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Publication numberUS20070104886 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/272,167
Publication dateMay 10, 2007
Filing dateNov 10, 2005
Priority dateNov 10, 2005
Also published asDE602006005123D1, EP1785194A1, EP1785194B1, US8420180, US20090148614
Publication number11272167, 272167, US 2007/0104886 A1, US 2007/104886 A1, US 20070104886 A1, US 20070104886A1, US 2007104886 A1, US 2007104886A1, US-A1-20070104886, US-A1-2007104886, US2007/0104886A1, US2007/104886A1, US20070104886 A1, US20070104886A1, US2007104886 A1, US2007104886A1
InventorsMatthew Buczek, Andrew Skoog, Mark Rechtsteiner, Jane Murphy
Original AssigneeGeneral Electric Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electrostatic spray for coating aircraft engine components
US 20070104886 A1
Abstract
Electrostatic deposition of high performance powdered materials onto gas turbine surfaces. The process also includes post-deposition thermal staging of the deposited powder to provide a durable coating that will satisfy the demands of turbine engine operation. The process envisions application of organic-based powdered materials, glass/ceramic powdered materials and metal-based powdered materials and combinations thereof using electrostatic techniques to components exposed to low temperature operations, such as may be found in the front section of a gas turbine engine or to the exterior portions of an aircraft engine, and metal-containing glass ceramics, glass-ceramic materials, or materials that can be transformed into glass ceramic materials, when applied to components exposed to high temperature operations, such as may be found in the turbine and exhaust sections of a gas turbine engine or the flaps of an aircraft.
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Claims(27)
1. A method for coating an aircraft engine component, comprising the steps of:
providing a gas turbine engine component;
providing a high performance powder for coating the gas turbine engine component, the powder capable of being electrostatically charged;
providing a high voltage powder spray gun;
establishing a predetermined electrical potential between the powder spray gun and the gas turbine engine component;
charging the high performance powder while simultaneously spraying the powder at a predetermined flow rate onto at least a portion of surface of the gas turbine engine component to achieve a coating of predetermined thickness; and
heat treating the coated component to a temperature sufficient to establish a strong bond between the component surface and the coating.
2. The method of claim 2 wherein the step of heat treating the coated component includes heat treating the coated component to a temperature sufficient to establish a strong metallurgical bond between the component surface and the coating.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of heat treating includes heat treating the coated component at a temperature of at least about 1500° F.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of heat treating includes firing the component to a temperature of 1500° F. in a time of about 6 minutes.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing a powder selected from the group consisting of metal powders, organic-based powders, ceramic-based powders and combinations thereof.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing a coated metal powder.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing MCrAlX powders, the powders coated with a coating, where X is an element selected from the group consisting of gamma prime formers, solid solution strengtheners, grain boundary strengtheners, reactive elements and combinations thereof and M is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.
8. The method of claim 7 wherein the MCrAlX powders include powders wherein X includes at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ta, Re Y, Zr, Hf, Si, B, C and combinations thereof.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein the high performance powder is NiCrAlY having an oxide coating formed over an outer surface of the powder.
10. The method of claim 6 wherein the powders have an average size in the range of about 5-30 microns.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance coating in the form of a powder further includes providing a metal powder coated with a coating selected from the group consisting of an inorganic binder and an oxide coating.
12. The method of claim 1 further including the step of consolidating the coating prior to the step of heat treating the coating when the coating of predetermined thickness is a dense coating.
13. The method of claim 5 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder selected from the group consisting of metal powders, organic-based powders, ceramic-based powders and combinations thereof further includes providing a plurality of powders wherein at least one of the powders selected is a binder.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein the binder is a glass frit.
15. The method of claim 13 wherein the binder powder is a silicate-based material.
16. The binder of claim 13 wherein the binder includes aluminum oxide particles of submicron size and smaller.
17. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing an aircraft engine component includes providing at least one aircraft engine component selected from the group consisting of a compressor component selected from the group consisting of compressor section components, turbine section components, combustor components and exhaust components.
18. The method of claim 1 wherein the aircraft engine components include turbine airfoils, shrouds, flaps, seals, liners, cowls, center bodies and combustors.
19. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing iron-based alloy powders.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein the iron-based alloy powders additionally include a binder powder.
21. The method of claim 1 wherein the method of providing a gas turbine engine component further includes providing a gas turbine engine component wherein a portion of the gas turbine engine component that is to be coated with a high performance coating is coated with a bond coat.
22. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing a plurality of layers of powder, each layer having powders of different sizes wherein layers having fine powders provide a higher density than layer having coarse powders.
23. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder further includes providing a plurality of layers of powder, each layer having a different composition, and each layer having a different composition having different properties.
24. The method of claim 23 wherein the different properties include different mechanical properties, different chemical properties, different environmental properties and different physical properties.
25. The method of claim 1 wherein the step of providing a high performance powder includes providing a plurality of powders of different composition, and the step of charging while spraying includes charging and spraying the plurality of powders of different compositions at the same time in the same layer.
26. The method of claim 25 wherein the step of charging and spraying the plurality of powders of different compositions at the same time in the same layer provides a layer having a novel composition.
27. The method of claim 25 wherein the step of charging and spraying the plurality of powders of different compositions at the same time in the same layer provides a layer having a plurality of phases.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to a method of applying a coating to aircraft engine components, and specifically, to applying electrostatic coatings to aircraft engine components in an environmentally friendly fashion.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Gas turbine engine components employ coatings over base material in various applications to provide protection to the underlying structural base material. The purposes for applying the coatings are varied, and may include one or more purposes depending upon the application. For example, turbine airfoils used in the hot section or turbine section of a gas turbine engine include coatings to provide heat resistance and improved thermal capabilities. These airfoils also may be used in harsh environments, thereby additionally requiring coatings having resistance to corrosion or oxidation. Such coatings are referred to as environmental coatings.

Other applications may require still other coatings. For example, the shrouds surrounding the rotating airfoils, also referred to as blades, form a tunnel through which the hot gases pass. In addition to being able to withstand the hot, corrosive gases of combustion, these shrouds must also be abradable, as the rotating airfoils (blades) expand in a radial direction and contact the shrouds. It is desirable that, as contact is made between the rotating blades and the stationary shrouds that material be abraded from the shroud without affecting the structural integrity of the shrouds.

Of course, other sections of a gas turbine engine may require still other coatings. For example, in an aircraft engine, some components exposed to sand and rain may require erosion resistance. The specialized coatings in turbine engines are myriad. The coatings also may be applied to very large surface areas, such as shrouds, or to very small surface area, such as the tip regions of first stage turbine blades. The coatings also may be applied to a variety of substrate materials, such as for example superalloy materials, including nickel-based superalloys, cobalt-based superalloys, iron-based superalloys and combinations thereof, titanium and its alloys, and composites such as CMC's.

Although the structures to which the coatings are applied may vary, a few time-tested techniques have been utilized for their application. The techniques include a variety of modifications that solve particular problems. However the techniques generally include physical vapor deposition techniques (PVD), chemical vapor deposition techniques, thermal spray techniques, pack cementation techniques laser deposition techniques and plating techniques. A large number of patents have issued dealing with variations of the above-mentioned techniques, and many volumes could be filled discussing the differences distinguishing these variations. These techniques, including the multiple variations, typically produce high quality coatings, as required for demanding applications such as aircraft gas turbine techniques. However, the various techniques used for these applications have differing drawbacks. Some of the above-mentioned techniques, such as PVD, deposit the coating material by a slow, expensive process. Other techniques utilize solvents or release organic effluents, many of which are undesirable. Others, such as laser processing, require very high energy sources and expensive equipment. Still other processes leave undesirable by-products, such as heavy metals, for example chromium, which must be disposed of as hazardous waste.

What is needed is a process that can deposit a variety of coatings on aircraft engine parts in an economical, fast, energy efficient process that has minimal environmental impact. One method that has heretofore not been used in gas turbine components is powder coating based on electrostatic deposition of powdered materials. While this method has been used for a variety of commercial products such as home appliances, basketball poles, lawn furniture, gas grills and certain automotive applications, the methods have not heretofore been extended for demanding applications such as gas turbine components, including aircraft engine applications. It is likely that such methods have not found their way into this art because they lack a reputation for durability in such demanding applications.

What is needed is a durable coating for gas turbine engines that is quick, cost effective and environmentally friendly, and which can be readily adapted for application to both large and small surface areas.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to electrostatic deposition of powdered materials onto gas turbine surfaces. The process also includes post-deposition thermal staging of the deposited powder to provide a durable coating that will satisfy the demands of turbine engine operation.

While the present invention is directed to applying powdered materials by electrostatic deposition, the present invention envisions application of organic-based powdered materials, glass/ceramic powdered materials and metal-based powdered materials and combinations thereof using electrostatic techniques to components exposed to low temperature operations, such as may be found in the front section of a gas turbine engine or to the exterior portions of an aircraft engine, and metal-containing glass ceramics, glass-ceramic materials, or materials that can be transformed into glass ceramic materials, to components exposed to high temperature operations, such as may be found in the turbine and exhaust sections of a gas turbine engine or the flaps of an aircraft. However the present invention may also find application in the combustor section of the engine, as well as in cooler engine sections such as the compressor section. Aircraft engine components that may be coated by the present process include, but are not limited to, shrouds, flaps, seals, liners, cowls, center bodies and combustors

The coating of the present invention is applied by determining the proper coating material to provide the required properties for the intended application. Then, the material is provided as a powder in a preselected size range. The size range is selected based on required coating thickness for the intended application. If the size range has a high fraction of large particles, the coating may not have the proper density. If the size range has excessive fines, flowability may be a problem. Substrate size and configuration may also be a consideration in determining the size range of the particles. The powder particles are fed to a high voltage powder spray gun. The article to be coated is grounded and the surface is positioned facing the powder spray gun. An electrical potential is established between the article and the powder spray gun. As the powder is sprayed from the gun, an electrical charge is imparted to the powder particles, which are then drawn toward the oppositely charged surface of the article. The polarity will depend on the types of particles that are sprayed. Metal particles can be sprayed if the particles are coated, either with an oxide coating or an inorganic coating, provided that the metal powder is isolated within the coating. For the purposes of this application, such coated metal particles will be referred to as metal-based powders.

After the powder is applied to the article to a preselected thickness, the article is then heat treated at an elevated temperature sufficient to form a strong bond between the substrate and the applied coating. When the applied coating applied using a metal-based powder, the heat treatment temperature should be sufficiently high so as to form a metallurgical bond between the substrate and the applied coating. Depending upon the application and powder size selected, it may be necessary to consolidate the coating prior to the final heat treatment if a high density coating is required.

An advantage of the present invention is that it can be readily tailored to gas turbine applications, which may include a variety of materials and surfaces of different sizes. The equipment used in the process is readily adaptable to the different components used in gas turbine applications. Changes in flow rates and voltages are readily made.

Another advantage of the present invention is that a wide variety of particle sizes can be mixed together and sprayed onto the surface of the particle. In addition, particles of different compositions can be mixed together and sprayed onto the article surface. This aspect of the invention can be utilized to apply well-known compositions or to achieve new compositions.

An important advantage of the present invention is that it is environmentally friendly, providing very high yields while using no solvents and less energy. Firing can be accomplished in very short time frames. For example, firing can be accomplished to temperatures of 1500° F. in times as short as six (6) minutes. Such rapid firing can be accomplished since no binder is utilized; thus, no slow binder burnout is required. In addition, the equipment, its maintenance and operation to apply the powdered coating is inexpensive compared to other coating processes used for gas turbine and aircraft engine applications.

The coating of the present invention can be tailored to yield high density or low density coatings as desired. Another advantage is that the thickness of the applied coating can also be controlled to meet existing tolerance requirements.

Yet another advantage of the present invention is that the powders utilized in the spray process, but which are not incorporated onto the substrate surface, can be recovered and reused. Thus, in terms of powder usage, the yield is well above 90%, and can approach 100%, since there is very little powder loss, particularly in large volume applications. This is important as the particles themselves, when they include heavy metals such as chromium or nickel, can constitute a hazardous waste. The reusability of the powders thus eliminates a source of hazardous waste.

Other features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of the preferred embodiment, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 depicts a powder spray gun nozzle, in cross-section, propelling a high performance powder coating at a gas turbine engine substrate.

FIG. 2 depicts the powder spray gun nozzle of FIG. 1, in cross-section in greater detail.

FIG. 3 schematically depicts a spray room operation using the powder spray nozzle of FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The method of the present invention is implemented, in its simplest form, as depicted in FIG. 1. A powder spray gun 2, whose partially depicted nozzle 4 includes an electrode 6. Powder particles 8 is propelled through nozzle 4 at a surface 10 of a gas turbine engine substrate 12. The nozzle is grounded at 14 as shown in FIG. 1. A voltage is set up between the electrode and the surface. As shown in FIG. 1, the electrode is negatively charged and the substrate is positively charged. As the particles 8 are propelled past the electrode, a charge is imparted to the particle powders, which are additionally attracted electrostatically to surface 10. A layer 16 of powder particles 8 forms on surface 10 of the substrate 12. It will be understood that the polarity of the electrode 6 and substrate 12 can be reversed as required. Such a reversal of polarity may be desirable based on the chemistry of the powder particles so as to improve yield. It will also be understood that the nozzle itself may be designed as an electrode, or that the electrode may be built into the nozzle, rather than being positioned in the center of the nozzle orifice as depicted in FIG. 1.

The nozzle 4 of FIG. 1 is shown in greater detail in FIG. 2. Electrode 6 is positioned at the mouth 18 of orifice 20 of nozzle 4. The mouth 18 of nozzle 4 is flared so that the volume of the nozzle at the mouth increases. As shown, the nozzle is chamfered or beveled. However, the flaring can be achieved by any other geometric configuration, such as a mouth having a concave or parabolic opening. A deflector 22 is positioned in mouth 18, surrounding electrode 6. Powder particles traveling through orifice 20 of nozzle 4 are deflected outwardly by deflector 22 as they reach the nozzle, a shown in FIG. 2, and also are charged by electrode 6 as they pass through mouth 18. Electrode 6, as shown in FIG. 2, is connected to a power source via resistive wire 24 positioned in wall 26. As previously noted, this is but one configuration for the nozzle of a powder spray gun. Any other configuration that imparts a charge to powder particles exiting the nozzle may also be used.

FIG. 3 schematically depicts an exemplary embodiment of the equipment used for the process of the invention in greater detail in a spray room operation. A gas turbine engine substrate is depicted mounted in a chamber 30 and connected to ground at 14. Nozzle 4 of power spray gun 2 extends through an opening 32 in a wall 34 of chamber 30. A high voltage power pack 38 is connected to the powder gun 2. Powder to be sprayed is loaded from a powder source, drum unloader 40 and provided to collector 42. Here the powder can be sieved in sieve 44, and when appropriate, run through a magnetic separator 46 to separate magnetic material from non-magnetic material. Oversized material can be removed from sieve through channel 45 and sent to a collection station (not shown.) The powder then is moved into distribution hopper 48 and then into feed hopper 50. From here, the powder is fed into the nozzle 4 of gun 2. The charged powder particles are then directed toward substrate 12. Any unused powder particles can be recovered by passing them through to recycle bin 52, where they can be redirected into collector 42.

To change powders, it is necessary to remove the drum from drum unloader 40 and purge the collector 42, sieve 44, magnetic separator 46 (if used) distribution hopper 48 and feed hopper 50, as well as recycle bin 52 of powder. Sieve 44 can be removed and replaced with a different size as required and a new drum a different powder can be provided in drum unloader 40.

In accordance with the present invention, coupons representative of aircraft engine substrates were prepared. Samples were prepared both on bare substrates comprising superalloy material and on substrate to which a bond coat was applied. The bond coat was a well known NiCrAlY. Test coupons were 1″×4″ and 3″×3″. The powders sprayed were processed NiCrAl balls sized through −400 mesh. The balls were in the size range of 5-30 microns and includes an oxide scale naturally formed by exposure to the atmosphere.

The powder particles were fluidized at a pressure of 5-8 psi and atomized at a pressure of 50 psi to provide a flow pressure from the nozzle of 50 psi. A voltage of 90 kv was applied between the nozzle and the substrate. The NiCrAlY powders were atomized along with a binder comprising Ferro PG-94C, commonly referred to at GROUNDCOAT™, a fused silicate glass frit available from Ferro Corporation, Frit Division, 4150 East 56th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 44101. After application, the coupons were fired at a temperature of 1400-1650° F. for a time of 4-6 minutes.

EXAMPLE 1

A 3″×3″ test coupon of 0.060′ thick IN 625 was prepared. The coupon was coated with a standard NiCrAlY bond coat to a thickness of 3-12 mils. Uncoated iron-based powders and PG-94C binder was then applied to the coupon at a thickness of about 0.013″ using the procedure set forth above, including the heat treatment. After heat treatment, the outer strain of the coating was measured and found to be about 0.86%. The PG-94C, discussed above, is included in the final coating to hold other ceramic and metal particles in place.

EXAMPLE 2

A 3″×3″ test coupon of 0.060′ thick IN 625 was prepared. Uncoated iron-based powder and PG-94C binder was then applied directly to the surface of the coupon (i.e. no bond coat) to a thickness of about 0.013″ using the procedure set forth above, including the heat treatment. After heat treatment, the outer strain of the coating was measured and found to be about 1.19%.

EXAMPLE 3

A 3″×3″ test coupon of 0.060′ thick IN 625 was prepared. The coupon was coated with a standard NiCrAlY bond coat to a thickness of 3-12 mils. Coated iron-based powder and PG-94C binder was then applied to the coupon to a thickness of about 0.041″ using the procedure set forth above, including the heat treatment. The iron-based powder included a naturally-formed aluminum oxide coating. The oxide coating provides electrical isolation among the particles when higher metal loadings are desired. After heat treatment, the outer strain of the coating was measured and found to be about 0.70%.

EXAMPLE 4

A 3″×3″ test coupon of 0.060′ thick IN 625 was prepared. Iron-based powder having a naturally-developed oxide coating and PG-94C binder was then applied directly to the surface of the coupon (no bond coat) to a thickness of about 0.041″ using the procedure set forth above, including the heat treatment. The coated iron-based powder comprises about 60% by weight of the sprayed coating, the sprayed coating being a mixture of coated powder and PG-94C binder. After heat treatment, the outer strain of the coating was measured and found to be about 0.98%.

While the invention has been set forth in the examples and procedure set forth above, the invention is not so limited. The voltage used in the above examples was limited by the available test equipment. It is envisioned that higher voltages can be used. The only limitation on the voltage used is that the equipment and substrate not be damaged by the applied voltages, such as, for example, by arc strikes. The available voltages limited the coating thicknesses tested. It is envisioned that higher voltages can produce thicker coatings, when so desired.

The above examples utilized iron-based alloy powders. These metal powders are readily charged. However, the powders used for the coating are not so limited, as any powder that can be charged can be applied by the above described process. The limitation on the powder is whether the powder can provide the required protection to the substrate.

The above binder was Ferro PG-94C. This binder sets forth the current best mode of practicing the invention. However, other binders also may be acceptable. The binders must be compatible with the electrostatic powder spray procedure. The binder utilized was a glass frit that forms the ceramic matrix of the coating system. It will be recognized that other binder/matrix materials can be utilized that will become a part of the final coating. For example, a silicone may be utilized that can be converted into a glass, a glassy ceramic or a ceramic, depending upon the heat treatment applied and intended use. Whether the binder is incorporated into the final coating or is transitory depends upon the intended use of the article substrate and the component. Other binders that may be used include, but are not limited to, GE SR 350, a silicone based binder, a binder including submicron alumina and smaller particles such as ALCOA A16SG an active alumina and a high temperature glass frit, such as V212, available from Vitrifunctions, Inc., Clawson Ave., Youngwood, Pa. 15697.

The above described heat treatment is effective for PG-94C and iron-based powders. It will be understood that this heat treatment will not be effective to achieve proper adherence of other types of powders, and other heat treatments will be required to develop the required properties of another and different powder or powders as a coating.

The above examples do not reflect the use of additional ceramic fillers, However, ceramic fillers that can be applied by the above spray techniques may also be used as required. In addition, the size of the powders can be varied to provide required coating powders. For example, various sized powders can be applied to provide varying densities. If desired, different powders can be applied in different layers to achieve different densities. Furthermore, powders of different compositions can be applied as distinct layers to achieve different properties in different layers. These different properties may include different mechanical properties, different chemical properties, different environmental properties and different physical properties. However, care must be taken to provide the proper heat treatments to these layers to achieve the desired properties. Multiple heat treatments in the correct sequence may be required. Furthermore, different powders may be sprayed at the same time into a layer to provide novel compositions with unique properties. Once again, care must be taken to provide a proper heat treatment compatible with the powders of different compositions.

The present invention can be used for application of coatings in aircraft engine turbine components that currently are applied by different processes that have disadvantages or that cannot readily be applied at all. For example, by mixing different powders that would otherwise form as a two phase material, and proper heat treatment, a substantially uniform coating can be achieved. By proper selection of powder size, for example by application of metal balls, differences in thermal expansion between the coating and substrate can be accounted for. Thus, by properly sizing metal balls, the coating can expand at a different rate than the underlying substrate to create a strain tolerant coating. Similarly, different layers can be applied with differential expansion rates so that the strain due to thermal expansion can be distributed over the various coating layers to create a strain-tolerant coating, rather than at an interface between a coating and a substrate. TBC coatings can also be applied by the present invention, as it is not limited to metallic balls. By proper selection of materials and sizing of powders, the density of TBC coatings produced by current methods can be duplicated as desired. If desired, the density of these TBC coatings can be varied to produce a strain-tolerant coating or to vary the thermal effects as desired by proper application of porosity and cooling air. Other metals can also be added, such as the family of MCrAlX, a well-known designation for an expansion matching metal coating which can also inhibit corrosion, as well as other expansion matching and/or corrosion inhibiting metal coatings, where M is an element selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni Co and combinations thereof, while X is selected from the group consisting of Ta, Re and reactive elements, such as Y, Zr, Hf, Si, and grain boundary strengtheners consisting of B, C and combinations thereof.

While the invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8147922Sep 18, 2009Apr 3, 2012General Electric CompanyComposition and method for a thermal coating system
US20130045091 *Aug 17, 2011Feb 21, 2013General Electric CompanyRotatable component, coating and method of coating the rotatable component of an engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification427/458
International ClassificationB05D1/04, H05C1/00
Cooperative ClassificationB05B5/1683, C23C24/00, B05B5/032, C23C4/18, B05B15/1229, C23C4/12, Y02T50/67
European ClassificationC23C4/12, C23C4/18, C23C24/00
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Nov 10, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BUCZEK, MATTHEW BERNARD;SKOOG, ANDREW JAY;RECHTSTEINER, MARK;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:017234/0751;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051028 TO 20051107