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Publication numberUS20070263332 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/433,221
Publication dateNov 15, 2007
Filing dateMay 11, 2006
Priority dateMay 11, 2006
Also published asUS7511930, US20070263333
Publication number11433221, 433221, US 2007/0263332 A1, US 2007/263332 A1, US 20070263332 A1, US 20070263332A1, US 2007263332 A1, US 2007263332A1, US-A1-20070263332, US-A1-2007263332, US2007/0263332A1, US2007/263332A1, US20070263332 A1, US20070263332A1, US2007263332 A1, US2007263332A1
InventorsRussell Apfel
Original AssigneeSilicon Laboratories, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
System and method for high voltage protection of powered devices
US 20070263332 A1
Abstract
An integrated circuit includes a rectifier circuit, at least one low power element, and a power protection element. The rectifier circuit includes two inputs to receive an input power supply and includes two outputs to provide a rectified power supply related to the input power supply. The low-power circuit element is coupled between the two outputs. The power protection element is coupled between the two output terminals. In a first mode of operation, the power protection element presents a high impedance to the two output terminals. In a second mode of operation, the power protection element has a first power protection characteristic. In a third mode of operation, the power protection element has a second power protection characteristic. The power protection element is adapted to shut down the low-power circuit element when in the third mode of operation.
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Claims(25)
1. An integrated circuit comprising:
a rectifier circuit having two inputs to receive an input power supply and having two outputs to provide a rectified power supply related to the input power supply;
at least one low-power circuit element coupled between the two outputs; and
a power protection element coupled between the two output terminals, wherein, in a first mode of operation, the power protection element presents a high impedance to the two output terminals, in a second mode of operation, the power protection element has a first power protection characteristic, and in a third mode of operation, the power protection element has a second power protection characteristic, the power protection element to shut down the at least one low-power circuit element when in the third mode of operation.
2. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the power protection element comprises an over-voltage threshold component to detect an over-voltage condition and a switch coupled to the over-voltage threshold component to clamp the rectified power supply to a voltage level that is below a threshold voltage level.
3. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the power protection element comprises two switches adapted to activate asynchronously in response to a signal to clamp the rectified power supply to a reduced voltage level.
4. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the power protection element comprises a silicon controlled rectifier.
5. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the power protection element further comprises active logic to generate a fault protection signal provided to the at least one low-power circuit element when in the third mode of operation.
6. The integrated circuit of claim 5, wherein the fault protection signal comprises a shut down signal to deactivate the at least one low-power circuit element.
7. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the power protection element is at a higher voltage in the second mode of operation than in the third mode of operation.
8. The integrated circuit of claim 7, wherein in the second mode of operation, the higher voltage is greater than 55 volts and wherein the power protection element has a current level less than one Ampere.
9. The integrated circuit of claim 7, wherein in the third mode of operation, the power protection element has a voltage level less than ten volts and a current level greater than half an Ampere.
10. The integrated circuit of claim 7, wherein the power protection element changes from the second mode of operation to the first mode of operation after a current level of the power protection element falls below a threshold current level.
11. The integrated circuit of claim 1, wherein the second power protection characteristic comprises a lower impedance than the first power protection characteristic.
12. A method comprising:
receiving an input voltage supply at a pair of terminals;
detecting an over-voltage condition related to the input voltage supply using an over-voltage protection element; and
concurrently shunting the input voltage supply between the pair of terminals and generating a shut off signal to associated circuitry in response to the over-voltage condition using the over-voltage protection element.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein detecting an over-voltage condition comprises:
detecting a voltage at a silicon controlled rectifier of an integrated circuit, the integrated circuit having at least one low-voltage component; and
maintaining a first transistor and a second transistor in an off state when the voltage is less than a voltage protection threshold.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein shunting the input voltage supply comprises:
activating the first transistor and the second transistor to shunt the voltage to a lower voltage level when the voltage exceeds the voltage protection threshold; and
generating a fault protection signal to shut off power to the at least one low-voltage component.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein activating the first transistor and the second transistor comprises activating the first transistor before activating the second transistor.
16. The method of claim 12, wherein detecting the over-voltage condition comprises:
receiving an input voltage from a powered network at an integrated circuit including the over-voltage protection element;
rectifying the input voltage to produce a rectified voltage; and
detecting a voltage level of the rectified voltage.
17. An integrated circuit comprising:
input terminals to receive an input power supply;
at least one low-power circuit element coupled between the input terminals; and
a power protection element coupled between the input terminals to detect a power characteristic of the input power supply, the power protection element to shunt excess power between the input terminals and to shut off power to the at least one low-power circuit element when the power characteristic exceeds a threshold power level.
18. The integrated circuit of claim 17, wherein the power characteristic comprises a voltage level in excess of a threshold voltage level.
19. The integrated circuit of claim 17, wherein the power characteristic comprises a current level that is greater than a threshold current level.
20. The integrated circuit of claim 17, wherein the power protection element comprises a silicon controlled rectifier circuit.
21. The integrated circuit of claim 17, wherein the input terminals comprise a first power supply terminal and a second power supply terminal and wherein the power protection element comprises:
a resistor having a first terminal coupled to the second power supply terminal, and a second terminal;
a diode circuit having an anode terminal coupled to the second terminal of the resistor and a cathode terminal coupled to the first power supply terminal; and
a transistor having a first terminal coupled to the first power supply terminal, a second terminal coupled to the second power supply terminal, and a control terminal coupled to the second terminal of the resistor, the transistor providing a current path between the first power supply terminal and the second power supply terminal when active.
22. The integrated circuit of claim 17, wherein the input terminals are coupled to a powered network.
23. A method comprising:
receiving an input power supply at a pair of terminals, the pair of terminals including a first terminal and a second terminal;
detecting a power level of the input power supply using a power protection element of an integrated circuit, the integrated circuit having at least one low-power component;
activating the power protection element to shunt the input power supply between the first terminal and the second terminal when the power level exceeds a threshold power level; and
substantially reducing a power supply to the at least one low-power component when the power level exceeds the threshold power level.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein the power protection element comprises a first transistor and a second transistor, the first transistor and the second transistor coupled between the first terminal and the second terminal, the method further comprising:
maintaining the first transistor and the second transistor in an off state when the power level is less than the threshold power level.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein activating the power protection element comprises activating the first transistor before activating the second transistor.
Description
    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)
  • [0001]
    This application is related to co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. ______ filed on ______, and entitled, “SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR HIGH VOLTAGE PROTECTION OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES,” which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE
  • [0002]
    The present disclosure generally relates to Power over Ethernet powered devices, and more particularly, to over-voltage protection circuits within Power over Ethernet devices.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Power over Ethernet (PoE) refers to a technique of transmitting electrical power over twisted-pair cabling, along with data, to remote devices in an Ethernet network. PoE as standardized in IEEE 802.3af provides 44 to 57 volts over at least two-pairs of a four-pair cable at a current of up to 350 mA for a guaranteed load power of approximately 15.4 watts. It is also possible to provide power and data over electrical lines, over power buses, and the like. As used herein, the term “powered network” refers to system that delivers power and data on a cable, comprised of one or more wires.
  • [0004]
    A powered device is an electronic device that is adapted to derive power and to receive data from such a powered network via a cable. A powered device may include a diode bridge to rectify the power supply, one or more transformer windings to isolate internal circuitry, a circuit to protect against transient over-voltage conditions, and other associated circuit components.
  • [0005]
    In general, the powered devices (PDs) may be exposed to transient high voltage conditions, which may include electrostatic discharge events, transient charges in the cable, and the like. A transient over-voltage condition refers to a high voltage level on the cable, which may be greater than a voltage rating of at least some of the associated circuit components. PoE as standardized in IEEE 802.3af dictates that PDs should be capable of withstanding such high voltage transient conditions, without sustaining high voltage-related damage.
  • [0006]
    Conventionally, PDs often include an over-voltage protection device that is separate from the integrated circuitry within the PD. In some instances, the over-voltage protection device is a high voltage transient suppressor, such as a high voltage zener diode. A typical external over-voltage protection device is a surface mount transient voltage suppressor that is rated to become active at voltage levels between 64 Volts and 70 Volts with one milliamp of current. Such a transient voltage suppressor typically clamps the supply voltage to a voltage level that is less than the voltage rating of the associated circuit components. In one particular PoE PD, the over-voltage protection device clamps the voltage at a level that is less than 94 Volts for a 4.3 A transient signal.
  • [0007]
    Unfortunately, the electrical characteristics, ratings and tolerance of the over-voltage protection device also determine the power ratings for other circuit components within the PD. For example, since 94 Volt transients are possible at 4.3 A, any coupled circuitry, such as a power regulator circuit and such as load circuitry, should be rated for a higher power level (e.g. for higher voltage and higher current levels). Unfortunately, this high voltage rating increases costs of the circuits and, consequently, increases PD unit costs.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0008]
    In one embodiment, an integrated circuit includes a rectifier circuit, at least one low power element, and a power protection element. The rectifier circuit includes two inputs to receive an input power supply and includes two outputs to provide a rectified power supply related to the input power supply. The low-power circuit element is coupled between the two outputs. The power protection element is coupled between the two output terminals. In a first mode of operation, the power protection element presents a high impedance to the two output terminals. In a second mode of operation, the power protection element has a first power protection characteristic. In a third mode of operation, the power protection element has a second power protection characteristic. The power protection element is adapted to shut down the low-power circuit element when in the third mode of operation.
  • [0009]
    In a particular embodiment, the power protection element includes active logic to generate a fault protection signal provided to the at least one low-power circuit element when in the third mode of operation.
  • [0010]
    In another embodiment, a method is provided. An input voltage supply is received at a pair of terminals. An over-voltage condition related to the input voltage supply is detected using an over-voltage protection element. Concurrently, the input supply voltage is shunted between the pair of terminals and a shut off signal is generated to associated circuitry in response to the over-voltage condition using the over-voltage protection element.
  • [0011]
    In another embodiment, an integrated circuit includes input terminals to receive an input power supply, at least one low-power circuit element coupled between the input terminals, and a power protection element. The power protection element is coupled between the input terminals to detect a power characteristic of the input power supply. The power protection element is adapted to shunt excess power between the input terminals and is adapted to shut off power to the at least one low-power circuit element when the power characteristic exceeds a threshold power level.
  • [0012]
    In another embodiment, a method is provided. An input power supply is received at a pair of terminals, including a first terminal and a second terminal. A power level of the input power supply is detected using a power protection element of an integrated circuit, which has at least one low-power component. The power protection element is activated to shunt the input power supply between the first terminal and the second terminal when the power level exceeds a threshold power level. A power supply to the at least one low-power component is substantially reduced when the power level exceeds the threshold power level.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0013]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a particular illustrative embodiment of a Power over Ethernet (PoE) system.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 2 is an example of PoE wiring interconnections between power source equipment and a powered device (PD).
  • [0015]
    FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a portion of an integrated circuit that includes an integrated over-voltage fault protection circuit within a PD.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a portion of an integrated circuit that includes diode bridges and an integrated over-voltage fault protection circuit within a PD.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of an embodiment of an over-voltage protection circuit within a PD.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of an over-voltage protection circuit within a PD.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 7 is a graph that illustrates voltage versus current comparing a traditional zener diode protection device to the circuits of FIGS. 5 and 6.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of another embodiment of an over-voltage protection circuit within a PD.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 9 is a graph illustrating voltage versus current comparing a traditional zener diode protection device to the circuit of FIG. 8.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 10 is a flow diagram of a method of providing over-voltage fault protection in an integrated circuit.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 11 is a flow diagram of an alternative method of providing over-voltage fault protection in an integrated circuit.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0024]
    FIG. 1 is a block diagram of system 100 with a power over Ethernet (PoE) power source equipment (PSE) device 102 and powered devices. In this particular implementation, the PSE device 102 includes an Ethernet switch 104, a high voltage power supply 106, and a PoE injector 108. The system 100 also includes PoE powered devices (PDs) 112, 114 and 116 with respective diode bridges 118, 120, and 122 and with respective over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123. The over-voltage protection elements 119, 121 and 123 may protect against over-voltage fault conditions, transient conditions, and the like, and may be referred to as transient protection elements or power protection elements. The PSE device 102 is communicatively coupled to the PDS 112, 114, and 116 via twisted pair cabling 124, 126, and 128. In general, the system 100 may also include network devices (not shown) that are not adapted for PoE, which may draw power from a separate power supply, such as an electrical wall plug.
  • [0025]
    The high voltage power supply 106 provides a supply voltage to the power injector 108. The power injector receives Ethernet signals from the Ethernet switch 104 and places the Ethernet signals and at least a portion of the supply voltage onto Ethernet cables 124, 126 and 128. The PSE 102 can power a number of PDs depending on the specific implementation. Each powered device 112, 114 and 116 may include one or more diode bridges 118, 120 and 122 respectively. In general, in many applications, such as telephony and PoE, due to wiring uncertainties, the polarity of the input supply voltage at the PD cannot be guaranteed. The diode bridges 118, 120 and 122 provide that the correct voltage polarity is applied to load electronics within the PD or to electronic devices attached to the PD.
  • [0026]
    In general, the term “powered device” and “PD,” as used herein, refers to a device adapted to receive a power supply and to receive data from the same cable or wiring. In the embodiment shown, the PDs 112, 114 and 116 are adapted to operate within a PoE environment. Alternatively, the power sourcing equipment (PSE) may be any source adapted to transmit power and data over common wiring. For example, the PSE 102 may be an electrical power transmission station adapted for high speed broadband data transmissions over electrical transmission lines. In such an instance, the data transmissions may use data packets, may use data frames, may use other data protocols, or any combination thereof. Nevertheless, the PDs 112, 114, and 116 may be adapted to communicate using an appropriate protocol, and the active diode bridges 118, 120 and 122 can be used to provide low loss rectification of the power supply for the PDs 112, 114, and 116, respectively.
  • [0027]
    The over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123 are adapted to detect an electrical characteristic of the rectified voltage supply from the diode bridges 118, 120 and 122, respectively. When the rectified voltage supply exceeds a threshold voltage level, the over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123 are activated to limit the rectified voltage supply level. In one embodiment, the over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123 shunt excess voltage and current between the rectified voltage supply rails (such as supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 in FIG. 2). In another embodiment, the over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123 shut down associated circuitry, such as load circuitry, a power regulator, control logic, and the like, to prevent a damage to such circuitry. In general, the turn-on voltage of the over-voltage protection element 119, 121, and 123 may be utilized as a threshold, and high voltage transients that exceed the threshold voltage level may trigger the over-voltage protection elements 119, 121, and 123 to shunt the excess voltage and current between the rectified voltage supply rails and to issue a fault protection signal to deactivate, to shut off, or to substantially reduce power to the associated circuitry.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 2 is a block diagram illustrating a wire interconnection between an illustrative PSE device 102 and an illustrative PD 112. The PSE device 102 and the PD 112 are connected via Ethernet cable 124. In general, the Ethernet cable 124 is comprised of a plurality of wire pairs 220, 222, 224, and 226. The IEEE 802.3AF standard defines a role for each of the wire pairs 220, 222, 224 and 226 within the twisted pair wiring 124. Two of the wire pairs 220 and 222 carry Ethernet packets, and two of the wire pairs 224 and 226 are spares.
  • [0029]
    The PSE device 102 includes a power supply 202, which is used to power windings of the transformers 204 and 206, which place power onto the wire pairs 220 and 220 of the twisted pair cable 124. In this implementation, the PSE 102 is coupled to the transformers 204 and 206 through switches 208 and 210. The switches 208 and 210 may couple the power supply 202 to the transformers 204 and 206 or may couple the power supply 202 directly to wire pairs 224 and 226 (sometimes referred to as the spare pare). At least one of the wire pairs 220, 232, 224, and 226 may carry power, data, or any combination thereof.
  • [0030]
    The PD 112 includes diode bridges 118, transformers 212 and 214, an over-voltage protection circuit 119, and a PoE controller/hot swap/switching regulator circuit 230, which provides power to an output load 232. The diode bridges 118 include diode bridge 216 and diode bridge 218. Each of the diode bridges 216 and 218 include two inputs for receiving an input voltage supply and two outputs for providing a rectified voltage supply (Vrect+ and Vrect−) to the input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240. In general, the transformers 212 and 214 are connected to wire pairs 220 and 222 to receive data signals and power from the PSE 102. The transformers 212 and 214 are connected via their respective center taps 234 and 236 to the inputs of the diode bridge 216. By connecting to the respective center taps 234 and 236, data can be extracted from the signal at a common mode of the transformers 212 and 214.
  • [0031]
    The wire pairs 224 and 226 are connected to the inputs of the diode bridge 218. The outputs of the diode bridges 216 and 218 are connected to input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240. The diode bridges 216 and 218 provide a positive rectified voltage (Vrect+) onto the input voltage supply terminal 238 and a negative rectified voltage (Vrect−) onto the input voltage supply terminal 240. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 is connected between the input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240, to detect an over-voltage condition and to protect the PoE controller/hot swap/switching regulator circuit 230 as well as the output load 232 from over-voltage faults. Additionally, the PoE controller/hot swap/switching regulator circuit 230 is connected between the input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240. When the supply voltage levels on the input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 are within an expected voltage supply range (such as between 36 and 57 volts), the PoE controller/hot swap/circuit 230 provides a DC voltage supply to the output load 232 via the supply terminals 242 and 244.
  • [0032]
    During operation, two of the wire pairs, such as wire pairs 220 and 222 or wire pairs 224 and 226, may be used to provide an input supply voltage to the PD 112. It is typically not known which of the pairs of wires will be used. Consequently, the PD 112 is adapted to receive a supply voltage from either set of wire pairs.
  • [0033]
    In one embodiment, the diode bridges 216 and 218 may include diode bypass elements (diode bypass switches) placed in parallel with at least one of the diodes within each of the diode bridges 216 and 218. Under certain conditions, a selected one of the diode bypass elements within one of the diode bridges 216 and 218 may be activated to provide a current path to bypass the associated diode within the respective diode bridge 216 or 218. The diode bypass element reduces the voltage consumption within the diode bridge by routing current through the bypass element to bypass the associated diode. From a power perspective, the diode bypass element looks like a low value resistor when it is active. The bypass current flows through the diode bypass element as long as the voltage drop across the bypass element is less than a turn on voltage of the diode. In one embodiment, the diode bypass element is a field effect transistor (FET). Since an active FET can sink a large amount of current at low voltage, the diode can remain inactive. By applying a transistor bypass to a full diode bridge 208 or 210 to bypass selected diodes within the diode bridge, the overall power consumption of the diode bridge is reduced, thereby reducing the overall load and improving the power efficiency of the PD 112. Alternatively, the diode bypass element may be a bipolar transistor.
  • [0034]
    In general, if a rectified voltage level provided by the diode bridge 216 or 218 exceeds a predetermined threshold level, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 is activated to shunt excess voltage between the input voltage supply terminals 238 and 240. Additionally, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 may be adapted to generate an over-voltage fault signal to deactivate, to shut down, or to substantially reduce a power supply to the PoE controller/hot swap/switching regulator circuit 230 as well as the output load 232.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a portion of an integrated circuit 300 that includes an integrated over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 that may be used within a PD, such as PD 112 in FIG. 1. The integrated circuit 300 includes the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119, a controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230, and an output load 232. The over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 may include an over-voltage fault sensor 302 and a controller 304. The over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 is connected to the supply voltage terminal 238 and to the supply voltage terminal 240 and is communicatively coupled to the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230. The controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230 is connected to the power supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 and provides at least one regulated voltage supply for driving an output load 232, which may include low voltage rated circuit components.
  • [0036]
    It should be understood that the supply voltage terminal 238 may have a first voltage potential and the supply voltage terminal 240 may have a second voltage potential. The difference between the first and the second voltage potentials defines an input voltage to the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230 and to the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119.
  • [0037]
    The controller 304 of the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 monitors the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 for an over-voltage condition using the over-voltage fault sensor 302. When an over-voltage condition is detected, the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 shunts the excess voltage between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. Additionally, the controller 304 generates a fault protection signal to the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230. The fault protection signal may include a shut off signal to deactivate or substantially reduce a power supply to the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230, so that components of the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230, as well as the output load 232 that is powered from the regulated voltage supply of the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230, are protected from the over-voltage condition. In one embodiment, the shut off signal may include an abrupt decrease in an input supply voltage level on the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240, which may be caused by activation of the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 and which may be detected by the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230.
  • [0038]
    For example, in one particular illustrative embodiment, the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230 may include switches that are active when the supply voltage of the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 is appropriate for operation of the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230. The over-voltage fault protection signal from the controller 304 can deactivate the switches when an over-voltage condition is detected.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a particular embodiment of a portion of an integrated circuit 400 that includes diode bridges 118 and an integrated over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 that can be used within a PD. The integrated circuit 400 also includes the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230. The diode bridges 118 are connected to input supply terminals (such as wire pairs 222 and 224 in FIG. 2) and to supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. The diode bridges 118 receive an input voltage supply from the input supply terminals and convert the input voltage supply to a rectified voltage supply. The diode bridges 118 drive the input voltage supply onto the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240.
  • [0040]
    The over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 is connected to the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. The controller 304 monitors a voltage level of the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 using the over-voltage fault sensor 302. When the voltage level exceeds an over-voltage threshold, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 shunts the excess voltage between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. Additionally, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 may generate an over-voltage fault protection signal to the controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230.
  • [0041]
    The controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230 is connected to the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 to receive the rectified input voltage supply. The controller, hot swap, and switching regulator 230 may generate a regulated supply voltage (Vreg+ and Vreg−) to drive a circuit load. The regulated supply voltage may have a lower voltage potential than the rectified input voltage supply on supply voltage terminals 238 and 240.
  • [0042]
    In general, though the controller 304 and the over-voltage fault sensor 302 are illustrated as part of the over-voltage protection circuit 119, it should be understood that the controller 304 and the over-voltage fault sensor 302 may be included as part of the power regulator circuit 230. Alternatively, the controller 304 and the over-voltage fault sensor 302 may be separate circuit components of the integrated circuit (such as 300 or 400 in FIGS. 3 and 4, respectively). Alternatively, the controller 304 and the over-voltage fault sensor 302 may be separately arranged on the integrated circuit or included as part of other components of the integrated circuit 400, depending on the particular implementation. In such an instance, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 may include shunt circuitry to shunt the excess voltage between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240, and the controller 304 monitors the voltage level for over-voltage conditions.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram of an embodiment of an over-voltage protection circuit within a portion of an integrated circuit 500 for use within a PD. The integrated circuit 500 includes an over-voltage protection circuit 119 and an output load 232. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 and the output load 232 are both connected between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 includes a plurality of zener diodes 502, 504, and 506 arranged in series (a zener stack) between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. Each zener diode 502, 504, and 506 has a characteristic breakdown voltage. The sum of the breakdown voltages defines a trigger or threshold voltage level for the over-voltage protection circuit 119. When the input supply voltage potential between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 exceeds the threshold voltage level, the zener diodes 502, 504, and 506 breakdown and shunt the excess voltage between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240.
  • [0044]
    When the over-voltage fault event is finished, the over-voltage protection fault circuit 119 stops shunting the excess voltage and the circuit 500 returns to a normal operating mode. During this recovery phase, the input supply voltage on the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 falls below the over-voltage threshold defined by the sum of the characteristic breakdown voltages of the zener diodes 502-506, the zener diodes 502-506 turn off and stop conducting. The input supply voltage rises to the operating input level, and downstream circuitry, such as a voltage regulator or the output load 232, receives the input supply voltage.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram of another particular embodiment of an integrated circuit 600 with an over-voltage protection circuit for use within a PD. The integrated circuit 600 includes an over-voltage protection circuit 119 and an output load 232. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 includes a plurality of zener diodes 602, 604, and 606, an N-channel insulated gate field effect transistor 608, a resistor 616, and a diode 618. The insulated gate field effect transistor 608 can be, for example, a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) field effect transistor, a poly-oxide field effect transistor, or any other suitable type of field effect transistor. The transistor 608 includes a drain terminal 610 connected to the supply voltage terminal 238, a gate terminal 612, and a source drain terminal connected to the supply voltage terminal 240. A diode 618 includes a cathode terminal connected to the supply voltage terminal 240 and an anode terminal connected to the gate terminal 612. A resistor 616 is connected to the supply voltage terminal 240 and to the gate terminal 612. The zener diodes 602, 604, and 606 of a zener stack are connected in series between the gate terminal 612 and the voltage supply terminal 238.
  • [0046]
    In general, any number of zener diodes, such as the illustrated zener diodes 602-606, can be used. Each zener diode 602-606 includes a characteristic breakdown voltage. The sum of the breakdown voltages of each of the zener diodes defines an over-voltage threshold. For example, if the threshold over-voltage condition is 57 volts, nine zener diodes, having characteristic breakdown voltages of 6.4 volts each, can be arranged in series to define an over-voltage threshold of approximately 57.6 volts. If the differential voltage between the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 exceeds 57.6 volts, the nine zener diodes breakdown and begin to conduct current between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. The voltage increases at the gate terminal 612 of the field effect transistor 608, which switches on and shunts the input supply voltage between the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240.
  • [0047]
    When the over-voltage fault event is finished, the over-voltage protection fault circuit 119 stops shunting the excess voltage and the circuit 600 returns to a normal operating mode. During this recovery phase, the input supply voltage on the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 falls below the over-voltage threshold defined by the sum of the characteristic breakdown voltages of the zener diodes, the zener diodes turn off and stop conducting. The input voltage at the gate terminal 612 falls below the turn on voltage of the transistor 608, and the transistor turns off. The input supply voltage rises to the operating input level, and downstream circuitry, such as a voltage regulator or the output load 232, receives the input supply voltage.
  • [0048]
    FIG. 7 is a graph 700 that illustrates voltage versus current comparing a traditional zener diode protection device to the circuits of FIGS. 5 and 6. In conventional over-voltage protect device, a large zener diode may be connected between the supply voltage terminals external to the integrated circuitry. The graph line 702 illustrates such a conventional, external zener diode. The large external diode of line 702 typically has a large variance in breakdown voltages, so the turn on voltage may be significantly higher than the threshold over-voltage level. As shown, the large external diode of line 702 turns on at a differential voltage of approximately 67 volts and clamps the input supply voltage to approximately less than 94 volts for a 4.3 A transient current.
  • [0049]
    The graph line 704 illustrates a voltage clamp that may be provided by the over-voltage protection circuit arrangement of FIG. 5. The breakdown voltage for each diode is lower and the margin of error in the breakdown voltage is also significantly less. Thus, the over-voltage protection circuit begins to conduct at just over 57 volts and clamps the input supply voltage to approximately less than 80 volts for a 4.3 A transient current.
  • [0050]
    The graph line 706 illustrates a voltage clamp provided by the over-voltage protection circuit arrangement of FIG. 6. As in the arrangement of FIG. 5, the plurality of diodes provide a more precise turn-on voltage than the conventional, large, external zener diode. Thus, the over-voltage protection circuit of FIG. 6 turns on at around 58 volts and clamps the input supply voltage to approximately 67 volts for a 4.3 A transient current.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 8 is a circuit diagram of another particular embodiment of a portion of an integrated circuit 800 with an over-voltage protection circuit 119 for use within a PD. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 is a voltage-triggered silicon controlled regulator (SCR). The over-voltage protection circuit 119 includes a P-channel bipolar junction transistor 802, an N-channel bipolar junction transistor 804, resistors 806 and 808, and a zener diode circuit 810. The transistor 802 includes a drain terminal connected to the input supply terminal 238, a gate terminal, and a source terminal. The transistor 804 includes a drain terminal connected to the gate terminal of the transistor 802, a gate terminal connected to the source terminal of the transistor 802, and a source terminal that is connected to the voltage supply terminal 240. The resistor 806 has a first terminal connected to the voltage supply terminal 238 and a second terminal connected to the gate terminal of the transistor 802. The resistor 808 has a first terminal connected to the gate terminal of the transistor 804 and a second terminal connected to the voltage supply terminal 240. The zener diode circuit 810 includes a cathode terminal connected to the source of the transistor 802 and an anode terminal connected to the drain terminal of the transistor 804. The output load 232 or a regulator circuit can be connected between the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 in parallel with the over-voltage protection circuit 119.
  • [0052]
    In general, the diode circuit 810 defines an over-voltage threshold for the over-voltage protection circuit 119. When a voltage differential between the input supply terminals exceeds the characteristic breakdown voltage of the diode circuit 810, the diode circuit 810 begins conducting. A voltage on the gate terminal of the transistor 804 increases and activates the transistor 804, which pulls down the voltage at the gate terminal of the transistor 802, activating the transistor 802, thereby shunting the current between the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240. In general, the transistors 802 and 804 turn on asynchronously, resulting in an abrupt change in the voltage differential between the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 at the point where both transistors 802 and 804 become active.
  • [0053]
    In general, in a first mode of operation, the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 presents a high impedance to the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240. In a second mode of operation, the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 has a first over-voltage characteristic. An example of the first over-voltage characteristic is represented by line 904 in FIG. 9. In a third mode of operation, the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 has a second over-voltage protection characteristic. An example of the second over-voltage characteristic is represented by line 906 in FIG. 9. In a particular embodiment, the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 provide an input voltage that is at a higher voltage in the second mode of operation than in the first or the third modes of operation. For example, in the first mode of operation, the differential supply voltage between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 may range from zero volts to approximately 55 volts. In a second mode of operation, the differential supply voltage may be greater than 55 volts with a current of up to approximately 1 A. In a third mode of operation, the supply voltage has a voltage level of less than approximately 10 volts and a current level greater than approximately 0.5 A. In the second and third modes of operation, the over-voltage fault protection circuit 119 becomes active, providing a lower impedance between the supply voltage terminals 238 and 240 than during the first mode of operation.
  • [0054]
    It should be understood that the voltage and current levels described above are illustrative only. Other voltage and current levels may also be achieved by adjusting the breakdown voltage of the diode circuit, for example. A lower breakdown voltage provides for second and third modes of operation at a lower voltage level. For example, if the breakdown voltage of the diode circuit is at approximately 30 volts, then the second mode of operation would be greater than approximately 30 volts. Similarly, a higher breakdown voltage provides for a higher voltage level at the second and third modes of operation.
  • [0055]
    When the over-voltage fault event is finished, the over-voltage protection fault circuit 119 stops shunting the excess voltage and the circuit 800 returns to a normal operating mode. During this recovery phase, when the supply voltage on the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 falls below the over-voltage threshold of the diode circuit 810, the diode circuit 810 turns off, causing the voltage to decrease at the gate terminal of transistor 804 and to increase rapidly at the gate terminal of the transistor 802. The transistor 802 turns off in response to the increased voltage at its gate terminal, and the voltage level at the gate terminal of the transistor 804 decreases rapidly, turning off the transistor 804. The supply voltage on the voltage supply terminals 238 and 240 is allowed to drive the output load 232.
  • [0056]
    It should be understood that, though the diode circuit 810 is illustrated as a single high voltage zener diode with a breakdown voltage of 62 Volts, the diode circuit 810 can be formed from a plurality of diodes in series (as shown in FIG. 5), where each of the plurality of diodes has a small breakdown voltage. Additionally, it should be understood that, though the transistors 802 and 804 are shows as bipolar junction transistors, other types of transistors may also be used, such as insulated gate field effect transistors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, or other suitable electronic switches. In one embodiment, the diode circuit 810 may be a trigger element, and the transistors 802 and 804 may operate as a switch responsive to the trigger element.
  • [0057]
    The over-voltage protection circuit 119 reduces the transient voltage seen by the PD and the PD-coupled circuitry. The power dissipated in the transistors 802 and 804 is much lower than is dissipated in a large external zener diode, so the reliability and robustness of the protection is improved. In general, in PD devices, there may be a large capacitor in the PD between a hot swap switch (not shown) and the circuit load. This capacitor may be discharged through the hot swap switch, which is reverse biased under the over-voltage condition. A controller (such as that shown in FIGS. 2 and 3) may be used to shut down the hot swap switch to prevent such a discharge.
  • [0058]
    It should be understood that the diode circuit 810 defines a turn-on threshold for the transistors 802 and 804, and that the resulting voltage at the gate terminals of the transistors 802 and 804 can be considered control signals. Alternatively, the transistors 802 and 804 could be activated by a control signal sent, for example, by a controller or other active circuit element upon detection of an over-voltage fault condition.
  • [0059]
    FIG. 9 is a graph 900 illustrating voltage versus current comparing a traditional external zener diode protection device to the circuit of FIG. 8. The graph line 902 is the same as the graph line 702 in FIG. 7. The large external zener diode turns on at approximately 67 volts and clamps the input supply voltage to approximately less than 94 volts for a 4.3 A transient current.
  • [0060]
    In contrast, the over-voltage protection circuit of FIG. 8 turns on at approximately 58 volts, and increases to a little over 60 volts up to approximately 1 A of current as illustrated by line 904. As the current continues to rise, the transistor 802 turns on and the voltage is clamped at a value of less than 10 volts for a 4.3 A transient current as illustrated by line 906.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 10 is a flow diagram of a method of providing over-voltage fault protection in an integrated circuit. An integrated circuit having a first over-voltage protection element and at least one low-power element receives a first input voltage at a first input (block 1000). The integrated circuit receives a second input voltage at a second input (block 1002). The over-voltage protection element detects an over-voltage condition when the input voltage exceeds a threshold voltage level (block 1004). The over-voltage protection element activates a first switch and a second switch in response to the over-voltage condition to protect the at least one low-power element (block 1006). The over-voltage protection element clamps a voltage applied to the at least one low-power element to a lower voltage level that is below a voltage rating of the at least one low-power element and/or that is below a voltage rating of components coupled to the integrated circuit (block 1008). The over-voltage protection circuit draws excess current through the first and the second switch (block 1010).
  • [0062]
    FIG. 11 is a flow diagram of an alternative method of providing over-voltage fault protection in an integrated circuit. An over-voltage protection circuit within an integrated circuit having at least one low-voltage component detects a voltage (block 1100). The over-voltage protection circuit maintains a first transistor and a second transistor in an off state when the voltage is less than a voltage protection threshold (block 1102). The over-voltage protection circuit activates the first transistor and the second transistor to clamp the voltage to a lower voltage level when the voltage exceeds the voltage protection threshold (block 1104). The over-voltage protection circuit generates an over-voltage protection signal to shut off the at least one low-voltage component (block 1106).
  • [0063]
    It should be understood that the at least one low-voltage component of the flow diagram of FIG. 11 and the low-power component of the flow diagram of FIG. 10 may be a circuit load, an LED, an oscillator, a voltage regulator, or any circuit component that could be damaged by exposure to an ESD event or other high voltage event.
  • [0064]
    In general, the over-voltage protection circuit 119 defines voltage handling capabilities of the device, such as the PD. The over-voltage protection circuit 119 described above can detect the turn on of the over-voltage detection circuit. Thus, the turn on can be used as a trigger to turn off or shut down power circuits, such as the regulator circuit, to prevent high power dissipation.
  • [0065]
    The over-voltage protection device can be implemented using a low impedance zener diode implemented by an active zener diode, such as a high voltage zener diode or a zener stack. In one embodiment, a high voltage transistor may be provided within a feedback loop, to lower the effective zener impedance and to clamp the voltage to a much lower voltage level during an over-voltage fault event.
  • [0066]
    It should be understood that the over-voltage protection circuit may be a transient suppressor circuit that is adapted to provide protection to the circuit from high voltage transients.
  • [0067]
    In general, though the embodiments described above have focused largely on PoE implementations, it should be understood that the over-voltage protection circuit or element may be utilized in other applications where power fault protection is desired. The above-described embodiments may be employed with other types of powered networks, where the power supply voltage cabling also carries data. For example, diode bridges may be used to rectify a voltage supply from a bus including power and data, and a power protection element may be utilized to shunt excess current and voltage between input supply terminals to provide fault protection to associated circuitry. In some embodiments, the wiring that couples the powered network to the powered device may include a plurality of individual wires, such as twisted pair cabling. In such instances, a pair of individual wires may carry both power and data. Alternatively, a first pair of the individual wires may carry data and a second pair of the individual wires may carry a supply voltage. In another embodiment, the wiring may include a power bus that carries both power and data. In another embodiment, the wiring may include a coaxial cable that carries both power and data.
  • [0068]
    Additionally, in the above-discussion, the over-voltage protection element has been described with respect to voltage potentials. However, it should be understood that the protection element may also be referred to as a power protection element, because power is a function of voltage and current. When activated, the power protection element limits the voltage and shunts current between the input supply terminals to protect load circuitry from transient high voltage and high current events.
  • [0069]
    The above-disclosed subject matter is to be considered illustrative, and not restrictive, and the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications, enhancements, and other embodiments, which fall within the true spirit and scope of the present invention. Thus, to the maximum extent allowed by law, the scope of the present invention is to be determined by the broadest permissible interpretation of the following claims and their equivalents, and shall not be restricted or limited by the foregoing detailed description.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification361/90
International ClassificationH02H3/20
Cooperative ClassificationH02H9/041
European ClassificationH02H9/04B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 11, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: SILICON LABORATORIES, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:APFEL, RUSSELL J.;REEL/FRAME:017868/0432
Effective date: 20060509