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Publication numberUS20070215585 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/375,767
Publication dateSep 20, 2007
Filing dateMar 15, 2006
Priority dateMar 15, 2006
Also published asCN101400472A, CN101400472B, EP1993772A2, EP1993772A4, EP1993772B1, US20140246411, WO2007106654A2, WO2007106654A3
Publication number11375767, 375767, US 2007/0215585 A1, US 2007/215585 A1, US 20070215585 A1, US 20070215585A1, US 2007215585 A1, US 2007215585A1, US-A1-20070215585, US-A1-2007215585, US2007/0215585A1, US2007/215585A1, US20070215585 A1, US20070215585A1, US2007215585 A1, US2007215585A1
InventorsJames O'Connor
Original AssigneeLincoln Global, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High current AC welder
US 20070215585 A1
Abstract
An electric arc welding assembly comprising a charging circuit and regulator coupled to an input power source, an energy storage element connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator to increase the power available for the weld output, and a weld output controller connected in parallel with the energy storage element for controlling a welding arc between an electrode and a workpiece.
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Claims(28)
1. An electric arc welding assembly comprising:
a. a charging circuit and regulator coupled to an input power source;
b. an energy storage element connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator to increase the weld current output, wherein the energy storage element is charged by the charging circuit and regulator; and
c. a weld output controller connected in parallel with the energy storage element for controlling a welding arc between an electrode and a workpiece.
2. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one battery.
3. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one capacitor.
4. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one battery and at least one capacitor connected in parallel.
5. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the weld output controller comprises a DC down chopper including a pulse width modulator that at least partially controls the welding current to the electrode and a waveform generator that at least partially controls the pulse width modulator, the DC down chopper creating a series of current pulses that constitute a welding cycle representative of a current waveform, the pulse width modulator controlling a current pulse width of a plurality of the current pulses.
6. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 5, wherein the waveform generator drives the pulse width modulator at a frequency of 20 kHz.
7. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the weld output controller comprises a forward converter/inverter including a series circuit of a primary winding of a transformer and a switching element, which is coupled to the energy storage element and a rectifier smoothing circuit which rectifies and smoothes a voltage induced in a secondary winding of the transformer according to a switching operation of the switching element, wherein a rectifier element of the rectifier smoothing circuit conducts during an ON period of the switching element.
8. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the weld output controller comprises a boost converter.
9. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the weld output controller comprises at least one of a DC down chopper, a forward converter/inverter, and a boost converter.
10. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the weld output controller comprises a DC down chopper and a boost converter connected in parallel.
11. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, wherein the input power source comprises a 110-120 volt AC wall outlet.
12. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 11, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 110-120 volt AC wall outlet.
13. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 1, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 220-240 volt AC wall outlet.
14. The electric arc welding assembly defined in claim 13, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 220-240 AC wall outlet.
15. A method of forming an electric arc between an electrode and a workpiece comprising:
a. providing an electric arc welding assembly having a charging circuit and regulator coupled to an input power source, an energy storage element connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator, and a weld output controller connected in parallel with the energy storage element;
b. charging the energy storage element with the charging circuit and regulator;
c. increasing the weld current output via the stored energy in the energy storage element; and
d. controlling a welding arc between an electrode and a workpiece via the weld output controller.
16. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one battery.
17. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one capacitor.
18. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the energy storage element comprises at least one battery and at least one capacitor connected in parallel.
19. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the weld output controller comprises a DC down chopper including a pulse width modulator that at least partially controls the welding current to the electrode and a waveform generator that at least partially controls the pulse width modulator, the DC down chopper creating a series of current pulses that constitute a welding cycle representative of a current waveform, the pulse width modulator controlling a current pulse width of a plurality of the current pulses.
20. The method defined in claim 19, further comprising driving the pulse width modulator with the waveform generator at a frequency of 20 kHz.
21. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the weld output controller comprises a forward converter/inverter including a series circuit of a primary winding of a transformer and a switching element, which is coupled to the energy storage element and a rectifier smoothing circuit which rectifies and smoothes a voltage induced in a secondary winding of the transformer according to a switching operation of the switching element, wherein a rectifier element of the rectifier smoothing circuit conducts during an ON period of the switching element.
22. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the weld output controller comprises a boost converter.
23. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the weld output controller comprises at least one of a DC down chopper, a forward converter/inverter, and a boost converter.
24. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the weld output controller comprises a DC down chopper and a boost converter connected in parallel.
25. The method defined in claim 15, wherein the input power source comprises a 110-120 volt AC wall outlet.
26. The method defined in claim 25, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 110-120 volt AC wall outlet.
27. The method defined in claim 15, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 220-240 volt AC wall outlet.
28. The method defined in claim 27, further comprising an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the 220-240 AC wall outlet.
Description
INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The following related applications, the disclosures of each being totally incorporated herein by reference, are mentioned:

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/919,815, filed Aug. 17, 2004, entitled “HYBRID POWERED WELDER,” by William T. Matthews, et al.; and

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/815,536, filed Apr. 1, 2004, entitled “EXTENSION LIFT TRUCK MODIFICATION,” by John M. Stropki, Jr., et al.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to the art of welding. It finds particular application in conjunction with high current welding power supplies receiving an AC input, and it will be described with particular reference thereto. However, it is to be appreciated that the present invention is also amenable to other like applications.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Many welding applications need to be performed using welding power supplies that are able to be plugged into a standard 110-120 volt AC, 60 Hz outlet, such as the type that may be found in most homes, offices, and businesses. Because of the low output voltage of the standard AC outlet, a relatively high current is needed from the outlet to melt the electrode and base material. However, the typical AC input for such an outlet may be limited to only 15 (or 30) amps by a circuit breaker, which may also serve other AC outlets as well. Accordingly, the power that may be obtained from such an AC outlet is limited, thus further limiting the power that may be provided to the weld.

Since standard AC outlets are limited to 15 (or 30) amps typically, this only allows for approximately 1800 (or 3600) watts of power for welding applications. Thus, for example, assuming a 90% efficient design and a power factor of 1, the available welding power for a 30 amp circuit at 120 volts AC would be only 3240 wafts. For various welding processes, this amount of power would produce the following welding currents:

Stick Welding—130 A

MIG Welding—150 A

TIG Welding—185 A

This power is available 100% of the time. However, many welding applications need more current. Thus, because most welding is not at 100% duty cycle, it would be helpful to use the power during the non-welding time to charge an energy storage device. Such a device could be any number of things —most commonly a battery. This stored energy alone or combined with power from the outlet can be used to produce any amount of welding power.

Some prior art AC welders provided an unbalanced output to offset the naturally occurring unbalanced load when using a tungsten electrode, while yet other types of known welding power supply use only battery power as an input. However, these types of power supplies are generally limited in the amount and in the duration of power .that they can provide for welding applications.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,777,649 relates to a welding-type power supply that uses an energy storage device, such as a battery, as a voltage boost mechanism. Generally, this patent provides for welding from a standard AC duplex outlet and provides up to a 150 amp output, at an output voltage of up to about 25 volts. A battery is provided after the voltage regulation and in series with the welding output, such that the battery simply “boosts” (or adds to) the output voltage. Thus, the power circuit need only provide a 12 volt. output, with an additional 12 volts coming from the battery. However, the power supply in this patent does not pull any extra current from the energy storage element, i.e., the battery is not being charged during the non-welding time.

Thus, it would be preferable to use an energy storage element that can be charged from a standard 110-120 volt AC outlet at a 15 to 30 amp rate, but will also be able to provide higher power output for short periods of time for a welding operation. By using different charging systems, the welder could be adapted to work with various input supplies, AC or DC, as well as high or low power levels. Using such a system, it would be possible to get unlimited welding current. The amount of welding current would be dependent on the size of the energy storage element.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In accordance with an aspect of the present invention, there is provided an electric arc welding assembly comprising a charging circuit and regulator coupled to an input power source, an energy storage element connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator to increase the weld power output, and a weld output controller connected in parallel with the energy storage element for controlling a welding arc between an electrode and a workpiece.

In accordance with other aspects of the present invention, the energy storage element may comprise at least one battery and/or at least one capacitor. Optionally, at least one battery and at least one capacitor may be connected in parallel, to provide additional power for certain welding applications.

In accordance with yet other aspects of the present invention, the weld output controller may comprise various types and combinations of circuits. For example, the weld output controller may comprise a DC down chopper, wherein the DC down chopper includes a pulse width modulator that at least partially controls the welding current to the electrode and a waveform generator that at least partially controls the pulse width modulator, the DC down chopper creating a series of current pulses that constitute a welding cycle representative of a current waveform, the pulse width modulator controlling a current pulse width of a plurality of the current pulses. Likewise, the weld output controller may comprise a forward converter/inverter, wherein the forward converter/inverter includes a series circuit of a primary winding of a transformer and a switching element, which is coupled to the energy storage element and a rectifier smoothing circuit which rectifies and smoothes a voltage induced in a secondary winding of the transformer according to a switching operation of the switching element, wherein a rectifier element of the rectifier smoothing circuit conducts during an ON period of the switching element. The weld output controller may also comprise a boost converter.

Moreover, the weld output controller may comprise a combination of power topologies. These could have high and low current capability. Thus, the weld output controller may comprise a current limited boost circuit connected in parallel with a high current circuit, such as a DC down chopper, for certain applications. This combination circuit would offer particular advantages when stick welding with energy storage elements of less than 70 volts. Some stick electrodes, such as the E-6010 class from The Lincoln Electric Company of Cleveland, Ohio, require high currents from 100 to 300 amps at 25 volts and below, but they also require a higher voltage from around 50 to 60 volts at a lower current (60 amps) to produce an acceptable arc.

In accordance with yet other aspects of the present invention, the input power source may comprise a 110-120 volt AC wall outlet or a 220-240 volt AC wall outlet, and the apparatus may also include an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to the appropriate AC wall outlet.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a high current AC welding assembly in accordance with aspects of the present invention.

FIG. 2 shows a simplified schematic of an embodiment of the high current AC welder using a DC down chopper and a battery.

FIG. 3 shows a simplified schematic of an alternative embodiment of the high current AC welder using a DC down chopper and a capacitor.

FIG. 4 shows a simplified schematic of an alternative embodiment of the high current AC welder using a DC down chopper, as well as a battery and capacitor in parallel.

FIG. 5 shows a simplified schematic of an alternative embodiment of the high current AC welder using forward converter/inverter.

FIG. 6 shows a simplified schematic of an alternative embodiment of the high current AC welder using a boost converter.

FIG. 7 shows an alternative combination circuit incorporating a high current circuit connected in parallel with a current limited boost circuit.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

Referring now to the drawings wherein the showings are for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiment and its advantages only and not for the purpose of limiting same, in which like numerals indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views, FIG. 1 is a simplified block diagram of a high current AC welding assembly. As shown, the high current AC welding assembly generally includes an input power source 12, a charging circuit 14, an energy storage element 16, and a weld output controller 18.

The input power source 12 typically comprises a grounded 110-120 volt AC, 60 Hz wall outlet, although other suitable input power sources may be utilized, such as AC utility power of different voltages (e.g., heavy duty 220-240 volt AC outlets) as well as AC voltage from a generator. Thus, although not shown, the high current welding assembly would also typically include an input cord and three-prong plug for connecting to an AC wall outlet.

As stated above, the high current welding assembly includes an energy storage element 16, which typically comprises one or more cells, batteries, or capacitors. The actual voltage of the energy storage element 16 may vary, depending on the needs of the welding application. For example, the energy storage element 16 may comprise a standard 12 volt battery or a 48 volt battery pack. The voltage selected depends upon the type of power converter coupled to it. For a 12 volt battery, some type of boost would be used to get to the welding voltage. If something higher like 24 volts is used, then boost and/or down choppers could be used.

The charging circuit 14 is coupled to receive electrical power from the input power 12. The charging circuit 14 is also coupled to the energy storage element 16 by way of a switch (not shown), such that when a normal signal level is maintained on the input power 12, electrical power is restored in the energy storage element 16 by the charging circuit 14, if required. Charging circuits are well known in the art, with the simplest form of charging circuit consisting of a transformer, rectifier and limiting resistor. Of course, various known types of charging circuits may be suitable for use with the high current welding assembly.

The energy storage element 16 may operate, for example, at a level of about 12 volts DC, as is common for lead acid type batteries, whereas the input power 12 may be of the order of 120 volts AC. Thus, in that situation, the charging circuit 14 steps down the AC voltage from the input power 12 and converts it to a DC voltage so as to be compatible with the energy storage element 16.

The weld output controller 18 may comprise any one or a combination of common welding power supply circuits, including, but not limited to, a DC chopper, a forward converter/inverter and/or a boost converter. The high current AC welding assembly may be adapted to provide a weld output for multi-process welding applications such as stick, TIG, MIG, flux cored, gouging, pulsed MIG and TIG applications, as well as for plasma cutting applications. It is to be understood that the welding output could be controlled in other ways, such as, for example, by regulating wire feed speed of a spool gun.

In operation, the input power 12 is directed to the charging circuit and regulator 14, which is used to monitor and control the charging of the energy storage element 16. Typically, in operation, current from the input power source 12 is combined with current from the energy storage element 16, whereby the total current is directed to the weld output and is controlled by the weld output controller 18.

While the energy storage element 16 is supplying current to the weld output controller 18, the charging circuit 14 can be designed such that no charging of the energy storage element 16 occurs. However, when the battery is not supplying current to the weld output, the charging circuit 14 can be designed to direct rectified current from the AC input power 12 to the energy storage element 16 to recharge it. As can be appreciated, the current from the input power 12 can be directed to an electrode when an electric arc is being generated. As can also be appreciated, the current from the input power 12 can be directed to the energy storage element 16 even when an electric arc is being generated.

Various embodiments of the high current AC welding assembly are shown in FIGS. 2-7.

For example, FIG. 2 shows a simplified schematic of one embodiment of the disclosed invention. More particularly, FIG. 2 shows a high current AC welding assembly, which includes the 120 volt AC input power source 12 coupled to the charging circuit and regulator 14, a capacitor 16 a connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator 24, wherein the capacitor 16 a functions as the energy storage element 16, and a common DC down chopper 18 a connected in parallel with the capacitor 16 a, wherein the down chopper 18 a controls the current between an electrode E and a workpiece W, i.e., the weld output. As shown in FIGS. 2-7, the welding assembly includes a wire feeder. However, it is to be understood that the welding assembly may be used in conjunction with welding applications where no wire feeder would be needed.

In operation, the capacitor 16 a provides a DC input across a. pair of input leads 20, 22, which leads are illustrated as the input to the down chopper 18 a. The chopper 18 a includes a switching stage 24, which further includes a switching device 26, such as a MOSFET with an isolated optically coupled IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) driver (not shown) switched according to the pulses on a feedback input driven by a standard optical coupler at a frequency of between 20-40 kHz. Of course, it is to be understood that the switching device 26 could be a BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) or an IGBT instead of a MOSFET. In practice, the pulses on the input to the driver are from the output 28 of a pulse width modulator (PWM) 30. The pulses of the pulse width modulated output cause the switching device 26 to be opened and closed at a given rate, typically 20 kHz, with the duty cycle being controlled to determine the amount of current directed across electrode E and workpiece W.

A freewheeling diode 32 is connected in parallel with the welding operation and behind a parallel choke (or inductor) 34 of the switching stage 26. In accordance with standard technology, a waveform generator 36 drives the PWM 30 at a preferred frequency of 20 kHz. In this way, the PWM 30 and the waveform generator 36 function define a control circuit for the down chopper 18 a. It is to be understood that the operating frequency can be set at various levels in the normal radio frequency range of 20-100 kHz.

The down chopper 18 a functions in accordance with standard chopper technology, with the duty cycle of the pulses on line 28 controlling the current applied to the arc between the electrode E and the workpiece W. Thus, in operation, the DC current is applied through the switching device 26 to the inductor 34. By turning the switching device 26 on and off, current in the inductor 34 and the arc between the electrode E and the workpiece W can be controlled. When the switching device 26 is closed, current is applied through the inductor 34 to the arc. When the switching device 26 opens, current stored in the inductor 34 sustains flow in the arc and through the diode 32. The repetition rate of switch closure is preferably 20 KHz, which allows for ultra-fast control of the arc. By varying the ratio of on-time versus off-time of the switching device 26 (i.e., the duty cycle), the current applied to the arc between the electrode E and the workpiece W is controlled.

Of course, it is to be understood that many other variations of the high current welding assembly are possible. For example, FIGS. 3 and 4 show alternative high current welding assemblies, which are similar in most respects to the welding assembly shown in FIG. 2. As shown in FIG. 3, the energy storage element may comprise a battery 16 b instead of the capacitor 16 a. And, as shown in FIG. 4, the energy storage element 16 c may comprise the capacitor 16 a and the battery 16 b connected in parallel to provide additional current to the weld output as needed.

FIG. 5 shows an alternative embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment includes the 120 volt AC input power source 12 coupled to the charging circuit and regulator 14, the energy storage element 16, such as the capacitor 16 a and/or the battery 16 b, connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator 14, and a common forward converter/inverter 18 b connected in parallel with the energy storage element 16, whereby the forward converter/inverter 18 b controls a current between the electrode E and the workpiece W, i.e., the weld output.

The one-transistor forward converter/inverter is probably the most elementary type of transformer-isolated buck converter. This configuration is widely used in converting direct current (DC) voltage into another value of DC voltage, and in inverters. Inverters convert direct current into alternating current (AC). It is usually used in a circuit known as a “forward converter” circuit. It is to be understood, however, that the name for the “forward converter” circuit varies from industry to industry and from person to person. It may also be referred to as an “inverter,” “DC converter,” “buck,” “feed forward,” and others.

As shown in FIG. 5, a power switch 38 is coupled in series with the primary winding P of a transformer 40. Each time, the power switch 38 is turned on and off and is controlled by the gate driving signals of the pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controller 30. The secondary side of the converter 18 b has a forward rectifier 42 coupled to the secondary winding S of the transformer 40, a free-wheeling rectifier 44 and an output filter consisting of an output choke 46 and an output capacitor 48. The output filter transfers DC energy to the load from the primary side DC source 16 across a pair of input leads 50, 52, which leads are illustrated as the input to the forward converter 18 b. A voltage induced in the secondary winding S of the transformer 40 according to the power switch 38 is rectified and smoothed so that a DC output voltage is developed between the electrode E and the workpiece W coupled across the output capacitor 48.

When the power switch 38 is turned on, the voltage from the energy storage element 16 is applied across the primary winding P of the transformer 40, and the voltage is coupled to the secondary winding S. The positive end of the secondary winding S is turned positive, and the forward rectifier 42 is turned on, the free-wheeling rectifier 44 is turned off, and the forward power current flows to the output choke 46, the output capacitor 48 and the load.

When the power switch 38 is turned off, the positive end of the secondary winding S is turned negative. The forward rectifier 42 is turned off and the free-wheeling rectifier 44 must be turned on because the power current of the output choke 46 must be forwarded continually to the output load by the free-wheeling rectifier 44. The waveform generator 36 drives the PWM 30 at a preferred frequency of 20 kHz. However, this frequency can be at various levels in the normal radio frequency range of 20-100 kHz.

FIG. 6 shows yet another embodiment of the high current welding assembly. In this embodiment, the high current AC welding assembly includes the 120 volt AC input power source 12 coupled to the charging circuit and regulator 14, the energy storage element 16 connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator 14, and a basic boost converter 18 c connected in parallel with the energy storage element 16, whereby the boost converter 18 c controls a current between an electrode E and a workpiece W, i.e., the weld output.

The basic boost converter 18 c is generally no more complicated than a buck converter but has the components arranged differently in order to step up the voltage. The operation consists of using a switching power MOSFET 54 as a high speed switch, with output voltage control by varying the switching duty cycle. When the switch 54 is switched on, current flows from the input source through an inductor 56 and the switch 54 and energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor 56. There is no current through a diode 58, and the load current is supplied by the charge in a capacitor 60 connected in parallel. Then, when the switch 54 is turned off, the inductor 56 opposes any drop in current by immediately reversing its EMF, so that the inductor voltage adds to (or “boosts”) the source voltage and current due to this boosted voltage now flows from the source through the inductor 56, the switch 54 and the load, recharging the capacitor 60 as well. The output voltage is therefore higher than the input voltage.

The pulses on the input to the driver are from the output 62 of the PWM 30. The pulses of the output cause the switch 54 to be opened and closed at a rate of 20 kHz, with the duty cycle being controlled to determine the amount of current directed across electrode E and workpiece W. The waveform generator 36 drives the PWM 30 at a preferred frequency of 20 kHz. However, this frequency can be at various levels in the normal radio frequency range of 20-100 kHz.

For some welding processes, more than the conventional 48 volts may be needed. Thus, a combination circuit may be utilized. In this regard, FIG. 7 shows yet another embodiment of the high current welding assembly. In this embodiment, the high current AC welding assembly includes the 120 volt AC input power source 12 coupled to the charging circuit and regulator 14, the energy storage element 16 connected in parallel with the charging circuit and regulator 14, and a combination circuit 18 d for controlling the current between the electrode E and the workpiece W.

The combination circuit 18 d comprises the down chopper 18 a connected in parallel with the boost circuit 18 c. In this configuration, the down chopper 18 a acts as a “high current circuit,” while the boost circuit 18 c acts as a “current limited circuit,” that is, the output current is less than 100 A. Optionally, the output 62 of the boost circuit 18 c may be run through the inductor 34 (62 a) for added control of the arc or be connected directly to the load (62 b).

The combination circuit 18 d also includes a control circuit 64, which typically comprises a waveform generator and a pulse width modulator as described above. In practice, pulses from the output 66 of the control circuit 64 cause the switching device 26 to be opened and closed at a given rate, typically 20 kHz, with the duty cycle being controlled to determine the amount of current directed across electrode E and workpiece W. Similarly, pulses from the output 68 of the control circuit 64 cause the switching device 54 to be opened and closed at around 20 kHz. However, the operating frequency can be at various levels in the normal radio frequency range of 20-100 kHz.

The invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment and alternates thereof. It is believed that many modifications and alterations to the embodiments disclosed readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art upon reading and understanding the detailed description of the invention. It is intended to include all such modifications and alterations insofar as they come within the scope of the present invention.

Having thus defined the invention, the following is claimed:

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Referenced by
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US7640119 *Jun 30, 2006Dec 29, 2009Alcon, Inc.System for dynamically adjusting operation of a surgical handpiece
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US8405001May 7, 2010Mar 26, 2013Illinois Tool Works IncHybrid welding systems and devices
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Classifications
U.S. Classification219/130.1
International ClassificationB23K9/10
Cooperative ClassificationB23K9/1043, B23K9/1081
European ClassificationB23K9/10A3, B23K9/10N
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 15, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: LINCOLN GLOBAL, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:O CONNOR, JAMES J.;REEL/FRAME:017648/0111
Effective date: 20060310