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Publication numberUS20070241104 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/731,989
Publication dateOct 18, 2007
Filing dateApr 2, 2007
Priority dateApr 3, 2006
Also published asDE102006015423A1, EP1842783A1, EP1842783B1
Publication number11731989, 731989, US 2007/0241104 A1, US 2007/241104 A1, US 20070241104 A1, US 20070241104A1, US 2007241104 A1, US 2007241104A1, US-A1-20070241104, US-A1-2007241104, US2007/0241104A1, US2007/241104A1, US20070241104 A1, US20070241104A1, US2007241104 A1, US2007241104A1
InventorsJan Huizingh, Richard Kellerer
Original AssigneeHuizingh Jan A, Richard Kellerer
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Storage and transport container with telescopic side walls
US 20070241104 A1
Abstract
A plastic storage and transport container (1) has a floor and, preferably perpendicular to that, a peripheral side wall. The side wall is formed from several side wall elements (2, 3, 4), which are telescopical for the purpose of changing a container volume, preferably in a direction perpendicular to this floor.
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Claims(18)
1. Storage and transport container of plastic, comprising a floor surrounded by a side wall, characterized by the fact that the container has telescopical side wall elements which are telescopically in container height for changing the height of the container.
2. Container in accordance with claim 1, characterized by the fact that the telescopical side wall elements are formed so as to be frame-like, preferably as one piece and each forming a preferably closed, peripheral side wall section of defined height.
3. Container in accordance with claim 1 characterized by the fact that the container has a lower, an upper and preferably at least one central side wall element, which form the side walls.
4. Container in accordance with claim 1 characterized by the fact that the container has a lower, and and upper side wall element, which form the side walls.
5. Container in accordance with claim 1, characterized by the fact that the side wall elements are nested inside one another in the collapsed position.
6. Container in accordance with claim 5, characterized by the fact that the lowermost side wall element is arranged on the inside in the collapsed, nested position, and that the upper side wall element is arranged on the outside.
7. Container in accordance with claim 5, characterized by the fact that the lowermost side wall element is formed as one piece with the container floor.
8. Container in accordance with claim 5, characterized by the fact that at least one side wall element has, in its lower area, an outwardly projecting peripheral edge, which serves in the collapsed position as a stop for a central or upper side wall element.
9. Container in accordance with claim 1, characterized by the fact that the side wall elements have guide surfaces, preferably in the form of recessed or projecting wall sections, and the guided side wall elements have appropriately corresponding wall sections.
10. Container in accordance with claim 1, characterized by the fact that the side wall elements are lockable in defined telescope positions.
11. Container in accordance with claim 10, characterized by the fact that for the purpose of locking, at least one pre-tensioned locking element engages with corresponding detent recesses.
12. Container in accordance with claim 11, characterized by the fact that two locking elements are arranged at the end faces of the upper and/or a central side wall element.
13. Container in accordance with claim 11 characterized by the fact that the locking elements have a handle part, which is formed like an eye for engagement of a finger and preferably with an ergonomically enlarged force-transmission surface.
14. Container in accordance with claim 13, characterized by the fact that the eye-like handle parts at the end walls of the side wall elements concerned are arranged relative to each other such that simultaneous single-handed operation of both locking elements is facilitated.
15. Container in accordance with claim 12, characterized by the fact that the two locking elements have a common actuating means in the form of a release belt, a release lever and the like.
16. Container in accordance with any of claim 13 characterized by the fact that the eye-like handle parts or the common actuating means are arranged in a recess or in a recessed wall-section area.
17. Container in accordance with claim 1, characterized by the fact that the side wall elements are formed so as to be reinforced in the corner areas.
18. Container in accordance with claim 4, characterized by the fact that the upper side wall element has at least one hinged cover.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

The application concerns a plastic storage and transport container, especially for accommodating piece goods and bulk goods. More particularly, this invention relates to such a container which has telescoping side walls to change the height of the container.

BACKGROUND ART

Storage or transport containers are preferably used for storing or transporting all kinds of piece goods and bulk goods. Such storage and transport containers generally consist of a container floor and a side wall. By piece goods is understood all kinds of goods, including packaged and unpackaged food, and by bulk materials is understood pourable, loose goods such as screws, shavings, sand etc. Further, such storage and transport containers are also designed to be stackable. Of special importance in the case of such plastic storage and transport containers is their storage and return when empty. To save transport volume, so-called folding containers are well-known, which are folded up for the purpose of storage or return. However, due to the folding mechanism, such folding containers usually have insufficient stability or rigidity. Under high loads, for example when stacked together, material fracture can occur, especially in the area of the folding joints. Conventional plastic folding boxes are therefore not normally used for storing and transporting heavy goods.

All these storage and transport containers have the disadvantage, however, that the storage or transport volume provided cannot be varied. The useful container volume is given by the size of the container floor and the height of the side wall. Especially when a container can only be partly filled, for example, due to the maximum possible transport weight, this leads to increased transport volume, which would not necessarily be caused by the volume of the contents accommodated, but is due to the size of the container.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

The object of the invention is to make available a plastic storage and transport container, which offers a variable container volume, wherein this container volume is designed such that it is readily variable. This container shall moreover possess adequate stability.

In accordance with the invention, the side wall of the container is provided with a telescope mechanism, which comprises several telescopic side wall elements. Such a telescopic arrangement of individual side wall elements facilitates appropriate adjustment or change of container volume to the quantity or size (more precisely, the volume) of the accommodated goods, combined with high stability of the container. The container volume is essentially adjusted by changing the height of the side wall.

Such a telescope mechanism can moreover be operated easily and simply and the function of the telescope mechanism is more or less intuitive to the user. Thus, the inventive container can also be transformed very easily into the collapsed position of the side wall elements, in which its volume is minimal, for return or storage when empty.

A description of the advantages of the dependent claims follows from here on: In a preferred embodiment, the side wall elements are frame-like and formed as one piece. This confers sufficiently high strength on each side wall element, since the enclosed frame-like structure dissipates all kinds of load forces very well. These side wall elements are mounted inside each other and capable of sliding toward each other and form the side wall of the container in the manner of telescope elements. Provision is made for each side wall element to have an enclosed peripheral side wall of defined height. This ensures good guidance of the telescope mechanism and concomitantly user-friendly smoothness in operation.

In a further preferred embodiment, the container of the invention has precisely three side wall elements: lower, central and upper. These three side wall elements yield a relatively compact container structure (favorable ratio of external dimensions to internal space), whereby, at the same time, the container volume can be flexibly adjusted over a wide range by means of the three side wall elements. The inventive container can also be made available with several central side wall elements such that altogether more than three side wall elements are comprised.

In a similarly preferred embodiment, the container of the invention has precisely two side wall elements: lower and upper. Such a container offers an extremely compact container structure combined with relatively low manufacturing costs.

Expediently, the side wall elements are nested inside one another in the collapsed position. This yields a very compact container structure in the collapsed position. In the collapsed position, that side wall element which forms the lowermost side wall element of the side wall in the fully extended condition is advantageously arranged on the inside and that one which (in the extended condition) forms the uppermost side wall element is arranged on the outside. In the fully extended condition, as seen from the container floor, the transport space becomes increasingly broader and longer in the upward direction, as a result of which the contents to be transported can be introduced and removed particularly easily.

Advantageously, the lowermost side wall element is formed as one piece with the container floor. This confers a particularly stable structure.

Advantageously, the lower areas of the lowermost side wall element and preferably also each central side wall element are formed with an outwardly projecting peripheral edge or several projecting edge sections, which increase(s) on one hand the stability of the side wall element and on the other also constitute certain impact protection for the side wall element and concomitantly for the entire side wall. Furthermore, these edge elements form a stop for the collapsed side wall elements in the collapsed position. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the edge is formed such that, when the container is fully collapsed, a flat exterior wall is formed at least on the long sides, which is free from projections or shoulders and the like, and thus can be used, for example, generally speaking as an advertising surface.

The side wall elements, which can telescope into each other, are provided with guide surfaces in order that hooking and jamming of the telescope mechanism during collapsing and extending may be prevented. The guide surfaces can be formed as recessed or protruding wall sections, with the correspondingly guided side wall element having appropriately shaped wall sections.

Expediently, the container is rounded, especially in the corner areas of the side wall elements, for the purpose of optimizing force flows as well as for lowering the risk of injury.

Especially, it is provided that the individual side wall elements are lockable in at least one defined telescope position. This may be effected, for example, with locking elements, such as detent members, snap connections or clamping connections. The locking mechanism is advantageously formed such that locking occurs automatically, for example through pre-tensioned locking elements, whose locking tongues or the like engage with corresponding detent recesses. This facilitates simple and uncomplicated handling of the container, but is also a substantial safety aspect, since the container volume defined by the locked telescope position of the side wall elements cannot change unintentionally. Such detent elements can be simply unlocked so that the container volume may be adjusted.

A stable locking mechanism, especially in the extended position, also advantageously makes it possible to stack the containers, even when the contents are heavy.

For stable locking, four locking elements each are advantageously provided for each telescopic side wall element (these are usually the central side wall elements and the upper side wall element), which are each arranged in pairs so as to be readily accessible at the end walls of the container (more precisely, at the end faces of the respective side wall element). The locking elements have a handle part, which is advantageously formed like an eye, as a result of which the locking element concerned, with its associated locking tongue, can be actuated particularly easily against a pre-tension spring force. The handle part at an end wall is thereby advantageously arranged such that it can be actuated comfortably simultaneously and single-handedly or by engagement of the thumb and index finger of the same hand. An ergonomic design of the eye area, for example through enlargement of a force-transmission surface, enhances convenience of operation and safety in use.

In an alternative embodiment, the pairs of locking elements at the end faces of the side wall elements concerned are connected to a common means of actuation, such as a release belt or a release lever or the like or formed as one piece with this. Advantageously, through the application of force on the means of actuation, both locking elements can be operated at the same time against the pre-tension spring force, for which, e.g., only one finger is needed. Such a means of actuation can moreover be gripped very well even under difficult conditions, a fact which increases convenience of operation.

In order that damage to the locking elements may be avoided, especially the handle parts or the release levers or the release belts, these are advantageously protectively arranged in a recessed wall area or in a recess of the side wall element. Essential parts of the locking elements can moreover be arranged so as to be hidden, e.g. inside a double wall, as a result of which protection against pinching of fingers and against contamination is provided.

In an advantageous embodiment, the side wall elements are formed in sections so as to be reinforced, e.g. by integrated cavities or reinforcing ribs or bracing ribs, especially in the corner areas, in order that the stability and strength, especially the impact strength of the side wall element and thus the entire side wall, may additionally be increased.

Furthermore, the container can be provided with a suitable cover, which may also be formed so as to be multipart, such that complete encasing of contents to be transported results advantageously. The cover can be formed as a separate element or as a hinged element.

All elements of the previously described container are formed advantageously from a recyclable from a recyclable plastic.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further advantages arise from the following description of an embodiment using the figures described below:

FIG. 1 shows in several sub-diagrams (1 a to 1 e), each in perspective view, an inventive storage and transport container in different extended positions.

FIG. 2 shows in two sub-diagrams (2 a and 2 b), in perspective views, the locking mechanism in a first embodiment.

FIG. 3 shows in a perspective view an inventive storage and transport container in the fully extended position with an alternative locking mechanism.

FIG. 4 shows in several sub-diagrams (4 a and 4 b), in perspective views, a concrete embodiment of the alternative locking mechanism.

FIG. 1 a shows the inventive storage and transport container designated 1. As is especially evident from FIGS. 1 b and 1 d, the container 1 comprises a lowermost side wall element 2, which here is formed one-piece with the floor (more accurately: container floor). The container floor can be provided as required with bracing ribs to increase the strength, said ribs extending for example on the lower surface of this container floor, or with a honeycomb structure or such like. As is especially evident from FIGS. 1 c and 1 d, this container 1 further comprises a central side wall element 3, and an upper side wall element 4, i.e. has three side wall elements. Of course, it is possible in addition, to form a container from only two, in that case from a lower and an upper element, or with more than three side wall elements.

The opening of the container 1 for introducing and removing the contents to be transported is covered with a cover, which is formed here by way of example from two cover flaps 5 a and 5 b. As particularly readily identifiable in FIG. 1 e, the cover flaps 5 a and 5 b are hinged at a long edge of the uppermost side wall element 4. Both the lowermost side wall element 2 and the central side wall element 3 have in the lower area an outwardly projecting peripheral edge 6 or 7, which may also be formed alternatively in sections, i.e. with interruptions.

Each of these three side wall elements 2, 3 and 4 has a peripheral frame-like side wall section (with two long sides and two end faces) of a defined height that is rounded off in the corner areas for the purpose of optimizing any force flows and for reducing the danger of injury. As evident from FIG. 1 d especially, the corner areas of the side wall elements 2, 3 and 4 are formed with reinforcing ribs. The external surface of each side wall element 2, 3 and 4 of the long sides is additionally provided with bracing ribs.

The central side wall element 3 is telescopically mounted to the lower side wall element 2, more precisely such that the interior surfaces of the central side wall element 3 face the corresponding exterior surfaces of the lowermost side wall element 2, or in other words, that the central side wall element 3 comprises or encloses or embraces the lowermost side wall element 2, with, however, translational movement being possible in accordance with the arrow T1 in FIG. 1 d. In the same way, the upper side wall element 4 is movably arranged relative to the central side wall element 3, in accordance with the arrow T2. The telescope mechanism of the upper side wall element 4 relative to the central side wall element 3 is thereby independent of the telescope mechanism of the central side wall element 3 relative to the lowermost side wall element 2. For better guidance and also for the purpose of increasing the stability of the container, the side wall elements additionally have guide sections, which by way of example here are formed on the ends of the long sides.

The illustration of FIG. 1 a shows the container 1 with the side wall elements 2, 3 and 4 fully collapsed. The upper side wall element 4 rests thereby upon the peripheral edge 7 of the central side wall element 3, which rests upon the peripheral edge 6 of the lowermost side wall element 2. The peripheral edges 6 and 7 of the side wall elements 2 and 3 thus form a stop for the wall element 3 or 4, each of which is telescopic and guided. In this condition, the container 1 has the smallest possible container volume.

In the illustration of FIG. 1 b, the central side wall element 3 is in an extended position relative to the lower side wall element 2, whereas the upper side wall element 4 is in a collapsed position. The container volume of the container 1 is enlarged in this condition relative to the fully collapsed position in accordance with FIG. 1 a.

In the condition of FIG. 1 c, the upper side wall element 4 is in an extended position, whereas the central side wall element 3 is in a collapsed position. The container volume in this case is smaller than in that telescope condition which is shown in FIG. 1 b, as a result of which, in this container embodiment, the height of the central side wall element 3 is for example greater (higher) than that of the upper side wall element 4.

In the illustration of FIG. 1 d, the central side wall element 3 is in the fully extended position relative to the lowermost side wall element 2 and the upper side wall element 4 is in the fully extended position relative to the central side wall element 3. The container 1 has in this case the maximum possible container volume, which is available to the goods to be transported. FIG. 1 e also shows these fully extended positions of the side wall elements 3 and 4, in this case with opened covers 5 a and 5 b.

From FIGS. 1 a to 1 d, it is evident that the container 1 described previously in accordance with these illustrations can make least four different transport volumes (container volumes) available through simple telescoping of the side wall elements 3 and 4.

The arrangement of the side wall elements 2, 3 and 4 in accordance with the illustrations in FIGS. 1 d and 1 e gives rise to an upwardly broadening and elongating transport space in the fully extended position through which the goods to be transported can be particularly comfortably inserted and removed, without tilting occurring.

In accordance with the illustrations in FIGS. 1 a to 1 e, two locking elements or detent bolts 10 in recessed wall areas or between projecting ribs are arranged on each of the end faces or walls of the central 3 and upper 4 side wall element. Such an arrangement preferably in recessed wall areas protects these locking elements 10 against impact. Each telescopic side wall element is therefore held in position by altogether four locking elements, whereby particularly stable locking results. Of course it is also possible to provide a greater or lesser number of such locking elements, advantageously, however, under the condition of easy operability.

As shown in FIGS. 2 a and 2 b, a locking element 10 is formed in the shape of a rod and has at one end of a shaft a handle part or a handle area, which is designed as a drawbar eye 11. At the opposite end of the shaft, the locking element has a pronounced detent tongue or a locking element 12, which is formed in combination with a stop shoulder. Additionally, the locking element 10 has two projecting spring tongues 13 roughly in the center of the shaft, which push against a correspondingly formed contact area on the respective side wall element and which pre-tension the locking element up 10 in a locking position. As a result of this spring pre-tensioning, such a locking element 10 automatically moves backward into a locking position if it is brought by means of the drawbar eye 11 into an unlocking position. The locking element 10 braces itself against a correspondingly formed wall area of the side wall element and is guided and secured in a manner known to a person skilled in the art in order that tilting, rotating or falling out may be prevented. Thus, the locking element 10 can, e.g., have a rear mandrel, which is guided in a longitudinal groove.

As illustrated, the handle part, that is, the drawbar eye 11, is ergonomically formed such that the drawbar eye's inner surface provided for applying an actuating force is formed such that it is enlarged in order that this area may, for example, be optimally gripped with a finger and high forces may be applied, and in order that the danger of slipping due to larger contact friction may be reduced.

Of the locking elements 10, essentially only the handle parts, i.e., the drawbar eyes 11, are accessible. The shaft, the detent tongue 12 and the spring elements 13 are essentially arranged and protected against damage and contamination in the inside side wall elements 3 and 4, which are double-walled in this area. Through an appropriately formed opening, the detent tongue 12 of the locking element 10 can engage with a corresponding detent recess 16 in each of the lower side wall elements. Corresponding considerations apply to the remaining locking elements of the container.

As shown in the illustration of FIG. 2 b, the detent tongue 12 of the locking element 10 of the central side wall element 3 engages with a detent recess 16 on the lower side wall element 2 and is held in this engaged position by the spring flaps 13 due to the pre-tensioning force. The spring flaps 13 brace themselves against the rib extensions. The same applies to the detent tongue 12 of the locking element 10 belonging to the upper side wall element 4, which engages with a corresponding detent recess 16 on the central side wall element 3. In this way, a specific telescope position of the central side wall element 3 relative to the lower side wall element 2 and of the upper side wall element 4 relative to the central side wall element 3 is firmly locked. The lower side wall element 2 and the central side wall element 3 each have two detent recesses 16, an upper one for the extended position and a lower one for the collapsed position of the guided side wall element 3 or 4. Of course, it is also possible for just one detent recess, in this case the upper one, to be provided. Also, more than two detent recesses are possible, such that corresponding intermediate telescope positions can be locked. The detent recesses 16 are arranged along a sliding surface 17, along which the detent tongue 12 of the pre-tensioned locking element 10 slides when telescoping and engages into a corresponding recess 16 automatically due to the pre-tensioning. It is also possible ex works to provide a plurality of detent recesses or engaging holes 16 and only to open those which are needed for the specific application, while the others (unneeded) remain locked by means of a suitable mechanism, such that the locking elements 10 slide over the locked engaging recesses 16 during extending or collapsing. It is equally possible to equip a locking element 10 with a double tongue 16, which then engages with two detent recesses 16, a fact which markedly increases the strength of locking. Likewise, it is also possible to implement the locking mechanism as a clamping mechanism, which leads, for example, according to one principle of self-locking, to locking of the telescoped state, with the advantage that each intermediate telescope position can be locked, independently of an arrangement of detent recesses 16.

The arrangement of the locking elements 10 described above is only one example, albeit an advantageous one, but can be effected in another way, for example by arranging the locking elements 10 on the lowermost side wall element 2 and on the uppermost side wall element 4 while the central side wall element 3 remains free of locking elements. The described arrangement in the cavity of a double wall area is also only one example.

For changing the telescope position of the side wall elements 3 or 4, i.e. for adjusting or adapting the container volume, the container 1 is placed, for example, with its container floor on a solid surface. Thereafter, the current locking state must be released, which is usually done by simultaneous actuation of the locking elements 10 arranged on the end walls by engaging thumb and index finger of each hand into the drawbar eyes 11. Afterwards, the telescope segment or side wall element concerned can be raised or lowered. The container volume is thus changed in steps, i.e. only one telescope segment or a side wall element is raised or lowered at a time.

To rapidly enlarge the container capacity, it is also possible to hold the container 1 with both hands and, as just described, to briefly bring the locking elements 10 into an unlocking position, whereupon each side wall element arranged below lowers itself downward due to the force of gravity. The possibility of such rapid and easy enlargement of the container volume can especially be of great advantage in everyday use. For easier actuation of the telescope mechanism, the side wall elements 3 and 4 can be pre-tensioned with springs as well, such that, after locking has been released, these proceed automatically (in the sense of by themselves) into an extended position or conversely into a collapsed position.

FIG. 3 shows an inventive container in a fully extended condition. This container has an alternative mechanism for releasing the locking elements 10, however. Instead of the drawbar eyes 11 described above, a release belt or a release lever 18 is provided here which is connected to two detent locks 10 arranged at one end face of the side wall element 3 or 4 concerned. FIG. 4 a shows this alternative locking mechanism, wherein the cavities in which the locking elements 10 are essentially arranged, are shown broken open for better illustration. As already described above in connection with the embodiment with the drawbar eyes 11, in each case two detent members at each end face engage by means of their detent tongues 12 with corresponding detent recesses 16 and thereby lock each telescopically guided side wall element to the guiding, i.e. lower side wall element.

FIG. 4 b likewise shows in a perspective view a detailed view of this locking mechanism. At the opposite end of the shaft of a locking element 10, approximately in the region of the arrangement of the spring elements 13, the shaft is connected to a belt-like extension designed as release belt that is V-shaped and in turn is connected to a release lever or handle part 18. The second detent lock, also, has one such belt-like extension at the end opposite tongue 12, said extension being likewise V-shaped and also connected to the same release lever 18. The release lever 18, like the drawbar eyes 11, is also arranged in a recessed wall section for the purpose of protection. For the purpose of guidance, for example, the release lever 11 can have a rear mandrel, which is guided in a corresponding groove of the side wall element. In a preferred embodiment, the release lever 18 with the V-shaped connecting or release belts and the locking elements 10 arranged on it is designed as one piece, for example as an injection molded part. The transitions from the locking elements 10 to the release belts and from these release belts to the release lever 18 are then designed, for example, as film hinges.

As is also evident from FIG. 4 b, the V-shaped release belts are guided around bolt-like guides 19, with these guides advantageously formed in one piece with the side wall element concerned. Releasing of the locking elements 10 pre-tensioned by the spring elements 13 in locking position occurs via actuation of the release lever 18, by release it upward (relative to the container). This tensile movement is transmitted in equal parts to the V-shaped release belts, which are guided around the guides 19 and pulls, as it were, the locking elements 10 out of their locking position. After discharge of the release lever, the spring elements 13 effect a resetting force for the locking elements 10, and also for the release lever 18. The result therefore is that force transmission from the release lever 18 to the detent locks 10 can also take place in another way, for example as a result of wires or bendable cords or such like. Naturally, such a locking mechanism can also be structured in such a manner that the release lever 18 must be pressed not upward, but downward, in order that the locking tongues 12 may be released. The release lever 18, too, can be designed in all kinds of ways, for example with finger gripping hollows. The release lever 18 can also be formed as a release belt, for example as a one-piece continuation of the V-shaped release belts. Likewise, it is possible to connect such a release lever 18 to more than two locking elements or also to just one locking element if the design of the container provides for this.

In relation to the solution with drawbar eyes 11, such a release lever 18 has the advantage that it can be actuated with only one finger, which makes handling of such a telescopic storage and transport container 1 even easier and more comfortable for daily, especially industrial use.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7780000 *Jun 18, 2007Aug 24, 2010Plasti-Max, S.P.A.Anti-theft display container
US8616370Oct 28, 2010Dec 31, 2013Arrows Up, Inc.Bulk material shipping container
WO2012006856A1 *Dec 17, 2010Jan 19, 2012Zhengbing ShiTelescopic collection box
Classifications
U.S. Classification220/8
International ClassificationB65D6/00
Cooperative ClassificationB65D21/086
European ClassificationB65D21/08C
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 28, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: SCHOELLER ARCA SYSTEMS SERVICES GMBH, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:HUIZINGH, JAN ABRAHAM;KELLERER, RICHARD;REEL/FRAME:019518/0860
Effective date: 20070606