-featured listings may also be rotated in an alternative embodiment.
Likewise, in block 1022, if there are multiple chain listings in a region group that include the consumer zip code, the closest listing to the consumer's zip code may be filled in the featured listing slot in block 1024. However, if there is not a listing in the region group that includes the consumer's zip code then the featured listing slots may be filled with other sponsored ads, such as back-fill cost-per-click (CPC) ads according to block 1026. A CPC advertisement may be an ad in which an advertiser bids to have a listing. The ad may be displayed on the page 202, 1310, 1320 in accordance with the bid amount, such as the highest bids being displayed on the top portion of the page. The advertiser may pay the bid amount each time a user clicks on a link of the advertisement.
The consumer query 240 allows a user/consumer to enter a search term. The search algorithmic engine 244 is coupled with the category engine 246, which is coupled with the ad server 232. The category engine 246 determines the category of the consumer's search query or search term. The category of the consumer's search query is associated with an advertiser category. The search category is the category associated with the consumer's search. There may be a database of potential advertiser categories and the search category is matched to or compared with an advertiser category.
The search category may be used to determine which advertisements are displayed as discussed above. In the examples from
In one embodiment, a consumer enters a search term for a given geographic location and that search term is compared or matched with an existing database of available categories that may correlate to the search term. The matching of the search term could be accomplished in a variety of different ways. A search through the advertising category database with the search term may result in many possible advertiser categories. Alternatively, if the search term is an actual advertiser category, then the search may be associated with or correlated to that category. For example, the category for the search term “golf courses” may be “golf courses,” “golf,” or “courses.” The database of available categories may be created and maintained by the search engine and can be updated based on new categories for new listings. The listings that result from the search may be assigned categories based on the categories listed in the database. The categories can be associated with keywords from a search and/or search results or listings.
In an alternative embodiment, the search category may be determined based on a database of advertiser categories that are associated with search keywords. Any search term used by the consumer may be associated with a category in the database. However, this technique of determining categories may be limited by the keywords in the database. A search keyword that is not in the database may have to be associated with a search category in a different way than from the database.
According to the exemplary embodiment, the search results may each be associated with one or more advertiser categories. This association may be used to determine the search category. Since each search result may be associated with at least one advertiser category, an advertiser category may be associated with one or more search results. The number of times a search result is associated with a particular advertiser category may be referred to as that category's count or amount. Each advertiser category's count is the sum total of the number of search results associated with that category. The advertiser category with the highest count may then be determined as the search category according to blocks 1410-1412.
Alternatively, search result listings may have consumer notes or “Tags” associated with them. Tags can be referred to as any information that is or becomes associated with a search or particularly search results. Generally, the Tag is either consumer created or consumer modified. These Tags and any associate Tag descriptions or other content can be integrated with the search engine and may contribute toward determining the search category count of a set of search listings resulting from a consumer search. Tags can also be viewed as a separate category hierarchy (based on Tags clustered into a single category concept) used in the same way to determine the category for contextual advertising. Using Tags as the input for categories has the potential benefit of having the consumer community review and maintain the quality of the Tag/category association for each listing.
Tags may be a more open or interactive hierarchy as compared with traditional categories which are more of an authoritative set. Tags may include many different user inputted terms that cluster around a certain concept. For example, a golf club store may be named “Follow Through Equipment.” At first, this business may only sells golf club and when providing their listing information for algorithmic search results, they only select the category “Golf equipment.” After some time passes, this store may expand to sell things like tennis racquets and baseball bats. The business owner may not remember to add additional categories to his listing. However, consumers who shopped at this store may see the listing online and add Tags to the listing for terms that cluster around the concept “tennis equipment” and “baseball equipment.” With enough consumer indicated tags, these additional categories may be associated with this listing. Similarly, if the business stops selling baseball bats, the consumer tags may be updated to reflect the change.
The category determination may depend on or be independent of the geographical location. The category may be determined based on the search results. If the search results are for a certain geographic location, then the search results will be within that geographical location. Accordingly, identical searches may be associated with different categories depending on geographic location. For example, a search for the term “plants” may result in the category “Nurseries & Greenhouses” in one geographic location, but may result in the category “Wholesale Flowers” in a different geographic location because the search results for those locations may be different.
The media used to transmit information across communication links as described above illustrate one type of machine-readable media, namely communication media. Generally, machine-readable media include any media that can be accessed by a computing device or other electronic device. Machine-readable media may include processor-readable media, data storage media, network communication media, and the like. Communication media typically embody information that includes processor-readable instructions, data structures, program components, or other data in a modulated data signal such as a carrier wave or other transport mechanism. Such media may include any information delivery media. The terms “modulated data signal” and “carrier wave signal” include a signal that has one or more of its characteristics set or changed in such a manner as to encode information, instructions, data, and the like in the signal. By way of example, communication media include wired media such as twisted pair, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, and other wired media, and wireless media such as acoustic, RF, infrared, and other wireless media.
In a networked deployment, the computer system may operate in the capacity of a server or as a client user computer in a server-client user network environment, or as a peer computer system in a peer-to-peer (or distributed) network environment. The computer system 1500 can also be implemented as or incorporated into various devices, such as a personal computer (PC), a tablet PC, a set-top box (STB), a personal digital assistant (PDA), a mobile device, a palmtop computer, a laptop computer, a desktop computer, a communications device, a wireless telephone, a land-line telephone, a control system, a camera, a scanner, a facsimile machine, a printer, a pager, a personal trusted device, a web appliance, a television, a network router, switch or bridge, or any other machine capable of executing a set of instructions (sequential or otherwise) that specify actions to be taken by that machine. In a particular embodiment, the computer system 1500 can be implemented using electronic devices that provide voice, video or data communication. Further, while a single computer system 1500 is illustrated, the term “system” shall also be taken to include any collection of systems or sub-systems that individually or jointly execute a set, or multiple sets, of instructions to perform one or more computer functions.
On an interconnected set of local area networks (LAN), including networks employing differing protocols, a router may act as a link between LANs, enabling messages to be sent from one to another. Communication links within LANs typically include twisted wire pair or coaxial cable. Communication links between networks may generally use analog telephone lines, full or fractional dedicated digital lines including T1, T2, T3, and T4, Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDNs), Digital Subscriber Lines (DSLs), wireless links including satellite links, or other communication links. Remote computers and other network-enabled electronic devices may be remotely connected to LANs or WANs by way of a modem and temporary telephone link.
Dedicated hardware implementations, such as application specific integrated circuits, programmable logic arrays and other hardware devices, can be constructed to implement one or more of the methods described herein. Applications that may include the apparatus and systems of various embodiments can broadly include a variety of electronic and computer systems. One or more embodiments described herein may implement functions using two or more specific interconnected hardware modules or devices with related control and data signals that can be communicated between and through the modules, or as portions of an application-specific integrated circuit. Accordingly, the present system encompasses software, firmware, and hardware implementations.
In accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure, the methods described herein may be implemented by software programs executable by a computer system. Further, in an exemplary, non-limited embodiment, implementations can include distributed processing, component/object distributed processing, and parallel processing. Alternatively, virtual computer system processing can be constructed to implement one or more of the methods or functionality as described herein.
A computer-readable medium is contemplated that includes instructions 1524 or receives and executes instructions 1524 responsive to a propagated signal, so that a device connected to a network 1526 can communicate voice, video or data over the network 1526. Further, the instructions 1524 may be transmitted or received over the network 1526 via the network interface device 1520.
While the computer-readable medium is shown to be a single medium, the term “computer-readable medium” includes a single medium or multiple media, such as a centralized or distributed database, and/or associated caches and servers that store one or more sets of instructions. The term “computer-readable medium” shall also include any medium that is capable of storing, encoding or carrying a set of instructions for execution by a processor or that cause a computer system to perform any one or more of the methods or operations disclosed herein.
The computer-readable medium may include a solid-state memory such as a memory card or other package that houses one or more non-volatile read-only memories. Further, the computer-readable medium may be a random access memory or other volatile re-writable memory. Additionally, the computer-readable medium may include a magneto-optical or optical medium, such as a disk or tapes or other storage device to capture carrier wave signals such as a signal communicated over a transmission medium. A digital file attachment to an e-mail or other self-contained information archive or set of archives may be considered a distribution medium that is equivalent to a tangible storage medium. Accordingly, the disclosure is considered to include any one or more of a computer-readable medium or a distribution medium and other equivalents and successor media, in which data or instructions may be stored.
Although the present specification describes components and functions that may be implemented in particular embodiments with reference to particular standards and protocols, the embodiments are not limited to such standards and protocols. For example, standards for Internet and other packet switched network transmission (e.g., TCP/IP, UDP/IP, HTML, HTTP) represent examples of the state of the art. Such standards are periodically superseded by faster or more efficient equivalents having essentially the same functions. Accordingly, replacement standards and protocols having the same or similar functions as those disclosed herein are considered equivalents thereof.
The illustrations of the embodiments described herein are intended to provide a general understanding of the structure of the various embodiments. The illustrations are not intended to serve as a complete description of all of the elements and features of apparatus and systems that utilize the structures or methods described herein. Many other embodiments may be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reviewing the disclosure. Other embodiments may be utilized and derived from the disclosure, such that structural and logical substitutions and changes may be made without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Additionally, the illustrations are merely representational and may not be drawn to scale. Certain proportions within the illustrations may be exaggerated, while other proportions may be minimized. Accordingly, the disclosure and the figures are to be regarded as illustrative rather than restrictive.
One or more embodiments of the disclosure may be referred to herein, individually and/or collectively, by the term “invention” merely for convenience and without intending to voluntarily limit the scope of this application to any particular invention or inventive concept. Moreover, although specific embodiments have been illustrated and described herein, it should be appreciated that any subsequent arrangement designed to achieve the same or similar purpose may be substituted for the specific embodiments shown. This disclosure is intended to cover any and all subsequent adaptations or variations of various embodiments. Combinations of the above embodiments, and other embodiments not specifically described herein, will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reviewing the description.
The Abstract of the Disclosure is provided with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope or meaning of the claims. In addition, in the foregoing Detailed Description, various features may be grouped together or described in a single embodiment for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure. This disclosure is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that the claimed embodiments require more features than are expressly recited in each claim. Rather, as the following claims reflect, inventive subject matter may be directed to less than all of the features of any of the disclosed embodiments. Thus, the following claims are incorporated into the Detailed Description, with each claim standing on its own as defining separately claimed subject matter.
The above disclosed subject matter is to be considered illustrative, and not restrictive, and the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications, enhancements, and other embodiments, which fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention. Thus, to the maximum extent allowed by law, the scope of the present invention is to be determined by the broadest permissible interpretation of the following claims and their equivalents, and shall not be restricted or limited by the foregoing detailed description.