US 20070145183 A1
Device assisting with interception by an aircraft of a flight path segment located in a horizontal plane and a system of assistance with interception and follow-up of such a segment. The device includes means of determining a ground speed vector and means of displaying to present, on a screen, a means of indication (10) of the ground speed corresponding to a first rectilinear section (11) in the horizontal plane, connected to a symbol (7) whose angular orientation corresponds to the direction of said ground speed vector and whose length is variable, a means of interception approach indication (12) corresponding to a second rectilinear section (13) in the horizontal plane of variable width and provided for as an extension of first rectilinear section (11) and a means of indication (14) of the interception turn corresponding to at least one circular arc (15) in the horizontal plane, provided to extend second rectilinear section (13).
61. A device for assisting an airplane intercept a flight path, the device comprising:
a calculator that calculates a ground speed vector of the airplane;
a display screen; and
a symbol generator connected to said calculator and that is arranged to generate symbols that are displayed on said display screen, the generated symbols including,
the flight path that is to be intercepted,
a first symbol indicating a position of the airplane relative to the flight path,
a first indicator that is attached to said first symbol and that is a straight line with an angular orientation corresponding to a direction of the ground speed vector and with a length that varies and corresponds to a magnitude of the ground speed vector when the magnitude exceeds a predetermined value and that is constant and proportional to the predetermined value when the magnitude is less than or equal to the predetermined value,
a second indicator that is attached to said first indicator and that is a straight line whose direction indicates an initial part of a future approach path for intercepting the flight path and whose length adjusts as the position of the airplane changes relative to the flight path, and
a third indicator that extends tangentially from said second indicator and that is connected tangentially to the flight path, said third indicator being a curved line indicating a final part of the future approach path for intercepting the flight path.
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a straight line segment of the flight path to be followed, said first symbol indicating a lateral deviation of the airplane from the flight path to be followed by a relative position of said first symbol to said straight line segment,
a lateral deviation scale, and
an excessive lateral deviation marker that appears when the airplane is approaching one of said tolerated lateral margins.
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1. Field of the Invention
This invention concerns a device for assistance with interception by an aircraft for a flight path segment located in a horizontal plane, and a system for assistance with the interception and follow-up of such a segment.
2. Description of Related Art
In general, when an aircraft pilot, for instance flying a helicopter, wishes to intercept a flight path in the horizontal plane, he has to perform the following operations:
The precision required to follow an intercepted flight path, including a multitude of segments, varies along said flight path. Accordingly, the flight path monitoring accuracy is far greater during final approach than during cruise flight phases.
It is known that the pilot in the approach phase in a horizontal plane uses ILS (Indicator Landing System) type information, displayed by dedicated symbology of varying sensitivity, which is constantly increasing as the aircraft approaches the touchdown point. Conversely, during the cruise phase, in order to provide sufficient accuracy, a flight path segment monitoring procedure in the horizontal plane requires the pilot to select the most appropriate scale at a given moment, so as to comply with the required precision and/or use flight path deviation digital information combined with another dedicated symbology, for instance an [[HSI]] HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator).
Accordingly, the pilot following the current flight phase must make various selections and gather appropriate flight path deviation information to follow at various positions of the display screen (and even on two different screen pages), which information is generally presented using different formalisms.
Furthermore, during the periods of intense workload encountered by the pilot, omitting to modify a scale can have damaging consequences. Indeed, the pilot may believe erroneously that the aircraft is properly aligned on the flight path to follow whereas, in reality, the selected scale is too large.
Finally, in order to accomplish with satisfactory accuracy, the complete procedure demands a great deal of know-how and also intense attention and activity (high workload) throughout the interception and follow-up duration. Note that organization and dosing difficulties are essentially due to the fact that the customary instruments and/or symbologies used are not organized to present an obvious synthesis of the effective situation.
This invention concerns a device assisting with interception by an aircraft of a flight path segment located in a horizontal plane designed to remedy these drawbacks.
Indeed, according to the invention, said device assisting with interception by an aircraft of a flight path segment located in a horizontal plane, said device being brought abroad the aircraft and including:
is outstanding remarkable in that the initial resources first means determine at least one ground speed vector representative of the speed of the aircraft with respect to the ground and in that said initial resources first display means are liable to present, in addition, on said display screen:
All this graphic information forms the flight path interception path which ends, if there is no flight path overshoot, in an interception turn (circle arc more or less deformed to allow for wind effect) in the horizontal plane. This graphic representation enables the pilot to see and act early enough to adjust his approach, then his interception turn. This results in a gain in terms of efficiency and availability because, in particular, it relieves the pilot of the need to release the controls.
In addition, thanks to the first means of indication, the pilot is given graphic information supplying him both with the real direction towards which the aircraft is moving and a first estimation of the ground speed vector module at which it is moving. In addition, this indication offers the advantage of being displayed close to a screen position used by the pilot a great deal during the pre-defined flight path interception/monitoring phase, i.e., said first symbol indicating the current position of the aircraft.
In an advantageous embodiment, said first means of display present the second means of indication on said display screen only:
Thanks to said second means of indication, the pilot has synthetic graphic information giving him the future rectilinear interception flight path if he continues to fly with the same current ground speed vector (module and direction). As soon as the ground speed vector varies, said graphic information is updated in real time.
In addition, in an advantageous embodiment, said circle arc of the third means of indication includes a radius depending on the speed of the aircraft and/or the aircraft capacities. Furthermore, said circle arc may be deformed to allow for the intensity and direction of the wind.
Furthermore, in an advantageous embodiment,
Thanks to the third means of indication resource, the pilot has synthetic graphic information supplying him with the future turn to be made to intercept with and align on the flight path if the aircraft continues to fly along the same ground speed vector (module and direction).
In one specific embodiment, said interception assistance device includes, in addition, second means for detecting an obstacle and the first means of display are liable to present, in addition, on said display screen, at least a second symbol illustrating the position of said obstacle in said horizontal plane.
This invention also concerns an on-board system for assistance with the interception and monitoring by an aircraft of a flight path segment located in a horizontal plane. According to the invention, said system is outstanding remarkable in that it includes:
In addition, according to the invention, said flight path monitoring assistance device includes:
In an advantageous embodiment, the size of the fixed scale remains constant thanks to the automatic adjustment of the proportion between the real deviation and its representation on the display screen. Accordingly, whatever the aircraft flight phase, the fixed scale preserves the same size on the display screen.
In addition, in an advantageous embodiment:
To assist with the interception of a flight path including a multitude of segments, advantageously, said second means of display will also present on said display screen a sixth means of indicating a change in flight path segment to follow.
In addition, advantageously, said second means of display will present on said display screen a seventh means of indicating the lateral velocity tendency.
In a simplified and preferred embodiment, said first display means for the device providing interception assistance and said second means of display of the second monitoring assistance device will be part of one and the same display unit.
Furthermore, the system in accordance with the invention will also include means of transmitting information liable to connect said first means of said interception aid device and said third means of said monitoring aid device to an aircraft acceptance autopilot for the transmission of information. Accordingly, all the data generated by the first and third means can be transmitted to an autopilot, which deals with automatic aircraft guidance.
The figures of the attached illustration provide a clear understanding of how the invention can be accomplished. In these figures, identical references designate similar items.
FIGS. 6 to 19 illustrate the various displays possible using a monitoring aid device conforming to the invention.
FIGS. 20 to 26 illustrate the various steps involved in the interception and monitoring of a flight path.
Device 1 conforming to the invention is intended to assist with the interception by an aircraft of a flight path segment T located in a horizontal plane. This device 1 may be part of a system 2 conforming to the invention and represented schematically in
In a known manner, device 1 for interception aid includes:
Said means of display 5 include, in a customary manner:
According to the invention, said means 4 determine at least one ground speed vector representative of the ground speed, i.e., the speed of the aircraft with respect to the ground and said display means 5, liable to appear on said display screen 6, in addition to the aforementioned indications and as represented in
To make the drawing more understandable, rectilinear sections 11 and 13 of circle arc 15 have been depicted using different lines (broken) so as to provide a clear distinction. In practice they can, however, be continuous and be differentiated, for instance, using different colors.
Thanks to said means of indication 10, the pilot is given graphic information supplying him with both the real direction towards which the aircraft is moving and a initial first estimation of the ground speed vector module at which the aircraft is moving. In addition, this indication offers the advantage of being displayed near a screen position used specifically by the pilot during the interception and monitoring phase of a pre-defined flight path, i.e., said symbol 7, indicating the current position of the aircraft.
The means of display 5 present said means of indication 12 on said display screen 6 only:
a) if a segment S1, S2, S3 of flight path T is in the direction of the first rectilinear section 11 of the indication means 10; and
b) if this segment S1, S2, S3 (segment 53 in general in
Conversely, if at least one of the two previous conditions a) and b) is not fulfilled, the means of display 5 will not display said means of indication 12.
Thanks to said means of indication 12, the pilot is given synthetic graphic information supplying him with the future rectilinear interception flight path if he continues to fly with the same ground speed vector (module and direction).
Furthermore, circle arc 15 of means of indication 14 includes a radius R depending on the speed of the aircraft and/or the aircraft capacities.
By default, the interception turn is calculated to the benefit of a rounded form, therefore without any overshoot of the flight path over segment S3 of the flight path to be intercepted unless the pilot has first chosen this option, or if the maneuver to be carried out by the pilot necessarily involves an overshoot (for instance because the aircraft is too close to segment S3 to be intercepted). Accordingly, in the case of a flight path overshoot, the final circle arc 15 will be replaced by circle arcs 15A and 15B tangents in twos, as represented in
It should be noted that in the presence of wind, circle arc 15 or circle arcs 15A and 15B can be deformed to allow both for the intensity of the wind and its direction.
Furthermore, said means of display 5 present said means of indication 14 on said display screen 6 only:
α) if a segment S3 of flight path T is in the direction of said second rectilinear section 13 of the means of indication 12[[.]];
β) if said segment S3 is located at a distance less than a predetermined distance compared to the second rectilinear section 13; and
γ) if the demands of the flight path render an interception maneuver possible.
Conversely, if at least one of the three previous conditions α), β) and γ) is not realized, the means of display 5 will not display said means of indication 14.
Thanks to said means of indication 14, the pilot has synthetic graphic information supplying him with the future turn to be made to intercept and align on said flight path segment S3, if the aircraft continues to fly at the same current ground speed vector (module and direction). As soon as the ground speed vector varies, said graphic information will be updated in real time.
In one specific embodiment, said interception assistance device 1 will include, in addition, means 16 for detecting an obstacle (natural or man-made) and said display means 5 are liable to present, in addition, on said display screen 6, at least one symbol 17 (
It is also possible during interference with the relief (information supplied by a field module hosted, for instance, by a mapping calculator, a GCAS (Ground Collision Avoidance System) or with a detected obstacle (detection for instance by radar, laser) that the means of indication color 10 changes and, for instance, changes to amber or red.
Furthermore, as indicated previously, system 2 includes, in addition to device 1 for interception assistance specified above, a device 3 assisting with flight path follow-up.
According to the invention, said device 3 assisting with flight path follow-up includes:
Said fixed scale 20 is of a constant size in all the flight phases thanks to the automatic adjustment of the proportions between the real distances and their representation on display screen 6. This adjustment of the proportion takes into consideration the real and variable width of a basic corridor 26 relative to the required flight accuracy along flight path T to be followed and the variable form of the limits of said corridor 26. In reality, it is agreed that the required follow-up precision is variable throughout the length of flight path T. For instance, the required flight path monitoring precision is naturally far greater during final approach than during a cruising phase.
This required precision thus forms a corridor 26 all along the length of flight path T, generally breaking down into four parts (or flight phases), distinct and successive, of variable width, as shown in
Accordingly, the various plots of the fixed scale 20 are as follows:
The means of indication 22 includes a longitudinal straight-line segment 23 (
Note that during a change of flight path segment or when the flight path segment being followed is curved, this lateral distance deviation cursor 23 may be inclined in the direction of the turn (
When means of indication 22 reaches the limit (right or left) of corridor 26 relative to the required flight accuracy, whatever the current flight phase, it continues to be displayed but its representation is modified. For instance, it is plotted as dotted lines (
Furthermore, to assist with the interception and follow-up of a flight path T including a multitude of segments S1, S2 and S3, said means of display 5 also offer on display screen 6, a means of indicating a change of flight path segment to be followed. Preferably, it will concern straight segment 23 which in this case will flash.
According to the invention, the chevrons 25 appear as flashing at a fixed scale 20 whatever the current flight phase and as soon as the aircraft moves too close to the lateral limits (right or left) of corridor 26 relative to the required flight precision. Accordingly, if the pilot persists in moving horizontally away from the set flight path, the symbology relative to device 3 providing assistance with follow-up and chevrons 25 will finally disappear. The pilot will then be obliged to use the interception assistance device 1 if he wishes to join the flight path T he has left (at any point).
If we refer to the previous scale examples illustrating the description of this visual guide, it becomes important to note that the two chevrons 25 are arranged at either side of symbol 7 illustrating the aircraft if fixed scale 20 includes two markers or circles 21, as is the case of flight phase Ph3 (
Conversely, the chevrons 25 are plotted between two successive circles 21 if said same fixed scale 20 is made up of four circles 21, as is the case of flight phases Ph1, Ph2 and Ph4 (
Said means of display 5 also present, on said display screen 6, a means of indication 28 of the lateral speed tendency. This means of indication 28, shown for instance in
If vertical segment 29B (or the tip of the arrow) is continuously superimposed on straight segment 23 (lateral distance deviation cursor) of the means of indication 22 as shown in
Thanks to the invention, the process of intercepting a flight path T in the horizontal plane and its follow-up is carried out accurately and efficiently according to the four following steps E1 to E4.
1/Initial Outright Determination of the Interception Point Step E1
The aircraft has abandoned following flight path T1 comprising three segments S1, S2 and S3 while it was directed towards a point P2. Then, the pilot wishes to reintegrate the following up of flight path T1 at a point P5. To do this, the pilot directs the aircraft (ground speed vector) towards this point P5. In this case, it will be seen that device 1 may report to it that the approach flight path TR is unsuitable for two reasons:
2/Convergence Step [[E32]] E2
The pilot modifies the route of his aircraft so that the point of conflict with the ground (or the obstacle) disappears and/or slows down by reducing the ground speed module to eliminate the flight path overrun; an interception turn at a pre-defined factor appears at the end of the display on device 1. The approach flight path TR converges towards the same segment S3, but at a point P6 (
3/Interception Step E3
The pilot sets approach flight path TR derived from device 1 by engaging it (action on a control). In this way, he obtains a new flight path T2 to follow, replacing the former flight path T1 (with T2=TR+part of T1 starting from interception point P6). In addition, the next new target to be achieved is point P4 (
4/Precise Follow-Up of Flight Path Step E4
System 2 conforming to the invention guides the pilot into flight path T2 (
System 2 conforming to the invention also includes means of display 5, means 4, 16 and 18 as mentioned above, including, as shown in
Note that aforementioned means 30, 31, 34 and 35 are sufficient to supply secure guidance information needed by the aircraft autopilot 37, in this case the information allows [[he]] the interception and then the follow-up of the flight path. To this end, all the data generated by the approach and follow-up flight path calculator 34 can be exported by the customary means of transmission 37 to an autopilot 36 in such a way that the latter can then fly the aircraft automatically.