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Publication numberUS20070125042 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/286,307
Publication dateJun 7, 2007
Filing dateNov 22, 2005
Priority dateNov 22, 2005
Publication number11286307, 286307, US 2007/0125042 A1, US 2007/125042 A1, US 20070125042 A1, US 20070125042A1, US 2007125042 A1, US 2007125042A1, US-A1-20070125042, US-A1-2007125042, US2007/0125042A1, US2007/125042A1, US20070125042 A1, US20070125042A1, US2007125042 A1, US2007125042A1
InventorsJohn Hughes, Hossein Borazghi, Don Stanley, Paul Moellendick
Original AssigneeJohn Hughes, Hossein Borazghi, Don Stanley, Moellendick Paul J
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Structural insulated panel construction for building structures
US 20070125042 A1
Abstract
A structural insulated laminated construction panel for building structures is described. The panel comprises a rigid core material layer of expanded polymeric material having opposed flat parallel surfaces. An outer skin is adhesively secured to one of the flat surfaces and an inner skin is adhesively secured to the other of the flat surfaces. The core material layer has a density of about 2 lbs/cubic foot. The core material is preferably an expanded polystyrene material. A building structure is constructed from such panels used as exterior and interior wall panels, floor panels and roof panels.
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Claims(75)
1. A structural insulated laminated construction panel for building structures, said panel comprising a rigid core material layer of expanded polymeric material having opposed flat parallel surfaces, an outer skin adhesively secured to one of said flat surfaces and an inner skin adhesively secured to the other of said flat surfaces.
2. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 1 wherein said core material layer is a rigid sheet of expanded polystyrene.
3. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said core material layer has a density of about 2 lbs/cubic foot.
4. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said outer skin is a glass fiber-reinforced plastic and constituting an outer surface of said construction panel.
5. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said outer and inner skins are adhesively secured by an adhesive film bonded to said at least one of said flat surfaces.
6. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is a continuously laminated panel forming a complete exterior wall of a building structure and having a height of up to about 12 feet and a thickness of from about 2 inches to 9 inches.
7. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is an exterior wall panel, said outer skin permitting the attachment of facing tiles or siding by the use of screw fasteners, or the application of exterior or paint, polymer concrete, said interior skin having a fire-retardant material incorporated therein.
8. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is an exterior building panel, said outer skin being adapted to retain paint or elastomeric roof material.
9. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 8 wherein there is further provided a conduit in said rigid core material disposed for receiving wiring therein.
10. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein two of said panels are interconnected together along a straight flat connecting end edge thereof, one of said flat connecting end edges having at least one elongated projecting tongue element of plastics material secured therein and projecting along said end edge, the other of said flat connecting end edge having an elongated slot therealong and positioned to receive said tongue therein, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld fiber-reinforced plastics for securing said tongue into said slot to interconnect said two connecting end edges together.
11. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 10 wherein said projecting tongue is an elongated flat rigid plastic strip, there being two of said strips each adhesively secured in a routed channel along opposed outer edges of said one of said flat connecting end edges and under an end portion of said outer and inner skins and defining a projection projecting outwardly of said connecting end edge, there also being two of said elongated slots disposed along opposed outer edges of said other of said flat connecting end edge and under an end portion of said outer and inner skins thereof for receiving a respective one of said projections therein.
12. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 11 wherein there is further provided a bead of flexible sealant material disposed along said connecting end edges between said projections and slots, said sealant material, together with said interconnection of said projection in said slots, constituting a thermally insulated structural sealed interconnection.
13. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein two of said panels are interconnected together along a straight flat connecting end edge thereof, said inner and outer skins having a projecting connecting end portion extending beyond said flat connecting end edge, a straight rectangular tube of fiber-reinforced plastic is dimensioned for close fit between said flat connecting end edge of said two of said panels and having opposed flat end walls thereof disposed flush under said projecting connecting end portions of said two panels, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics securing said projecting connecting end portions to respective ones of said opposed flat end walls.
14. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 13 wherein there is further provided a bead of flexible sealant material disposed between each of said flat connecting end edges and opposed flat side walls of said rectangular channel, said sealant material, together with said interconnected projecting end portions of said skins with said channel, constituting a sealed structural interconnection of said two panels, said tube being adapted to receive piping or wiring therein.
15. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is an exterior rectangular wall panel, said outer skin having a projecting connecting end portion extending beyond a lower flat edge surface of said panel for interconnection with attachment means connected to a sill plate of a foundation wall.
16. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 15 wherein said attachment means is comprised by an elongated rectangular tube secured to said sill plate, said tube having opposed top and bottom parallel flat walls and opposed parallel flat end walls, said lower flat edge surface of said panel resting on said top flat wall of said tube with said projecting connecting end portion of said outer skin extending over an exterior one of said opposed parallel end walls and secured thereto by fastening means.
17. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 16 wherein said elongated rectangular tube is a fiber-reinforced plastic tube, said fastening means is comprised of structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics, and fasteners for connecting said projecting connecting end portion to said exterior end wall of said channel.
18. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 16 wherein floor joists are supported on said sill plate adjacent said interior skin of said exterior rectangular wall panel, each said joist being provided at a free end thereof with a connecting plate for interconnecting said joist to said interior skin and sill plate by the use of fasteners.
19. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 17 wherein said structural adhesive is a 3M Scotch-Weld™ adhesive, said fasteners being screw or rivet fasteners.
20. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 16 wherein said elongated rectangular tube is a wire or plumbing conduit.
21. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is a floor panel, a slot routed in said rigid core material adjacent a straight end wall thereof and immediately under said outer skin thereof, said slot being dimensioned to receive a top flange section of a steel I-beam therein, said floor panel resting on a bottom flange section of said I-beam, and a structural adhesive between said top flange section and said outer skin within said slot for interconnection thereof.
22. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 21 wherein there is further provided elongated support tubes secured over said bottom flange section of said I-beam, said floor panel resting on said support blocks.
23. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 22 wherein said support tubes are hollow tubes formed of fiber-reinforced plastic and which also serve as conduits for wiring or plumbing.
24. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 21 wherein at least one free end of said I-beam is disposed on a sill plate of a foundation and connected thereto by fastening means, and further connecting means to connect said fee end to said interior skin of an outside wall constructed with one or more of said panels.
25. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 24 wherein there is further provided a hurricane anchoring system secured to a house support beam on which said I-beam are secured, or directly to said I-beam to thereby anchor same.
26. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 24 wherein said further connecting means is a right-angle metal bracket having a flange thereof connected to said inner skin by fasteners and the other right angle flange connected to a web of said I-beam.
27. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is a floor panel, said panel being secured to a top flange of one or more I-beams supported thereunder, and fasteners extending through said top flange and said inner skin of said floor panel.
28. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is an exterior rectangular wall panel, said outer and inner skins having a projecting connecting end portion extending beyond a lower flat edge surface of said panel for interconnection with opposed side walls of a rectangular bottom plate of fiber-reinforced plastic material connected to a sill plate of a foundation wall, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin plastics disposed between said projecting connecting end portions of said inner and outer skins and said opposed side walls.
29. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 28 wherein said rectangular bottom plate is an elongated hollow tube, a plurality of aligned holes formed in a top and bottom wall of said tube, said holes formed in said top wall being larger to provide access to said holes in said bottom wall where fasteners are disposed for securing said tube over floor sheeting supported thereunder.
30. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 29 wherein said floor sheeting is secured over flooring joists resting on a foundation wall and connected to said foundation wall through a sill plate.
31. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 29 wherein said hollow tube is a conduit for receiving wiring or piping therethrough.
32. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 29 wherein there is further provided fasteners for securing said projecting connecting end portion of said inner and outer skins to said opposed side walls of said hollow tube.
33. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said construction panel is an exterior rectangular wall panel having connecting means at a lower edge thereof, and a connecting means at an upper edge thereof for receiving fasteners extending through joist hangers and floor sheeting extensions of floor sheeting secured to floor joists secured by said hangers to a top portion of said exterior rectangular wall panel.
34. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 33 wherein said connecting means at said upper edge of said wall panel is an elongated composite fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) channel having a flat bridge wall and opposed parallel depending connecting arms embedded in said expanded polystyrene core with said connecting arms disposed in slots formed immediately behind said inner and outer skins from said upper edge and said bridge wall resting on said upper edge of said core, and means to secure said FRP channel to said upper edge.
35. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 34 wherein there is further provided an elongated bottom plastic plate of rectangular cross-section secured over said floor sheeting extensions and aligned with said exterior rectangular wall panel for receiving a connecting means of an upper exterior wall panel to be secured thereto and in alignment with said exterior rectangular wall panel therebelow.
36. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 35 wherein said connecting means is a connecting channel formed by projecting connecting end portions of said inner and outer skins of said upper exterior wall panel extending beyond said lower edge thereof, said plastic plate being received in said connecting channel and secured thereto by fastening means.
37. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 36 wherein said fastening means is a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics and fasteners extending through said projecting connecting end portions of said inner and outer skins and opposed side walls of said plastics plate.
38. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 37 wherein said plastic plate is a hollow tube for receiving wiring or piping therethrough.
39. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 38 wherein said structural adhesive is a two-part structural strength adhesive formed with a polyurethane liquid and an epoxy.
40. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein said panel is provided with connecting means secured to opposed outer edges thereof, said connecting means being constituted by elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer material (FRP) channels, each channel having a flat bridge wall and opposed parallel right-angle connecting arms, said connecting arms being disposed in slots formed behind said inner and outer skins from said outer edges with said bridge wall resting on said outer edge of said core, and means to secure said FRP channels to said outer edges, said edges constituting reinforced edges.
41. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein said means to secure is constituted by one of said fasteners, or a two-part structural adhesive Scotch-Weld™, or both.
42. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein said panels are rectangular panels, some of said panels are exterior vertical wall panels interconnected to form a first floor area of a building and are connected at upper ones of said reinforced edge thereof to end portions of horizontal floor panels also having reinforced edges, said floor panels forming on an inner side thereof a ceiling for said first floor area and on an upper side thereof a floor for an upper floor area, and further exterior vertical wall panels disposed over said end portions of said floor panels in alignment with said exterior vertical panels of said first floor area, said exterior panels and floor panels being connected at their matting ends and end portions by connecting plates and angles formed of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic material and bridging said matting ends by fastening means.
43. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 42 wherein said fastening means is constituted by fasteners and said structural adhesive, said fasteners extending into said opposed depending connecting arms of said FRP channels of said panel.
44. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein said flat bridge wall and connecting arms are fiber-reinforced to permit the retention of fasteners to secure component parts thereto.
45. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein some of said panels have at least one angled outer edge thereof.
46. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 45 wherein some of said panels are gable wall panels.
47. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein said flat bridge wall is a beveled bridge wall to constitute a beveled FRP channel.
48. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 47 wherein said beveled FRP channel is secured to a top outer edge of said panel constituting an exterior wall panel to provide interconnection with a further one of said panel constituting and angled roof panel, and fastening means to secure said angled roof panel to said flat beveled bridge wall.
49. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 48 wherein said fastening means is constituted by fasteners and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin base plastics.
50. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 49 wherein said structural adhesive is a two-part structural strength adhesive formed with polyurethane liquid and epoxy.
51. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 40 wherein said panels are vertical wall panels, some of said vertical wall panels forming right angle corners of a building structure, and right angle connectors for interconnecting said vertical wall panels at said right angle corners.
52. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 51 wherein said right angle connectors are elongated connectors formed of composite fiber-reinforced polymer material.
53. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 52 wherein said right angle corners are formed by a vertical protrusion column of fiber-reinforced plastics material and of square cross-section defining opposed elongated flat walls, a first vertical panel forming said right angle corner being disposed in abutment with one of said opposed flat walls, and a second of said vertical panels disposed at right angle to said first vertical panel and in abutment with an adjacent one of said opposed flat walls, an outer one of said right angle connectors embracing the other two outer ones of said opposed flat walls and having an extension edge portion extending over a longitudinal edge portion of said outer skin of said first and second vertical panels, fasteners interconnecting said extension edge portion to said longitudinal edge portion of said first and second vertical panel and extending into a connecting arm of said FRP channel, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics interposed on an inside face of said outer one of said rigid angle connectors, and an inner right angle connector secured to said first and second vertical panel inner skin along an inner corner thereof.
54. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 53 wherein said protrusion column is a hollow column, said inner right angle connector being secured to said first and second vertical panel by fasteners extending into connecting arms of said FRP channel of each panel with said structural adhesive disposed on an inside face thereof.
55. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 52 wherein said rigid angle corners are formed by abutting an outer vertical edge of a first panel with a side end edge portion of a second panel disposed at right angles thereof, an outer one of said rigid angle connectors embracing an outer corner formed by said first and second panels and extending over a longitudinal edge portion of said outer skin of said first and second vertical panels, fasteners interconnecting said outer right angle connector to said first and second panels and extending into a connecting arm of said FRP channels, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics interposed on an inside face of said outer right angle connector, and an inner right angle connector secured to said first and second vertical panel inner skin along an inner corner thereof.
56. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 55 wherein said inner right angle connector is secured along said inner corner by fasteners extending into said inner skin and into the connecting arm of said FRP channel of said first panel, said structural adhesive being disposed on an inside face of said inner right angle connector.
57. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 2 wherein two of said panels are vertical rectangular wall panels, said panels having outer straight edges, a vertical one of said outer edges being mitered at a 45° angle, said mitered outer edges of said two panels being interconnected together in facial contact by two elongated right angle connectors formed of composite fiber-reinforced polymer material, connecting slots formed in said core material in said outer mitered edges immediately behind said inner and outer skins, said elongated right angle connectors forming two right angle flanges received in respective ones of adjacent slots when said mitered outer edges are placed in said facial contact, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics interposed in said slots to connect said right angle connector therein.
58. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 57 wherein there is further provided fasteners disposed in said inner and outer skin adjacent said connector flanges and engaged in said flanges.
59. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 20 wherein an opening is formed in said panel, a composite fiber-reinforced polymer material (FRP) channel disposed about said opening, said FRP channel having a flat bridge wall and opposed parallel right angle connecting arms, said bridge wall extending the full width of said panel and said connecting arm overlapping said inner and outer skins about said opening, and fastening means to secure said FRP channel in said opening.
60. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 59 wherein said fastening means is constituted by fasteners disposed in said connecting arms and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics disposed behind said connecting arms.
61. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said structural adhesive is a two-part structural strength adhesive formed with polyurethane liquid and epoxy.
62. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said opening is a window opening.
63. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said opening is a rectangular door opening or window opening and wherein a thermoplastic header is embedded in said wall panel adjacent a top edge of said opening, and one or more composite fiber-reinforced plastic studs embedded into said panel along opposed side edges of said opening, said header being connected to an upper end of said reinforced studs.
64. A structural insulated laminated construction panel as claimed in claim 60 wherein said panel is further provided with an elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer material (FRP) channel secured along a top and bottom edge thereof, each channel having a flat bridge wall and opposed right-angle connecting arms, said connecting arms being disposed in slots formed behind said inner and outer skins from said outer edges with said bridge wall resting on said outer edge of said core, and said structural adhesive securing said connecting arms in said slots.
65. A building structure comprising a plurality of structural insulated laminated panels interconnecting together, each said panels having a rigid core material layer of expanded polystyrene having opposed flat parallel surfaces, an outer skin and an inner skin adhesively laminated to a respective one of said surfaces, said panels having connecting means secured to at least one of outer edges thereof and constituted by an elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer material (FRP) channel to provide connection to said panel.
66. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said FRP channel has a flat bridge wall and opposed parallel right-angle connecting arms, said connecting arms being disposed in slots formed behind said inner and outer skins from said outer edge with said bridge wall resting on said outer edge of said core, and a structural adhesive suitable to weld olefin based plastics disposed in said slots, said at least one outer edge being a reinforced edge.
67. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said core material layer is a two inch thick material having a density of about 2 lbs/cubic foot.
68. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said outer skin is a continuous sheet of fiber-reinforeced plastic and constituting an outer surface of said construction panel.
69. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said outer and inner skins are adhesively secured by an adhesive film bonded to said at least one of said flat surfaces.
70. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said construction panel is a continuously laminated panel forming a complete exterior wall of a building structure and having a height of up to about 12 feet and a thickness of from about 2 inches to 9 inches.
71. A building structure as claimed in claim 69 wherein said inner skin is adhesively secured by an adhesive film-bonded to said at least one of said flat surfaces.
72. A building structure as claimed in claim 71 wherein said outer and inner skin are adhesively secured by controlled heat lamination with said core material layer.
73. A building structure as claimed in claim 71 wherein said inner skin comprises a fire-retardant material skin.
74. A building structure as claimed in claim 65 wherein said plurality of panels comprise vertical exterior wall panels, floor panels and roof panels interconnected together through said connecting means, said exterior wall panels being immovably secured by attachment means to a sill plate of a foundation wall, said foundation wall supporting floor joists connected to said attachment means, said floor joists being secured to one or more building support means, and a seismic anchor device secured to said one or more support means and anchored in a bearing soil.
75. A building structure as claimed in claim 74 wherein said seismic anchor device comprises a support base, a vertical cylinder secured to said base, an adjustable post adjustably connected with said vertical cylinder, a connecting member at a free top end of said adjustable post for connection to said one or more support beams, an anchor rod having anchoring means for anchoring in said bearing soil and connected at a fee end thereof to a heavy-duty spring secured to said vertical cylinder.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to a structural insulated laminated construction panel for the construction of building structures.

BACKGROUND ART

Building structures have been known for many years and wherein they are constructed using prefabricated panels which are assembled and interconnected on site to construct a building, such as a residential or commercial building. Some building structures utilizing panels have several disadvantages in that most of these panels are constructed with conventional building materials fabricated from wood or metal and this results in panels which are heavy and difficult to manipulate and therefore heavy machinery is required for the manipulation and installation thereof. Although such panels may be of high strength, they have further disadvantages in that they are not waterproof or mold-proof, they do not provide adequate insulation and are not very resistant to hurricane force winds. They are also expensive to fabricate and the erection thereof is relatively slow due to the fact that these panels are of a small size and are labour intensive to install. Concrete panels also have the same disadvantages and are expensive to transport. Therefore, there exists a need to provide construction panels which overcome these disadvantages.

Reference is made to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/006,707, which was filed on Dec. 8, 2004, in the name of Hossein Borazghi, one of the co-inventors of this application, and entitled “Process and machine for producing lightweight thermoplastic composite products in a continuous manner”. The process and machine as disclosed in that patent now makes it possible to produce lightweight thermoplastic composite panels in a continuous manner and in widths heretofore not possible. Traditionnally, these composite materials have been produced in molds and ovens of large dimension. Accordingly, this innovation has made it possible to manufacture panels having ideal characteristics for the construction of building structures and wherein such panels could be manufactured economically in any desired length and widths of up to about 12 feet.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

It is therefore a feature of the present invention to provide a structural insulated laminated construction panel for the construction of building structures which overcome the problems of the prior art as mentioned hereinabove.

Another feature of the present invention is to provide a structural insulated laminated construction panel for building structures and wherein the panels are of a high strength, water-proof, mold-proof, highly insulated, lightweight, easy to assemble, high resistant to wind force, high impact resistant and which may be used for the construction of permanent residential structures or emergency structures wherein structures can be erected quickly and at low cost.

According to the above features, from a broad aspect, the present invention provides a structural insulated laminated construction panel for building structures and wherein the panel comprises a rigid core material layer of expanded polymeric material having opposed flat parallel surfaces. An outer skin is adhesively secured to one of the flat surfaces and an inner skin is adhesively secured to the other of the flat surfaces.

In another broad aspect of the preset invention, the structural insulated laminated construction panel is provided with connection means secured to at least one of the outer edges thereof and formed by an elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer material channel to provide connection to the panel.

According to a still further broad aspect of the present invention these panels may be constructed of any desired length and of a width of up to 12 feet and a thickness of from about 2 inches to 9 inches.

According to a still further broad aspect of the present invention the core material is expanded polystyrene and the density of the core material is of about 2 lbs/cubic foot for a two inch thick core.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

A preferred embodiment of the present invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a cross-section view of a structural insulated laminated construction panel of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is an exploded view, partly fragmented, showing the lamination of the structural panel;

FIG. 3 is an exploded view of a fragmented portion of the panel showing an electrical conduit or chase formed in the core of the panel;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view showing an in-line panel connection where opposed side edges of two panels are interconnected together;

FIG. 5 is a simplified section view showing two panels interconnected by the method of FIG. 4;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing another embodiment of how two panels are interconnected together with a straight rectangular channel interposed in the interconnection joint for use as an electrical or plumbing conduit;

FIG. 7 is a simplified section view showing the interconnection of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a fragmented side view showing a panel of the present invention used as an exterior wall panel secured to a foundation sill and wherein the panel has a rectangular channel secured to a lower edge thereof;

FIG. 9 shows the construction panel used as a floor panel and wherein two panels are shown interconnected to a steel I-beam;

FIG. 10 is a side view showing a floor panel of the present invention supported over a steel I-beam and secured thereto;

FIG. 11 is a fragmented side view showing the construction panel of the present invention used as a floor panel and also as an exterior wall panel and both interconnected to a foundation sill plate;

FIG. 12 is a fragmented side view showing an exterior wall panel constructed in accordance with the present invention and connected on top of a floor attached to joists and interconnected to the sill plate through the floor and joists;

FIG. 13 is a fragmented perspective view illustrating how the plastics rectangular channel is connected to a floor surface;

FIG. 14 is a fragmented cross-section view illustrating the attachment of the rectangular channel to the floor surface;

FIG. 15 is a fragmented section view showing the construction panel of the present invention used as an upper exterior wall panel and connected on top of a lower exterior construction panel through a channel and an extension of a floor board of a second floor;

FIG. 16 is a perspective view of a joist hanger of a type well known in the prior art and utilized in the assembly of FIG. 15;

FIG. 17 is an enlarged cross-section view showing the interconnection of the two exterior vertical wall panels as illustrated in FIG. 15;

FIG. 18 is a fragmented section view showing two exterior vertical wall panels with a first floor joist structure therebetween and wherein these are interconnected together by composite fiber-reinforced polymer channels embedded in the end edges of the panels and an outer fiber-reinforced thermoplastic connection plate and inner right angle connectors;

FIG. 19 is a fragmented section view showing two exterior construction panels of the present invention connected to a conventional floor joist structure of a first floor;

FIG. 20 is a fragmented perspective view showing a gable wall constructed with the construction panel of the present invention and with the composite fiber-reinforced polymer channels being used as a cap for the gable wall and a support for flooring and ceiling sheeting material;

FIG. 21 is a fragmented section view showing the construction panels of the present invention being used as roof panels and exterior wall panels having a bevel composite fiber-reinforced polymer channel in a top edge thereof to support and attach the roof panel thereto;

FIG. 22 is a fragmented perspective view showing roof panels constructed in accordance with the present invention and secured to the exterior wall of FIG. 21 and to a gable end wall;

FIG. 23 is a top cross-section view, partly fragmented, showing a first embodiment of a corner connection using reinforced angle connectors and an embedded hollow column of plastics or composite materials;

FIG. 24 is a view similar to FIG. 23 but showing two exterior vertical wall panels interconnected together at a corner in an overlap configuration;

FIG. 25 is a view similar to FIGS. 23 and 24 but showing two exterior vertical panels provided with vertical mitered end edges and embedded reinforced angle connectors which are not visible form outside or inside the building structure when the panels are connected together at their mitered edges;

FIG. 26 is a fragmented perspective view showing a window opening formed in a vertical wall panel with a composite fiber-reinforced polymer material channel secured about the opening;

FIG. 27 is a fragmented perspective view showing a vertical wall panel constructed in accordance with the present invention and wherein the opening is reinforced by a thermoplastic header and reinforced thermoplastic studs on either side of the opening and wherein a composite fiber-reinforced polymer material channel is secured about the opening in a manner similar to FIG. 26; and

FIG. 28 is a side view, partly fragmented, illustrating the construction of a seismic anchor device capable of being attached to a support beam to which are connected the floor panels, wall and roof panels through the various connectors whereby to construct a panelled building structure which is substantially hurricane and earthquake proof.

DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Referring now to the drawings and more particularly to FIGS. 1 to 3, there is shown generally at 10 a structural laminated construction panel for building structures and constructed in accordance with the present invention. The panel comprises a rigid core 11 of expanded polymeric material, and preferably, but not exclusively, a fire resistant expanded polystyrene and which defines opposed flat parallel surfaces 12 and 12′. A core 11 of one inch thickness has a density of about 2 lbs/cubic foot and excellent insulating properties.

A continuous outer skin 13 is secured to the outer surface 12 by an adhesive film 14 bonded to the outer surface 12 under controlled heat conditions with the apparatus as disclosed in the aforementioned pending U.S. patent application. The outer skin 13 is a reinforced thermoplastic composite glass fiber sheet and this provides for the attachment of surfacing tiles, concrete polymer, exterior paint and siding by the use of screw fasteners. A paint-ready veil 17 may be applied to the outer skin 13, as shown in FIG. 2, to accept paint or elastomeric roofing material if the panel is being utilized as a roof panel or wall panel.

An inner skin 15 is bonded to the inner surface 12′ by an adhesive film sheet 16 or other binder means. The inner skin preferably has a fire-rated material added to it.

An electrical conduit or chase 18 is hereinshown can be cut out of the core material 11, as shown in FIG. 3, to provide for wiring or plumbing in such panels, being vertical wall panels or floor panels. These conduits would be provided at a specific location whereby they may be accessible from the outer surface of the panels by simply drilling a hole, such as hole 19, therethrough to provide for the connection of electrical outlets or plumbing outlets. However, in most instances, the plumbing piping would be run in conventional interior walls of the building structure. It is also conceivable that additional inner and outer skins could be laminated to provide different effects or for attaching different types of facing materials or finished coatings thereto.

The construction panel 10 of the present invention is laminated in a continuous process and accordingly can have any length. Also, the width of the panel can vary up to 12 feet and the thickness of the core material can be in the range of from about 2 inches to 9 inches. By simple adjustment to the laminating machine as described in the aforementioned patent application, the machine can be easily adapted to construct panels of different sizes and in very short periods of time.

Referring now to FIGS. 4 and 5, there are shown two construction panels 10 and 10′ constructed in accordance with the present invention and interconnected together along opposed straight flat connecting end edges 20 and 20′ respectively. One of the panels, herein panel 10, is provided with an elongated projecting tongue element 21, of fiber-reinforced FRP plastics or other suitable similar material, secured in an elongated slot 22 cut in the core material by a hot knife or other tool, and immediately behind the outer and inner skins 13 and 15 and retained therein by a structural adhesive suitable to weld fiber-reinforced plastics to fuse the tongue element 21 with the inner and outer skins. The elongated projecting tongue 21 projects outwardly of the end edge 20.

As hereinshown the other end edge 20′ is also provided with slots 22′ formed adjacent its outer skin 13′ and inner skin 15′ and these slots 22′ receive the extension portion 21′ of the tongues 21. A similar structural adhesive is disposed in the slots 22′. As also hereinshown, the end edges 20 and 20′ are provided with an elongated slot 23 routed therein whereby to receive a bead of flexible sealant material 24 to provide a thermally insulated structural sealed interconnection when attached together as illustrated in FIG. 5. As hereinshown, when the connection is made, the tongues are not visible from the exterior wall surfaces with the exception that a partition line will be visible between the adjacent outer and inner skins.

Referring now to FIGS. 6 and 7, there is shown a further interconnection of two adjacent vertical wall panels constructed in accordance with the present invention. In this particular embodiment, the inner and outer skins 13 and 15 of each of the panels are laminated with a projecting connecting end portion 30 and 30′, respectively, of both of these panels 10 and 10′ and extending beyond the flat connecting end edges 20 and 20′ thereof, respectively. A straight rectangular fiber-reinforced plastic tube 31 is dimensioned for close fit between the flat connecting end edges 20 and 20′ of these two panels and is provided with opposed flat end walls 32 which are disposed flush under the projecting connecting end portions 30 and 30′ and in abutment with the flat connecting end edges 20 and 20′, as illustrated in FIG. 7. A structural adhesive as above-described is used for securing the projecting connecting end portions to respective ones of the opposed flat end walls 33 of the tube 31 and this adhesive is designated by reference numeral 34 wherein two beads thereof are disposed longitudinally over these end walls 33.

The adhesive 34 is a two-part adhesive consisting of a polyurethane liquid and/or an epoxy and is fabricated by the 3M Corporation under the trade mark Scotch-Weld™. It is an adhesive that can bond many low surface energy plastics including many grades of polypropylene, polyethylene and TPOs without special surface preparation. It also sets at room temperature. The tube 31 thus forms part of the wall structure and can be used as an electrical and/or plumbing conduit in which is disposed piping 36 or wires 35, as shown in FIG. 7. The tube 31 also provides load bearing quality to the panel for concentrated loads from above. It is also pointed out that the cavities formed under the projecting end portions of the inner and outer skins may be formed by simply routing out the core material a depth which is approximately half the width of the channel 33 and therefore the extensions 30 and 30′ need not be formed during lamination of the panel. The flexible sealant 24 can also be applied directly on the flat connecting end edges 20 and 20′ of the two panels 10 and 10′ to provide a good thermal seal therebetween.

Referring now to FIG. 8, there is shown a conventional floor system bearing directly on a sill plate 40 secured to a foundation wall 41 projecting from a ground surface 42. This drawing illustrates an exterior wall panel 10 constructed in accordance with the present invention connected to the sill plate 40 and providing continuity of insulation and seal around the perimeter of a building structure supported on the foundation wall. As hereinshown, the rectangular exterior wall panel 10 is routed along its bottom flat edge surface whereby the outer skin 13 projects along a lower edge 13′ thereof and extends over a side wall 43 of an elongated rectangular tube 44 constructed of fiber-reinforced plastics FRP material and secured to the sill plate 40 by a bolt 45 or other suitable fastener anchored in the concrete foundation. The elongated rectangular tube 44 has opposed top and bottom parallel flat walls 46 and 46′ and opposed parallel end walls 47 and 47′. The lower flat edge surface of the panel 10 rests on the flat top wall 46 of the tube 44 with the projecting connecting end portion 13′ of the outer skin extending over the exterior end wall 47 of the tube and secured thereto by a fastening means which includes fasteners such as screw or rivet fasteners 49 and structural adhesive disposed over the top wall 46 and opposed outer end wall 47 of the tube member. This adhesive is disposed thereon prior to setting the panel over the tube after the tube is secured to the sill plate by the fastener 45. This structural adhesive is of the type as described hereinabove which is suitable to weld olefin-based plastics.

As also shown in FIG. 8, floor joists 50 are supported on the sill plate 40 and about the inner surface or inner skin 15 of the vertical wall panel 10. Each of the joists 50 are provided at a free end 51 thereof with a connecting plate 52 of a type well known in the art and by the use of fasteners 53 the joists 50 are connected to the vertical structural panel 10 and to the sill plate 40. Accordingly, it can be seen that the vertical wall panel 10 is rigidly anchored to the sill plate 40 and into the foundation and as well to the floor joists 50. A floor covering 54, such as plywood sheeting, is secured over the floor joist and adapted to receive thereover a finishing floor material such as hardwood, carpeting, tiles, etc.

Referring now to FIG. 9, there is shown the structural insulated and laminated construction panel 10 of the present invention as used as a floor panel 10″. There are shown herein two of these floor panels 10″ secured to an I-beam 55. To secure the panels 10″ to the I-beam, a slot 56 is routed in the rigid core material 11 of these two floor panels adjacent the end walls 20 and 20′ thereof and immediately under the outer skin 13 of the floor panels. These slots 56 are dimensioned to receive a top flange section 57 of the steel I-beam 55 which herein constitutes a support beam. Each of the floor panels 10″ rests on the bottom flange 58 of the I-beam through support blocks 59. There is hereinshown a support block 59 secured to each side of the web 60 of the I-beam and they rest on the flange sections of the flange 58 and connected thereto by a transverse connector 61. These support blocks are hereinshown as elongated hollow fiber-reinforced plastic tubes 59 of rectangular cross section and also serving as conduits for wiring and/or plumbing.

As shown in FIG. 11, one free end of the I-beam 55 has its bottom flange 58 resting on the sill plate 40 and secured thereto by a fastener 62 extending through the flange 58. An angled plate 63 is also secured to the web 60 of the I-beam and has its right angle flange 63′ connected to the inner skin 15 of the outer vertical wall panel 10 by fastener 64. A seismic or hurricane anchoring system may also be secured to the I-beam as will be described later.

The wooden floor joist structure as shown in FIG. 8 is usually spaced at the standard 24 inch maximum spacing whereas with the I-beams the spacing therebetween can extend up to 4 feet. Under the floor joist and the foundation wall there may be provided a full basement or a crawl space and this is obvious to a person skilled in the art. It is also pointed out that the structural adhesive as above referred to is also inserted in the slots 56 which connect to the top flange of the I-beam to secure them in the slots and this welds the two materials together. The size of the I-beam 55 is selected depending on the span and the load conditions required for 4 feet maximum spacing between these types of support beams.

Referring now to FIG. 10 there is shown another example of how a floor panel 10″ may be connected to the I-beam 55. As hereinshown, the I-beam is simply secured to the panel through its inner skin 15 by fasteners 65. Again, a structural adhesive may be disposed over the top face of the top flange 57 of the I-beam.

Referring now to FIG. 12, there is shown another embodiment of an exterior wall configuration where the floor joist 50 rests directly and over the sill plate 40 of the foundation wall 41. The outer wall construction panel 10 is constructed as previously described with reference to FIG. 8 and an elongated rectangular hollow fiber-reinforced plastic tube 44 is connected along the lower edge surface 48 thereof. As hereinshown this tube 44 is secured directly on the outer sheeting 54 of a plywood floor sheet secured over the floor joist 50 and extending to the outer end of the floor joist and the outer rim board 67. An insulation 68 is disposed over the back face of this rim board and between the joists as is conventional in building construction.

As shown in FIGS. 13 and 14, this elongated fiber-reinforced plastic tube 44 is provided with a plurality of aligned holes 69 and 70 formed in the top and bottom walls 46 and 46′ thereof. The hole 69 in the top wall is larger to provide access to the holes 46 in the bottom wall where fasteners are disposed, such as the fasteners 71 as shown in FIG. 14. Accordingly, these fasteners 71 do not interfere with piping or wiring that may be disposed within these hollow tubes 44.

Referring now to FIGS. 15 to 17, there is shown an example for the construction of a two-storey building wherein there are two exterior wall panels 10 and 10′″ disposed in alignment one on top of the other and interconnected together. The lower vertical exterior wall panel 10 is herein provided along a top edge 75 thereof with an elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) channel 76. This channel is laminated by polypropylene and fiberglass fibers co-mingled together and formed by the process and machine described in the aforementioned U.S. application by forming rolls whereby to form a channel which has a flat bridge wall 77 and opposed parallel depending connecting arms 78 as clearly illustrated in FIG. 17. The top edge 75 of the lower wall panel 10 is routed to form a cavity therein to receive this FRP reinforcing channel therein. This channel is again secured along the top edge of the lower panel by the structural adhesive as previously described. Fasteners 79, such as screws or rivets, may also be inserted along the projecting edges of the outer and inner skins 13 and 15, as hereinshown.

The floor sheeting 54, secured to the joists 50, extends over the top edge 75 of the lower panel 10 and over the flanges 81 of the hanger connector 80 illustrated in FIG. 16 and used to support the joist 50 and forms a floor sheeting connecting extension 82. Before the upper wall panels 10′″ are secured over the bottom exterior wall panels 10, the flooring 54 is completed to the outer edge of the bottom panel to form this connecting extension portion. The connecting extension portion 82 is secured to the bridge wall 77 by adhesive and further fasteners 83 extending into the reinforced top edge of the lower panel 10.

The top outer vertical walls 10′″ forming a second floor, can now be installed. To do this installation it is first necessary to secure the elongated rectangular fiber-reinforced plastic tubes 44 over the connecting extension floor portion 82 by means of the fasteners 71 as previously described. The routed lower edge of the top panel 10′″ is then positioned over the channel and secured thereto by the fasteners 49 and the structural adhesive as previously described.

Referring now to FIG. 18, there is shown the construction panel of the present invention used as a floor panel 90 interposed between two vertical outer wall panels constructed in accordance with the present invention. All of these panels are provided with an elongated composite fiber-reinforced polymer channel 76 as previously described and these are shown at 76 and 76′ for the vertical wall panels 10 and 10′″, respectively, and at 76″ for the horizontal floor panel 90. Such a panel arrangement provides good insulation and sound barrier at the intersection of the walls and floor panels. The thickness of the floor panel 90 and the size of the embedded FRP channels is relative to the molding conditions and the span of the floor panel 90. The floor panel 90 forms a ceiling 91 on a lower side thereof for a first floor area 92 and forms a floor support surface 93 on the top side thereof for a second floor area 94. The skins applied to these panels suit the condition of their use wherein the lower surface 91 would most likely be applied a paint and the upper surface will be applied a floor covering.

A fiber-reinforced plastic elongated connecting plate 95 is disposed exteriorly of the exterior walls 10 and 10′″ and the outer edge of the floor panel 90 and spans this outer edge area, as hereinshown. This fiber-reinforced plastic plate 95 is secured to the FRP channels by fasteners 96 and structural adhesive of the type as previously described. On the inside of the building structure elongated angle brackets 97 are secured between the floor panel and the vertical walls and these are also formed of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic material. Again, fasteners 98 and the structural adhesive is used to effect this interconnection. Accordingly, it can be seen that the two vertical wall panels 10 and 10′″ and the horizontal floor panel 90 are rigidly and immovably secured together.

FIG. 19 depicts a platform frame method of a conventional floor construction comprising joists 50 resting on the upper end of the lower outer vertical wall panel 10. As hereinshown, the lower outer vertical wall panel 10 is provided with an FRP channel 76 embedded along its upper edge in a manner as previously described. This FRP channel is provided to receive fasteners from the rim board 67 and the joist 50. These fasteners are not shown herein but are obvious to a person skilled in the art.

A batt insulation 68 is disposed behind the rim board 67 and between the joists 50 to provide thermal insulation.

The floor joist 50 with its rim board 67 extends to the outer face of the lower vertical wall panel 10 and a fiber-reinforced plastic tube 44 is secured over the floor board 54 spanning the floor joist in: the same manner as previously described with reference to FIGS. 12 and 13 whereby to connect the upper outer vertical wall panel 10′″ thereto.

FIG. 20 illustrates an exterior wall panel 100 having a gable top end configuration as depicted by reference numeral 101. Again, an FRP channel 76 is embedded along the upper sloped outer edge 102 of the gable end portion 101. As also shown herein, an FRP channel 76′ may also be secured in a horizontal plane against an interior surface 103 of the structural panel constructed in accordance with the present invention, and herein panel 100. This FRP channel 76′ serves as a support for constructing a floor. The channel 76′ is secured by fasteners such as bolt fastener 104 and applied through the wall panel 100. The heads 105 of these bolts would be covered or hidden on the exterior wall 106 by the use of a trim board. Ceiling boards such as gypboards 107 would then be secured to the lower flange 78 by screw fasteners 108 and the upper floor sheeting 109 would be secured to the top flange 78′ of the channel 76′ also by the use of fasteners such as screw fasteners 109. Trusts, not shown could be supported therebetween.

Referring now to FIGS. 21 and 22, there are shown the panel of the present invention being used as a roof panel 110 having a rake and eave connection. For this application the FRP channel 76″ is provided with a bevel web 77′ disposed at an angle for the slope of the roofing panel 110. Bolt fasteners 111 would be disposed along the top surface 112 of the roof panel and extend into the web 77′ for connection thereto. Compressible washers may be used to seal the bolts to the outer skin to make them water-tight. To seal the outer edge of the roof panel 110 suitable capping 113 is applied whereby to conceal the FRP channel 76 embedded therein. Glue would be applied to the outer surface of the web 77′ prior to the installation of the panel to provide a secure bond with the inner skin 15. The outer skin 13 would be selected depending on the roofing material to be secured thereto.

FIG. 22 is a perspective view of a rake wall and gable wall connection. As hereinshown the roof panel 110 is secured along the FRP channel 76 of the gable wall 100 by the use of suitable fasteners 114 and to the FRP channel 76 of the right-angle outer vertical wall panel 10. Again, structural glue would be applied over these channels before setting the roof panel 110 thereon.

FIGS. 23 and 24 show three different variations of corner connections wherein the panels are interconnected at right angles to one another to form a corner of a building structure. As shown in FIG. 23, the exterior wall panels 10 are provided with FRP channels 76 embedded in their vertical outer edges thereof and a vertical column 115 constructed of fiber-reinforced plastics material is disposed in contact with the outer edges of the two panels 10 adjacent respective side walls 116 thereof. As hereinshown the column is a hollow column whereby to provide a conduit for piping or wiring. It could also receive insulation therein or anchors and concrete. Structural adhesive may also be provided between the column and the vertical edges of the panels.

To interconnect this corner column structure together, there is provided a large outer right angle connector 117 formed of FRP material and interconnected to some of the walls 116 of the column 115 and extending there beyond to connect to the right angle connecting arms or flanges 78 of the channel 76 by the use of fasteners 118. Again a structural adhesive is interposed on the inside of this exterior bracket. On the inside of the right angle corner panel structure a small elongated right angle bracket 97, as previously described, is connected to the panels and the right angle connecting arms 78 of the channel 76 in a manner as previously described.

FIG. 24 shows an arrangement wherein the end edge of an outer vertical panel 10 is disposed in abutment against a side edge of the other right angle panel 10. These panels are interconnected using the same right angle connectors 117 and 97 as described with reference to FIG. 23 and secured in the same manner. As hereinshwon one of the panels may also be routed at an end portion thereof whereby to provide a skin extension 13″ which can extend over the FRP channel 76 of the other panel and interconnected thereto by glue and the fasteners 118.

Referring now to FIG. 25, there is shown another corner connection wherein the panels 10 have a mitered end edge 120 and 120′, respectively. These miters extend at a 45° angle whereby when abutted with one another form a right angle corner. In this particular embodiment the panels are interconnected together in facial contact by two elongated right angle FRP internal connectors 121 and 121′ disposed in connecting slots 122 formed behind the inner and outer skins 13 and 15 in a manner as previously described and secured therein by the use of the structural glue. Structural glue is also applied along the mating mitered faces 120 and 120′. Accordingly, these connectors are concealed and cannot be seen from the exterior or interior of the building structure. Suitable fasteners 123 are used to further secure these panels together as shown.

Referring now to FIGS. 26 and 27, there is shown vertical wall panels 10 in which window openings 125 are cut therein. An FRP channel 126 is secured within the opening and the bridge walls 78 thereof are secured to the outer and inner skins of the panel by the structural adhesive and fasteners 127 in a manner as previously described. The bridge wall 77 spans the entire width of the panel 10. As hereinshown, the opening forms a window opening and a window frame is then installed within the FRP channel frame 126 by using conventional fasteners and insulation material. These panels are manufactured with these FRP channels installed and therefore a building structure can be erected very quickly by simply connecting the panels together and then installing the windows into these prepared openings.

FIG. 27 shows a window or a door opening 128 which is reinforced with a thermoplastic header 129 and one or more composite fiber-reinforced studs 130 embedded into the panel 10 along opposed side edges of the opening 128. The header 129 is secured to an upper end of these reinforced studs 130. As hereinshown, the panel 10 is also provided with FRP channels 76 along the top edge and bottom edge thereof to provide interconnection with other panels or building materials.

Referring to FIG. 28, there is shown the construction of a seismic anchor device 135 which may be secured to one or more support beams 136 to anchor them into a bearing soil 137. This seismic anchor device comprises a support base 138 with a vertical cylinder 139 being secured thereto. An adjustable post 140 is threadably connected to the vertical cylinder 139 and provides adjustability. A connecting flange 141 is secured to the top end of the adjustable post 140 for connection to one or more support beams 136. An anchor rod 142 which is provided with a helical screw vane 143 is driven into the bearing soil at a predetermined depth to provide a secure anchor. Other form of anchoring means may be provided such as for anchoring in rock, or other soil compositions. A heavy-duty spring 144 is connected at a free end 145 of the rod 142 to provide a damping effect should there be an earthquake or should the building structure be subjected to hurricane forces. It is pointed out that all of the panels with their interconnections as described above are indirectly connected to the support beam or beams 136 and an entire building structure would be anchored by the use of one or more of these seismic anchors 135.

It is within the ambit of the present invention to cover any obvious modifications of the preferred embodiment as described herein and relating to the structural insulated and laminated construction panel 10 of the present invention provided these modifications fall within the scope of the appended claims. For example, various types of skins may be laminated on opposed sides of the core and these building panels can be constructed of different lengths and shapes depending on the architectural design of a building to be constructed thereby. The FRP channels can also vary in sizes depending on panel widths and lengths and thickness, may be provided with openings formed therein. The core material can also be fitted with various inserts before lamination provided these inserts can withstand the temperature of the laminating machine. Also, one can appreciate that because of the light weight of these panels an entire building structure can be erected with minimal labour cost and because of the ease of interconnecting these panels, it is not necessary to have high-skilled labour to construct a building structure. A single panel can form a complete exterior wall of a building structure. Also, such structures can be erected in very short time periods and are therefore suitable for the construction of temporary shelters and low-cost housing. The strength of these panels as well as their water-proof and mold-proof and good insulation make it attractive for the construction of building structures, either residential or commercial in hot climate areas and areas subjected to high winds and hurricanes. These panels are also resistant to high-impact forces such as flying building material and are relatively puncture-proof against such materials when projected thereagainst. It is also foreseeable that these panels can be used for the construction of foundations and basement floors.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/782.1
International ClassificationE04C2/00
Cooperative ClassificationB32B7/12, B32B2419/00, B32B2262/101, B32B27/065, B32B2307/712, B32B27/32, B32B2307/558, B32B2307/304, B32B2266/08, B32B2266/0228, B32B2307/3065, B32B2307/72, E04B1/14, B32B17/04, E04C2/296, B32B5/18, E02D27/01, B32B2607/00
European ClassificationE02D27/01, E04B1/14, E04C2/296, B32B27/04, B32B5/28, B32B5/18, B32B27/30, B32B17/04