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Publication numberUS20070291711 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/534,190
Publication dateDec 20, 2007
Filing dateSep 21, 2006
Priority dateJun 14, 2006
Also published asEP2033462A2, US8855065, US20110116452, US20150023338, WO2008019192A2, WO2008019192A3
Publication number11534190, 534190, US 2007/0291711 A1, US 2007/291711 A1, US 20070291711 A1, US 20070291711A1, US 2007291711 A1, US 2007291711A1, US-A1-20070291711, US-A1-2007291711, US2007/0291711A1, US2007/291711A1, US20070291711 A1, US20070291711A1, US2007291711 A1, US2007291711A1
InventorsJohn Thomas Welch, Gary L. Smith, Michael David Drews, Wael R. Midani
Original AssigneeIbahn General Holdings Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Techniques for wireless deployment
US 20070291711 A1
Abstract
A variety of techniques are described in which wireless access points or base stations are deployed in wireless networks to achieve geographic isolation, i.e., distinct zones of operation having well-defined geographic boundaries, and increased overall capacity in an area having a high population of access and client devices.
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Claims(16)
1. A wireless network, comprising a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices, a first one of the access devices being configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device at data rates below a predetermined data rate, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.
2. The wireless network of claim 1 wherein each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, the first access device further being configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device where receipt of the responses occurs more than a predetermined time period after transmission of the corresponding probes.
3. A wireless network, comprising a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices, each of the access devices being configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, a first one of the access devices being configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device where receipt of the responses occurs more than a predetermined time period after transmission of the corresponding probes, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.
4. A wireless network, comprising a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices, each of the access devices being configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, a first one of the access devices being configured to determine distances from the first access device to the client devices with reference to time periods associated with the probes and the corresponding responses.
5. The wireless network of claim 4 wherein the first access device is further configured to inhibit association of selected ones of the client devices with the first access device where the distances associated with the selected client devices are greater than a predetermined distance, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.
6. The wireless network of claim 4 wherein a first one of the distances is from the first access device to a first one of the client devices, and wherein second and third ones of the access devices are configured to determine second and third distances from the second and third access devices, respectively, to the first client device, the wireless network further comprising a first process operating in the network which is operable to determine a position of the first client device with reference to the first, second, and third distances.
7. The wireless network of claim 6 wherein the first process is further operable to facilitate association of the first client device with one of the access devices with reference to the position of the first client device.
8. A wireless network, comprising a plurality of access points for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices, a first one of the access points being configured to facilitate association of the client devices with the first access point by broadcasting a first set of service set identifiers, the first access point further being configured to facilitate association of selected ones of the client devices in response to transmissions from the selected client devices identifying additional service set identifiers not included in the first set of service set identifiers.
9. The wireless network of claim 8 wherein the first access device is further configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device at data rates below a predetermined data rate, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.
10. The wireless network of claim 9 wherein each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, the first access device further being configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device where receipt of the responses occurs more than a predetermined time period after transmission of the corresponding probes.
11. The wireless network of claim 8 wherein each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, the first access device further being configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device where receipt of the responses occurs more than a predetermined time period after transmission of the corresponding probes, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.
12. The wireless network of claim 8 wherein each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes, the first access device further being configured to determine distances from the first access device to the client devices with reference to time periods associated with the probes and the corresponding responses, a first one of the distances being from the first access device to a first one of the client devices, and wherein second and third ones of the access devices are configured to determine second and third distances from the second and third access devices, respectively, to the first client device, the wireless network further comprising a first process operating in the network which is operable to determine a position of the first client device with reference to the first, second, and third distances.
13. The wireless network of claim 12 wherein the first process is further operable to facilitate association of the first client device with one of the access devices with reference to the position of the first client device.
14. A wireless network, comprising a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices, first ones of the access devices being configured to transmit signals having a first polarization, and second ones of the access devices being configured to transmit signals having a second polarization different from the first, wherein the first and second access devices are deployed to mitigate friendly interference among the access devices.
15. The wireless network of claim 14 wherein the first polarization comprises a clockwise polarization and the second polarization comprises a counter-clockwise polarization.
16. The wireless network of claim 14 wherein the first and second access devices are deployed to provide a high-noise environment for the client devices such that each of the client devices tends to migrate to a nearest one of the first and second access devices.
Description
RELATED APPLICATION DATA

The present application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/813,993 for TECHNIQUES FOR WIRELESS DEPLOYMENT TO MAXIMIZE CAPACITY AND GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION filed on Jun. 14, 2006 (Attorney Docket No. STSNP009P), the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to wireless networks and, in particular, to a variety of techniques for the deployment and operation of access points in wireless networks to improve capacity and geographic isolation.

Wireless networks typically employ egress/access devices, commonly referred to as access points, which form points of presence for client radio devices. An access point may act alone in its function but is often deployed in an array or cellular structure with predictable and overlapping coverage from cell to cell. Client devices act as end-points for telemetry and data transferred to and from access points, or as processing points for the telemetry. In a conventional wireless network having multiple access points, a client device will typically associate with the access point for which it experiences the most favorable signal-to-noise ration (SNR). The client will then attempt to remain associated with that access point for as long as possible (e.g., by tuning down the data transfer rate).

To avoid interference between adjacent access points, conventional wireless networks often employ different channels within the RF band of interest for different access points, e.g., channels 1, 6, and 11 in the RF band associated with IEEE 802.11, the set of standards relating to wireless local area networks. Careful control of the signal intensities for adjacent access points is also used to reduce the likelihood that the access points will interfere with each other.

In a wireless network based on IEEE 802.11 or similar technologies, it is desirable that client devices be able to roam seamlessly from one access point to another. In some applications, it is also desirable to provide and support a variety of functionalities including, for example, independent data paths, multiple data types, independent user permissions, and independent security protocols allowing or restricting access or content based on geographic or venue locations within an environment which may offer little restriction to radio frequency propagation. For example, it may be desirable to enable a user at a venue with the proper permissions to roam from a public area such as a hallway or lobby into a meeting room or convention area. In these new areas the user would then have access to data and permissions not allowed or available in the public area. The capability of restricting the area of influence or usability by defining strict geographic boundaries, i.e., geographic isolation, enhances or enables a wide variety of services such as, for example, E-911, Point location (i.e., a “You Are Here” service), billing by location, traffic management, data security, access control, etc.

Geographic isolation may be conventionally achieved by restricting the broadcast power of the transmitting access point or base station, and in some circumstances the transmitting power of the client devices. In some applications the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of both the access point and client device may be restricted. This approach is highly effective in large open areas but breaks down in confined areas such as inside buildings or dense urban environments in which “canyon effects” tend to deduct signal.

In some applications, the attenuation presented by structures in the environment may not present a substantial barrier to signal propagation. This may be especially true, for example, in conference or office environments that may only be separated by glass, or thin, movable partitions. It is often not technically feasible to “dial down” the power of a transceiver to the point where it would continue to be useful in its intended area without transmitting beyond such barriers. In addition, reducing the transmission power of access points increases areas of shadow (or signal detected from other access points), while decreasing the ratio of signal to noise. These are both undesirable results in that they increase the likelihood that a client device might roam to an out-of-area access point. And even where this technique may be used successfully, it can be easily defeated by the use of relatively hi-gain antennas on client devices that enable reaching far beyond the intended area of geographic isolation.

Accurate determination of the location of client devices may also be used to achieve the goals associated with geographic isolation. That is, if the position of a client device is known within an environment, access to services may be controlled on that basis. Presently, wireless systems and devices rely on averaged signal strength from a known source point for location telemetry. The accuracy of the location can be improved upon, by a process known as triangulation. Triangulation is a process by which the location of a radio transmitter can be determined by measuring either the radial distance, or the direction, of the received signal from three different points. For example, the distance to a cell phone may be determined by measuring the relative time delays of the normal communications signal from the phone to three different base stations. Signal strength measurements in combination with triangulation have proven to be quite accurate in open environments. However, closed environments such as building interiors and dense urban areas present conditions which seriously degrade the efficacy of such techniques.

That is, the combination of reflection, refraction, multi-path, and signal absorption in such environments form complex boundary conditions making position predictions based on signal strength and triangulation tricky and often inaccurate. Methods to correct for these effects involve highly complex modeling and mapping of signal levels in the environment. And unfortunately, this time consuming and expensive “correction” falls apart if even a small change occurs from the baseline mapping. These small changes include thing like a door opening or closing, a curtain being opened exposing a reflective pane of glass, or even something as innocuous as the variable flow of water in plumbing.

Another conventional approach to determining the location of client devices is accomplished using global positioning systems (GPS) technologies. Unfortunately, such technologies are not always reliable inside buildings or in dense urban environments in that the reach of GPS equipment is limited by the attenuation caused by surrounding structures. GPS solutions also involve the use of secondary equipment, increasing system costs and introducing an additional point of failure.

In view of the foregoing, it is desirable to provide improved techniques for deploying wireless access points, base stations and the like.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

According to a specific embodiment of the present invention a wireless network is provided which includes a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices. A first one of the access devices is configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device at data rates below a predetermined data rate, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.

According to another specific embodiment, a wireless network is provided which includes a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices. Each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes. A first one of the access devices is configured to inhibit association of the client devices with the first access device where receipt of the responses occurs more than a predetermined time period after transmission of the corresponding probes, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.

According to yet another specific embodiment, a wireless network is provided which includes a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices. Each of the access devices is configured to transmit probes to the client devices and to receive responses from the client devices corresponding to the probes. A first one of the access devices is configured to determine distances from the first access device to the client devices with reference to time periods associated with the probes and the corresponding responses. According to one such embodiment, the first access device is further configured to inhibit association of selected ones of the client devices with the first access device where the distances associated with the selected client devices are greater than a predetermined distance, thereby creating a zone of operation outside of which the client devices are unlikely to associate with the first access device.

According to another such embodiment, a first one of the distances is from the first access device to a first one of the client devices. Second and third ones of the access devices are configured to determine second and third distances from the second and third access devices, respectively, to the first client device. A first process operating in the network is operable to determine a position of the first client device with reference to the first, second, and third distances. According to an even more specific embodiment, the first process is further operable to facilitate association of the first client device with one of the access devices with reference to the position of the first client device.

According to a still further embodiment, a wireless network is provided which includes a plurality of access points for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices. A first one of the access points is configured to facilitate association of the client devices with the first access point by broadcasting a first set of service set identifiers. The first access point is further configured to facilitate association of selected ones of the client devices in response to transmissions from the selected client devices identifying additional service set identifiers not included in the first set of service set identifiers.

According to yet a further specific embodiment, a wireless network is provided which includes a plurality of access devices for enabling wireless access to the network by a plurality of client devices. First ones of the access devices are configured to transmit signals having a first polarization. Second ones of the access devices are configured to transmit signals having a second polarization different from the first. The first and second access devices are deployed to mitigate friendly interference among the access devices. According to a more specific embodiment, the first and second polarizations are clockwise and counter-clockwise polarizations. According to another more specific embodiment, deployment of the first and second access devices results in a high-noise environment for the client devices such that each of the client devices tends to migrate to a nearest one of the first and second access devices.

A further understanding of the nature and advantages of the present invention may be realized by reference to the remaining portions of the specification and the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a simplified network diagram of an exemplary wireless local area network in which embodiments of the present invention may be implemented.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

Reference will now be made in detail to specific embodiments of the invention including the best modes contemplated by the inventors for carrying out the invention. Examples of these specific embodiments are illustrated in the accompanying drawings. While the invention is described in conjunction with these specific embodiments, it will be understood that it is not intended to limit the invention to the described embodiments. On the contrary, it is intended to cover alternatives, modifications, and equivalents as may be included within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. In the following description, specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. The present invention may be practiced without some or all of these specific details. In addition, well-known features may not have been described in detail to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the invention.

FIG. 1 is a simplified network diagram of an exemplary wireless local area network 100 in which embodiments of the present invention may be implemented. Wireless access points 102 in conjunction with switch 103 provide access to network 100 to a variety of client devices. It should be noted at the outset that the equipment and network configuration shown merely represent one example of the wide variety of environments in which the invention may be practiced. For example, wireless access points 102 may be implemented according to any of IEEE 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11a, 802.16, etc., and may represent products provided by suppliers such as, for example, Colubris Networks of Waltham, Mass., or Cisco Systems of San Jose, Calif. Additionally, the connection between access points 102 and the network (as represented by switch 103 which may itself represent one or more of a wide variety of switches and routers) is represented as wireless, but may be wired. In general, the techniques described herein are more widely applicable and should not be limited to the network configurations, standards, or vendors referred to herein.

In addition, the various functionalities described herein may be implemented in a variety of ways. For example, various aspects of these functionalities may be implemented in hardware, firmware, or software associated with the various devices in a wireless network. These devices include wireless access points or base stations, associated computing devices (e.g., servers and switches), and, in some cases, the client devices operating in the network. The functionalities may be performed or controlled by a single device, or may be performed in a distributed manner by more than one device in the network. Thus, although exemplary embodiments described herein may refer to particular approaches to implementing the various functionalities of the invention, those of skill in the art will understand that these references are not intended to limit the invention.

It should also be noted that, as used herein, the term “client device” refers to any of a wide variety of devices which operate in a wireless network including, for example, any type of wireless computing device (e.g., laptops, handheld devices, etc.), any type of wireless telecommunications device (e.g., cell phones, messaging clients, etc.), inventory devices (e.g., point-of-sale, bar code scanners, etc.), or devices performing functions as peripherals to standard or common digital or analog systems.

According to various embodiments of the invention, techniques are provided which may be used individually or in various combinations to implement functionalities typically associated with geographic isolation in complex wireless environments, e.g., providing different levels of access or service in well-defined geographic zones of operation. In contrast with conventional approaches which attempt to mitigate the effects of noisy environments, some of the embodiments of the invention actually take advantage of low signal-to-noise ratios and signal distortion to achieve these functionalities. For example, according to some embodiments, signal interference and/or signal distortion may cause client devices to disassociate from access points or base stations in predictable and intended ways even in the presence of very high signal levels.

In systems employing IEEE 802.11 or similar wireless technologies, each session for packet transfer, including the connection data rate, is negotiated between the client and the wireless access point. That is, the client and the access point negotiate the data rate on a packet-by-packet basis. Therefore, according to a specific embodiment of the invention, restricting the data rate at which a client is allowed to associate controls the usable sphere of influence or operational zone of the access point.

As will be understood, it is difficult for a client to maintain a data rate of 11 Mbps (802.11b) or 54 Mbps (802.11a, 802.11g) connecting to an access point through an obstruction; even a window or thin partition. As the signal passes through a barrier it is distorted due to reflection and refraction from the barrier regardless of the strength of the signal. These effects are further exacerbated by the “noise” associated with other nearby access points. Thus, by enforcing a minimum data transfer rate, when the client leaves a hotel conference room, for example, it cannot “turn down” the data transfer rate to stay associated with the access point in the conference room and so will disconnect as desired.

According to some embodiments, the ability to enforce a minimum data transfer rate may be enabled using existing access point features which provide control over the data transfer rate. For example, some access points may be configured to set a maximum data rate for QoS purposes, i.e., to keep some devices from starving other devices. Such a feature may also facilitate compatibility with certain client devices that only handle specific data rates (i.e., as opposed to all the rates specified by the standards). As will be understood, this minimum data rate may be adjusted so that the usable area is appropriate for the room configuration or the desired geographic zone size.

An example may be illustrative. A client device 104 may initially be associated with an access point 102-1 with a strong signal in the public area 106 of a hotel. The client 104 then wanders into another area (e.g., a private meeting room 108 with different security, permissions, and access rules) while still associated to the public area access point 102-1. Because of the noise and/or distortion caused by the physical barriers (even low attenuation barriers) and competing access points (e.g., lost node scenario), the client device 104 breaks its connection with the public area access point 102-1 within a few packets (regardless of its data rate or, to a large margin, link strength) and probes for available access points for its service set identifier (SSID). When an access point receives the probe, it advertises its availability, and subsequently the access point and client device initiate the procedures for association and authentication.

Due to its closer proximity, the private meeting area access point 102-2 (i.e., the access point or one of a group of access points intended for that private meeting area) is the first to respond (i.e., the near/far scenario). The client then associates to the closer (i.e., the private meeting area) access point 102-2 and becomes party to the permissions, restrictions, security, and benefits associated with that geographic operational zone. Some time later the client device 104 may physically leave the area by simply passing through an exit. Then, due to the signal attenuation and distortions caused by the environment's boundary conditions (e.g., physical barriers and reflective/multipath conditions) the client 104 is incapable of sustaining the predetermined connection data rate (e.g., 11 or 54 Mb under 802.11b and 802.11a/g respectively). And because the private area access point 102-2 is configured to refuse any lower data rates, the client is forced back to the public area access point 102-1.

According to another specific embodiment of the invention, the operational zone of an access point is controlled with reference to the amount of time required for round trip communications between the access point and associated client devices. Everything between an access point and a client device involves some form of a handshake. Often this takes the form of a probe and response, e.g., an acknowledgment (ACK) request to and an ACK response from the client device, and is handled on the PHY (tertiary) level of the device technology. As dictated by the laws of physics relating to signal propagation, the round trip time of these handshakes, e.g., the time required for an ACK response from the client, represents the distance from the access point. Therefore, according to a specific embodiment of the invention, where the client is further than some distance from the access point, e.g., the ACK response takes longer than some programmable time period, the client is not allowed to associate (or continue to associate) with the access point.

According to a specific embodiment, the ACK response time of the access point (e.g., 102-3) is manipulated such that client devices (e.g., device 110) outside of a desired range 114 are unable to respond to an ACK from the access point 102-3 within the response time, while client devices inside range 114 (e.g., device 116) can. This approach makes it possible to significantly limit the range of an access point (i.e., the access point will not wait long enough for a distant client's response to reach it), while still providing a high enough RF signal to account for shadows or weak spots within the intended coverage area of the access point (e.g., meeting room 117).

According to yet another specific embodiment, the operational zone of an access point is again defined with reference to the amount of time required for round trip communications between the access point and associated client devices. According to this approach, the response time is used to determine the distance to the client (as opposed to simply setting the acceptable response time to prevent associations). This distance is then used to make decisions such as, for example, determining whether or not a connection will be allowed or maintained. In IEEE 802.11 systems, the Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC) layers employ at least five distribution services which can be exploited for such information. The simplest is the wait state which is controllable and can be monitored at the PHY level. The advantage of this approach is that it can be implemented and/or manipulated at the lowest network level, therefore requiring less processing time. However, any probe and response may be employed for this purpose.

A numerical example may be illustrative. When a TCP packet is transmitted in an IEEE 802.11 network, the receiving device sends an ACK 212.18 μs after receiving the packet. This represents the time required by the receiving device to process an 18 byte preamble (144 μs), a 6 byte header (48 μs), 14 bytes of ACK data (10.18 μs), and interface space (10 μs). If the round trip time as measured by the transmitting device is 213.3 μs, this represents a signal propagation time to the receiver and back of 01.12 μs (1120 ηs). Because the distance between the transmitting and receiving devices is the measurement needed, the travel time is divided by two 1120 ηs/2=560 ηs. Because radio waves propagate about 11.8 inches in 1 ηs, the distance between the devices is approximately 56011.8/12=550.7 feet. An access point may therefore be set, for example, to deny a client access or to terminate a connection if the client is over 400 feet away (i.e., if round trip time for the probe/ACK is longer than 212.99 μs after the probe is sent). The client is then forced to associate with an alternate access point. According to some implementations, reflections due to barriers will add small travel time to the wave front and may need to be accounted for.

According to some embodiments, the distances a, b, and c of a client 118 from multiple access points (e.g., 102-1, 102-4, and 102-5) may be determined. These distances may then be employed (e.g., by an agent (e.g., server 120) in communication with the multiple access points) to determine a position of the client (as opposed to a linear distance from a particular access point) so that a decision may be made based on the client's position as to which AP the client should associate with, and/or the types of services to be made available to the client. The determination of position may be done to varying degrees of precision and may be accomplished, for example, using any of a wide variety of triangulation algorithms known in the art.

As will be appreciated with reference to the above-described embodiments, a wireless network may be constructed according to the invention in which multiple access points or base stations operate in well-defined geographic zones of operation. However, in some situations, circumstances beyond the control of the network provider may interfere with such carefully configured environments. For example, a network configured in accordance with the invention may be deployed in a hotel, but a wireless hotspot in an adjacent coffee house might flood the carefully constructed network with its transmissions. Because FCC regulations prohibit the jamming of such signals, it is likely that devices associated with hotel guests may request connection to the SSID associated with the coffee house access point instead of one of the access points in the hotel.

One approach to this problem would be to configure the hotel's access points to respond to a client's response to a probe from the coffee house access point. However, current top-of-the-line access points only allow specification of limited number of SSIDs. Given that SSIDs are specified with up to 32 alphanumeric characters, such an approach would undesirably force the hotel to use the SSIDs of the adjacent businesses rather than the ones they would like to use. Therefore, according to a specific embodiment, wireless access points implemented in accordance with the invention are enabled to accept connections from client devices even where the requested SSID is not one of the ones specified for those access points. This “wild card” response to any SSID probe makes it virtually impossible for any client device to associate with an access point out of the desired area. That is, the access points within the desired area will respond to probes from the client devices before the access points outside of the desired area, and the client devices will associate preferentially with the access point that responds first. This will effectively circumvent any attempt to associate with the access point outside of the desired area, and will increase the number of devices and network traffic for the access points inside the desired area. According to more specific embodiments, the foregoing approach may be employed in combination with one or more geographic area restriction techniques to inhibit devices outside of the desired area from associating with access points within the desired area.

As mentioned above, the approaches to geographic isolation and client location described herein may be used individually or in various combinations to achieve the desired zone of operation and/or related functionality. For example, it is clear from FIG. 1 that the range 114 defined around access point 102-3 extends into the adjacent meeting room 108 and the public area 106. That is, the geographic zone defined by the single technique relating to device response time defines a spherical region around access point 102-3 which extends beyond the intended coverage area, i.e., meeting room 117. However, if this technique is combined with the technique in which a minimum or specific data rate is enforced (e.g., as described above with reference to meeting room 108), this could have the effect of eliminating the portions of the spherical zone represented by range 114 outside of room 117. That is, because client devices outside of room 117 will not be able to sustain the data rate required by access point 102-3 (e.g., because of the intervening walls), they will not be able to associate with that access point even if they are within range 114.

In another example, the technique described above in which the position of client device 118 is determined may be combined with the response time technique to improve the reliability with which the geographic isolation and related functionality may be effected. That is, in addition to determining which access point with which client 118 should associate, the association would only be allowed if client 118 was able to respond to the selected access point within the programmed response time.

As will be understood, the foregoing combinations are described by way of example. A variety of other combinations of the described techniques and their equivalents and variants will be apparent to those of skill in the art and are therefore included within the scope of the invention.

Due to the limited capacity of and high demands placed on wireless access points, it is often necessary to provide additional access points in some applications in order to better serve the volume of client devices. However, a problem arises relating to interference between and among closely spaced access points (often referred to as “friendly” system noise). This interference can result in protection mechanisms (e.g., clear to send/clear to receive cycles, or carrier sense multiple access) being enabled which, in turn, cause the network to slow down. In addition, such interference can compromise data integrity, causing packet retries and thereby further reducing system performance.

As mentioned above, current practice is to select different channels for closely spaced access points to minimize interference (e.g., use of channels 1, 6, and 11 in the 802.11b/g band are often recommended by manufacturers for this purpose because they do not overlap). However, such an approach is not adequate for the access point densities required in some applications. Therefore, according to various embodiments of the present invention, the number and/or density of access points is increased by the reduction of friendly system noise to the access points while allowing a high level of friendly system to the clients through the use of mixed polarizations.

Transmitted radio signals reflect off objects creating a condition called “multi-path” in which a signal follows several paths to the receiver. On long point-to-point radio links stratification of the atmosphere can create multiple paths by refracting the signal. Because of their longer path lengths, these reflected or refracted signals take longer to arrive at the receiver where they can interfere with the main signal. It is common for wireless systems to combine polarization diversity with spatial diversity to take advantage of the multi-path condition. This requires the installation of two antennas separated vertically or horizontally. Vertical separation works well for longer free-space line-of-sight links, while horizontal separation works best for partially obstructed or non-line-of-sight links. The signals received by both antennas are combined to enhance the quality of the signal where multi-path exists. Mixed polarization has been a common practice since the 1940s, and has been used as a form of diversity in order to clear up signals, or in some cases to co-locate like systems on a single structure for point-to-point applications or for radar.

According to specific embodiments of the invention, adjacent or closely spaced access points or base stations in a wireless network are configured with different polarizations to enable denser placement of these devices and to thereby increase the capacity of the system. According to a specific embodiment, opposing circular polarizations (e.g., clockwise and counter-clockwise) are employed. In such an implementation, transmissions from an antenna with a clockwise polarization have a theoretical rejection ratio approaching 29 dB (and a practical rejection ratio of 20 dB) when received by an antenna using a counter-clockwise polarization. Embodiments of the invention take advantage of this rejection ratio to reduce the likelihood of friendly interference at the access point, thus increasing the number of access points that can be deployed in a given environment.

As mentioned above, client devices make the decision to handoff from one access point to another based on the signal-to-noise ratio they experience, thus allowing them to select the most appropriate access point in a cluttered environment. As such, a reduction of noise as experienced by the client device in such an environment is undesirable. Fortunately, the mixed polarization approach of the present invention does not reduce the noise at the client. In some cases, such embodiments result in a high noise environment for the client devices which, in turn, advantageously causes the client devices to migrate to closer or less populated access points or base stations.

While the invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to specific embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that changes in the form and details of the disclosed embodiments may be made without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. For example, the mixed polarization technique described above could be combined with any of the geographic isolation and client location techniques described herein to implement a wireless network with high capacity and well-defined zones of operation.

And despite references to a hotel environment, it will be understood that the techniques described herein may be applied in a wide variety of wireless network environments. For example, wireless networks in manufacturing and warehouse facilities could be improved using any of the techniques described herein. In addition, the various techniques of the present invention may be applied to wireless networks implemented with technologies outside of the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, e.g., wireless telecommunications networks.

Finally, although various advantages, aspects, and objects of the present invention have been discussed herein with reference to various embodiments, it will be understood that the scope of the invention should not be limited by reference to such advantages, aspects, and objects. Rather, the scope of the invention should be determined with reference to the appended claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7962569Feb 12, 2007Jun 14, 2011Cradlepoint, Inc.Embedded DNS
US8249052Jan 8, 2009Aug 21, 2012Cradlepoint, Inc.Automated access of an enhanced command set
US8644272 *Jul 14, 2008Feb 4, 2014Cradlepoint, Inc.Initiating router functions
US9021081 *Jul 14, 2008Apr 28, 2015Cradlepoint, Inc.System and method for collecting individualized network usage data in a personal hotspot wireless network
US9094280Jan 7, 2013Jul 28, 2015Cradlepoint, IncCommunicating network status
Classifications
U.S. Classification370/338
International ClassificationH04W48/02
Cooperative ClassificationH04W88/08, H04W16/18, H04W48/02, H04B15/00, H04W48/18, H04W48/20, H04B7/10
European ClassificationH04W48/02
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