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Publication numberUS20080005152 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/617,580
Publication dateJan 3, 2008
Filing dateDec 28, 2006
Priority dateJun 30, 2006
Also published asEP2041647A1, US8522261, WO2008000503A1
Publication number11617580, 617580, US 2008/0005152 A1, US 2008/005152 A1, US 20080005152 A1, US 20080005152A1, US 2008005152 A1, US 2008005152A1, US-A1-20080005152, US-A1-2008005152, US2008/0005152A1, US2008/005152A1, US20080005152 A1, US20080005152A1, US2008005152 A1, US2008005152A1
InventorsFrank Michael Kraft, Guenter Pecht-Seibert, Klaus Meyer, Bernhard Thimmel, Patrick Josef Bardroff, Gregor Schilberth, Wasim Sadiq
Original AssigneeFrank Michael Kraft, Guenter Pecht-Seibert, Klaus Meyer, Bernhard Thimmel, Patrick Josef Bardroff, Gregor Schilberth, Wasim Sadiq
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Using Status Models with State Guards in a Computer System
US 20080005152 A1
Abstract
A design-time status schema model describes the progress of a data object through a computing process. The status schema model includes status variables, processing actions and constraints for performing actions. The status schema model also may describe permitted changes to a status variable in response to performing an action. At runtime, the status schema model is used to control processing performed by, or on, an instance of a data object corresponding to the status schema model.
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Claims(12)
1. A computer program product tangibly embodied in computer-readable medium for controlling actions in a computer-based business process, the computer program product comprising:
a status schema model that is defined at design-time, stored in computer-readable medium, indicates a first status value of a status variable to be set for the data object node based on performance of an action by a data object node and indicates that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action, and
instructions stored in computer-readable medium that, when executed, perform operations comprising:
receiving a status value to be set for the status variable associated with the data object node instance;
accessing a current status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance;
determining whether the current status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is set to an initial status value for the status variable; and
in response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable, setting the status variable of the data object node instance to have the received status value.
2. The computer program product of claim 1 wherein the particular action corresponds to at least one status value in the set of possible status values for the status variable.
3. The computer program product of claim 1 wherein the status schema model includes a precondition that identifies how a status affects whether an action is to be allowed to be performed at runtime by a data object node instance having the status.
4. The computer program product of claim 1 wherein the instructions stored in computer-readable medium, when executed, determine a status value to be set for the status variable and set the status variable of the data object node instance to have the determined status value.
5. The computer program product of claim 4 wherein:
the status schema model comprises a second status value of the status variable to be set for the data object node based on performance of an action by a data object node, the second status value being a different status value than the first status value of the status variable, and
instructions that, when executed, set the status variable of the data object node instance to have only one of the first status value and the second status value in response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable.
6. The computer program product of claim 1 wherein the status schema model comprises a state guard symbol indicating that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action.
7. A computer-implemented method for controlling actions in a computer-based business process, the method comprising:
accessing a status schema model that is defined at design-time, stored in computer-readable medium, identifies a first status value of a status variable to be set for the data object node based on performance of an action by a data object node, and indicates that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action;
determining, at runtime, whether a status value of the status variable associated with a data object node instance is set to an initial status value for the status variable; and
in response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable, setting the status variable of the data object node instance to have the first status value.
8. The method of claim 7 further comprising determining a status value to be set for the status variable and setting the status variable of the data object node instance to have the determined status value.
9. The method of claim 7 wherein the particular action corresponds to at least one status value in the set of possible status values for the status variable.
10. The method of claim 7 wherein the status schema model includes a precondition that identifies how a status affects whether an action is to be allowed to be performed at runtime by a data object node instance having the status.
11. The method of claim 7, wherein the status schema model comprises a second status value that identifies a second, different status value of the status variable to be set for the data object node based on the performance of the action, further comprising:
setting the status variable of the data object node instance to have only one of the first status value and the second status value in response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable.
12. The method of claim 7 wherein the status schema model comprises a state guard symbol indicating that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action.
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/477,787, filed Jun. 30, 2006 and titled SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR OBJECT STATE MANAGEMENT.

TECHNICAL FIELD

This description relates to techniques for controlling transaction processing that is performed by computer systems.

BACKGROUND

Software systems and components may be developed using object technology, and the operation of these systems and components may occur through methods that are performed on and/or by objects. An object's state may be said to include the combination of current attribute values of the object at a particular point in time. The execution of a method may change attribute values of an object, which, in turn, may lead to a new state of the object. Sometimes the current state of the object or computing environment may be an important factor in determining whether a particular action is allowed to be performed or not.

One approach to ensuring that an object performs an action only when allowed by a particular state of the object is programming such requirements into the object itself. Another approach is to rely on the programming of other unrelated objects—that are called by the object to implement all or part of the action—to enforce such requirements.

For example, software that controls an assembly line in a manufacturing plant should be programmed so that a “stop” action should not be performed on the assembly line if the assembly line current is not moving (e.g., as represented by the state of an object representing the assembly line).

Under the first scenario described above, a programmer of the object may directly code this requirement into the object itself so that when the object receives a “stop” action request, the object checks its own status attributes to make sure that the assembly line is currently moving before allowing the “stop” action to be processed. However, as software projects become larger and more complex, it may become increasingly burdensome for programmers to understand, identify and account for all constraints that are based on the state of an object.

Under the second scenario described above, the programmer of the object may rely on other programming to enforce this requirement. In this example, the assembly line object (which may or may not have its own status attributes regarding the movement of the assembly line) would receive the “stop” active request, and call another unrelated object to implement all or part of the “stop” action. The other object would then check its own status attributes to make sure that the assembly line is currently moving before allowing the “stop” action to be processed, but its determination would be independent of the state of the assembly line object.

SUMMARY

In one general aspect, actions in a computer-based process are controlled. A status schema model that is defined at design-time and stored in computer-readable medium is accessed. The status schema model identifies a first status value of a status variable to be set for the data object node based on performance of an action by a data object node, and indicates that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action. A determination is made at runtime as to whether a status value of the status variable associated with a data object node instance is set to an initial status value for the status variable. In response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable, the status variable of the data object node instance is set to have the first status value.

Implementations may include one or more of the following features. For example, a status value to be set for the status variable may be determined and the status variable of the data object node instance may be set to have the determined status value. The particular action may correspond to at least one status value in the set of possible status values for the status variable. The status schema model may include a precondition that identifies how a status affects whether an action is to be allowed to be performed at runtime by a data object node instance having the status.

The status schema model may include a second status value that identifies a second, different status value of the status variable to be set for the data object node based on the performance of the action. The status variable of the data object node instance may be set to have only one of the first status value and the second status value in response to a determination that the status value of the status variable associated with the data object node instance is not set to the initial status value for the status variable.

The status schema model may include a state guard symbol indicating that the status variable is permitted to be programmatically updated other than based on performance of the action.

Implementations of any of the techniques described above may include a method or process, an apparatus or system, or computer software on a computer-accessible medium. The details of particular implementations are set forth in the accompanying drawings and description below. Other features will be apparent from the following description, including the drawings, and the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIGS. 1 and 3 are block diagrams of computer systems that use a constraint-based model to control data processing.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of runtime sales order nodes instances.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram of a status and action model architecture.

FIGS. 5A and 5B are block diagrams that depict examples of an approval status schema.

FIG. 6 is a block diagram of an example status schema model for a sales order object node.

FIG. 7 is a block diagram of an architecture that includes a status and action model and a business object model.

FIG. 8 is a block diagram of a conceptualized data structure of a status schema model.

FIG. 9 is a flow chart of an example process for designing and using a status schema model.

FIG. 10 is a flow chart of an example process for modeling a process in a status and action modeling computer system.

FIG. 11 is a flow chart of an example process for transforming a status schema model for application to runtime instances of a data object node.

FIG. 12 is a flow chart of an example process for applying a status schema model to an instance of a corresponding data object node instance.

FIG. 13 is a block diagram of an example runtime architecture for status management.

FIGS. 14-16 are block diagrams illustrating a precondition and multiple status transitions for an action in a status schema model.

FIG. 17 is a flow chart of a process for performing a status transition apart from performance of an action.

FIG. 18 is a block diagram of a computer system.

Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Techniques are provided that allow for the management of the state of an object node in a less burdensome and more coherent manner. There are various ways of implementing objects in software applications. The term “object node” is used in this description to refer to either an overall object or particular elements of an object (e.g., particular methods and/or attributes associated with the object). When an object node is used in a business software application, the object node may be referred to as a business object node or an application object node. The term “data object node” also may be used to refer to an object node. A data object node may refer to a business object node, for example, that includes variables and methods related to a business entity, such as a document (e.g., a sales order, a purchase order or an invoice), an organization (e.g., such as a business partner, supplier or customer) or a person (e.g., such as an employee or a customer). A data object node also may refer to a processing object node, such as an object node that processing information for an entity being processed in a workflow.

FIG. 1 shows a system 100 of networked computers that uses a constraint-based model to control data processing. In general, the system 100 uses a status schema instance of a status schema model to determine whether an action is permitted to be performed by a data object node.

More particularly, the system 100 of networked computers includes a computer system 110 having a runtime processing component 120, a runtime status management component 130 and a runtime status repository 140. The computer system 110 may be a general-purpose computer or a special-purpose computer.

The runtime processing component 120 includes various data object nodes (here, sales order object node instance 120A, a delivery object node instance 120B and an invoice object node instance 120C). Each of the object node instances 120A, 120B and 120C is a collection of data variables and methods that may be performed by the data object node instance. In this example, each instance 120A-120C has standard variables, each of which corresponds to a characteristic or attribute of the object node instance. For example, a sales order object node instance 120A may include, for example, standard variables identifying a customer to whom the sale was made and the date of the sale. Each instance 120A-120C also has one or more status variables. A status variable indicates a status of the data object node instance. For example, a status variable may indicate the status of a data object node instance relative to a stage of processing. In a more particular example, a status variable may indicate whether a sales order object node instance 120 has been approved. Each instance 120A-120C also has methods that may be executed by the object node instance. As shown, the sales order object node instance 120A has standard variables 121A, status variables 122A and methods 123A. The object node instances 120B and 120C also have standard variables, status variables and methods (not shown).

As shown here, the object node instances 120A, 120B and 120C each correspond to a principal entity represented in the computer system 110. Each of the example object node instances 120A-120C relate to a document used in a business process—here, respectively, the instances correspond to documents used in the business process of delivering and invoicing merchandise sold to a customer. Another example of a data object node instance include information about a customer, an employee, a product, and a business partner (such as a supplier). A data object node instance may be stored as one or more rows in a relational database table (or tables), a persistent object instance in an object-oriented database, data in one or more extensible mark-up language (XML) files, or one or more records in a data file.

In some implementations, an object node instance may be related to other object node instances. In one example, a sales order may include multiple sales order nodes, such as a root node identifying information that applies to the sales order (such as information that identifies the customer and the date the sales order was placed) and one or more item nodes identifying information related to each type of item ordered (such as an item number, quantity ordered, price of each item and cost of items ordered). In another example, each of the sales order object node instance 120A, delivery object node instance 120B and invoice object node instance 120C may relate to a sale of merchandise to a customer. As such, each of object node instances 120A-120C may be said to relate to one another.

FIG. 2 illustrates an example of runtime sales order node instances 200, which collectively represent a sales order by a customer (i.e., “ABC Bicycle Store”) for products (i.e., bicycles). In this example, a sales order root instance 210 is related to sales order item instances 220A-220D. The sales order root instance 210 may be referred to as the parent node of each of the sales order item instances 220A-220D. In turn, each of the sales order item instances 220A-220D may be said to be a child node of the sales order root instance 210. Each of the sales order item instances 220A-220D also may be referred to as a sibling node of the other sales order item instances 220A-220D.

More particularly, the sales order root instance 210 has a customer 211 variable with a value “ABC Bicycle Store” and an order date 212 variable with a value of “May 1, 2006.” Each variable 211 and 212 may be referred to as a standard variable or characteristic of the sales order root. The sales order root 210 has an availability status variable 215 having a value 216 of NOT CONFIRMED. As described more fully later, the availability status value of 216 is a reflection of the available status values of the sales order item instances 220A-220D.

Each of the sales order item instances 220A-220D have a standard variable 222A-222D with a value describing a type of bicycle and a corresponding quantity purchased. For example, sales order item instance 220A has a standard variable 222A identifying “6 adult blue bicycles” as the type and quantity of a bicycle purchased.

Each of the sales order item instances 220A-220D also has an availability status variable 225A-225D having a value 226A-226D that identifies the availability status of the bicycles identified in the standard variable 225A-225D. For example, the sales order item 220A has an availability status value 226A of UNKNOWN for six adult blue bicycles; the sales order item 220B has an availability status value 226B of PARTIALLY CONFIRMED for five child red bicycles; the sales order item 220C has an availability status value 226C of CONFIRMED for ten child blue bicycles; and the sales order item 220D has an availability status value of NOT CONFIRMED for two child green bicycles.

Referring again to FIG. 1, the status management runtime 130 tracks status information associated with object node instances 120A-120C in the status repository 140 and makes determinations, on behalf of the object node instances, as to whether actions are allowed to be performed based at least in part on the status information associated with the object nodes in the status repository.

When one of the object node instances 120A, 120B or 120C of the runtime processing component 120 receives a request to perform an action, the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C sends a request to the status management runtime component 130 to determine whether the action is allowed to be performed. The status management runtime component 130 checks the runtime status repository 140 to determine whether the status information associated with the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C permits the action to be performed. The status information associated with the object node instance may include the values of one or more status variables associated with the object node instance and one or more constraints identifying what actions may be allowed to be performed based at least in part on the values of the one or more status variables. The status information also may include one or more constraints identifying what status variable values may be allowed to be set following the performance of an action. The status information may include one or more constraints identifying what status variable values may be changed based on a change in one or more other status variable values.

When the outcome of the determination specifies that the action is not allowed, the status management runtime component 130 sends a response to the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C indicating that the action is not allowed to be performed, and the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C processes the negative response by inhibiting the action from being performed. One example of inhibiting the action is to send an error message to the source that requested the action to be performed. Another example is to simply ignore the action request and continue on as if the action had never been requested. Yet another example is forwarding the negative response to another application for processing.

On the other hand, when the outcome of the determination specifies that the action is allowed, the status management runtime component 130 sends a response to the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C indicating that the action is allowed to be performed, and the object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C processes the positive response. One example of processing a positive response is performing the action. Another example of processing the possible response is by forwarding the response to another application for processing.

In some implementations, a list of requested actions may be sent to an object node instance 120A, 120B or 120C for determinations of the requested actions and subsequently returns the positive and/or negative responses to the client application for further processing.

Status variable value information associated with an object node instance may be previously stored in the status repository 140 or passed by the object node instance along with the check action request.

The status information also may be based on a status schema instance derived from a design-time model. The status schema instance may include relevant status variables and associated status values, actions and conditions modeled for corresponding object nodes and stored in the status repository 140. For example, at design-time, the status schema for an object node, may define constraints for actions by describing which actions are allowed for which status values, and define which status values may be or are set after the completion of the action. At runtime, a status schema instance may be loaded from the status repository 140 by the status management runtime 130 with the current values of the status variables for object node instances.

The runtime processing component 120 illustrates a service-based approach in which services are provided by object node instances 120A-120C to other computing entities over the network 125. Examples of the network 125 include the Internet, wide area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), or any other wired or wireless network. As illustrated in this example, services are offered to an online client system 125A and a mobile client system 125B, which each may be a general-purpose computer that is capable of operating as a client of the runtime processing component (such as a desktop personal computer, a workstation, or a laptop computer running an application program), or a more special-purpose computer (such as a device specifically programmed to operate as a client of a particular application program). For brevity, FIG. 1 illustrates only a single online client system 125A and a single mobile client system 125B. However, actual implementations may include many such computer systems.

The architecture of system 100 illustrates a service-oriented architecture, which defines objects and relationships of objects to provide services usable by other computing systems or components. The service-oriented architecture (or portions thereof) may be developed and licensed (or sold) by a commercial software developer. The service-oriented architecture 100 is one example of a computing environment in which the described principles, concepts and techniques may be implemented. The techniques apply to other architectures and system designs, as would be understood by a person skilled in the art. The service-oriented architecture is being described to illustrate an example to help articulate the described techniques.

In another example, the described techniques may be implemented in a software application or software components that are developed and licensed (or sold) by a commercial software developer. Examples of commercial software applications include customer relationship management or sales applications, supply chain management applications, financial management applications, or human resources management applications. The applications may work in conjunction with one or more other types of computer applications to form an integrated enterprise information technology (IT) solution for a business enterprise. In some architectures, for example, a service-oriented architecture, the described techniques may be implemented in data objects and as software service components.

The architecture shown in FIG. 1 may allow for a less burdensome and more coherent state management of an object node instance by providing a status management runtime component 130. The runtime processing component 120 in some implementations may correspond to an application runtime component. Although the status management runtime component 130 is depicted as a separate runtime component from the runtime processing component 120, the status management runtime component 130 need not necessarily be a separate component. In one example, the status management runtime component 130 may be part of the runtime processing component 120. In another example, some or all of the functions described with respect to the status management runtime component 130 may be performed by the runtime processing component 120.

As a result of the architecture shown in FIG. 1, object node programmers need only to code calls to the status management runtime 130 to make sure an action is allowed to be performed, instead of having to understand, identify and account for all constraints that are based on the status of an object node instance. Additionally, by having object node status information represented in the status repository 140, the status management runtime 130 is able to use this information in a coherent manner as to not make any determination independent of an object node instance's state.

As described previously, a data object node at design-time may have multiple status variables, each status variable has a predetermined, mutually exclusive set of possible status values. At runtime, each status variable of a data object node instance has one of the possible status values, which may be referred to as the current value of the status variable. The current value of all status variables of a data object node instance may be referred to as the “current status” of the data object node instance. Alternatively, in some implementations, the current value of all status variables of a data object node instance may be referred to as the “state” of the data object node instance. In this description, the term “state” of the data object node instance generally is used to refer to the current value of all variables (both status variables and standard variables), whereas the term “current status” of the data object node instance generally is used to refer to the current value of all status variables (and not including the current value of standard variables).

FIG. 3 shows another example of a system 300 of networked computers that uses a constraint-based model to control processing of data object node instances. The system 300, like the system 100 of FIG. 1, includes a computer system 110 having a runtime processing component 120, a status management runtime component 130, and a status repository 140. In this example, the computer system 110 may be referred to as a processing computer system 110.

The system 300 also includes a modeling computer system 350 capable of generating and presenting on a display device (or devices) a modeling user interface 355 for defining status schema models 360 for data object nodes. A data object node corresponds to one or more data object node instances, each of which is capable of being processed by the processing computer system 110. In general, once the status schema models 360 have been defined and, perhaps, simulated on the modeling computer system, the status schema models 360 are transformed into a format usable by the status management runtime component 130 and stored in the runtime status repository 140. As described previously, the status management runtime component 130 uses information in the runtime status repository 140 to determine whether the status information associated with a data object node instance permits a particular action to be performed by the data object node instance. As such, the status schema models are created in the modeling environment (here, represented by the modeling computer system) and used without modification by the runtime environment (here, represented by the processing computer system).

More particularly, the modeling user interface 355 enables a user at design-time to define a status schema model for a data object node. A data object node also is associated with a data model defining standard variables, status variables and methods for the data object node, and, therefore, for data object node instances generated for the data object node.

In general, a status schema model identifies constraints for performing an action of a data object node. More particularly, the status schema models 360 include a status schema model 360A for data object node A, a status schema model 360B for data object node B, and a status schema model 360C for data object node C. As illustrated by the status schema model 360A, each status schema model 360A, 360B or 360C, includes status variables 362A (and for each status variable, a set of predefined permissible values) and actions 363A. As shown, each status schema model includes preconditions (such as preconditions 364A for status schema model 360A). A precondition identifies how a status affects whether an action is to be performed at runtime by a data object node instance having the status. For example, a precondition may identify a condition that must be fulfilled for an action to be performed by a data object node instance corresponding to the data object node to which the status schema model corresponds. An action (such as one of actions 363A) represents a process step that can be performed on an instance of a data object node for which the status schema model corresponds. A precondition (such as one of preconditions 364A) is a type of constraint that generally relates an action with a status value of one of the status variables 362A. A precondition may enable or inhibit an action. At runtime, the preconditions of an action are evaluated to determine whether the action is permitted to be performed on or by the data object node instance to which the status schema model relates.

Another type of constraint which may be used in some status schema models is a status transition. A status transition represents a status value of a status variable that is permitted to be set when a particular action is performed on a data object node instance corresponding to the status schema model of the data object node. The architecture 300 optionally includes status transitions 365A for status schema model 360A for object node A.

Each of status schema models 360B and 360C also include status variables, actions, and preconditions for actions (not shown). Each of status schema models 360B and 360C may include status transitions and derivations, described below (not shown).

The modeling user interface 355 also may support inter-schema modeling. For example, a status schema model for a data object node may include inter-schema modeling elements (such as derivations 366A associated with status schema model 360A). In another example, inter-schema modeling elements may be stored in a separate inter-schema model 370. Inter-schema modeling, for example, may model how a status variable in a status schema model of one data object node may influence a status variable in a status schema model of another data object node.

Two examples of such inter-schema processes are population and aggregation derivations, as described more fully later. In general, a population derivation “pushes” or copies a status value of a status variable from a parent data object node to corresponding status variables in one or more child data object nodes of the parent data object node. An aggregation derivation determines an appropriate status value of a status variable for a parent data object node based on status values of the corresponding status variable in one or more child data object nodes. The architecture 300 optionally includes derivations 366A, which may include population derivations and aggregation derivations, for status schema model 360A for object node A.

The derivations 366A in the status schema model 360A for object node A also may include one or more lifecycle (or overall) status derivations for object node A. For example, when there are several status variables in the status schema model for object node A, the model may include a status variable that reflects an overall processing status of object node A. Such an overall status variable generally is not used to determine whether a particular action is permitted to be performed on an instance of the object node, although some implementations may use the status value of the lifecycle status variable to do so.

In many cases, the modeling computer system 350 is used by software developers or programmers who are designing and implementing status schema models which correspond to data object nodes. The status schema models and data object nodes may be used, for example, to enable a service-oriented architecture for processing data that is applicable to many business enterprises. In such a case, data object nodes along with the runtime status repository that corresponds to status schema models for the data object nodes may be sold (or licensed) to many business enterprises. Thus, the processing computer system 110 may be operated and used by a different business enterprise than the business enterprise that operates and uses the modeling computer system 350.

In some implementations, the modeling computer system 350 may be used to extend, enhance or otherwise add to the status schema models corresponding to the data object nodes used in the processing computer system 110. In such a context, the modeling computer system 350 may be used by a business enterprise other than the commercial software developer who designed and implemented data object nodes or the runtime status repository. The modeling computer system 350, for example, may be operated by a software integrator or consulting organization that is implementing or enhancing the runtime processing component for a particular, or group of, business enterprises. In a more particular example, an initial runtime status repository may be generated from a first modeling computer system based on status schema models provided by the commercial software development organization that designed, implemented and sold the data object nodes used by the runtime processing component. A consulting organization may use a second modeling computer system to extend the status schema models in permitted ways for use in a particular industry or by a particular business enterprise.

Because status schema models are defined for a data object node, the models enable the definitions of business processing with a fine granularity, which may help enable or improve process flexibility and reuse of the status schema models. Also, because the status schema models reflect business logic used in runtime processes, the status schema models promote visibility and transparency of business processes, which, in turn, may reduce application development errors and programming side-effects. Also, the status schema models may result in computer-supported business processes that more accurately reflect real-world business processes, which, in turn, may help to promote the development and proper use of more accurate and easier-to-understand computer systems.

FIG. 4 depicts an example architecture 400 for a status and action model. The architecture 400 illustrates the components of one example of a status and action model in relationship to other computer system components, such as data object nodes. The component architecture 400 includes data object components 410 and status and action model components 430. In general, the component architecture 400 illustrates how a data object is transformed over time, and how the data object transformation is reflected in the status and action model.

The status and action model is an abstraction and a simplified image of real-world processes. The status and action model uses graphical representations as a means of presenting relevant aspects of the corresponding real-world processes. Here, the status and action model components 430 illustrate data objects and the execution of methods performed on the data objects during the operation of the computer system using the data objects. Stated differently, the status and action model components 430 illustrate the processing of a data object by a computer system, which generally corresponds to a real-world business process.

More particularly, while executing on a computer system, methods (or other types of computer-executable processes) change attribute values of data object nodes. The state of a data object node may be viewed as the combination of current attribute values of a data object node at a particular point in time. When an attribute value of a data object node is changed, the changing of the attribute value leads to a new state of the data object node. An attribute may be referred to as a variable, and an attribute value may be referred to as a value of a variable.

As shown in the component architecture 400, a data object node includes standard variables 418 and status variables 435. In this example, standard variables 418 relate to the data object itself and do not include status information, which is reflected in status variables 435. The standard variables are shown as part of the data object model 410 that corresponds to the status and action model component 430, whereas the status variables 435 of the data object node 415 are shown as part of the status and action model 430.

The component architecture 400 represents the transformation of a particular data object node from one state (here, called the first state 415) to another state (here, called the second state) 420, as shown in the data object model component 410. The status and action model component 430 depicts that business process step associated with the transformation of the data object node from the first state 415 to the second state 420.

As shown in the status and action model component 430, a particular action 450 results in the transformation of the status variables 435 to the transformed status variables 440. The current values of status variables (such as depicted in status variables 435 and 440) represents the state or stage of a process related to the data object node. More particularly, the current values of status variables 435 indicate that the data object node that is the subject of the component architecture model 400 represents the data object node being in the ORDER CONFIRMATION stage of processing, as indicated by stage of processing 455. Similarly, the current values of the status variables 440 of the data object node indicate that the data object node the data object node being in the GOODS PACKED stage of processing, as indicated by stage of processing 460. The transformation of the data object node from the ORDER CONFIRMATION status to the GOODS PACKED status is reflected in the transformation of the current values of the status variables 435 to the transformed values of the status variables 440, which results from the action 450. In this example, the action 450 represents a process step 465 of PACK GOODS.

As shown in this example, a status management model for a data object node illustrates the transformation of the data object node from one state to another state, as reflected in a value change to the variables of the data object node. The transformation reflects an action being performed on the data object node, which results in the change of one or more status variable values for the data object node. The action represents or corresponds to a process step performed on the data object node, and the state reflected by the values of the status variables represents or corresponds to a stage of processing. As shown, it may be said that the process step results in a change of the current stage of that the processing of the data object node. The status and action model component may be said to represent or make visible business logic and rules describing how a data object node is transformed from one state to another state, as illustrated by the business logic and rules representation 432.

FIG. 5A depicts an example of an approval status schema 500A, which also may be referred to as an approval status schema model. The approval status schema model 500A may be defined and modified, using, for example, the modeling computer system 350 described previously with respect to FIG. 3. The approval status schema model 500A is a design-time model. Design-time status schema models may be used to show relations between an object's state and actions, which may define constraints for the actions by describing which actions are allowed for which status values, and define which status values are to be set after the completion of an action. At runtime, an approval status schema instance may be loaded, for example, from the runtime status repository 140 described previously with respect to FIG. 3, by the status management runtime component 130 with the current values of the status variables.

As illustrated, the approval status schema model 500A includes a single status variable 510 (shown as “Approval”) with four possible status values 510A-510D (shown as “Not Started,” “In Approval,” “Approved” and “Rejected,” respectively), and three actions 520, 525 and 530 (shown as “Start Approval,” “Reject” and “Approve,” respectively). The approval status schema model 500A may be instantiated with the initial value NOT STARTED 510A, as indicted by the dotted-line border. Approval of the action 520 (i.e., “Start Approval”), for example, causes the status value IN APPROVAL 5101B to be set, which is a precondition of the REJECT action 525 and APPROVE action 530—that is, in this example, a “Reject” or an “Approve” action is not allowed unless the IN APPROVAL status value is currently set in the approval status variable 510.

As illustrated in this example, the modeled status variables and their status values represent the state of the object node. The status values represent the possible values a status variable is allowed to take up, while the status variable lists all possible allowed status values. At runtime, the status variable then specifics information about the currently valid value. The modeled actions represent the methods that may be performed on or by the object node. Whether they are allowed or not is dependent on the currently set status value associated with the object node's state. The modeled preconditions are identified by the connections (lines or edges) from status values to actions, and they represent the status value constraints allowing or permitting the actions. The modeled transitions are identified by the edges (or lines) that come out of an action and connect to a resulting status value, and they represent constraints allowing or permitting the setting of a status value following the performance of an action (for example, as triggered by an updating process). The model may also identify edges (or lines) drawn from one status value of one variable to another status value of another variable (not shown), indicating that one status change directly triggers another one. The status management runtime component 130 may adjust such other status information in the status repository 140 during application runtime when the data objects are processed.

FIG. 5B is another example of an approval status schema model 500B for a data object node. In one example, the approval status schema model 500B may correspond to a sales order node, such as sales order root 210 as described previously with respect to FIG. 2. In another example, the approval status schema model 500B may correspond to a sales order item, such as items 220A-220D as described previously with respect to FIG. 2. Associating the status schema model 500B with each item node (rather than the root node) provides a finer granularity of approval such that each item is approved separately (rather than the approval of the sales order as a whole).

The approval status schema model 500B (like the status schema model 500A) includes a single status variable 550 (shown as “Approval”). In contrast with model 500A, the approval status schema model 500B includes seven possible status values 550A-550G (shown as “Not Started,” “Approval Not Necessary,” “In Approval,” “Approved,” “Rejected,” “In Revision” and “Withdrawn”), and seven possible actions 560, 565, 570, 575 and 580 (shown as “Submit For Approval,” “Reject,” “Approve,” “Send Back For Revision,” and “Withdraw From Approval,” respectively). As illustrated, the approval status schema model 500B is instantiated with the initial value NOT STARTED 550A, as indicted by the dotted-line border. As illustrated, if the submit-for-approval action 560 is performed, the status value of the approval status variable 550 changes from a NOT STARTED value 550A to the IN APPROVAL value 550C, as illustrated by the edge 582 leading from the submit-for-approval action 560. The status value IN APPROVAL 550C must be set for any of the reject action 565, the approval action 570, the send-back-for-revision action 575 or the withdraw-from-approval action 580 to be performed. These preconditions for the actions 565, 570, 575 and 580 are shown by the edges 584, 586, 587 and 588 leading from the status value IN APPROVAL 550C to each of the actions 565, 570, 575 and 580. Performing any one of the reject action 565, the approve action 570, the send-back-for-revision action 575 or the withdraw-from-approval action 580 changes the status value of the approval status variable 550, which, in turn, makes the these actions 565, 570, 575 and 580 unavailable to be performed.

As illustrated, the edges (or lines) that lead into an action are preconditions that define which status values enable an action to be performed. One example of a precondition edge is edge 584 leading from the value IN APPROVAL 550C to the reject action 565. The edges (or lines) that lead from an action reflect a status transition—that is, a transformation of a status value of a status variable to another status value of the status variable. An example of a status transition is edge 589 leading from the withdraw-from-approval action 580 to the value WITHDRAWN 550G of the approval status variable 550. An edge (or line) may be drawn from a status value of one status variable to a status value of another status variable, which illustrates a status change that triggers another status change. A status change that triggers another status change may be referred to a “synchronizer.”

In this example of status schema model 550, performing the submit-for-approval action 560 causes the value IN APPROVAL 550C to be set, which is a precondition of the reject action 565, approve action 570, the send-back-for-revision action 575 and the withdraw-from-approval action 580.

In comparison with status schema model 500A, status schema model 500B provides additional options during an approval process—for example, the send-back-for-revision action 575 and withdraw-from-approval action 580. The additional status value IN REVISION 550F and status value WITHDRAWN 550G of the approval status variable 550 support the more robust approval process. As would be understood by a person skilled in the art, the inclusion of more actions and predetermined status values for the approval status variable 550 in status schema model 550B does not intrinsically make this status schema model 550B preferred over the status schema model 550A. Rather, the ability to more accurately model a “real-world” business process is important—whether the “real-world” business process is more accurately represented by status schema model 500A or more accurately represented by status schema model 500B. The ability to model a business process by adding actions and status values for a status variable representing a step in business process is beneficial.

FIG. 6 illustrates an example status schema model 600 for a sales order object node. The status schema model 600 includes a check-availability action 610 (shown as “CheckATP”), an accept action 620, a reject action 630 and a confirm-invoicing action 640. The status schema model 600 also includes an availability-confirmation status variable 615 (shown as “ATPConfirmation”) having an initial status value 615A of NOT CONFIRMED and a CONFIRMED status value 615B. The status schema model 600 also has an acceptance status variable 625 having an initial value 625A of NONE, a status value 625B of REJECTED, and a status value of ACCEPTED 625C. The status schema model 600 further includes an invoicing status variable 645 having an initial status value 645A of NOT INVOICED and a status value 645B of invoiced.

In the example of status schema model 600, the confirm-invoicing action 640 should be performed only if an associated order has been accepted and an invoice has not been yet sent out. That is, the confirm-invoicing action 640 is permitted to be performed only if the current value of the invoicing status variable 645 is the status value NOT INVOICED 645A and the current value of the acceptance status variable 625 is the status value ACCEPTED 625C. The model 600 reflects these preconditions of the confirm-invoicing action 640, as shown by the edge 642 leading from the status value ACCEPTED 625C of the acceptance status variable 625 to the confirm-invoicing action 640 and by the edge 643 leading from the value NOT INVOICED 645A of the invoicing status variable 645 to the confirm-invoicing action 640.

FIG. 7 shows an architecture 700 that includes a status and action model 710 and a business object model 720, which may be a type of a data object model. In this example, the business object model 720 represents a design-time sales order object model. The business object model 720 is another example of how a sales order object may be modeled. Like the sales order modeled in FIG. 2, the sales order business object model 720 includes a business object node 725 (called “SalesOrder” and may also be referred to as a sales object node or a sales object root node). The sales object node 725 also includes a header status node 730 (called “SalesOrder HeaderStatusNode” and may be referred to as a sales status node), and, like the sales order of FIG. 2, an item node 735 (called “SalesOrderItem”). The sales object node 725 is the root node of a sales order object and includes identifying information, such as an identifier variable 725A (called “ID”), a customer identifier 725B (called “BuyerParty”) as well as other variables. The sales object node 725 provides a set of core services 726, including access methods 726A, a query method 726B, and actions 726C. The actions 726C of the sales object node 725 include an availability-check action 726D (called “ATPCheck”) and an confirm-invoice action 726E.

As shown through line 740A, the sales object node 725 is related to the sales status node 730, which includes an availability status variable 730A (called “ATPConfirmation”) and an invoice status variable 730B (called “InvoiceStatus”).

As shown through line 740B, the sales object node 725 also is related to one or more sales order item nodes 735, each of which include an identifier variable 735A, a product identifier variable 735B as well as other variables related to a sales item (not shown). The sales object node 725 may be one example of a design-time data object node model for the runtime sales item instances 220A-220D, which have been described previously with respect to FIG. 2.

The status and action model 710 may be an implementation of the status and action model 600 described previously with respect to FIG. 6. The status and action model 710 and the business object model 720 are related through actions and status variables. More particularly, in this example, the availability-check action 726D of the sales order node 725 corresponds to the check-availability action 712 in the status and action model 710, as shown through arrow 745A. The confirm-invoice action 726E of the sales order node 725 corresponds to the confirm-invoicing action 714 of the status and action model 710, as shown through arrow 745B. The availability-confirmation status variable 730A of the sales status node 730 corresponds to the availability-confirmation status variable 716 of the status and action model 710, as shown through dotted arrow 745C. The confirm-invoice status variable 730B of the sales status node 730 corresponds to the invoicing status variable 718 of the status and action model 710, as shown through dotted arrow 745D.

FIG. 8 shows a conceptualized data structure 800, in simplified form, for a status schema model that relates status variables 810 to constraints 820, 830 and 840 for actions that may be performed on a sales order node. The data structure 800 includes three status variables: approval 810A, release 810B and consistency check 810C. The data structure 800 also identifies the status values that may be set for each status variable, as shown by values 812 for the status variable approval 810A.

In the example data structure 800, each status variable for the sales order node is related to one or more constraints for an action that may be performed by the sales order node. More particularly, constraints 820 for actions 820A, 820B and 820C are based on the current value of the approval status variable, as shown by line 850A. In particular, constraints for approve action 820A identifies a precondition 825A for the approval action (here, IN APPROVAL status value) to be permitted and a status transition 825B (to APPROVED status value) that results from occurrence of the approve action 820A. Constraints for the reject action 820B and constraints for the send-back-for-revision action 820C identify one or more preconditions (based on the approval status variable) for the action to occur and optionally may identify a status transition resulting from the action. Stylized constraints 830 identify constraints for actions based on the release status variable 810B, as represented by line 850B, whereas stylized constraints 840 identify constraints for actions based on the consistent-check status variable 810C, as represented by line 850C. The data structures of constraints 830 and 840 are structured in a similar way to the constraints 820.

FIG. 9 shows an example process 900 for designing and using a status schema model. The process 900 may be performed, for example, using the modeling computer system 350 and the processing computer system 110, both as described previously with respect to FIG. 3.

The process 900 includes designing a status schema model for a data object node (step 910). This step may be performed, for example, by a user of the modeling computer system 350 executing a computer program presenting graphical user interface to create and modify a status schema model. For example, a user in one or more sessions may use a graphical user interface to design, simulate and refine a status management model for a data object node, such as status and action schema models 500A, 500B and 600 of FIGS. 5A, 5B and 6, respectively.

Once designed, the status schema model is transformed such that the status schema can be applied to instances of the data object node at runtime (step 920). For example, the status schema model may be reformatted for efficient runtime access by an application runtime component or status management runtime component, as described previously with respect to FIGS. 1 and 3. The status schema model may be persistently stored, such as in a runtime status repository 140 of FIG. 1 or 3.

During runtime, the status schema instance is applied to instances of the data object node to enforce the status and action constraints specified by the status schema model. One of the advantages of this process is that the status schema model created (and refined) in step 910 is used to enforce the status and action constraints in step 930. As such, a visible status-driven process may be defined and consistently applied to data objects. While the model is transformed for use at runtime, the semantic information of the status schema model is not changed in the transformation. The status and action constraints specified by the status schema model for a data object node are applied without deviation at runtime to instances of the data object node.

In some implementations, multiple status schema models may be created for a data object node. In such a case, at runtime, one of the multiple status schema models is applied without deviation to instances of the data object node, as described more fully later.

FIG. 10 illustrates an example process 1000 for modeling a process in a status and action modeling computer system. In one example, the process may be implemented by the modeling computer system 350 described previously with respect to FIG. 3. For example, computer-readable medium may be configured to perform the process 1000 when executing on a processor (or processors) of a modeling computer system.

The process 1000 begins with the receipt of an indication of the process steps to be included in a process to be modeled (step 1010). In one example, processing a sales order includes three processing steps: (1) availability check for items in the sales order to determine whether the sales order can be fulfilled, (2) communication to the buyer of acceptance (or rejection) of the sales order by the seller, and (3) creating an invoice to send to the buyer for accepted an sales order.

An indication of actions and status values that are important to, or represent, the process steps are received (step 1020). Continuing the example, the availability process step includes a check-availability action; the acceptance process step includes an accept action and a reject action; and the invoicing process step includes a confirm-invoicing action. The progress of the process steps is reflected in a status variable. In this simplified example, the availability process step includes a confirm-availability status variable having NOT-CONFIRMED and CONFIRMED status values; the acceptance process step includes an acceptance variable having NONE, REJECTED and ACCEPTED status values, and the invoicing process step includes an invoicing status variable with NOT-INVOICED and INVOICED status values. As illustrated in this example, each action associated with a process step is represented by a status value corresponding to the action. In particular, the acceptance process step has a reject action and an accept action, each of which are reflected in permitted status values for the acceptance status variable.

Information of dependencies between process steps is received (step 1030). Sometimes process steps cannot occur in parallel, and information related to the constraints between the process steps is received to be modeled. Continuing the example, a sales order can only be accepted if the availability check was successful; invoicing only occurs if the sales order was accepted; and checking availability should not be performed after the order was accepted or rejected. Stated differently, information is received that defines the preconditions and status transitions depicted model 600 described previously with respect to FIG. 6.

In some implementations, model information for a life cycle (or overall) status for the process may be received (step 1040). For example, an overall status variable that reflects the overall process stage may be defined. Continuing this example, information may be received that indicates that the process should have a life cycle status variable with possible status values of IN PREPARATION, IN ACCEPTANCE, IN EXECUTION, COMPLETED and REJECTED.

As such, the process 1000 represent an example implementation of defining a status schema model for a sales order object node. The status schema model for the data object node generally is stored in the modeling computer system for review and refinement.

In some implementations, the process 900 may include receipt of information of dependencies between status schema models (step 1050). For example, information may be received that is related to inter-schema processes, such as population and aggregation derivations, described previously with respect to FIG. 3.

FIG. 11 shows an example process 1100 for transforming a status schema model for application to runtime instances of a data object node, which corresponds to a status schema model. The example process 1100 may be an implementation of the transformation step 920 described previously with respect to FIG. 9. The process 1100 may be implemented by the modeling computer system 350 described previously with respect to FIG. 3.

The process 1100 begins with the receipt of an indication of a status schema model for a data object node (step 1110). The status schema model transformed by performing the process 1100 to a runtime representation of the status schema model. In one example, a user of a modeling computer system may select one of previously defined status schema models from a displayed list. In another example, the user may enter an identifier of a particular status schema model. In yet another example, the transformation process 1100 may be performed sequentially to, or as part of, a process to design a status schema model for a data object node. In such a case, for example, the indication may be programmatically received by the processor executing the process 1100.

The status schema model for the data object node is transformed (step 1120) and stored for runtime use (step 1130). For example, the status schema model may be transformed from a modeling format to a format usable by a runtime component, such as the runtime processing component 120 or the status management runtime component 130, described previously with respect to FIG. 1. The transformed status schema model may be stored, for example, in a runtime status repository, which may be an implementation of repository 140 described previously with respect to FIG. 1 or 3. In some implementations, additional status schema models may be identified for transformation and storage (step 1140).

FIG. 12 illustrates an example process 1200 for applying a status schema model to an instance of a corresponding data object node instance. The example process 1200 may be an implementation of the application step 930 described previously with respect to FIG. 9. The process may be implemented in computer-readable medium that is executed by, for example, a processor of the processing computer system 110 described previously with respect to FIG. 3.

The process 1200 begins when the processor implementing the process 1200 detects creation of a data object node instance or detects loading of a previously created data object node instance (step 1210). The processor instantiates (or creates) a status schema instance corresponding to the status schema model for the data object node of the same type as the detected data object node instance (step 1220). For example, a sales order node instance is created by a processing computer system in response to a sales order being placed by a customer. A status schema model for a sales order node is accessed, for example, from the runtime status repository 140 described previously with respect to FIGS. 1 and 3. The status schema model for a sales order node is used to create an instance of the sales order node status schema.

The processor loads the status schema instance with the current status value of each of the status variables of the data object node instance (step 1230). Continuing the example, the status variables in the instance sales order status schema are set to the same status values of corresponding status variables in the sales order node instance. When the creation of sales order node instance is detected in step 1210, the instance of the sales order node status schema includes the default status values for the status variables.

The processor permits an action to be performed by the data object node instance conditioned upon compliance with the status schema instance for the data object node (step 1240). For example, the processor may determine whether an action may be performed by the sales object node instance by evaluating preconditions included in the sales order node status schema instance.

FIG. 13 depicts an example of a runtime architecture 1300 for status management within an enterprise services implementation. In general, the runtime architecture 1300 includes an enterprise services layer, an application layer, and a status management runtime layer. The entities in the status schemas correspond to external representations in the enterprise services layer. The application layer implements the services modeled in the enterprise services layer. To perform tasks related to status information (such as checking whether an action is allowed and setting a status value as a result of performing an action), the application layer uses the status and action management (S&AM) runtime component. The application layer also provides services to the status and action management runtime component, such as performing a process to determine status derivations or other inter-schema processes.

More particularly, a client 1310 accesses enterprise services externally provided to clients, which communicate with the enterprise services framework backend 1320, which, in turn, interfaces with the enterprise services provider interface 1330. The enterprise services provider interface 1330 addresses an application through application/business object 1340. The application layer also includes a repository of persisted business object instances 1345 and optionally a status instance data repository 1350. In some implementations, the business object instances include status variables, which are used to set status values in corresponding variables of status schema instances. Additionally or alternatively, an application layer may store status variables for business objects separately, for example, in a status instance data repository 1350. At runtime, the status schema instance is instantiated and status values set based on the current status values of status variables, whether the status variables are persistently stored with business objects or in a separate status repository. In some implementations, a status schema instance for a data node instance may be persistently stored and loaded into memory at runtime.

The application/business object 1340 accesses the status and action management runtime component 1360, which includes the status and action management runtime model 1361 having status schema models usable at runtime. The status and action management runtime component 1360 includes a buffer interface 1362 to a buffer implementation 1365, which is a runtime representation of status schema instances. The status and action management runtime component 1360 also includes a persistence interface 1372 to a persistence implementation 1375 of status schema instances. The persistence implementation 1375, for example, may map status tables (such as name-value pair tables) of the status and action management runtime component 1360 to the database tables of the application data. The status and action management runtime component 1360 optionally may include a derivation interface 1382 to a derivation implementation 1385. The derivation interface 1382 provides a standardized manner for the runtime to access derivation processes, or other types of inter-schema processes.

In general, as described previously, for example with respect to FIG. 3, a precondition and a status transition are types of constraints that may be defined in a status schema model for a data object node. A precondition generally relates an action with a status value. A precondition may enable or inhibit an action. In a status schema model, a precondition for an action shows whether a particular value of a status variable permits or inhibits an action. A status transition generally relates an action with a status value of a status variable. A status transition represents a status value of a status variable that is permitted to be set when a particular action is performed on a data object node instance corresponding to the status schema model of the data object node. In a status schema model, a status transition may be shown as connecting an action to a status value of a status variable shows that the status variable may have that status value depending on the outcome of the action. If the execution of an action could result in more than one status value of a status variable, multiple status transitions may be utilized to denote such relationship in a status schema model.

Referring to FIG. 14, a simplified status schema model 1400 for data object node is illustrated. The status schema model 1400 illustrates a precondition 1410 for a data object node performing an action 1420, and possible status transitions 1430 and 1440 that may result from the performance of the action 1440.

More specifically, in this example status schema model, the data object node to which the status schema model 1400 applies is allowed to perform action 1420 when status variable 1425 (here, named “status variable A”) has a value of “A1,” which may be said to be a precondition 1410 of the action 1420. The precondition 1410 is illustrated in this example schematic of a status schema model by arrow 1445 leading from the rectangle 1410, which represents the status variable 1425 having a value of A1, to the rectangle 1420, which represents the action for which the precondition 1410 is being modeled.

As illustrated in the example simplified status schema model 1400, each time action 1410 is performed, a status variable is set to one of two values 1430 or 1440. The status transition for the action 1420 to set the value of the status variable 1425 to a value A2 is illustrated by arrow 1450, leading from rectangle 1420, which represents the action by the data object node to which the status schema model 1440 applies, to rectangle 1430, which represents the status variable 1425 having status value “A2.” The other status transition for the action to set the value of the status variable 1425 to value “A3” is illustrated by arrow 1455, leading from the rectangle 1420 representing the action to rectangle 1440 representing the status variable 1425 having status value “A3.”

A status schema model that is able to model multiple status transitions may be beneficial in modeling business transactions, particularly when multiple status transitions match the real world business transactions being modeled and therefore, helps to avoid or minimize the introduction of modeling artifacts. For example, if there are several items to be delivered, all of the items may be delivered at once, or the items may be delivered in different deliveries. Thus, the result of a delivery action may be “completely delivered” or “partially delivered.” This transaction may be modeled by using two status transitions for the delivery action. One status transition may set the delivery status variable to the value of “completely delivered” and the other status transition may set the delivery status variable to the value of “partially delivered.” Without the use of the multiple status transitions, two separate actions, complete delivery action and partial delivery action, may have to be used.

FIG. 15 illustrates a portion of a status schema model 1500 for a data object node. The status schema model 1500 illustrates a more particular example of a status schema model 1500 having two status transitions for an action.

More particularly, the status schema model 1500 includes a pick action 1510 capable of being performed by a data object node for which the status schema model 1500 applies. The status schema model 1500 also includes a picking-process status variable 1520 and status transitions 1530 and 1540. As illustrated, the picking-process status variable 1520 may have status value NOT PICKED 1520A, status value PARTIALLY PICKED 1520B or status value PICKED 1520C.

In the example of status schema model 1500, the pick action 1510 may result in the picking-process status variable 1520 having either the status value PARTIALLY PICKED 1520B or the status value PICKED 1520C. The status transitions 1530 and 1540 define such a relationship between the pick action 1510 and the picking-process status variable 1520. When the pick action 1510 results in all of the required items being picked, then picking-process status variable status 1520 reflects that process progress—that is, the picking-process status variable has a status value PICKED 1520B. The status schema model 1500 reflects this relationship by status transition 1540, as illustrated by an arrow leading from the pick action 1510 to the status value PICKED 1520C of picking-process status variable 1520. On the other hand, if the pick action 1510 only results in some of the required items being picked, then the picking-process status variable 1520 is to have the status value PARTIALLY PICKED 1520B. The status schema model 1500 reflects this relationship by the status transition 1530, as illustrated by an arrow leading from the pick action 1510 to the status value PARTIALLY PICKED 1520B of picking-process status variable 1520.

In some implementations or contexts, the status of a data object node may be changed apart from performance of an action. In general, a status schema model may include a modeling element, which may be referred to as a “state guard,” to depict the possibility of a status change occurring apart from performance of an action by the data object node. At runtime, the modeled state guard may be represented, or associated with, processing logic that updates the status variable apart from performance of an action.

FIG. 16 depicts another example of a status schema model 1600 for a data object node. The status schema model 1600, like the status schema model 1500 described with respect to FIG. 15, includes a pick action 1610 capable of being performed by a data object node for which the status schema model 1600 applies. The status schema model 1600 also includes a picking-process status variable 1620 and status transitions 1630 and 1640. As illustrated, the picking-process status variable 1620 may have status value NOT PICKED 1620A, status value PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B or status value PICKED 1620C. The pick action 1610 has two preconditions 1650 and 1655, indicating the picking process status variable 1620 must have either status value of NOT PICKED 1620A or PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B for the pick action 1610 to be performed.

The status schema model 1600 also includes a state guard 1660 associated with the picking process status variable 1620. The state guard 1660 is a model element indicating that the picking process status variable 1620 is able to be changed apart from the pick action 1610. As illustrated, the state guard 1660 relates to one and only one status variable in particular, the picking process status variable 1620. The state guard 1660 may be said to model the recalculation or determination of the value of the status variable to which the state guard relates.

In some implementations, a state guard may include a description of how the state guard changes the status variable to which the state guard relates. For example, the ways in which a state guard is related to status values of the status variable may be depicted, such as by applying similar techniques to representing status transitions from actions.

The state guard 1660 related to the picking process status variable may be used to keep current the progress of the picking process when there is a change made to a data object node directly through user input. For example, a user interface may permit a user to change the quantity ordered in a delivery object. When a pick action 1610 has been performed on the delivery object before the manual change to the quantity order has been entered, a determination should be made as to whether the previously picked quantity reflects a partially picked or (completely) picked delivery order.

More particularly, when an original quantity ordered is ten and the picked quantity is eight, the status transition 1630 from the pick action 1610 occurs to indicate that the picking process status variable 1620 has a status value of PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B (because only eight of ten ordered items had been picked). However, if the quantity ordered is changed (such as a manual entry by a user through a user interface) to reflect a new quantity ordered of eight items (rather than the original ten items), the status value of PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B set by the pick action 1610 no longer accurately reflects progress in the picking process. Rather, the status value of (completely) PICKED 1620C accurately reflects progress in the picking process—because eight items had been picked and, as reflected by the manually entered change, eight items have been ordered. In such a case, a state guard may be used to indicate that the value of the picking process status variable is able to be updated using business logic apart from the picking process. For example, once an order quantity is changed directly using a user interface (such as through an order correction process), the picking process status variable is re-calculated to determine the appropriate status value. The processing logic used to select between the multiple status transitions 1630 and 1640 may be used to determine the appropriate status value of PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B or PICKED 1620C. In this example, because all of the items have been picked given the reduced ordered quantity, there is not a pick action to be performed that would update the status value of the picking process status variable. The state guard 1660 performs that function—for example, the state guard compares the quantity ordered with quantity picked to determine the appropriate status value of the picking process status variable 1620.

Referring to FIG. 17, an example process 1700 is presented for performing a status transition apart from performance of an action. In one example, the process 1700 may be performed at runtime by one or more processors of the computer system 110 of FIG. 1 or the processing computer system 110 of FIG. 3. The process 1700 may be used to implement a state guard at runtime. In the example process 1700, a state guard is not active when the status variable to which the state guard relates is in its initial value, and the state guard is permitted to set the status variable to any status value.

The process 1700 may be initiated by application that identifies a data object node instance and status value for a status variable for which the process 1700 is to be performed. In such a case, the system performing the process 1700 receives an indication of a status value for a status variable and an indication of a data object node instance (step 1710).

The system determines the current value of the status variable of for the data object node instance (step 1720) and determines whether the current value is an initial value of the status variable (step 1730).

When the system determines that the data object node instance has an initial value of the status variable (step 1730), the process ends without changing the value of the status variable. This may help increase processing efficiency. For example, when a status schema model only includes actions that set the status value of the status variable to a value other than an initial value (such as status schema model 1500 or 1600 of FIGS. 15 and 16, respectively), a status variable that is set at the initial value indicates that no action has been performed, and as such, there is no need to determine whether the status variable has been incorrectly set.

When the system determines that the data object node instance has a value other than the initial value of the status variable, the system sets the status value of the status variable for the data object node instance to the received status value (step 1740) and the process 1700 ends.

In some implementations, the system may perform business logic to determine a status value to be used to update the status variable, rather than receiving a status value.

Referring again to FIG. 16, for example, when a delivery order having the picking process status variable a status value of PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B and an update to the quantity orders has been made, business logic is executed to determine whether the status value of PARTIALLY PICKED 1620B or PICKED 1630C is appropriate based on comparing the updated quantity ordered with the quantity previously picked.

FIG. 18 is a block diagram of a computer system 1800 that can be used in the operations described above, according to one implementation. The system 1800 includes a processor 1810, a memory 1820, a storage device 1830 and an input/output device 1840. Each of the components 1810, 1820, 1830 and 1840 are interconnected using a system bus 1850. The processor 1810 is capable of processing instructions for execution within the system 1800. In some implementations, the processor 1810 is a single-threaded processor. In another implementation, the processor 1810 is a multi-threaded processor. The processor 1810 is capable of processing instructions stored in the memory 1820 or on the storage device 1830 to display graphical information for a user interface on the input/output device 1840.

The memory 1820 stores information within the system 1800. In one implementation, the memory 1820 is a computer-readable medium. In another implementation, the memory 1820 is a volatile memory unit. In still another embodiment, the memory 1820 is a non-volatile memory unit.

The storage device 1830 is capable of providing mass storage for the system 1800. In one embodiment, the storage device 1830 is a computer-readable medium. In various different embodiments, the storage device 1830 may be a floppy disk device, a hard disk device, an optical disk device, or a tape device.

For example, the runtime processing component 120 discussed previously with respect to FIGS. 1 and 3 may include the processor 1810 executing computer instructions that are stored in one of memory 1820 and storage device 1830. In another example, the implementation of modeling computer system 350 described above with respect to FIG. 3 may include the computer system 1800.

The input/output device 1840 provides input/output operations for the system 1800. In one implementation, the input/output device 1840 includes a keyboard and/or pointing device. In another implementation, the input/output device 1840 includes a display unit for displaying graphical user interface.

The techniques can be implemented in a distributed manner. For example, the functions of the input/output device 1840 may be performed by one or more computing systems, and the functions of the processor 1810 may be performed by one or more computing systems.

The techniques can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back-end component, e.g., as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, e.g., an application server, or that includes a front-end component, e.g., a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the invention, or any combination of such back-end, middleware, or front-end components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e.g., a communication network. Examples of communication networks include a local area network (“LAN”) and a wide area network (“WAN”), e.g., the Internet.

The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other.

The techniques can be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, or in computer hardware, firmware, software, or in combinations of them. The techniques can be implemented as a computer program product, i.e., a computer program tangibly embodied in an information carrier, e.g., in a machine-readable storage device, in machine-readable storage medium, in a computer-readable storage device, in computer-readable storage medium, or in a propagated signal, for execution by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatus, e.g., a programmable processor, a computer, or multiple computers. A computer program can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, and it can be deployed in any form, including as a stand-alone program or as a module, component, subroutine, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment. A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network.

Method steps can be performed by one or more programmable processors executing a computer program to perform functions of the techniques by operating on input data and generating output. Method steps can also be performed by, and apparatus of the techniques can be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, e.g., an FPGA (field programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit).

Processors suitable for the execution of a computer program include, by way of example, both general and special purpose microprocessors, and any one or more processors of any kind of digital computer. Generally, a processor will receive instructions and data from a read-only memory or a random access memory or both. The essential elements of a computer are a processor for executing instructions and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer will also include, or be operatively coupled to receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, such as, magnetic, magneto-optical disks, or optical disks. Information carriers suitable for embodying computer program instructions and data include all forms of non-volatile memory, including by way of example semiconductor memory devices, such as, EPROM, EEPROM, and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, such as, internal hard disks or removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM and DVD-ROM disks. The processor and the memory can be supplemented by, or incorporated in special purpose logic circuitry.

The techniques can be implemented in a distributed manner. For example, the functions of the input/output device 1840 may be performed by one or more computing systems, and the functions of the processor 1810 may be performed by one or more computing systems.

The techniques can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back-end component, e.g., as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, e.g., an application server, or that includes a front-end component, e.g., a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the techniques, or any combination of such back-end, middleware, or front-end components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of digital data communication, e.g., a communication network. Examples of communication networks include a local area network (“LAN”) and a wide area network (“WAN”), e.g., the Internet.

The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other.

A number of implementations of the techniques have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the claims. For example, useful results still could be achieved if steps of the disclosed techniques were performed in a different order and/or if components in the disclosed systems were combined in a different manner and/or replaced or supplemented by other components. Accordingly, other implementations are within the scope of the following claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification1/1, 707/999.102
International ClassificationG06F17/00
Cooperative ClassificationG06F8/24
European ClassificationG06F8/24
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Mar 29, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: SAP AG, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KRAFT, FRANK MICHAEL;PECHT-SEIBERT, GUENTER;MEYER, KLAUS;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:019098/0239;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070112 TO 20070116
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KRAFT, FRANK MICHAEL;PECHT-SEIBERT, GUENTER;MEYER, KLAUS;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070112 TO 20070116;REEL/FRAME:019098/0239