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Publication numberUS20070275182 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/640,170
Publication dateNov 29, 2007
Filing dateDec 18, 2006
Priority dateOct 20, 1988
Also published asUS6004479, US6562419, US6905740, US7186447, US7445818, US20030207046, US20050196551
Publication number11640170, 640170, US 2007/0275182 A1, US 2007/275182 A1, US 20070275182 A1, US 20070275182A1, US 2007275182 A1, US 2007275182A1, US-A1-20070275182, US-A1-2007275182, US2007/0275182A1, US2007/275182A1, US20070275182 A1, US20070275182A1, US2007275182 A1, US2007275182A1
InventorsGeorg Weber, Ludwig Pohl, Reinhard Hittich, Herbert Plach, Bernhard Scheuble, Takamasa Oyama, Bernhard Rieger, Hans Kurmeier, Ekkehard Bartmann
Original AssigneeGeorg Weber, Ludwig Pohl, Reinhard Hittich, Herbert Plach, Bernhard Scheuble, Takamasa Oyama, Bernhard Rieger, Kurmeier Hans A, Ekkehard Bartmann
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Two plane parallel support plates with frame form cell, with integrated non-linear elements for switching individual picture elements on support plates, and nematic liquid crystal mixture is present in cell, having positive dielectric anisotropy and high resistivity
US 20070275182 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to a matrix liquid crystal display containing integrated non-linear elements and a liquid crystal mixture which has a particularly high resistivity.
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Claims(33)
1-15. (canceled)
16. A matrix crystal display comprising:
two plane parallel support plates which together with a frame form a cell,
integrated non-linear elements for switching individual picture elements on the support plates and
a nematic liquid crystal mixture which in the cell and has a positive dielectric anisotropy and high resistivity,
wherein the liquid crystal mixture is based on the following components:
a) at least 10% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component B comprising one or more compounds of the following formulae IIa to IIf:
in which
R is n-alkyl or n-alkenyl of up to 9 carbon atoms,
X is F, Cl, CF3, OCF3, or OCHF2, and
the rings A1, A2 and A3 are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene, and
b) up to 90% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component A comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of −1.5 to 1.5 of the formula I
wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently of one another, n-alkyl, ω-fluoroalkyl or alkenyl having up to 9 carbon atoms,
the rings A1, A2 and A3 are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene,
Z1 is —CH2CH2— or a single bond, and
m is 0, 1 or 2, and
wherein the nematic liquid crystal mixture has a nematic phase range of at least 60° C., a maximum viscosity at 20° C. of 30 mPa·s and a mean dielectricity constant ∈≦8.
17. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa to IIf wherein X is F.
18. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa to IIf wherein X is Cl, CF3, OCF3, or OCHF2.
19. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa.
20. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIc.
21. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IId.
22. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIe.
23. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa to IIf, wherein
are each selected from 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, or 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene.
24. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein m is 0.
25. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein both R1 and R2 are n-alkyl.
26. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein one of R1 and R2 is n-alkyl and the other is alkenyl.
27. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein both R1 and R2 are alkenyl.
28. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIc2:
wherein Y and Z are independently H or F.
29. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compound of formula IIf2:
wherein Y and Z are independently H or F.
30. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compound of the formula IIa, in which the A1 ring is 2- or 3-fluorophenylene, the A2 ring is phenylene and X is For Cl.
31. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIa, in which the A1 ring is 3-fluorophenylene, the A2 ring is phenylene and X is Cl.
32. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIc, in which the A1 ring and the A2 ring are 3-fluorophenylene, and the A3 ring is phenylene.
33. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIc, in which the A1 ring and the A2 ring are 3-fluorophenylene, the A3 ring is phenylene, and X is F or Cl.
34. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIc, in which the A1 ring is phenylene and the A2 ring and A3 rings are 2-fluorophenylene.
34. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIc, in which the A1 ring is phenylene, the A2 ring and A3 rings are 2-fluorophenylene, and X is F or Cl.
35. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula IIf in which the A1 ring is 3-fluorophenylene, the A2 and A3 rings are phenylene and X is F or Cl.
36. A display according to claim 16, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of the formula II11:
in which R1 and R2 are independently n-alkyl and wherein the central ring is optionally substituted by F.
37. A matrix liquid crystal display comprising:
two plane parallel support plates which together with a frame form a cell,
integrated non-linear elements for switching individual picture elements on the support plates and
a nematic liquid crystal mixture which is present in the cell and has a positive dielectric anisotropy and high resistivity,
wherein the liquid crystal mixture is based on the following components:
a) at least 10% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component B comprising one or more compounds of the following formulae:
wherein
R is n-alkyl or n-alkenyl of up to 9 carbon atoms,
X is —CF3, —OCF3, or —OCHF2, and
the rings A1 and A2
are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene, and
b) up to 90% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component A comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of −1.5 to 1.5 of the formula I
wherein
R1 and R2 are each, independently of one another, n-alkyl, co-fluoroalkyl or alkenyl having up to 9 carbon atoms,
the rings A3 and A4 are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3 fluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene, and
Z1 is —CH2CH2— or a single bond, and
the nematic liquid crystal mixture has a nematic phase range of at least 60° C., a maximum viscosity at 20° C. of 30 mPa·s and a mean dielectricity constant ∈≦8.
38. A display according to claim 37, wherein one or both of
is trans-1,4-cyclohexylene.
39. A display according to claim 37, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein
are both trans-1,4-cyclohexylene.
40. A display according to claim 37, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein both R1 and R2 are n-alkyl.
41. A display according to claim 37, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein one of R1 and R2 is n-alkyl and the other is alkenyl.
42. A display according to claim 38, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa wherein X is OCF3 or CF3.
43. A display according to claim 38, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula IIa wherein X is CF3.
44. A display according to claim 39, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein R1 and R2 are each, independently, n-alkyl or n-alkenyl.
45. A display according to claim 39, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein one of R1 and R2 is n-alkyl and the other is n-alkenyl.
46. A display according to claim 43, wherein the liquid crystal mixture comprises one or more compounds of formula I, wherein one of R1 and R2 is n-alkyl and the other is n-alkenyl.
Description

The invention relates to a matrix liquid crystal display containing

    • two plane parallel support plates which together with a frame form a cell,
    • integrated non-linear elements for switching individual picture elements on the support plates and
    • a nematic liquid crystal mixture which is present in the cell and has a positive dielectric anisotropy and high resistivity,
      the liquid crystal mixture being based on the following components.
  • a) at least 10% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component B comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of more than +1.5,
  • b) up to 90% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component A comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of −1.5 to +1.5 of the general formula I
    in which
  • R1 and R2 are each, independently of one another, n-alkyl, ω-fluoroalkyl or n-alkenyl having up to 9 carbon atoms,
    • the rings A1, A2 and A3
      • are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene,
    • Z1 and Z2 are each, independently of one another, —CH2CH2— or a single bond, and
    • m is 0, 1 or 2, and
  • c) 0 to 20% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component C comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of less than −1.5,
    and the nematic liquid crystal mixture having a nematic phase range of at least 60° C., a maximum viscosity at 20° C. of 30 mPa·s and a mean dielectricity constant ∈≦8.

Matrix liquid crystal displays (MLC displays) according to the preamble are known. For example, active elements (i.e. transistors) can be used as non-linear elements for the individual switching of the individual picture elements. This is referred to as an “active matrix”, in which two types can be distinguished:

  • 1. MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) transistors on a silicon wafer as the substrate.
  • 2. Thin film transistors (TFT) on a glass plate as the substrate.

In the case of type 1, dynamic scattering or the guest/host effect is usually used as the electrooptical effect. The use of single-crystal silicon as the substrate material limits the size of the display, since, even if different partial displays are put together in the form of modules, difficulties arise at the joints.

In the case of the more promising type 2, which is preferred, the TN effect is usually used as the electrooptical effect. Two technologies are distinguished: TFTs consisting of compound semiconductors, such as, for example, CdSe, or TFTs based on polycrystalline or amorphous silicon. The latter technology is the subject of intense development work worldwide.

The TFT matrix is disposed on the inside surface of one of the glass plates of the display, while the other glass plate carries the transparent counter electrode on its inside surface. Compared with the size of the picture-element electrode, the TFT is very small and essentially does not interfere with the picture. This, technology can also be extended to picture displays in fully satisfactory colours by arranging a mosaic of red, green and blue filters in such a manner that each filter element is opposite to a switchable picture element.

The TFT displays usually operate as TN cells which contain crossed polarizers in transmission and are illuminated from behind.

The term MLC displays in this context comprises each matrix display which has integrated non-linear elements; i.e. apart from the active matrix also displays which contain passive elements such as varistors or diodes (MIM metal/insulator/metal).

MLC displays of this type are in particular suitable for TV applications (e.g. portable TVs) or for highly informative displays in automobile and aircraft construction. In addition to, problems regarding the angle dependency of the contrast and the switching times, difficulties in MLC displays arise from the insufficient resistivity of the liquid crystal mixtures [TOGASHI, S., SETIGUCHPI, K., TANABE, H., YAMAMOTO, E., SORIMACHI, K., TAJIMA, E., WATANABE, H., SHIMIZU, H., Proc. Eurodisplay 84, September 1984: A 210-288 Matrix LCD Controlled by Double Stage Diode Rings, p. 141 ff, Paris; STROMER, M., Proc. Eurodisplay 84, September 1984: Design of Thin Film Transistors for Matrix Addressing of Television Liquid Crystal Displays, p. 145 ff, Paris]. With decreasing resistivity, the contrast of an MLC display deteriorates. Since the resistivity of the liquid crystal mixture usually decreases by interaction with the inside surfaces of the displays over the lifetime of an MLC display, a high (initial) resistance is very important for achieving acceptable service lives.

Therefore, there is still a high demand for MLC displays which have very high resistivity in combination with a large range of operating temperatures, short switching times and low threshold voltage.

The object of the invention is to provide MLC displays which do not or only to a small extent have, the above disadvantages and, at the same time, have very high resistivities.

It has now been found that this object can be achieved by using nematic liquid crystal mixtures in these display elements, which mixtures are based on the abovementioned components A, B and C, B and C, or B.

Accordingly, the invention relates to an MLC display containing

    • two plane parallel support plates which together with a frame form a cell,
    • integrated non-linear elements for switching individual picture elements on the support plates and
    • a nematic liquid crystal mixture which is present in the cell and has a positive dielectric anisotropy and high resistivity,
      the liquid crystal mixture being based on the following components:
  • a) at least 10% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component B comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of more than +1.5,
  • b) up, to 90% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component A comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of −1.5 to +1.5 of the general formula I
    in which
  • R1 and R2 are each, independently of one another, n-alkyl, ω-fluoroalkyl or n-alkenyl having up to 9 carbon atoms,
    • the rings A1, A2 and A3
      • are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene; trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene,
    • Z1 and Z2 are each, independently of one another, —CH2CH2— or a single-bond, and
    • m is 0, 1 or 2, and
  • c) 0 to 20% by weight of a liquid-crystalline component C comprising one or more compounds having a dielectric anisotropy of less than −1.5,
    and the nematic liquid crystal mixture having a nematic phase range of at least 60° C., a maximum viscosity at 20° C. of 30 mPa·s and a mean dielectricity, constant ∈≦8.

The invention also relates to the corresponding liquid crystal mixtures, in particular for use in MLC displays. However, the mixtures are also suitable for many other applications, such as, for example, TN, STN or CMI.

Nematic liquid crystal mixtures which instead of the compounds of the formula I contain analogous compounds in which one of the radicals R1 and R2 is n-alkyl and the other is n-alkoxy are known and commercially utilized in various designs. However, these liquid crystal mixtures are distinguished by values for the resistivity which are too low and are often between 5×109 and 1.1×1011 Ωcm or less at 20°. The corresponding MLC displays have values for the resistivity which are too low for some commercial applications.

The resistivity of liquid crystal mixtures is in general high, if the dielectric anisotropy is small, since the polar components which are present in mixtures which have a high Δ∈ have a stabilizing effect on ions and thus lead to high conductivity or low resistance. Surprisingly, it has now been found that the resistivity is particularly high, if the mean dielectricity constant ∈[=1 3(2∈+∈11)] is small and, at the same time, the dielectrically neutral (Δ∈ from −1.5 to +1.5) components of the liquid crystal mixture do not contain any functional groups such as, for example, aromatically bound alkoxy or ester functions. The dielectrically positive (Δ∈≧1.5) components usually carry terminal cyano groups. However, in the mixtures according to the invention, it is preferred to use, in addition to compounds which have a terminal cyano, also those which have a terminal —NCS, F, Cl, —CF3, —CHF2, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —OCF2CF2H or —OC2F5.

However, component B can also substantially consist only of nitrile-containing compounds, of which those compounds of the formulae IIa to IIf where X is CN are preferred. In this case, the liquid crystal mixture essentially consists of components A, B and C, or A and B.

Particular preference is given to liquid crystal mixtures which contain nitrile-containing and nitrile-free, fluorinated compounds, the latter preferably conforming to the formulae IIa to IIf in which X is F, Cl, —CF3, —CHF2, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —OCF2CF2H or —OC2F5.

The ratio of nitrile-free to nitrile-containing compounds in component B is preferably >1:1, in particular >2:1. Particularly preferred ranges are 2.5:1 to 6:1.

However, very particular preference is given to liquid crystal mixtures whose component B essentially consists of nitrile-free, fluorinated compounds. Preferably, the abovementioned preferred compounds of, the formulae IIa to IIf are used.

‘Essentially’ is understood to mean that the amount of further compounds in the corresponding component is ≦20%, in particular ≦10%.

Preference is also given to liquid crystal mixtures whose component B contains compounds whose end groups are chlorinated. Compounds of this type are known to one skilled in the art and preferably conform to the formulae IIa to IIf where X is Cl. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the mixtures contain one or more compounds of the formula IIa to IIf in which A2-X or A3-X is


where X is CF3, —OCF3, —OCHF2 or Cl. Furthermore, component B can also contain tetranuclear compounds, for example in accordance with formulae IIc to IIf in which one of the rings A1 to A3 is present twice.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the mixtures contain compounds which have a terminal nitrile and are present in component B in an amount from 0 to 50% by weight. Particular preference is given to mixtures which do not contain any compounds which have a terminal nitrile. Surprisingly, it has been found that groups such as —OCF3, —OCHF2, —OCF2CF2H or —OC2F5 have a considerably less stabilizing effect in the displays than —OCH3 or —OC2H3. The same is true for aliphatically bound alkoxy (compounds of the formulae III and IV).

The mixtures according to the invention preferably have a resistivity of ≧1012 Ω×cm, particularly preferably >1013 Ω×cm, at 20°. The mean ∈ is preferably ≦7, in particular ≦5.

The values of dielectric anisotropy of the individual compounds of components A to C are determined at 20° by extrapolation from a polar mixture (containing 24% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile, 36% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexylbenzonitrile, 25% of p-trans-4-heptylcyclohexylbenzonitrile and 15% of 4-cyano-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)biphenyl), if the compound to be determined contains a dipole along the longitudinal axis of the molecule, or from a neutral mixture (containing 22% of trans-1-p-ethylphenyl-4-propylcyclohexane, 20% of trans-1-p-methoxyphenyl-1-propylcyclohexane, e 15% of trans-1-p-ethoxyphenyl-4-propylcyclohexane, 19% of 4-ethyl-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)biphenyl, 14% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)biphenyl, 5% of 4,4′-bis(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)biphenyl and 5% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-biphenyl) in the case of neutral compounds.

The liquid crystal mixtures according to the invention make it possible to achieve a high value for the resistivity in combination with low viscosities, which allows to produce excellent MLC displays. The MLC displays according to the invention preferably operate in the first transmission minimum according to Gooch and Tarry [C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, Electron. Lett. 10, 2-4, 1974; C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry; Appl. Phys., Vol. 8, 1575-1584, 1975], in which case in addition to particularly favourable electrooptical properties such as, for example, high steepness of the characteristic curve and low angle dependence of the contrast (German Patent Specification 3,022,818) in combination with the same threshold voltage as in an analogous display, a smaller dielectric anisotropy is sufficient in the second minimum. This makes it possible to achieve significantly higher resistivities in the first minimum, when the mixtures according to the invention are used.

The viscosity at 20° C. is preferably ≦25 mPa·s. The nematic phase range is preferably at least 70°, in particular at least 80°. Preferably, this range extends at least from −20° to +70°.

The individual compounds of the formulae I to IV and their subformulae which can be used in the MLC displays according to the invention are either known or can be prepared analogously to known compounds.

Preferred liquid crystal mixtures to be used according to the invention contain a total of, preferably, 10% to 90%, in particular 20% to 90%, of compounds of the formula I. If component B is not composed predominantly of strongly dielectrically positive nitrile components but predominantly only of weakly dielectrically positive compounds such as, for example, the fluorinated compounds mentioned below, component A can under certain circumstances be omitted entirely, and the mixtures according to the invention can in this special embodiment be solely based on component B and, if desired, component C. Particular preference is given to liquid crystal mixtures whose component B contains one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formulae IIa to IIf


in which

  • R is n-alkyl or n-alkenyl of up to 9 carbon atoms,
  • X is cyano, —NCS, F, Cl, —CF3, —CHF2, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —OCF2CF2H or —OC2F5, and
    the rings A1, A2 and A3
    • are each, independently of one another, 1,4-phenylene, 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene, 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-cyclohexenylene.

Preferably, component B contains compounds of the formulae IIa to IIf in which X is cyano and compounds of the formulae IIa to IIf in which X is —NCS, F, Cl, —CF3, —CHF2, —OCF3, —OCHF2, —OCF2CF2H or —OC2F5, and the amount of cyano compounds in component B is 0 to 50% by weight.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, component B does not contain any compounds of the formulae IIa to IIf in which X is cyano.

In the compounds of the partial formulae IIa to IIf, X is preferably F, Cl, CF3, —OCF3, —OCHF2 or —CHF2.

The rings A1, A2 and A3 are each preferably, independently of one another, trans-1,4-cyclohexylene or 1,4-phenylene. In a preferred embodiment, one of the rings A1, A2 and A3 is 2- or 3-fluoro-1,4-phenylene or 2,3-difluoro-1,4-phenylene. The ring bound to X (i.e. A2 in IIa and IIb and A3 in IIc to IIf) is preferably 1,4-phenylene which is unsubstituted or even mono- or disubstituted by fluorine. A2-X and A3-X are preferably a group selected from the formulae (a) to (h):


of which (a), (b), (d), (f), (g) and (h) are particularly preferred.

Particularly preferred smaller groups of compounds are listed below:

In the partial formulae IIa1 to IIf3, R is in each case n-alkyl or n-alkenyl of up to 9 carbon atoms Y and Z are each, independently of one another; H or F although one or two of the radicals Y and Z is preferably fluorine. However, X is preferably F, Cl, —CF3—, —OCF3 or —OCHF2.

Component B preferably represents 10% to 100%, in particular 20% to 80%, of the mixtures according to the invention.

Component A preferably contains one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of II1 to II7:


in which R1 and R2 have the meaning given in Claim 1.

Preferably, component A additionally contains one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of II8 to II20:


in which R1 and R2 have the meaning given in Claim 1 and the 1,4-phenylene groups in II8 to II17 can each, independently of one another, also be mono- or polysubstituted by fluorine.

Furthermore, component A preferably additionally contains one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of II21 to II25:


in which R1 and R2 have the meaning given in Claim 1 and the 1,4-phenylene groups in II21 to II25 can each, independently of one another, also be mono- or polysubstituted by fluorine.

Finally, those mixtures are preferred whose component A contains one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of II26 and II27:


in which CrH2r+1 is a straight-chain alkyl group of up to 7 carbon atoms.

In some cases, the addition of compounds of the formula


in which
R1 and R2 have the meaning given Claim 1 and

  • Z0 is a single bond, —CH2CH2—,
    or
    proves to be advantageous for suppressing smectic phases, although the resistivity is thereby lowered. Whether and in which amount these compounds should be added for achieving optimum parameter combinations for practical application can easily be determined by one skilled in the art. Usually, less than 15%, in particular 5-10%, are used.

Further preference is given to liquid crystal mixtures which, in addition to components A, B and C, additionally contain one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of III and IV:


in which R1 and R2 have the abovementioned meaning and/or one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of V and VI
in which R1 and R2 have the abovementioned meaning and/or one or more compounds selected from the group consisting of VII to XI
in which R1 and R2 have the abovementioned meaning and s is 0 or 1.

The amounts of the compounds of the formulae III to XI in the mixtures according to the invention (preferred ranges) can be seen from the table below:

  • Sum of compounds III and IV: 0% to 40%, preferably 10% to 30%
  • Sum of compounds V and VI: 0% to 40%, preferably 5% to 20%
  • Sum of compounds VI to XI: 0% to 20%, preferably 5% to 15%

It goes without saying that the mixtures according to the invention, which preferably consist essentially of the compounds mentioned as preferred for components A to C, may additionally also contain further compounds not mentioned here explicitly. However, this leads in many cases to more unfavourable properties. One skilled in the art can easily determine whether and in which amounts further compounds can be used.

The design of the MLC display according to the invention which consists of polarizers, electrode base plates and electrodes which, have been subjected to surface treatment is that which is customary for this type of display. The definition of customary design is in this case very broad and also comprises all modifications and alterations of the MLC display, in particular also matrix display elements based on poly-Si TFT or MIM.

However, a significant difference between the displays according to the invention and those which have been customary so far and are based on the twisted nematic cell is the selection of the liquid crystal parameters of the liquid crystal layer.

The preparation of the liquid crystal mixtures to be used according to the invention is carried out in the usual, manner. As a rule, the desired amount of the components used in a minor amount is dissolved in the components which constitute the major component, advantageously at elevated temperature. It is also possible to mix solutions of the components in an organic solvent, for example in acetone, chloroform or methanol, and remove the solvent again after the mixing, for example by distillation.

The dielectrics can also contain further additives known to one skilled in the art and described in the literature. For example, 0-15% pleochroic colorants or chiral doping substances can be added.

The examples which, follow are intended to illustrate the invention without limiting it. Hereinbefore and hereinafter all temperatures are given in ° C. The percentages are by weight.

EXAMPLE 1

A matrix liquid crystal display of the TFT type containing a nematic liquid crystal mixture consisting of 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,

  • 13% of p-trans-4-butylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 22% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 9% of E-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4″-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a resistivity of 3×1012 Ωcm. The nematic mixture has a clear point of 91°, a viscosity of 18 mPa·s at 20°, a mean DC of 5.0 and an optical anisotropy of 0.118.
EXAMPLE 2

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of p-trans-4-butylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[(trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 7% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 7% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 93°, a viscosity of 19 mPa·s, a mean DC of 5.4, a Δn of 0.107 and a resistivity of 2.5×1012 Ωcm.
EXAMPLE 3

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 17% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 3% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4″-(trans-4-propyl-cyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 88°, a viscosity of 15.2 mPa·s, a mean DC of 4.3, a Δn of 0.078 and a resistivity of 8.6×1013 Ωcm. This mixture is particularly suitable for operation in the first minimum according to Gooch and Tarry at a threshold voltage of 2.7 V.
EXAMPLE 4

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 12% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 4% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 91°, a Δn of 0.076, a mean Dc of 4.2 and a resistivity of 7.3×1013 Ωcm.
EXAMPLE 5

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 13% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 8% of p-trans-4-butylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 15% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 17% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexyl, cyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4%, of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 96°, a Δn of 0.103, a mean DC of 4.9 and a resistivity of 1.0×1013 Ωcm. This mixture is particularly suitable for operation in the first minimum according to Gooch and Tarry at a threshold voltage of 2.3 V.
EXAMPLE 6

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 13% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 15% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 12% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-(2-fluoroethyl)-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 99°, a Δn of 0.097, a mean DC of 4.1 and a resistivity of 7.8×1013 Ωcm. This mixture is particularly suitable for operation in the first minimum according to Gooch and Tarry at a threshold voltage of 2.9 V.
EXAMPLE 7

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 16% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 11% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-(2-fluoroethyl)-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 99.5°, a Δn of 0.100, a mean DC of 4.2 and a resistivity of 7.5×1013 Ωcm. This mixture is particularly suitable for operation in the first minimum according to Gooch and Tarry at a threshold voltage of 2.7 V.
EXAMPLE 8

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans, trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans, trans-4-propyl-41′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 9% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4%, of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 93.4°, a Δn of 0.108, a mean DC of 4.4 and a resistivity of 1.3×1013 Ωcm. The viscosity at 20° is 18.4 mPa·s.
EXAMPLE 9

A nematic mixture consisting of,

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans, trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans, trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 11% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 89.8°, a Δn of 0.102, a mean DC of 4.4, a resistivity of 1.5×1013 Ωcm and a viscosity of 19.1 mPa·s.
EXAMPLE 10

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 8% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 7% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 8% of p-trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 7% of p-trans-4-heptylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 5% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(2,3′,4′-trifluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 1-[(trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(2,3′,4′-trifluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-ethane,
  • 8% of trans,trans-1-(p-ethylphenyl)-4-propyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 7% of trans,trans-1-(p-propylphenyl)-4-pentyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 8% of trans,trans-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-propyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 7% of trans,trans-1-(p-fluorophenyl)-4-pentyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 6% of trans,trans-1-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-4-propyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of trans,trans-1-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-4-pentyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 6% of trans,trans-1-[p-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-4-propyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of trans,trans-1-[p-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy)phenyl]-4-pentyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 3% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 3% of 4,4-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl and
  • 4% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 92°, a Δn of 0.099, a mean DC of 4.1, a resistivity of 5.4×1013 Ωcm and a viscosity of only 14 mPa·s.
EXAMPLE 11

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 22% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-propylbiphenyl,
  • 5% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4-methyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 1,4-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-benzene,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 5% of 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(4′-ethyl-2′-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl and,

6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl

has a clear point of 95°, a viscosity of 16 mPa·s, a Δn of 0.113, a mean DC of 3.8 and a resistivity of 7×1013 Ωcm.

EXAMPLE 12

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 11% of, trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of E [sic]-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 90°, a viscosity of 18 mPa·s and a Δn of 0.102.
EXAMPLE 13

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 14% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 14% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 14% of trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-heptylcyclohexane,
  • 10% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 6% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 6% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl) cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 5% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 95°, a viscosity of 17 mPa·s and a an of 0.105.

The following mixtures are very suitable for MLC displays:

EXAMPLE 14

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 10% of 1-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-(4′-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl)-ethane,
  • 17% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-trans-4-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-cyclohexyl]ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 3% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 15

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 12% of trans, trans-4-propyl-4′-methoxymethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4′-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 4% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 16

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 13% of 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(p-cyanophenyl)ethane,
  • 8% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-benzonitrile,
  • 18% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 17% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[p-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-phenyl]-2-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4 ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 17

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 13% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 15% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 12% of 1-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4-propylcyclohex-1-ene,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-4-propylcyclohex-1-ene,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 18

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 16% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 11% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-(2-fluoroethyl)-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(4-pentylbiphenyl-4′-yl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-(p-(trans 4-pentylcyclohexyl)-phenyl-2-(propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-[trans-4-(propylphenyl)-cyclohexyl]-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 19

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-ethoxy-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 9% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 20

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of trans, trans-4-pentyl-4′-methoxy-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 13% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-propoxy-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 11% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 8% of 4′-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 8% of 4′-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 21

A nematic liquid crystal mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 17% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 13% of p-trans-4-butylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 22% of trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(4-ethyl-2,3-difluorobiphenyl-4′-yl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl-2-(p-pentylphenyl)ethane,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 9% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 22

A nematic mixture is prepared which consists of:

  • 15% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 11% of p-trans-4-butylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 11% of trans,trans-4-pentyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 11% of trans,trans-4-propyl-4′-fluoromethyl-cyclohexylcyclohexane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-methylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-(trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl-2-(p-ethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-pentylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 4% of 2-p-fluorophenyl-5-hexylpyrimidine,
  • 4% of 2-p-fluorophenyl-5-pentylpyridine,
  • 7% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 7% of 4-ethyl-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl, and
  • 6% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl.
EXAMPLE 23

A nematic mixture consisting of:

  • 14% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexylbenzonitrile,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-heptylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 20% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-difluoromethoxy-benzene,
  • 6% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 6% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 5% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-7-fluorobiphenyl,
  • 5% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl, and
  • 5% of 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-fluorobiphenyl
    has a clear point of 93°, a viscosity of 17 mPa·s, a Δn of 0.105 and a high resistivity.
EXAMPLE 24

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-heptylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 20% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 10% of 4-trifluoromethoxy-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl
    has a clear point of 80°, a Δn of 0.079, a threshold voltage V(10/0/20) of 2.27 volt and a very low viscosity.
EXAMPLE 25

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 25% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 20% of 4-trifluoromethoxy-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl,
  • 15% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane
    has a clear point of 54°, a Δn of 0.088, a threshold voltage V(10/0/20) of 2.18 volt and a very low viscosity.
EXAMPLE 26

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 12% of p-trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl-difluoromethoxybenzene
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4′-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 11% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 11% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 11% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 11% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene and
  • 4% of 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl
    has a clear point of 87°, a Δn of 0.0798; a dielectric anisotropy of +6.5, a threshold voltage of V(10/0/20) of 2.25 volt and a very low viscosity.
EXAMPLE 27

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 10% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-difluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 15% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane,
  • 10% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)[sic]-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene and
  • 5% of 4-trifluoromethoxy-4′-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl
    has a clear point of 81°, a Δn of 0.0795, a threshold voltage V(10/0/20) of 2.47 volt and a very low viscosity
EXAMPLE 28

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 25% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-difluoromethoxy benzene,
  • 15% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 15% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
  • 15% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 20% of 4-trifluoromethoxy-4′-trans-4-pentylcyclohexylbiphenyl
    has a clear point of 71°, a Δn of 0.0878, a Δ∈ of +6.1, a threshold voltage V(10/0/20) of 2.09 volt and a viscosity of 12 mPa·s at 20° C.
EXAMPLE 29

A nematic mixture consisting of

  • 10% of p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 15% of p-trans-4-hexylcyclohexyl-fluorobenzene,
  • 15% of p-trans-4-heptylcyclohexyl[sic]-fluorobenzene,
  • 20% of p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene,
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane, and
  • 20% of 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane,
    has a clear point of 65°, a viscosity of 11 mPa·s at 20°, a Δn of 0.074, a Δ∈ of +5.6 and a threshold voltage V(10/0/20) of 2.06 volt.

The composition of the mixtures of Examples 30 to 58 is given below, the individual compounds being coded as follows:

PCH-301: trans-1-p-methoxyphenyl-4-propylcyclo-
hexane
CCH-301: trans,trans-4-methoxy-4′-propylcyclohexyl-
cyclohexane
CBC-33F: 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-
fluorobiphenyl
CBE-55F: 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-
fluorobiphenyl
CBC-53F: 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-
propylcyclcohexyl) [sic]-2-fluorobiphenyl
CBC-33: 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-propylcyclohexal)-
biphenyl
CBC-55: 4,4′-bis-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
biphenyl
CBC-53: 4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-4′-(trans-4-
propylcyclohexyl)-biphenyl
ECCP-33: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-propylphenyl)-ethane
CCH-51F: trans,trans-4-fluoromethyl-4′-pentyl-
cyclohexylcyclohexane
CCH-31F: trans,trans-4-fluoromethyl-4′-propyl-
cyclohexylcyclohexane
PTP-102: 4-methyl-4′-ethoxy-tolan
PTP-201: 4-methoxy-4′-ethyl-tolan
CPTP-301: 4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-4′-methoxy-
tolan
CPTP-302: 4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-4′-ethoxy-
tolan
CPTP-303: 4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-4′-propoxy-
tolan
PCH-5F: trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane
PCH-6F: trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-hexylcyclohexane
PCH-7F: trans-1-p-fluorophenyl-4-heptylcyclohexane
EPCH-20CP3: 1-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-2-(p-tri-
fluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane
EPCH-30CF3: 1-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-2-(p-tri-
fluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane
EPCH-50CF3: 1-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-2-(p-tri-
fluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane
EPCH-70CF3: 1-(trans-4-heptylcyclohexyl)-2-(p-tri
fluoromethoxyphenyl)-ethane
PCH-30CF3: trans-1-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-4-propyl-
cyclohexane
PCH-50CF3: trans-1-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-4-pentyl-
cyclohexane
ECCP-30CF3: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-
ethane
ECCP-50CF3: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl)-
ethane
CCP-20CF3: p-[trans-4-(trans-4-ethylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene
CCP-30CF3: p-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene
CCP-40CF3: p-[trans-4-(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene
CCP-50CF3: p-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-trifluoromethoxybenzene
BCH-30CF3: 4-trifluoromethoxy-4′-(trans-4-propyl-
cyctohexyl)-biphenyl
ECCP-3F.F: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane
ECCP-5F.F: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-ethane
CCP-3F.F: 4-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-1,2-difluorobenzne
CCP-5F.F: 4-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]1,2-difluorobenzene
CCP-3F: 4-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl)-fluorobenzene
ECCP-3F: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane
ECCP-5F: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethane
CP-3F: p-fluorophenyl trans-4-(trans-4-propyl-
cyclohexyl)-cyclohexanecarboxylate
CP-5F: p-fluorophenyl trans-4-(trans-4-propyl-
cyclohexyl)-cyclohexanecarboxylate
PYP-5F: 2-p-fluorophenyl-5-pentylpyrimidine
PYP-6F: 2-p-fluorophenyl-5-hexylpyrimidine
PYP-7F: 2-p-fluorophenyl-5-heptylpyrimidine
PYP-30CF3: 2-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-5-propylpyrimi-
dine
PYP-50CF3: 2-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-5-pentylpyrimi-
dine
PYP-70CF3: 2-p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-5-heptylpyrimi-
dine
PCH-3 p-trans-4-propylcyclohexyl-benzonitrile
PCH-4: p-trans-4-butylcyclohexyl-benzonitrile
PCH-5: p-trans-4-pentylcyclohexyl-benzonitrile
ECCP-3: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexal)-
cyclohexy]-2-(p-cyanophenyl)-ethane
ECCP-3CF3: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-propylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-
ethane
ECCP-5CF3: 1-[trans-4-(trans-4-penytylcyclohexyl)-
cyclohexyl]-2-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-
ethane
PYP-5N.F: 2-(3-fluoro-4-cyanophenyl)-5-pentylpyrimi-
dine
PYP-7N.F: 2-(3-fluoro-4-cyanophenyl)-5-heptylpyrimi-
dine
PCH-30CF2: trans-1-p-difluoromethoxyphenyl-4-propyl-
cyclohexane
PCH-50CF2: trans-1-p-difluoromethoxyphenyl-4-pentyl-
cyclohexane
PCH-30CF2: trans-1-p-difluoromethoxyphenyl-4-propyl-
cyclohexane.
PCH-53 trans-1-p-propylphenyl-4-pentylcyclohexane

Example 30 Example 31
PCH-301 10.00 PCH-30CF2 9.00
PCH-7F 4.00 PCH-40CF2 8.00
EPCH-30CF3 9.00 PCH-50CF2 9.00
EPCH-70CF3 5.00 CCP-301 7.00
CCP-30CF3 13.00 CCP-30CF3 13.00
CCP-50CF3 12.00 CCP-50CF3 12.00
ECCP-30CF3 12.00 ECCP-30CF3 8.00
ECCP-50CF3 8.00 ECCP-50CF3 6.00
ECCP-3F.F 12.00 ECCP-3F.F 9.00
ECCP-3F 8.00 ECCP-3F 6.00
CBC-33F 2.00 CBC-33F 5.00
CBC-53F 3.00 CBC-53F 4.00
CSC-55F 2.00 CBC-55F 4.00

Example 32 Example 33
CCP-301 7.00 PCH-5F 13.0
PCH-5F 12.00 PCH-7F 10.0
PCH-7F 9.00 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-30CF3 13.00 CCP-40CF3 11.0
CCP-50CF3 12.00 CCP-50CF3 12.0
ECCP-30CF3 11.00 ECCP-30CF3 11.0
ECCP-50CF3 8.00 ECCP-50CF3 8.0
ECCP-3F.F 12.00 ECCP-3F.F 9.0
ECCP-3F 7.00 ECCP-5F.F 6.0
CBC-33F 3.00 CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 3.00 CBC-53F 2.0
CBC-55F 3.00 CBC-55F 2.0

Example 34 Example 35
PCH-5F 11.0 PCH-5F 13.0
PCH-6F 4.0 PCE-7F 10.0
PCH-7F 10.0 CCP-20CF3 10.0
CCP-20CF3 9.0 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-30CF3 13.0 CCP-40CF3 7.0
CCP-40CF3 7.0 CCP-50CF3 11.0
CCP-50CF3 11.0 ECCP-30CF3 11.0
ECCP-30CF3 10.0 ECCP-3F.F 10.0
ECCP-50CF3 8.0 ECCP-3F 8.0
ECCP-3F.F 8.0 CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-33F 3.0 CBC-53F 2.0
CBC-53F 3.0 CBC-55F 2.0
CBC-55F 3.0

Example 36 Example 37
PCH-5F 13.0 PCH-5F 13.0
PCH-7F 10.0 PCH-7F 10.0
CCP-20CF3 10.0 CCP-20CF3 10.0
CCP-30CF3 13.0 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-40CF3 7.0 CCP-40CF3 7.0
CCP-50CF3 11.0 CCP-50CF3 11.0
ECCP-30CF3 11.0 ECCP-3F.F 10.0
ECCP-3F.F 10.0 ECCP-5F.F 8.0
ECCP-5F.F 7.0 ECCP-3F 11.0
CBC-33F 3.0 CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 3.0 CBC-53F 2.0
CBC-55F 2.0 CBC-55F 2.0

Example 38 Example 39
PCH-5F 12.0 PCH-5F 12.0
PCH-7F 10.0 PCH-6F 9.0
CCP-20CF3 11.0 PCH-7F 10.0
CCP-30CF3 13.0 CCP-20CF3 11.0
CCP-40CF3 7.0 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-50CF3 12.0 CCP-40CF3 5.0
ECCP-30CF3 9.0 CCP-50CF3 12.0
ECCP-3F.F 9.0 ECCP-3F.F 9.0
ECCP-5F.F 5.0 ECCP-5F.F 5.0
ECCP-3F 6.0 ECCP-3F 5.0
CBC-33F 3.0 CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 2.0 CBC-53F 3.0
CBC-55F 3.0

Example 40 Example 41
PCH-5F 12.0 PCH-5F 10.0
PCH-6F 8.0 PCH-6F 5.0
PCE-7F 10.0 PCH-7F 7.0
CCP-20CF3 11.0 CCP-20CF3 11.0
CCP-30CF3 13.0 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-40CF3 5.0 CCP-40CF3 6.0
CCP-50CF3 12.0 CCP-50CF3 11.0
ECCP-3F.F 11.0 ECCP-30CF3 7.0
ECCP-5F.F 8.0 ECCP-50CF3 3.0
CBC-33F 4.0 ECCP-3F.F 9.0
CBC-53F 3.0 ECCP-5F.F 4.0
CBC-55F 3.0 ECCP-3F 7.0
CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 2.0
CBC-55F 2.0

Example 42 Example 43
PCH-3 19.0 PCH-3 20.00
PCH-7F 7.0 PCH-4 8.00
CCP-20CF3 11.0 PCH-5F 8.00
CCP-30CF3 13.0 PCH-6F 8.00
CCP-40CF3 6.0 PCH-7F 7.00
CCP-50CF3 12.0 ECCP-3F 7.00
ECCP-30CF3 7.0 ECCP-5F 7.00
ECCP-3F.F 10.0 CP-3F 12.00
ECCP-5F.F 8.0 CP-5F 12.00
ECCP-3F 7.0 ECCP-3 11.00

Example 44 Example 45
PCH-3 20.00 PCH-3 14.00
PCH-5F 9.00 PCH-5F 14.00
PCH-6F 9.00 PCH-7F 14.00
PCH-7F 9.00 PCH-53 10.00
ECCP-3F 9.00 ECCP-3F 6.00
ECCP-5F 8.00 ECCP-5F 6.00
CP-3F 12.00 ECCP-3CF3 5.00
CP-5F 12.00 CBC-33 5.00
ECCP-3 13.00 CBC-53 5.00
CBC-55 5.00
CBC-33F 5.00
CBC-53F 6.00
CBC-55F 5.00

Example 46 Example 47
PCH-5F 20.00 PCH-3 24.00
PCH-6F 15.00 PCH-5F 9.00
PCH-7F 15.00 PCE-7F 8.00
ECCP-3F 10.00 ECCP-3F 8.00
ECCP-5F 10.00 ECCP-5F 8.00
CBC-33 5.00 ECCP-30CF3 11.00
CBC-53 5.00 ECCP-50CF3 11.00
CBC-55 5.00 ECCP-3CF3 11.00
CBC-33F 5.00 ECCP-3 10.00
CBC-53F 5.00
CBC-55F 5.00

Example 48 Example 49
PCH-3 24.00 PCH-3 24.00
PCH-5F 7.00 CCH-31F 7.00
PCH-7F 6.00 CCH-51F 7.00
CCH-31F 6.00 ECCP-3F 8.00
ECCP-3F 5.00 ECCP-5F 8.00
ECCP-5F 5.00 ECCP-30CF3 11.00
ECCP-30CF3 11.00 ECCP-50CF3 11.00
ECCP-50CF3 11.00 ECCP-3CF3 11.00
ECCP-3CF3 11.00 ECCP-3 13.00
ECCP-3 4.00
CP-3F 5.00
CP-5F 5.00

Example 50 Example 51
PYP-5N.F 5.00 PCH-5F 10.00
PYP-7N.F 5.00 PCH-6F 12.00
PCH-3 14.00 PCH-7F 12.00
PCH-5F 5.00 ECCP-3F 14.00
CCH-31F 7.00 ECCP-5F 14.00
CCH-51F 7.00 CP-3F 15.00
ECCP-3F 5.00 CP-5F 15.00
ECCP-5F 5.00 ECCP-3 8.00
ECCP-30CF3 11.00
ECCP-50CF3 11.00
ECCP-3CF3 11.00
ECCP-3 4.00
CP-3F 5.00
CP-5F 5.00

Example 52 Example 53
PCH-5F 10.00 PCH-3 16.00
PCH-6F 10.00 PCH-301 8.00
PCH-7F 10.00 CCP-30CF3 9.00
ECCP-3F 13.00 CCP-50CF3 8.00
ECCP-5F 14.00 ECCP-30CF3 8.00
ECCP-3CF3 13.00 ECCP-50CF3 7.00
CP-3F 15.00 ECCP-3F.F 7.00
CF-5F 15.00 ECCP-3F 6.00
ECCP-3CF3 7.00
BCH-30CF3 7.00
PTP-102 4.00
PTP-201 4.00
CPTP-301 2.00
CPTP-302 2.00
CPTP-303 3.00

Example 54 Example 55
PCH-3 18.00 PCH-3 20.00
PCH-301 8.00 PCH-301 10.00
PYP-3F 5.00 PCH-30CF2 5.60
PYP-50CF3 5.00 PCH-40CF2 5.60
PYP-70CF3 5.00 PCH-50CF2 5.60
CCP-30CF3 9.00 CCP-30CF3 7.00
CCP-50CF3 8.00 CCP-50CF3 6.30
ECCP-30CF3 8.00 ECCP-30CF3 6.30
ECCP-50CF3 7.00 ECCP-50CF3 5.60
ECCP-3F.F 5.00 ECCP-3F.F 5.60
ECCP-3F 5.00 ECCP-3CF3 5.60
BCH-30CF3 7.00 BCH-30CF3 7.00
CPTP-301 3.00 CPTP-301 3.50
CPTP-302 3.00 CPTP-302 2.80
CPTP-303 4.00 CPTP-303 3.50

Example 56 Example 57
PCH-3 20.00 PCH-3 18.00
PCH-301 10.00 PCH-5F 12.00
PYP-3F 5.60 PCH-6F 12.00
PYP-5F 5.60 PCH-7F 10.00
PYP-50CF3 5.60 ECCP-3F 7.00
PYP-70CF3 5.60 ECCP-5F 7.00
CCP-30CF3 7.00 ECCP-33 5.00
CCP-50CF3 6.30 CBC-33 5.00
ECCP-30CF3 6.30 CBC-53 5.00
ECCP-50CF3 5.60 CBC-55 4.00
ECCP-3F.F 5.60 CBC-33F 5.00
ECCP-3CF3 5.60 CBC-53F 5.00
CPTP-301 3.50 CBC-55F 5.00
CPTP-302 3.50
CPTP-303 4.20

EXAMPLE 58

Example 58
PCH-3 10.00
PCH-5F 18.00
PCH-6F 14.00
PCH-7F 10.00
ECCP-3F 9.00
ECCP-5F 7.00
CBC-33 5.00
CBC-53 6.00
CBC-55 5.00
CBC-33F 5.00
CBC-53F 6.00
CBC-55F 5.00

The properties of the mixtures from Examples 30 to 58 are listed in the table below:

Example
Property 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38
Clear point [° C.] 100 101 100 103 100 101 101 100 100
Vicosity at 20° 15 15 15 15 15
(mPa · s)
Δε +4.0 +6.6 +5.9 +4.0 +4.6
ε11 7.0 6.8 7.5
Δn 0.090 0.090 0.084 0.076 0.087 0.084 0.085 0.081 0.081
v{10.0.20}[Volt] 2.44 2.40 2.57 2.52 2.27 2.29 2.20 2.26 2.27
Property 39 49 41 42 43 44 45 46 47
Clear point [° C.] 88 90 102 98 82 84 95 89 87
Vicosity at 20° 14 14 15 17 18 18 17 15 16
(mPa · s)
Δε +4.0 +4.0 +3.9 +8.0 +7.3 +4.6 +2.7 +8.7
ε11 6.9 7.0 6.6 11.9 11.0 7.6 12.1
Δn 0.091 0.079 0.081 0.090 0.094 0.090 0.105 0.093 0.094
v{10.0.20}[Volt] 2.13 2.20 2.33 1.90 1.71 1.75 2.15 2.98 1.82
Property 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58
Clear point [° C.] 84 101 85 94 94 106 91 81 73 95 94
Vicosity at 20° 16 20 19 17 17
(mPa · s)
Δε +7.9 +8.3 +10.2 +6.9 +8.1 +6.5 +8.7 +5.2
ε11 11.5 11.8 14.2 10.4 11.8 10.8 12.8 8.4
Δn 0.089 0.094 0.095 0.074 0.072 0.132 0.125 0.113 0.125 0.105 0.101
v{10.0.20}[Volt] 1.86 1.98 1.56 2.42 2.58 2.51 2.22 2.15 1.85 2.03 2.23

Further mixtures according to the invention are listed below:

Example 59 Example 60
CCH-301 7.00 PCH-5F 13.0
PCH-5F 12.00 PCH-7F 10.0
PCH-7F 9.00 CCP-30CF3 13.0
CCP-3F.F 13.00 CCP-40CF3 11.0
CCP-5F.F 12.00 CCP-50CF3 12.0
ECCP-30CF3 11.00 ECCP-30CF3 11.0
ECCP-50CF3 8.00 ECCP-50CF3 8.0
ECCP-3F.F 12.00 CCP-3F.F 9.0
ECCP-3F 7.00 CCP-5F.F 6.0
CBC-33F 3.00 CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 3.00 CBC-53F 2.0
CBC-55F 3.00 CBC-55F 2.0

Example 61 Example 62
PCH-5F 11.0 PCH-3 20.0
PCH-6F 4.0 PCH-4 8.0
PCH-7F 10.0 PCH-5 8.0
CCP-20CF3 9.0 PCH-6F 8.0
CCP-30CF3 13.0 PCH-7F 7.0
CCP-40CF3 7.0 CCP-3F.F 7.0
CCP-50CF3 11.0 CCP-5F.F 7.0
CCP-3F.F 10.0 CP-3F 12.0
CCP-5F.F 8.0 CCF-3F 12.0
CCP-3F 8.0 ECCP-3 11.00
CBC-33F 3.0
CBC-53F 3.0
CBC-55F 3.0

Example 63 Example 64
PCH-3 14.00 PCH-5F 20.00
PCH-5F 14.00 PCH-6F 15.00
PCH-7F 14.00 PCH-7F 15.00
PCH-53 10.00 CCF-3F.F 10.00
CCP-3F 6.00 CCP-5F.F 10.00
CCP-5F 6.00 CBC-33 5.00
CCP-3F.F 5.00 CBC-53 5.00
CBC-33 5.00 CBC-55 5.00
CBC-53 5.00 CBC-33F 5.00
CBC-55 5.00 CBC-53F 5.00
CBC-33F 5.00 CBC-55F 5.00
CBC-53F 6.00
CBC-55F 5.00

Example 65 Example 66
PCH-3 16.00 PCH-3 18.00
PCH-301 8.00 PCH-5F 12.00
CCP-30CF3 9.00 PCH-6F 12.00
CCP-50CF3 8.00 PCH-7F 10.00
CCP-3F.F 8.00 CCP-3F.F 7.00
CCP-5F.F 7.00 CCP-5F.F 7.00
ECCP-3F.F 7.00 ECCP-33 5.00
CCP-3F 6.00 CBC-33 5.00
ECCP-3CF3 7.00 CBC-53 5.00
BCH-30CF3 7.00 CBC-55 4.00
PTP-102 4.00 CBC-33F 5.00
PTP-201 4.00 CBC-53F 5.00
CPTP-301 2.00 CBC-55F 5.00
CPTP-302 2.00
CPTP-303 3.00

EXAMPLE 67

PCH-3 10.00
PCH-5F 18.00
PCH-6F 14.00
PCH-7F 10.00
CCP-3F.F 9.00
CCP-5F.F 7.00
CBC-33 5.00
CBC-53 6.00
CBC-55 5.00
CBC-33F 5.00
CBC-53F 6.00
CBC-55F 5.00

EXAMPLE 68

Composition:
PCH-3 10.0%
PCH-5F 18.0%
PCH-6F 14.0%
PCH-7F 10.0%
ECCP-3F 9.0%
ECCP-5F 7.0%
CBC-33 5.0%
CBC-53 6.0%
CBC-55 5.0%
CBC-33F 5.0%
CBC-53F 6.0%
CBC-55F 5.0%
S → N <−20° C.
Clearing point  +94° C.
Viscosity ν +20° C. 16 mm2 s−1
Dielectric anisotropy Δε 1 kHz, 20° C. +4.1
ε|| 1 kHz, 20° C. 7.1
ε 1 kHz, 20° C. 3.0
Optical anisotropy Δn +0.1006
(20° C., 589 nm) n 1.5932
n 1.4926

EXAMPLE 69

Composition:
PCH-3 18.0%
PCH-5F 12.0%
PCH-6F 12.0%
PCH-7F 10.0%
ECCP-3F 7.0%
ECCP-5F 7.0%
ECCP-33 5.0%
CBC-33 5.0%
CBC-53 5.0%
CBC-55 4.0%
CBC-33F 5.0%
CBC-53F 5.0%
CBC-55F 5.0%
S → N <−40° C.
Clearing point  +95° C.
Viscosity ν +20° C. 17 mm2 s−1
Dielectric anisotropy Δε 1 kHz, 20° C. +5.2
ε|| 1 kHz, 20° C. 8.4
ε 1 kHz, 20° C. 3.2
Optical anisotropy Δn +0.1050
(20° C., 589 nm) n 1.5981
n 1.4931

EXAMPLE 70

Composition:
PCH-3 7.0%
PCH-5F 12.0%
PCH-6F 12.0%
PCH-7F 10.0%
ECCP-3F 7.0%
ECCP-5F 7.0%
PCH-53 8.0%
ECCP-33 5.0%
CBC-33 5.0%
CBC-53 6.0%
CBC-55 5.0%
CBC-33F 5.0%
CBC-53F 6.0%
CBC-55F 5.0%
S → N <−20° C.
Clearing point  +98° C.
Viscosity ν +20° C. 16 mm2 s−1
Dielectric anisotropy Δε 1 kHz, 20° C. +3.2
ε|| 1 kHz, 20° C. 6.0
ε 1 kHz, 20° C. 2.8
Optical anisotropy Δn +0.1008
(20° C., 589 nm) n 1.5942
n 1.4934

Exemples
71 72
S → N [° C.] <0 <0
Clearing point [° C.] +100 +101
Viscosity 16 16
[mm2s−1] 20° C.
Δ +0.086 +0.086
(20° C., 589 nm)
(20° C., 589 nm) 1.558 1.556
V(10.0.20) 2.33 2.38
V(0.0.30) 2.86 2.92
V(30.0.20) 3.52 3.62
Composition [%]: EPCH-3OCP3 13.0 EPCH-3OCP3 13.0
PCH- 10.0 EPCH-4OCP3 10.0
CCP-2OCP3 10.0 CCP-2OCP3 10.0
CCP-3OCP3 13.0 CCP-3OCP3 13.0
CCP-4OCP3 .0 CCP-4OCP3 7.0
CCP-OCP3 11.0 CCP-OCP3 11.0
ECCP-3P.P 10.0 ECCP-3P.P 10.0
ECCP-3P.P 4.0 ECCP-3P.P 4.0
ECCP-3P 11.0 ECCP-3P 11.0
CBC-33P 3.0 CBC-33P 3.0
CBC-43P 2.0 CBC-43P 2.0
CBC-44P 2.0 CBC-44P 2.0

The liquid crystal mixtures according to the invention can contain, in addition to component B and, where present, A and C, still further additives such as, for example, chiral doping substances, isotropic additives for modifying various parameters, pleochroic dyes and the like. Components A, B and C preferably comprise predominantly the compounds mentioned (that is, more than 5%, in particular more than 60%, of them). However, in a preferred manner, components A, B and C comprise the compounds mentioned (that is, more than 80%, in particular 100% of them).

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7837897Apr 27, 2009Nov 23, 2010Polytronix, Inc.4-cyano-4-ethylbiphenyl;( trans- 4- butylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl)benzene; 4-cyano-4-pentyloxybiphenyl liquid crystal compounds; indium-tin-oxide conducting layers; mercaptan cured epoxy resin or polyepoxides
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/1.1
International ClassificationC09K19/02, C09K19/30, C09K19/42, C09K19/04
Cooperative ClassificationC09K19/3028, C09K19/02, C09K19/3001, C09K19/42, C09K2019/3027, C09K2019/123, C09K19/14
European ClassificationC09K19/30A, C09K19/02, C09K19/42, C09K19/30A2, C09K19/14
Legal Events
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Dec 25, 2012FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20121104
Nov 4, 2012LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Jun 18, 2012REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed