US 20080020839 A1
The present invention provides a gaming machine that includes multiple display devices arranged in a common line of sight. An intermediate display device or light filter may be included between the exterior display device and the interior display device. A touchscreen may also be added outside the exterior display device to facilitate player input and gaming machine interaction. The common line of sight arrangement permits a person to view video output on all the display devices simultaneously or without substantially changing their position or line of sight. The interior display device may include a digital display device that includes a curved surface.
1. A gaming machine comprising:
an external cabinet defining an interior region of the gaming machine, the external cabinet adapted to house a plurality of gaming machine components within or about the interior region;
a processor configured to execute instructions from memory that permit game play on the gaming machine;
a first display device disposed within or about the interior region;
a second display device disposed within or about the interior region and interior to the external cabinet relative to the first display device,
wherein the first display device and the second surface of the digital display device are disposed such that a common line of sight passes through a portion of the first display device and to a portion of the second surface of the digital display device; and
a light valve disposed along the common line of sight between the first display device and the second display device, wherein the light valve is configured to block at least a portion of the second display device in response to a control signal.
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/514,808, filed Sep. 1, 2006 and entitled “GAMING MACHINE WITH LAYERED DISPLAYS”, which is a) a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/213,626 filed Aug. 6, 2002, and b) a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/755,598 filed Jan. 12, 2004; all of these patent applications are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety for all purposes.
This invention relates to gaming machines. In particular, the invention relates to gaming machines with layered displays disposed along a common line of sight and gaming machines that include a digital display device with a curved surface.
Conventional gaming machines use one or more display devices to output video data. While many gaming machines include multiple displays, the displays are arranged separately from each other so as to offer multiple screens that provide more information to a person. For example, some conventional gaming machines include an LCD panel disposed in a central part of the gaming machine for presenting a game, while a secondary and smaller LCD panel in a top box of the gaming machine provides bonus game or other information.
Upper and lower, side-by-side, or other separate display screen arrangements require a player to change his or her line of sight one from one screen to another. This may lead to less game play. Players often get distracted when they look away from a gaming machine, which repositioning between separate display devices often leads to. A gaming machine that permits a person to view multiple display screens simultaneously while looking in a single direction would improve player interaction with a gaming machine.
The present invention provides a gaming machine that includes multiple display devices arranged in a common line of sight. The common line of sight passes through a portion of an exterior display device and to a portion of an interior display device. In some cases, an intermediate display device or light filter is also included between the exterior display device and the interior display device and the common line of sight passes through a portion of the intermediate display device as well. A touchscreen may also be added outside the exterior display device to facilitate player input and gaming machine interaction. The common line of sight arrangement permits a person to view video output on all the display devices simultaneously or without substantially changing their position or line of sight.
In one embodiment, the interior display device includes a digital display device that includes a curved surface. The curved surface may be used to show virtual video reels that resemble mechanical reels used on older gaming machines. The digital display device, however, permits the number of reels and the symbols on each reel to be changed, as desired.
The multiple display devices find many uses. In one embodiment, a single game is output using all the display devices, which cooperate to form a single coordinated visual presentation. Different depths provided by the multiple display devices improve presentation of three-dimensional graphics.
In another embodiment, the multiple display devices output video for different games or purposes. For example, the interior display device may output a game, while the intermediate display device outputs a bonus game or pay table associated with the interior display, while the exterior and foremost display device provides a progressive game or is reserved for player interaction and video output with the touchscreen. Other combinations may be used and are described below.
In one embodiment, the exterior display device has a screen that has the capacity to be completely or partially translucent or transparent at controlled times and/or at controlled portions and locations on the screen. An intermediate display device can have the same see-through capacity. When one of the proximate display screens is transparent or translucent, a person can see images displayed on one of the distal display devices.
In one aspect, the present invention relates to a gaming machine. The gaming machine includes an external cabinet defining an interior region of the gaming machine. The external cabinet is adapted to house a plurality of gaming machine components within or about the interior region. The gaming machine includes a processor configured to execute instructions from memory that permit game play on the gaming machine. The gaming machine further includes a first display device disposed within or about the interior region and a digital display device that includes a curved surface for presenting an image on the curved surface to a person near the gaming machine. The first display device and the curved surface of the digital display device are disposed such that a common line of sight passes through a portion of the first display device and to a portion of the curved surface of the digital display device. The curved surface of the digital display device is distally located along the common line of sight relative to the first display device for a person looking along the common line of sight.
In another aspect, the present invention relates to a gaming machine that includes a light valve disposed along the common line of sight between the first display device and the digital display device including the curved surface. The light valve is configured to block at least a portion of the curved surface in response to a control signal.
In yet another aspect, the present invention relates to a gaming machine that includes a touchscreen proximately located along the common line of sight relative to the first display device for a person looking along the common line of sight.
In still another aspect, the present invention relates to a gaming machine that includes a digital display device that includes a curved surface for presenting an image on the curved surface to a person near the gaming machine. The digital display device is configured to permit display of a first game having a first number of reels and a second game having a second number of reels.
These and other features and advantages of the invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the associated figures.
The present invention will now be described in detail with reference to a few preferred embodiments thereof as illustrated in the accompanying drawings. In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be apparent, however, to one skilled in the art, that the present invention may be practiced without some or all of these specific details. In other instances, well known process steps and/or structures have not been described in detail in order to not unnecessarily obscure the present invention.
The present invention includes a gaming machine with multiple display devices arranged in a common line of sight relative to a person near the gaming machine. Multiple display devices disposed along a common line of sight are also referred to herein as ‘layered’ displays. One or more of the layered display devices proximate to the person are completely or partially transparent or translucent so as to permit view of the distal display devices.
The distal display may include a curved display device, such as a curved OLED or a projection system that casts an image onto a curved surface. These curved display devices are suitable for mimicking a conventional mechanical reel game, but allow the digital and external control of reel games on the curved digital display. Glass LCDs may be curved and are also suitable for use.
This multi-layer display device arrangement improves visual output for a gaming machine. As will be described below, display device arrangements described herein permit better graphics for a game played on a gaming machine, more games to be played on a single gaming machine, and/or dynamic reconfiguration of a gaming machine to offer multiple games that traditionally required manual and mechanical reconfiguration of a gaming machine, e.g., to change the number of reels for new reel game that requires five reels instead of three.
In one embodiment, all three display devices are digital and permit reconfiguration in real time. This permits new or different games to be downloaded onto a gaming machine, and reconfiguration of the three display devices to present a new or different game using any combination of the three display devices. For a casino, or other gaming establishment, this permits a single gaming machine to offer multiple games without the need for gaming machine maintenance or replacement when a new game is desired by casino management or customer demand.
Controlling transparency of the outer one or two display devices also provides novel game presentation versatility on a single gaming machine. In one embodiment, the intermediate display device acts as a light valve that controls whether the interior display device is visible, or what portions of the interior display device are visible. For example, window portions of the intermediate light valve may be left transparent to permit viewing of a select number video reels disposed on a curved OLED display device arranged behind the light valve. Since the number (and size) of video reels on the curved OLED display device may be digitally changed, e.g., from 3 video reels to 5 to 7 etc., controlling opacity of the intermediate light valve permits the gaming machine to visually offer multiple reel games with a different number of reels on a single gaming machine—without maintenance resources and casino downtime to change mechanical reels.
In another embodiment, the intermediate light valve completely blocks out the interior display device, where the outermost display device is now solely visible and used for game presentation. The gaming machine now resembles a conventional gaming machine that only includes a single and outer LCD panel. The gaming machine may then respond to digital controls to switch between a reel game, a multi-layer/multi-display game, and a simple one-panel LCD game. Other uses of the layered displays are possible and contemplated.
Player participation on a gaming machine increases with entertainment. Improved visual output provided by the present invention enables more entertaining forms of interaction between a player and gaming machine, and thus improves player participation and patronage for a casino or gaming establishment that includes a gaming machine of the present invention.
For example, the common line of sight and layered displays improve presentation of three-dimensional (3D) graphics. A gaming machine may use a combination of virtual 3D graphics on any one of the display devices—in addition to 3D graphics obtained using the different depths of the layered display devices. Virtual 3D graphics on a single screen typically involve shading, highlighting and perspective techniques that selectively position graphics in an image to create the perception of depth. These virtual 3D image techniques cause the human eye to perceive depth in an image even though there is no real depth (the images are physically displayed on a single display screen, which is relatively thin). Also, a predetermined distance (between display screens for the layered display devices) facilitates the creation of graphics having real depth between the layered display devices. 3D presentation of graphic components may then use a combination of: a) virtual 3D graphics techniques on one or more of the multiple screens and/or b) the depths between the layered display devices. Further description of 3D graphics presentation is provided below.
Although the following examples describe display systems that include layered display devices for a primary display located centrally in a gaming machine, those of skill in the art will recognize that display systems described herein are applicable towards other areas of a gaming machine, such as a top glass or a belly glass.
As the term is used herein, a display device refers to any device configured to adaptively output a visual image to a person in response to a control signal. In one embodiment, the display device includes a screen of a finite thickness, also referred to herein as a display screen. For example, LCD display devices often include a flat panel that includes a series of layers, one of which includes a layer of pixilated light transmission elements for selectively filtering red, green and blue data from a white light source. Numerous exemplary display devices are described below.
The display device is adapted to receive signals from a processor or controller included in the gaming machine and to generate and display graphics and images to a person near the gaming machine. The format of the signal will depend on the device. In one embodiment, all the display devices in a layered arrangement respond to digital signals. For example, the red, green and blue pixilated light transmission elements for an LCD device typically respond to digital control signals to generate colored light, as desired.
In one embodiment, the gaming machine includes two display devices, including a first, foremost or exterior display device and a second, underlying or interior display device. For example, the exterior display device may include a transparent LCD panel while the interior display device includes a digital display device with a curved surface.
In another embodiment, the gaming machine includes three display devices, including a first, foremost or exterior display device, a second or intermediate display device, and a third, underlying or interior display device. The display devices are mounted, oriented and aligned within the gaming machine such that at least one—and potentially numerous—common lines of sight intersect portions of a display surface or screen for each display device. Several exemplary display device systems and arrangements that each include multiple display devices along a common line of sight will now be discussed.
Layered display devices may be described according to their position along a common line of sight relative to a viewer. As the terms are used herein, ‘proximate’ refers to a display device that is closer to a person, along a common line of sight (such as 20 in
Referring now to
Under the control of processor 132, display devices 18 generate visual information for person 21. As shown in
The gaming machine may also include one or more light sources. In one embodiment, display devices 18 include LCD panels and at least one light source that provides light, such as white light, to the pixilated filter elements on each LCD panel. For example, a back lighting source (not shown) may be positioned behind display device 18 c. The pixilated panel for each parallel display device 18 a, 18 b and 18 c then filters white light from the backmost backlight to controllably output color images on each screen.
Other light sources may be used to illuminate a reflective or transmissive light filter. For example, each display device 18 may be individually illuminated using a white light source attached near the sides of each pixelating panel; the side light source may include a mini-fluorescence source and light guide that transmits light from the side light source, down the flat panel, and to all the pixilated filter elements in the planar LCD panel for pixilated image production. Other suitable light sources may include cold cathode fluorescent light sources (CCFLs) and/or light emitting diodes, for example.
In another embodiment, a distal and emissive display device is arranged behind a proximate and non-emissive display device, and provides light to the proximate display device, which then filters the light to create an image. For example, a flat OLED or plasma display device 18 c may be used to a) produce an image and b) to emit light that is filtered by LCD panels 18 a and 18 b. In this case, the distal and emissive display device emits at least some white light. For example, video output of one or more reels may include significant white light that is also used to illuminate one or more LCD panels for pixilated filtering. In another embodiment, the proximate LCD panels use reflective light where the light comes from in front of the gaming machine, e.g., from the ambient room. As one of skill in the art will appreciate, more light is needed as the number of reflective or non-emissive light filter-type display device increases, e.g., from 1 to 2 pixelated LCD panels 18 a and 18 b.
The proximate display devices 18 a and 18 b each have the capacity to be partially or completely transparent or translucent. In a specific embodiment, the relatively flat and thin display devices 18 a and 18 b are liquid crystal display devices (LCDs). Other display technologies are also suitable for use. Various companies have developed relatively flat display devices that have the capacity to be transparent or translucent. One such company is Uni-Pixel Displays, Inc., Inc. of Houston Tex., which sells display screens that employ time multiplex optical shutter (TMOS) technology. This TMOS display technology includes: (a) selectively controlled pixels that shutter light out of a light guidance substrate by violating the light guidance conditions of the substrate and (b) a system for repeatedly causing such violation in a time multiplex fashion. The display screens that embody TMOS technology are inherently transparent and they can be switched to display colors in any pixel area. A transparent OLED may also be used. An electroluminescent display is also suitable for use with proximate display devices 18 a and 18 b. Also, Planar Systems Inc. of Beaverton, Oreg. and Samsung of Korea, both produce several display devices that are suitable for use herein and that can be translucent or transparent. Kent Displays Inc. of Kent, Ohio also produces Cholesteric LCD display devices that operate as a light valve and/or a monochrome LCD panel.
Light valve 18 e selectively permits light to pass therethrough in response to a control signal. Various devices may be utilized for the light valve 18 e, including, but not limited to, suspended particle devices (SPD), Cholesteric LCD devices, electrochromic devices, polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) devices, etc. Light valve 18 e switches between being transparent, and being opaque (or translucent), depending on a received control signal. For example, SPDs and PDLC devices become transparent when applied with a current and become opaque or translucent when little or no current is applied. On the other hand, electrochromic devices become opaque when applied with a current, and transparent when little or no current is applied. Additionally, light valve 18 e may attain varying levels of translucency and opaqueness. For example, while a PDLC device is generally either transparent or opaque, suspended particle devices and electrochromic devices allow for varying degrees of transparency, opaqueness or translucency, depending on the applied current level. Further description of a light valve suitable for use herein is described in commonly owned and co-pending patent application Ser. No. 10/755,657 and entitled “METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR USING A LIGHT VALVE TO REDUCE THE VISIBILITY OF AN OBJECT WITHIN A GAMING APPARATUS”, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety for all purposes.
In one embodiment, the gaming machine includes a touchscreen 16 disposed outside the exterior display device 18 a. Touchscreen 16 detects and senses pressure, and in some cases varying degrees of pressure, applied by a person to the touchscreen 16. Touchscreen 16 may include a capacitive, resistive, acoustic or other pressure sensitive technology. Electrical communication between touchscreen 16 and the gaming machine processor enable the processor to detect a player pressing on an area of the display screen (and, for some touchscreens, how hard a player is pushing on a particular area of the display screen). Using one or more programs stored within memory of the gaming machine, the processor enables a player to activate game elements or functions by applying pressure to certain portions of touchscreen 16. Several vendors known to those of skill in the art produce a touchscreen suitable for use with a gaming machine.
As the term is used herein, a common line of sight refers to a straight line that intersects a portion of each display device. The line of sight is a geometric construct used herein for describing a spatial arrangement of display devices and need not be an actual line of some sort in the gaming machine. If all the proximate display devices are transparent along the line of sight, then a person should be able see all the display devices along the line of sight. Multiple lines of sight may also be present in many instances. As illustrated in
Rear display device 18 d includes a digital display device with a curved surface that shows video data. A digital display device refers to a display device that is configured to receive and respond to a digital communication, e.g., from a processor or video card. Thus, OLED, LCD and projection type (LCD or DMD) devices are all examples of suitable digital display devices. E Ink Corporation of Cambridge, Mass. produces electronic ink displays that are suitable for use in rear display device 18 d. Microscale container display devices, such as those produced SiPix of Fremont, Calif., are also suitable for use in rear display device 18 d. Several other suitable digital display devices are provided below.
One suitable curved digital display device includes a projector that casts an image onto a curved surface. Suitable projectors include LCD-type and DMD-type projectors, as available from a wide variety of vendors known to those of skill in the art. In this case, the curved surface includes a white screen or translucent material, such as plastic, curved to desired dimensions. In a specific embodiment, the curvature substantially resembles the curvature of traditional mechanical reels used in a slot machine. Another suitable curved digital display device includes a flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED). Many flexible OLEDs are conformable and may be bent over a shape to take the shape of an mechanical support such as an underlying structure or frame. Some flexible OLEDs are thin and resemble paper; these flexible OLEDs are usually flexible but not foldable. A third form of flexible OLED is rollable and has a shape memory. Any of the theses flexible OLEDs types are suitable for use herein. Typically, the flexible OLED is bent over and attached to a curved sub-structure or stationary framework that provides structural support and maintains a desired curvature. Other digital display devices with curved surfaces are suitable for use and include a front projection display, or a rear projection display, LCD glass, transparent OLED, and fOLED.
In a specific embodiment, a flexible OLED changes shape over time. For example, one or more actuators may move points of the flexible OLED to mechanically deform the display and achieve a desired shape. This may be done to change a curved and flexible OLED to a convex shape, serpentine shapes, a curvature similar to a reel, a flat curvature, etc. These shape changes may occur in real time.
In one embodiment, all the layered displays are configured (spatially and using video provided to each display device) to resemble a traditional mechanical slot machine. In this case, curvature of the curved surface for interior display device 18 d substantially resembles the curvature of a traditional mechanical reel. While traditional mechanical reels come in a variety of diameters and widths that the curved surface of display device 18 d may mimic in diameter, width, and/or curvature, traditional mechanical reels were typically circular and the curvature was relatively constant. To resemble a traditional mechanical slot machine then, the curved surface of interior display device 18 d may then include a circular surface of a suitable diameter.
In a specific embodiment, the interior display device 18 d includes a flexible OLED that is bent to resemble mechanical slot reels. The curved surface is then produced by the final shape of the bent and flexible OLED, which may be fixed to a cylinder or support of a desired diameter to preserve the curved shape. The curved OLED then outputs ‘virtual slot reels’, or video information resembling slot reels.
The curved digital display device permits remote and digital reconfiguration of video output by display device 18 d. For example, display device 18 d and its curved surface is well suited to display video reel games that mimic mechanical reels that were used in older slot machines (and are still popular in the gaming industry). The digital nature of display device 18 d, however, permits the reel game to be changed as games are downloaded to the gaming machine. For example, the symbols on the reels may be changed to present a new reel game. Thus, new symbols or a different number of symbols may be used in the new game. Alternatively, the number of reels may be changed. Display device 18 d may output color video or black and white video, depending on the game or display device technology used.
Referring to either arrangement of
Portions of touchscreen 16 and light valve 18 e are also translucent or transparent, or alternatively have the capacity to be translucent or transparent in response to control signals from a processor included in the gaming machine. When portions (or all) of the screens for touchscreen 16, display devices 18 a and 18 b, and light valve 18 e are transparent or translucent, a player can simultaneously see images displayed on the display screen 18 a and 18 b—as well as the images displayed on the interior display devices 18 c or 18 d—by looking through the transparent portions of proximate display devices.
Accordingly, the present invention can display co-acting or overlapping images to a person (see
In one embodiment, exterior display device 18 a includes central portions that are transparent to permit viewing of the virtual slot reels that are shown on the curved surface of display device 18 d, while peripheral portions of the exterior display device 18 a show a pay table or other game relevant information, such as whether a bonus game or progressive game is available. Intermediate display device 18 e may include a light valve or light pipe with transparent windows that permit viewing of the virtual slot reels on the curved OLED. Alternatively, the intermediate display device may include a transparent LCD 18 b that has a) transparent windows to permit viewing of the virtual slot wheels and b) other information such as a bonus game. In any of these configurations, a person can simultaneously view graphical representation of all the images: the interior virtual reels, the intermediate bonus game, and the external pay table.
The present invention also permits a casino or gaming establishment to change video on each of the layered display devices, and their transparency, without physically altering the gaming machine or requiring maintenance. Thus, the number of virtual slot reels on the curved OLED may be changed from 3 to 5 to 9 or some other number, while the intermediate and exterior display devices change the position of their transparent windows for viewing of the different number of virtual slot reels. Also, a pay table shown on display device 18 a may be changed at will, in addition to changing weather a bonus or progressive game is shown on the intermediate display device.
Front video display device 90 includes a flat display screen incorporating flat-panel display technology. This may include a liquid crystal display (LCD), a transparent light emitting diode (LED) display, an electroluminescent display (ELD), and a microelectromechanical device (MEM) display, such as a digital micromirror device (DMD) display or a grating light valve (GLV) display, etc. A display screen of the front video display device 90 may further include organic display technologies such as an organic electroluminescent (OEL) display and an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, as well as a light emitting polymer display. In addition, the front video display device 90 may include a touch-sensitive display that facilitates user input and interaction between a person and gaming machine.
In many of above examples, display device 90 incorporates emissive display technology. That is, the display screen, such as an electroluminescent display, is capable of emitting light and is self-illuminating. However, some display device technologies, such as an LCD, are not emissive. In other words, a non-emissive display generally does not emit light or emits only low amounts of light, and is not self-illuminating. In the case of non-emissive displays for the front video display device 90, display system 70 may include a backlight 91 to provide luminescence to video images displayed on the front video display device 90. As mentioned above, many display devices suitable for use as front video display device 90 are significantly transparent when portions of the display include no images are provided on those portions.
Rear display device 92 includes a digital display device with a curved surface. In this case, rear display unit 92 includes a curved OLED device on a stationary cylindrical support. As shown, rear display device 92 includes video output that resembles multiple mechanical reels. The video output may be presented such that the video reels appear rotatable and that each includes a plurality of reel images disposed on each reel. Each video reel may also include illumination that resembles a light element used in traditional mechanical reels to illuminate the reel images or other portions of the mechanical reel.
A light valve 93 is disposed between front video display device 90 and rear display device 92, and may include a light valve as described above with respect to light valve 18 e.
In operation, when the light valve 93 is opaque, or substantially opaque, a player's view of the rear display device 92 is obscured or obstructed. The light valve 93 may also be translucent and provide varying degrees of visibility of the rear display device 92 through the opening, thereby varying the visibility of the rear display device 92 (e.g., gradually “dimming” or “brightening” the visibility of the rear display device 92). Varying the translucency of light valve 93 causes visibility of rear display device 92 to range from allowing the player to view and recognize images on rear display device 92 to merely allowing light and color through without being able to distinguish the images.
Front video display device 90 may include one or more openings that allow a player to view the rear display device 92 when the light valve 93 is transparent or substantially transparent. In this case, front video display device 90 includes a single opening 94 that is aligned with the location of video reels output on rear display device 92. Likewise, if provided with a backlight 91, the backlight 91 includes one or more openings 95 that coincide with opening 94 of the front video display unit 90. The openings 94, 95 allow a player to see at least a portion of the rear display unit 92 when the light valve 93 is transparent. Rear display unit 92 may also be visible when the light valve 93 is translucent, though this may depend on the degree to which the light valve 93 is translucent. Front video display unit 90 may include additional openings 96, 97, 98 and 99 to view additional information displayed on rear display unit 92. For example, one or more of the reel images may be viewable by a player through central openings 94 and 95, whereas additional display units, such as static displays or video displays, may be included as part of the rear display unit 92 and visible to the player through the openings 96, 97, 98 and 99. Corresponding openings (not shown) may be provided in the backlight 91 to match openings 96, 97, 98 and 99.
Openings 94, 96, 97, 98 and 99 in front video display device 90 may be provided as physical openings in the front video display device 90. Physical openings may be formed by forming openings in the display screen material and connecting the resulting edges to appropriate video control lines for row and column addressing to display video images on the remaining display screen. Physical openings may also be formed by using multiple smaller, interconnected display screens for front video display device 90, which are arranged to leave spacing between the display screens to form the openings. Alternatively, the openings 94, 96, 97, 98 and 99 may be provided as virtual openings. For example, if front video display device 90 includes a transparent display screen, such as an electroluminescent display, front video display device 90 may appear transparent when a video image is not displayed. By selectively preventing images from being displayed on certain portions of front video display device 90 using row and column addressing, virtual openings may be formed that allow a player to see through the front video display unit 90. If front video display device 90 includes an LCD, or other non-emissive display, with a backlight 91, physical openings may also be formed in the backlight 91 causing any image on the LCD in front of the openings 95 to be virtually invisible to the player without lighting from the rear.
If light valve 93 is transparent, a person may see through the virtual openings of display device 90 to view an image on rear display device 92. Video images may also be displayed on portions of front video display device 90 that do not correspond to openings 94, 96, 97, 98 or 99, whether physical or virtual. However, if openings 94, 96, 97, 98 and 99 are provided as virtual openings, video images may be displayed on the portions of front video display device 90 corresponding to the virtual openings. The video images may be displayed on the virtual openings when light valve 93 is opaque (or translucent). Video images may also be displayed on the virtual openings when the light valve is transparent, thereby superimposing the video images on an image displayed on the rear display unit 92.
Display screens for any of the display devices described above may have any suitable shape, such as flat, relatively flat, concave, convex, and non-uniform shapes. In one embodiment, the display devices are all relatively flat display screens. LCD panels for example typically include a relatively flat display screen. OLED display devices may also include a relatively flat display surface. Alternatively, an OLED display device may include a non-uniform and custom shape such as a curved surface, e.g., a convex or concave surface. Such a curved convex surface is particularly well suited to provide video information that resembles a mechanical reel. The OLED display device differs from a traditional mechanical reel in that the OLED display device permits the number of reels or symbols on each reel to be digitally changed and reconfigured, as desired, without mechanically disassembling a gaming machine.
Relative arrangement of the display devices may vary with shape of the respective display screens. In a specific embodiment, the multiple display devices include more than one relatively flat screen surface and the flat screens are positioned in planes that are about parallel to one another. For instance, two layered display devices may include LCD panels arranged in parallel with a light source disposed behind the interior LCD panel (for backlighting) or at the sides of each LCD panel. Alternatively, the external display device may include a transparent LCD panel while the back most display device includes a cathode ray tube (CRT) or other light source such as a plasma screen, where the screens for each device are approximately arranged in parallel. The display screens may be positioned in planes that are not parallel to one another, provided that at least one (and possibly multiple) line of sight commonly intersects portions of display surfaces for each display devices. For example, screens for display devices 18 a and 18 b of
In one embodiment, a predetermined distance “D” separates the display screens for the multiple display devices. As shown in
The multiple display devices may each generate their own graphics and images, or cooperate to provide coordinated visual output. For example, a game that includes a wooded environment with trees may include trees on the first and foremost display device 18 a, trees on the intermediate display device 18 b, and trees on the interior display device 18 c of
Although the present invention has shown three exemplary display device arrangements so far, other arrangements are suitable for use. One embodiment includes an exterior transparent LCD panel, an intermediate LCD panel or light valve, and an internal OLED device. Another embodiment includes an exterior touchscreen over an exterior transparent LCD panel, an intermediate LCD panel, and an internal curved OLED device. In general, the present invention may include any combination of the digital display devices mentioned above and arranged in a common line of sight.
A gaming machine uses the layered display devices to show visual information on the different screens that a player can simultaneously see. Various game presentations and uses of the layered display devices will now be discussed.
In a specific example, the gaming machine generates a game image on an interior display device and a flashing translucent image on a proximate display device. The game could for example, be reels or one or more wheels, and a flashing image on the proximate display could be a translucent line that indicates the payline(s) on the reels. Since some games permit multiple paylines based on the person's wager, this permits the game to show multiple paylines responsive to the person's actions. Alternatively, the proximate display may show a symbol or message that provides a player with helpful information such as a hint for playing the game. Notably, each of these examples allows the person to play the game while viewing the flashing image without having to change his or her line of sight or having to independently find such information from another portion of the gaming machine.
In another example, exterior display device 18 a displays an advertisement image in place of the paytable image 146. The advertisement image may include the casino that controls the gaming machine, a business such as a restaurant that has paid the casino for the advertising space, etc. This enables a player to simultaneously view the reel image 142 b, the payline image 144 and the advertising without having to change his or her line of sight.
The video output 320 as shown in
These examples illustrate the capability of a gaming machine of the present invention to enable a player to view different types of information and different types of images by looking at and through an exterior display screen. In some cases, the images displayed on the different display screens are positioned such that the images do not overlap (that is, the images are not superimposed). In other instances, the images overlap. It should also be appreciated that the images displayed on the display screen can fade-in fade out or pulsate to create additional affects.
In one embodiment, the gaming machine presents different game types on the layered display devices. For example, the interior and backmost display device may output a main game while a proximate display device shows a bonus game or progressive game. The bonus game or progressive game may result from playing the main game. Again, this permits the player to play the game while viewing a flashing bonus image without having to change his or her line of sight or having to independently find such information from another portion of the gaming machine.
Visual information on each of the distal screens remains visible as long as there are transparent or semi-transparent portions on the proximate screens that permit a user to see through these portions. Transparent portions may be selectively designed and timely activated according to game design, and changed according to game play. For example, if a game designer wants a person to focus on a bonus game on the front screen, they can use an intermediate light valve to black out the distal reel game on the interior curved OLED device.
In one embodiment, the gaming machine permits digital reconfiguration, which allows a single gaming machine to offer different games at different times. The games may be downloaded to the gaming machine via a network connection, or stored in memory for the gaming machine.
The present invention also permits display device reconfiguration. On one day, the gaming machine may offer games using all the layered display devices. The next day, the same gaming machine may offer a game that only uses an outer LCD panel and touchscreen, where a shutter (or other technology on front display) blocks out the back display devices. Some other subset of the layered displays may also be used. This permits dual-dynamic display device reconfiguration and/or game reconfiguration, at will, by downloading commands to the gaming machine that determine a) what game(s) is played, and b) what display device(s) is used. For example, this allows the same gaming machine to run a reel game one day and a video poker game another day that uses some subset of the display devices.
This reconfiguration of display devices used and games also enables new uses for gaming machines. Traditionally, a casino or other gaming establishment purchased a gaming machine and offered games only according to its display capabilities. If a casino purchased 250 gaming machines that only had LCD panels, and then later decided they wanted to implement reel games or other games that required more than an LCD panel, they were forced to purchase new gaming machines. The present invention, however, solves this problem for a casino. Accordingly, gaming machines as described herein permit a gaming establishment to a) switch games, at will, to any games offered by the multiple display devices, and b) switch display devices, again, at will.
One business advantage of this dual-dynamic display device reconfiguration and/or game reconfiguration is navigating gaming regulations imposed by different jurisdictions, which often change over time. First, each jurisdiction imposes its own set of rules on what games are locally permissible. Second, gaming regulators in each jurisdiction often change the local rules. This is particularly common for new gaming regulators and jurisdictions allowing casinos for the first time. The new gaming regulators may only permit class 2 games at first (e.g., video poker on an LCD panel) and later permit class 3 games (bingo and reel games, one year later). The present invention allows a new casino in this jurisdiction to adapt, instantly, to a regulations change with a) new games and b) new display device arrangements that were already on the gaming machine but not previously used. Thus, when some jurisdictions limit the number and types of games that can be played, the present invention allows a casino to switch games—on the fly without significant gaming machine maintenance or downtime in the casino—when jurisdiction rules change.
The present invention contemplates numerous combinations of video and co-acting images on the multiple display devices. For example, the present invention may include any combination of the options listed below for: a) an exterior display device, b) an intermediate display device and/or light filter, and c) the interior display device.
a) Video information output by the exterior display device may include: a primary, secondary or bonus game; a primary, secondary or tertiary part of a video game presented in conjunction with the other display devices; advertising information; a pay table; information regarding a primary, secondary or bonus game such as instructions, hints and directions; television, movie or other entertainment video; textual, graphic, or other information such as the name of the casino; etc. The exterior display device may also act as a filter to selectively block a person's view of any distal display devices, or portions thereof.
b) Video information output by the intermediate display device may include: a primary, secondary or bonus game; a primary, secondary or tertiary part of a video game presented in conjunction with the other display devices; advertising information; a pay table; information regarding a primary, secondary or bonus game such as instructions, hints and directions; television, movie or other entertainment video; textual, graphic, or other information such as the name of the casino; etc. The intermediate display device may also act as a filter to selectively block a person's view of the interior display device, or portions thereof.
c) Video information output by the distal display device may include: a primary, secondary or bonus game; a primary, secondary or tertiary part of a video game presented in conjunction with the other display devices; advertising information; a pay table; information regarding a primary, secondary or bonus game such as instructions, hints and directions; television, movie or other entertainment video; textual, graphic, or other information such as the name of the casino; etc.
An intermediate shutter may also be used for blackout purposes. In this case, the shutter turns black and blocks view of the interior display device when the gaming machine experiences some disturbance. For example, it is often desirable to blackout the interior display device during safety, power-outage and tilt situations, or during any other condition where game results may be questioned. Maintenance miscues may also lead to gaming machine disturbances, e.g., maintenance personnel left the door open. This provides a method for protecting the integrity of game results on the interior display device, such as a reel game, by ensuring that games are only viewable to a player when the gaming machine is operating correctly.
As mentioned above, the present invention improves 3D graphics presentation for a gaming machine. Layered display devices of the present invention permit both virtual 3D graphics (created within a single screen) and actual 3D graphics (created between screens). More specifically, each screen permits 3D graphics rendering on that screen to create virtual effects of perceived depth. Also, each display device provides a viewing surface or face—with a different depth along the common line of sight relative to a viewer—for displaying one or more 3D graphics (partial or hole) to the viewer.
Characterization of 3D graphics may vary. The 3D presentation may include actual three-dimensional space characterizations, such as x, y and z coordinates. In one embodiment, the z-dimension refers to the depth or distance that separates screens for the multiple display devices. In a specific embodiment, the z-dimension is measured along the common line of sight between multiple display devices. Images created on the multiple displays may thus have an actual and physical depth dimension. For 3D graphics rendering, this permits graphics with a width, height and (virtual and/or actual) depth. In a specific embodiment, width and height of graphics are measured along an x-axis and y-axis of screen surfaces for each of the display devices. Depth may then be measured along a z-axis that passes through a portion of each of the multiple screens along a common line of sight. In some cases, one or more of the screens are relatively flat, and this z-axis passes relatively perpendicular to each of the screens.
A visual presentation typically includes multiple graphics components. The layered display devices may cooperate to provide 3D visual presentation by each displaying their own 3D graphics components or parts. For example, the multiple display devices may cooperate to display a 3D image by separately displaying different parts of the whole image on each of the display screens. In this case, a proximate display device shows one portion of the 3D image, while a distal or underlying display device shows another portion of the 3D image. As result, the gaming machine shows a 3D representation that is formed in three physical or actual dimensions: an x and y of the proximate display screen, an x and y of the distal display screen, and a depth, D, or z dimension of the image that is at least partially dependent on the distance between the two display devices. A third display device may be used to add another set of x and y dimensions and another depth, D, along the z dimension.
In one embodiment, each of the display devices shows virtual 3D images, and controls the perception of depth in each screen. This permits collective 3D images provided by the multiple display devices to cause a player to perceive a depth that is based or derived from a combination of virtual depth and the actual depth, D. For example, a gaming machine processor may use or multiply the actual depth, D, by a factor to generate a perceived depth in rendered 3D images for each of the screens that cooperates with the actual depth, D. This permits a game designer to change the perceived depth of the entire 3D image by manipulating the virtual depth to thereby modify the perceived combination of virtual and actual depths.
Although it is not fully apparent by viewing the 2D representation shown in
Thus, by simultaneously displaying different images (partially or wholly) on layered display devices of the present invention, the gaming machine achieves 3D video output in three actual dimensions. A person can physically move and change their perspective relative to the layered displays and look around the reel 132 on the first display screen 134, thus gaining a different view of reel image 135 the intermediate display screen 136 and a different view of reel 138.
Curvature of the interior display device 18 d of
In another 3D video output embodiment, an image of a card dealer, displayed on an interior display device, deals cards that are shown on an exterior display device. This provides a person with a three-dimensional view of the card game in which the cards physically come forward between the display devices.
In a specific embodiment, a gaming machine includes a sensor such as a camera or other suitable device to detect position of a player or the player's head. When the player's head moves (e.g., translates or rotates left, right, up or down), images on one or more of the display devices change to provide a virtual impression to the player that the player can look around an object or images on the display devices, which provides a better impression of 3D reality.
One of the display devices in a layered arrangement may also output live video such as television or a movie (or parts of either). For example, the television or movie video may be output on a rear display while a game is played on a proximate display. This permits a person to watch television or a movie while playing a game at a gaming machine, without changing position or line of sight to switch between the game and live video. The live video may also be related to the game being played to enhance enjoyment of that game, e.g., a science fiction movie related to a science fiction game being played or a 1960's television show related to a 1960's television game. The video may also play commercials for the gaming establishment, such as advertisements and infomercials for businesses related to a casino or businesses that pay for the advertising opportunity. Advertisements may include those for a local restaurant, local shows, -house offers and promotions currently offered, menus for food, etc.
The present invention may employ a wide variety of gaming machines. For example, the present invention may be used with a gaming machine provided by IGT of Reno, Nev. Gaming machines from other manufacturers may also employ layered display systems as described herein.
Gaming machine 10 includes a top box 11 and a main cabinet 12, which generally surrounds the machine interior and is viewable by users. Main cabinet 12 includes a main door 38 on the front of the machine, which opens to provide access to the interior of the machine. Attached to the main door are typically one or more player-input switches or buttons 39; one or more money or credit acceptors, such as a coin acceptor 42, and a bill or ticket scanner 23; a coin tray 24; and a belly glass 25. Viewable through main door 38 is the exterior video display monitor 18 a and one or more information panels 27.
Top box 11, which typically rests atop of the main cabinet 12, may also contain a ticket printer 28, a keypad 29, one or more additional displays 30, a card reader 31, one or more speakers 32, a top glass 33 and a camera 34. Other components and combinations are also possible, as is the ability of the top box to contain one or more items traditionally reserved for main cabinet locations, and vice versa.
It will be readily understood that gaming machine 10 can be adapted for presenting and playing any of a number of games and gaming events, particularly games of chance involving a player wager and potential monetary payout, such as, for example, a wager on a sporting event or general play as a slot machine game, a keno game, a video poker game, a video blackjack game, and/or any other video table game, among others. While gaming machine 10 is usually adapted for live game play with a physically present player, it is also contemplated that such a gaming machine may also be adapted for remote game play with a player at a remote gaming terminal. Such an adaptation preferably involves communication from the gaming machine to at least one outside location, such as a remote gaming terminal itself, as well as the incorporation of a gaming network that is capable of supporting a system of remote gaming with multiple gaming machines and/or multiple remote gaming terminals.
Gaming machine 10 may also be a “dummy” machine, kiosk or gaming terminal, in that all processing may be done at a remote server, with only the external housing, displays, and pertinent inputs and outputs being available to a player. Further, it is also worth noting that the term “gaming machine” may also refer to a wide variety of gaming machines in addition to traditional free standing gaming machines. Such other gaming machines can include kiosks, set-top boxes for use with televisions in hotel rooms and elsewhere, and many server based systems that permit players to log in and play remotely, such as at a personal computer or PDA. All such gaming machines can be considered “gaming machines” for purposes of the present invention and following discussion, with all of the disclosed metering techniques and devices being adaptable for such uses of alternative gaming machines and devices.
With reference to
When a person wishes to play a gaming machine 10, he or she provides coins, cash or a credit device to a scanner included in the gaming machine. The scanner may comprise a bill scanner or a similar device configured to read printed information on a credit device such as a paper ticket or magnetic scanner that reads information from a plastic card. The credit device may be stored in the interior of the gaming machine. During interaction with the gaming machine, the person views game information using a video display. Usually, during the course of a game, a player is required to make a number of decisions that affect the outcome of the game. The player makes these choices using a set of player-input switches.
After the player has completed interaction with the gaming machine, the player may receive a portable credit device from the machine that includes any credit resulting from interaction with the gaming machine. By way of example, the portable credit device may be a ticket having a dollar value produced by a printer within the gaming machine. A record of the credit value of the device may be stored in a memory device provided on a gaming machine network (e.g., a memory device associated with validation terminal and/or processing system in the network). Any credit on some devices may be used for further games on other gaming machines 10. Alternatively, the player may redeem the device at a designated change booth or pay machine.
A gaming machine of the present invention can be used to play any primary game, bonus game, progressive or other type of game. In one embodiment, the gaming machine includes a game that enables a player to have inputs and interaction that are associated with a depth or z-dimension extending into and through the face of a frontmost display surface. This type of 3D game play can be suitable for wagering games which, by their original design, are 3D, such as blackjack, poker, roulette, and other casino games including, but not limited to, skill and perceived-skill games. Other wagering games can enable a player to cause different events to occur based upon how hard the player pushes on a touch screen. For example, a player could cause reels or objects to move faster by pressing harder on the exterior touch screen. In these types of games, the gaming machine can enable the player to interact in the 3D by varying the amount of pressure the player applies to a touchscreen.
In another embodiment, the gaming machine enables a player to play two or more games on two or more display screens at the same time or at different times. For example, a player can play two related games on two of the display screens simultaneously. In another example, once a player deposits currency to initiate the gaming machine, the gaming machine may enable the player to chose from one or more games to play on different screens. In yet another example, the gaming machine can include a multi-level bonus scheme that enables a player to advance to different bonus rounds that are displayed and played on different display screens.
Some gaming machines may include a touchscreen that permits force differentiation that allows a person to separately access each display layer in a layered display configuration. This includes gaming machine software and control that reads the amount of force applied by a person and reactively associates this force with video data on a particular screen or layer.
As indicated above, a gaming machine of the present invention also enables a person to view information and graphics generated on one display screen while playing a game that is generated on another display screen. Such information and graphics can include game paytables, game-related information, entertaining graphics, background, history or game theme-related information or information not related to the game, such as advertisements. The gaming machine can display this information and graphics adjacent to a game, underneath or behind a game or on top of a game. For example, a gaming machine could display paylines on the frontmost display screen and also display a reel game on an underlying display screen, and the paylines could fade in and fade out periodically.
A gaming machine includes one or more processors and memory that cooperate to output games and gaming interaction functions from stored memory.
Processor 132 is a microprocessor or microcontroller-based platform that is capable of causing a display system 18 to output video data such as symbols, cards, images of people, characters, places, and objects which function in the gaming device. Processor 132 may include a commercially available microprocessor provided by a variety of vendors known to those of skill in the art. The present invention may also include one or more application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) or other hardwired devices. Furthermore, although the processor 132 and memory device 134 reside on each gaming machine, it is possible to provide some or all of their functions at a central location such as a network server for communication to a playing station such as over a local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), Internet connection, microwave link, and the like.
Memory 134 may include one or more memory modules, flash memory or another type of conventional memory that stores executable programs that are used by the processing system to control components in a layered display system system. Memory 134 can include any suitable software and/or hardware structure for storing data, including a tape, CD-ROM, floppy disk, hard disk or any other optical or magnetic storage media. Memory 134 may also include a) random access memory (RAM) 140 for storing event data or other data generated or used during a particular game and b) read only memory (ROM) 142 for storing program code that controls functions on the gaming machine such as playing a game.
A player uses one or more input devices 138, such as a pull arm, play button, bet button or cash out button to input signals into the gaming machine. One or more of these functions could also be employed on a touch screen. In such embodiments, the gaming machine includes a touch screen controller 16 a that communicates with a video controller 146 and processor 132. A player can input signals into the gaming machine by touching the appropriate locations on the touchscreen.
Processor 132 is also connected to a currency acceptor 116 such as the coin slot or bill acceptor. Processor 132 can operate instructions that require a player to deposit a certain amount of money in order to start the game.
Although the processing system shown in
Because such information and program instructions may be employed to implement the systems/methods described herein, the present invention relates to machine-readable media that include program instructions, state information, etc. for performing various operations described herein. Examples of machine-readable media include, but are not limited to, magnetic media such as hard disks, floppy disks, and magnetic tape; optical media such as CD-ROM disks; magneto-optical media such as floptical disks; and hardware devices that are specially configured to store and perform program instructions, such as read-only memory devices (ROM) and random access memory (RAM). The invention may also be embodied in a carrier wave traveling over an appropriate medium such as airwaves, optical lines, electric lines, etc. Examples of program instructions include both machine code, such as produced by a compiler, and files containing higher-level code that may be executed by the computer using an interpreter.
The processing system may offer any type of primary game, bonus round game or other game. In one embodiment, a gaming machine permits a player to play two or more games on two or more display screens at the same time or at different times. For example, a player can play two related games on two of the display screens simultaneously. In another example, once a player deposits currency to initiate the gaming device, the gaming machine allows a person to choose from one or more games to play on different display screens. In yet another example, the gaming device can include a multi-level bonus scheme that allows a player to advance to different bonus rounds that are displayed and played on different display screens.
The present invention also relates to methods imparted using a gaming machine with a layered display.
At block 252, the routine may determine whether a game has been initiated. If a game has been initiated, the routine may deactivate light valve 93 and cause the light valve to become transparent at block 254. Depending on the particular light valve 93 being utilized, deactivating the light valve 93 may involve either applying (or increasing) a current to the light valve 93 or discontinuing (or decreasing) the current being applied to the light valve 93.
At block 256, the routine generates graphics on the rear display unit 92 related to the game. If provided with video slot machine reels, the reels of the rear display unit 92 are illuminated. Other video output and graphics that correspond to the game display may be activated on the rear display device 92 as part of the display. Additional graphics may also be generated on the front video display device 90, and are superimposed over the graphics of the rear display device 92. At block 258, the routine generates graphics such as player information (e.g., player identification, cumulative winnings, a player profile, favorite games, etc.), game information, advertisements, graphics related to the game, etc., which are displayed on the front video display device 90. At block 260, a game routine is performed and output on the front and rear display units 90, 92. The video is updated accordingly as the game routine proceeds.
The display routine 250 may further determine whether a bonus game has been initiated at block 262. If the bonus game has been initiated, the routine activates the light valve 93 at block 264, causing the light valve to become opaque and obscuring the player's view of the rear display device 92. The routine then generates graphics to play the bonus game on the front video display device 90 at block 266 and further generate player information on the front video display device at block 268. If provided with video slot machine reels, the video reels of the rear display device 92 may be de-illuminated. At block 270, the bonus game routine is executed.
The display routine 250 may further determine whether or not an attraction sequence is being performed. The attraction sequence may include a scrolling list of games playable on the game machine and/or video images of various games being played, such as video poker, video blackjack, video slots, video keno, video bingo, etc. The attraction sequence may further include the activation of the light valve 93 at block 274, thereby causing the light valve 93 to become opaque to obscure the view of the rear display device 92. Attraction graphics, such as the scrolling list of games and/or video images of various games being played, may be generated on the front video display device 90 at block 276. During the attraction sequence, if a person makes any input to the gaming machine as determined at block 278, the attraction sequence terminates and control returns to block 252 to determine whether or not a game has been initiated.
The display routine 250 may also determine whether a player has won during a game routine at block 280. The win determination may include any nonzero payout determination as determined during a game routine. In one example, the win determination relates to a predetermined payout amount such as a jackpot. If the player has won, as determined at block 280, the routine deactivates the light valve 93, causing the light valve to become transparent and allowing the player to view the rear display device 92. At block 284, the routine generates graphics on the rear display device 92 and/or the front video display device 90 corresponding to a value payout display to indicating that the player has won. If provided with video slot machine reels, the video reels of the rear display device 92 may be illuminated and de-illuminated to appear flashing (similar to old mechanical reels). Player information may be generated on the front video display device 90 at block 286, including updated graphical information accounting for the payout amount.
Although the display routine 250 has been described as including various combinations of generating images on the display units 90, 92 and activating/deactivating the light valve 93, based on the occurrence of a game routine, a bonus routine, an attraction sequence, or a winning game, those of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that additional criteria may cause such combinations to be initiated. For example, some game routines may be executed to include a game display on the rear display device 92, whereas other game routines may be executed to include a game display on the front display device 90. In one example, the rear display device 92 outputs a video slots game routine that resembles a mechanical slots game, whereas the front display device 90 outputs a video game routine such as video poker, video blackjack, video slots, video keno, video bingo, or any other video game routine. When a video game routine is to be performed, which may result from a player selection of such a game routine, the light valve 93 is activated, thereby causing the light valve 93 to become opaque to obscure the view of the rear display device 92. Other combinations that provide specific game routines to be displayed on each display device 90, 92 may also be employed.
Additionally, various combinations and permutations of generating images on the display units 90, 92 and activating/deactivating the light valve 93 may be performed for the above occurrences or other criteria. Those of ordinary skill in the art will also recognize that each criteria (e.g., game, bonus game, attraction, win, etc.) may be embodied in its own routine or incorporated into other routines such as the main operating routines 200, 230.
As mentioned above, game output may also include downloading instructions for one or more games to the gaming machine. The present invention also relates to a method of reconfiguring a gaming machine that includes reconfiguring the display system to use a different number of display devices and/or a different game. For example, a network connection on the gaming machine may download software for a game output on a front screen and download software for a game output on a back screen. The downloaded games may include any game/game, game/bonus, game/pay configuration, front/back combination as described above. The downloaded instructions may also specify how the games will be displayed in a common line of sight.
Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be apparent that certain changes and modifications may be practiced within the scope of the appended claims. Therefore, the present examples are to be considered as illustrative and not restrictive, and the invention is not to be limited to the details given herein, but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims.