This applications claims benefit of priority to provisional U.S. Patent Application No. 60/820,786, filed Jul. 29, 2006, entitled “Voltage Switchable Dielectric Material With Reduced Metal Loading,” the aforementioned application being hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
This applications also claims benefit of priority to provisional U.S. Patent Application No. 60/826,746, filed Sep. 24, 2006, entitled “Voltage Switchable Device and Dielectric Material With High Current Carrying Capacity and a Process for Electroplating the Same,” the aforementioned application being hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
This application also claims benefit of priority to provisional U.S. Patent Application No. 60/949,179, filed Jul. 11, 2007, entitled “Binders for Voltage Switchable Dielectric Materials,” the aforementioned application being hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
The disclosed embodiments relate generally to the field of voltage switchable dielectric (VSD) materials. More specifically, embodiments described herein include VSD material that includes organic or semi-conductive organic filler.
Voltage switchable dielectric (VSD) material has an increasing number of applications. These include its use on, for example, printed circuit boards and device packages, for purpose of handling transient voltages and electrostatic discharge events (ESD).
Various kinds of conventional VSDM exist. Examples of voltage switchable dielectric materials are provided in references such as U.S. Pat. No. 4,977,357, U.S. Pat. No. 5,068,634, U.S. Pat. No. 5,099,380, U.S. Pat. No. 5,142,263, U.S. Pat. No. 5,189,387, U.S. Pat. No. 5,248,517, U.S. Pat. No. 5,807,509, WO 96/02924, and WO 97/26665. VSD material can be “SURGX” material manufactured by the SURGX CORPORATION (which is owned by Littlefuse, Inc.).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
While VSD material has many uses and applications, conventional compositions of the material have had many shortcomings. Typical conventional VSD materials are brittle, prone to scratching or other surface damage, lack adhesive strength, and have a high degree of thermal expansion.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating components for use in a process of formulating VSD material, according to an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 2 illustrates a process for formulating a composition of VSD material having conductive or semi-conductive organic material in a binder of the VSD material, under an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional illustration of VSD material, where the VSD material is formulated in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention.
FIG. 3B illustrates a graph of basic electrical properties of clamp and trigger voltage for VSD material, in accordance with embodiments such as described with FIG. 3A and elsewhere.
FIG. 3C-FIG. 3E illustrate voltage by current performance graphs of different examples of VSD material, responding to the occurrence of voltage events, under one or more embodiments of the invention.
FIG. 4 illustrates another process by which VSD material may include conductive or semi-conductive organic material that coats conductors or semi-conductors, under an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 5A and FIG. 5B illustrate how application of organic material to coat the surface of the metal/inorganic conductor or semiconductors can reduce the loading of such particles in the VSD material, under an embodiment of the invention.
FIG. 5C illustrates a relatively disorganized distribution of organic fillers, reflecting effects of organic fillers distributed at the nanoscale within a binder of VSD material, according to an embodiment of the invention.
Embodiments described herein provide for a composition of VSD material that includes conductive or semi-conductive organic material. As described herein, the use of conductive or semi-conductive organic material enables the formulation of VSD material that has several improved or desired characteristics that are not provided by more conventional VSD formulations. Among numerous other benefits, the use of conductive or semi-conductive organic material as part of a VSD composition enables the reduction of metal loading as compared to more conventional VSD material. As such, electrical characteristics, such as trigger and clamp voltages, may be improved while at the same time enhancing the physical properties of the material.
Accordingly, one or more embodiments provide for formulating VSD material that has benefits that includes, for example, one or more of the following: (i) has improved mechanical properties, including having inherent properties of high compression strength, scratch resistance and non-brittleness; (ii) improved thermal properties, (iii) has high adhesive strength; (iv) has good ability to adhere to copper; or (v) lower degree of thermal expansion, as compared to more conventional VSD materials.
One or more embodiments provide for a composition that includes (i) organic material that is conductive or semi-conductive, and (ii) conductor and/or semiconductor particles other than the organic material. The conductive/semi-conductive organic material may be solvent soluble, or dispersed at nanoscale within the composition of VSD material. The organic material and the conductor and/or semiconductor particles are combined to provide the composition with electrical characteristics of VSD material, including that of being (i) dielectric in absence of a voltage that exceeds a characteristic voltage level (alternatively referred to as ‘trigger voltage’), and (ii) conductive with application of the voltage exceeding the characteristic voltage level.
According to embodiments described herein, the organic conductive/semi-conductive material may be uniformly mixed into a binder of the VSD mixture. In one embodiment, the mixture is dispersed at nanoscale, meaning the particles that comprise the organic conductive/semi-conductive material are nano-scale in at least one dimension (e.g. cross-section) and a substantial number of the particles that comprise the overall dispersed quantity in the volume are individually separated (so as to not be agglomerated or compacted together).
Still further, one or more embodiments include VSD material having carbon nanotubes. In one embodiment, a binder of the VSD material includes carbon nanotubes that are substantially uniformly mixed, so as to be distributed at nanoscale.
In another embodiment, a method is provided for creating a voltage switchable dielectric material. A mixture is created containing (i) a binder that is dielectric, (ii) metallic and/or inorganic conductor or semi-conductor particles, and (iii) conductive or semi-conductive organic material. In creating the mixture, a quantity of each of the binder, the metallic and/or inorganic conductor or semi-conductor particles, and the organic material, is used. The mixture, when cured, is (i) dielectric in absence of a voltage that exceeds a characteristic voltage, and (ii) conductive in presence of the voltage that exceeds the characteristic voltage. The mixture may then be cured to form the VSD material.
With an embodiment such as described, the characteristic voltage may range in values that exceed the operational voltage levels of the circuit or device several times over. Such voltage levels may be of the order of transient conditions, such as produced by electrostatic discharge, although embodiments may include use of planned electrical events. Furthermore, one or more embodiments provide that in the absence of the voltage exceeding the characteristic voltage, the material behaves similar to the binder.
Still further, an embodiment provides for VSD material formed from the stated process or method.
Still further, an electronic device may be provided with VSD material in accordance with any of the embodiments described herein. Such electrical devices may include substrate devices, such as printed circuit boards, semiconductor packages, discrete devices, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), and radio-frequency (RF) components.
In an embodiment, the organic material is a fullerene. According to one embodiment, the organic material is a single or multi-walled carbon nanotube.
As used herein, “voltage switchable material” or “VSD material” is any composition, or combination of compositions, that has a characteristic of being dielectric or non-conductive, unless a voltage is applied to the material that exceeds a characteristic voltage level of the material, in which case the material becomes conductive. Thus, VSD material is a dielectric unless voltage exceeding the characteristic level (e.g. such as provided by ESD events) is applied to the material, in which case the VSD material is conductive. VSD material can further be characterized as any material that can be characterized as a nonlinear resistance material.
VSD material may also be characterized as being non-layered and uniform in its composition, while exhibiting electrical characteristics as stated.
Still further, an embodiment provides that VSD material may be characterized as material comprising a binder mixed in part with conductor or semi-conductor particles. In the absence of voltage exceeding a characteristic voltage level, the material as a whole adapts the dielectric characteristic of the binder. With application of voltage exceeding the characteristic level, the material as a whole adapts conductive characteristics.
Generally, the characteristic voltage of VSD material is measured at volts/length (e.g. per 5 mil). One or more embodiments provide that VSD material has a characteristic voltage level that exceeds that of an operating circuit.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating components for use in a process of formulating VSD material, according to an embodiment of the invention. According to an embodiment, conductive or semi-conductive organic material (“organic material”) 110 is combined with conductor(and/or) semi-conductor particles 120 to form VSD material 140. As an optional addition, insulator particles may also be combined with the conductor/semiconductor particles 120. In one embodiment, the organic material 110 is combined with conductor/semi-conductor particles 120 that are non-organic. Binder materials 130 may be combined with the organic material 110 and the conductive particles to form the VSD material 140. A VSD formulation process 150 may be used to combine the various constituents of the VSD material 140. Formulation processes for combining VSD material with organic material are described below, with, for example, an embodiment of FIG. 2.
In one embodiment, the binder 130 is a binder that retains the conductive/semi-conductive organic material 110 and the conductor/semi-conductor particles 120. In one embodiment, the organic material 110 is dispersed as nanoscale particles. As dispersed nanoscale particles, the organic material 110 includes particles that are nanoscaled and individually separated from one another, rather than attached or agglomerated. The formulation process 150 may uniformly disperse the particles within the binder of the binder 130.
In an embodiment of FIG. 1, the organic material is dispersed fullerenes. Examples of fullerenes that are suitable for use with one or more embodiments described herein include C60 or C70 fullerenes 112, sometimes referred to as Buckyballs. Such fullerenes may be functionalized, to provide a covalently bonded chemical group or moiety. In another embodiment, carbon nanotubes 114 may be used, which are cylindrical shaped fullerenes. The carbon nanotubes 114 may be of either a single or multi-wall variety. Still further, one or more embodiments contemplate a quantity formed from a combination of different types of fullerenes, including carbon nanotubes.
As an alternative or variation, another embodiment provides for conductive or semi-conductive organic material in the form of pure carbon compounds (other than those depicted in FIG. 1). For example, the conductive or semi-conductive organic material may correspond to one of carbon graphite, carbon fiber, or a diamond powder.
According to one or more embodiments, other ingredients or components for use in the formation process 150 include solvents and catalysts. Solvents may be added to the binder of the binder 130 to separate particles. A mixing process may be used to uniformly space separated particles. In one embodiment, the result of the mixing process is that the composition is uniformly mixed to disperse the particles at the nanoscale. Thus, particles such as carbon nanotubes may be separated out individually and distributed relatively evenly in the material. In order to achieve nanoscale dispersion, one or more embodiments provide for use of sonic agitators and sophisticated mixing equipment (e.g. rotor-stator mixers, ball mills, mini-mills and other high shear mixing technologies), over a duration that last several hours or longer. Once mixed, the resulting mixture may be cured or dried.
As an alternative or addition to use of nanoscale distributed particles, one or more embodiments provide for the conductive/semi-conductive organic material 110 to be solvent soluble. In one embodiment, the conductive/semi-conductive organic material 110 is added to the binder and mixed with solvent. During the drying process, the solvent is removed, leaving the conductive/semi-conductive organic material 110 remaining uniformly mixed within the cured material. An example of solvent soluble material is poly-3-hexylthiophene. The solvent may correspond to toluene. As a result of the curing step in the formulation process 150, the poly-3-hexylthiophene remains in the VSD material 140.
Thus, as an alternative or addition to fullerenes, numerous other types of conductive/semi-conductive organic material are contemplated for use with VSD material, according to embodiments of the invention. These include: poly-3-hexylthiophene (as discussed above), Polythiophene, a Polyactetylene, a Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate), a Pentacene, (8-hydroxyquinolinolato) aluminum (III), N,N′-Di-[(naphthalenyl)-N,N′diphenyl]-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine [NPD, a conductive carbon graphite or carbon fiber, diamond powder, and a conductive polymer.
Thus, as an alternative or variation to an embodiment described, the organic material may correspond to a compound that is solvent soluble.
According to another embodiment, other kinds of conductive or semi-conductive organic material may be used. These include conductive/semi-conductive monomers, oligomers, and polymers. By classification, the conductive or semi-conductive organic material may correspond to variations of monomers, oligomer, and polymers of thiophenes (such as poly-3-hexylthiophene or Polythiophene), anilines, phenylenes, vinylenes, flourenes, naphthalene, pyrrole, acetylene, carbazole, pyrrolidone, cyano materials, anthracene, pentacene, rubrene, perylene, or oxadizoles. Still further, the conductive or semi-conductive organic material may correspond to Poly(3,4ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate), (8-hydroxyquinolinolato) aluminum (III), N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine [TPD], N,N′-Di-[(naphthalenyl)-N,N′diphenyl]-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine [NPD].
The conductor/semi-conductor particles 120 may correspond to conductors or semi-conductors. One or more embodiments provide for use of inorganic semi-conductor particles that include silicon, silicon carbide, or titanium dioxide, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, nickel oxide, zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, bismuth oxide, cerium oxide, iron oxide, metal or/and complexes selected from a group consisting of oxides, metal nitrides, metal carbides, metal borides, metal sulfides, or a combination thereof.
The binder 130 may also be of various types. The binder 130 may be provided in the form of a binder that retains the conductor/semiconductor organic material 110 and the conductor/semiconductor particles 120. According to different embodiments, the binder 130 is formed from a material selected from a group consisting of silicone polymers, epoxy, phenolic resin, polyurethane, poly(meth) acrylate, polyamide, polyester, polycarbonate, polycrylamides, polyimide, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyphenylene oxide, polysulphone, solgel materials, and ceramers. According to one or more embodiments, the binder 130 is a binder that suspends and/or retains the organic material 110 and the conductor/semi-conductor particles 120, as well as other particles or compounds that comprise the VSD material 140. Additionally, the binder 130 may include solvents and other elements not specifically described herein.
VSD Formulation with Organisc Material
Broadly, embodiments provide for use of VSD material that includes, by percentage of volume, 5-99% binder, 0-70% conductor, 0-90% semiconductor, and 0.01-95% organic conductive or semi-conductive material. One or more embodiments provide for use of VSD material that includes, by percentage of volume, 20 to 80% binder, 10-50% conductor, 0% to 70% semiconductor, and organic material that is conductive or semi-conductive and having a volume of the composition in a range of 0.01-40%. Still further, one embodiment provides for use of VSD material that includes, by percentage of volume, 30 to 70% binder, 15-45% conductor, 0% to 50% semiconductor, and organic material that is conductive or semi-conductive and having a volume of the composition in a range of 0.01-40%. Examples of binder materials include silicone polymers, epoxy, polyimide, phenolic resins, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyphenylene oxide, polysulphone, solgel mateterials, ceramers and inorganic polymers. Examples of conductors include metals such as copper, aluminum, titanium, nickel, stainless steel, chrome and other alloys. Examples of semiconductors include both organic and inorganic semiconductors. Some inorganic semiconductors include silicon, silicon carbide, boron nitride, aluminum nitride, nickel oxide, zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, bismuth oxide, and iron oxide. Examples of organic semiconductors include poly-3-hexylthiophene, pentacene, perylene (or derivatives thereof), carbon nanotubes, C60 fullerenes and diamond. The specific formulation and composition may be selected for mechanical and electrical properties that best suit the particular application of the VSD material.
FIG. 2 illustrates a process for formulating a composition of VSD material having organic material, according to an embodiment of the invention. Initially, in a step 210, a resin mixture is created having conductive and semi-conductive organic particles (or alternatively solvent solubles). The resin mixture may serve as the binder of the VSD material when formulation is complete. In one embodiment, the organic material may correspond to carbon nanotubes. The amount of organic material added to the mixture may vary, depending on the desired by weight or by percentage by volume of the organic material in the formulated VSD material. In one embodiment in which carbon nanotubes are used, the quantity of carbon nanotubes added to the resin results in carbon nanotubes having a percentage by weight of less than 10% of the overall composition, and more specifically between 0.01% and 10% of the formulated VSD material. More generally, the amount of organic material added to the resin may be based on using organic material that has a percentage by weight of the formulated VSD material that is less than the percolation threshold of the mixture.
In step 220, metallic and/or inorganic conductors/semiconductors are added to the mixture. As described with an embodiment of FIG. 1, numerous types of conductors or semi-conductors may be used. More than one kind of organic/semiconductor particle may be added. In one embodiment, Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used as the (or one of the) primary types of conductive/semiconductive particles, along with additional conductor particles. Additional curative and catalyst constituents and insulative particles may also be added to the mixture.
In step 230, a mixing process may be performed over a designated duration. In one embodiment, the mixing process is performed with mixing equipment, including sonic agitators, for a duration that that extends from between minutes to several hours.
In step 240, the mixture is applied to its desired target. For example, the mixture may be applied to across a 5 mil gap between two given electrodes of a particular device. At the target location, the mixture is cured into VSD material.
As described with an embodiment of FIG. 1, the resulting VSD material has numerous improved mechanical properties over more conventional VSD material. For example, among other improvements that may result, the VSD material formulated in accordance with an embodiment such as described may be less brittle, have better compression strength, adhere better to metals (particularly copper), and/or have better aesthetic properties.
Example Formulation and Composition
A compound in accordance with embodiments described herein may be formulated as follows: Organic material, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) are added to a suitable resin mixture. In one embodiment, the resin mixture includes Epon 828 and a silane coupling agent. NMP (N-methyl-2pyrrolidone) may be added to the resin mixture. Subsequently, conductor or semiconductor particles may be added to the mixture. In one embodiment, titanium dioxide is mixed into the resin, along with titanium nitride, titanium diboride, a curative compound or agent, and a catalyst agent. The mixture may be uniformly mixed for a mixing duration that lasts hours (e.g. 8 hours) using, for example, a rotor-stator mixer with sonication. NMP may be added as necessary for the mixing duration. The resulting mixture may be applied as a coating using #50 wire wound rod or screen print on a desired target. In one embodiment, the coating may be applied across a 5 mil gap between 2 electrodes. Subsequently, a cure process may take place that may be varied. One suitable curing process includes curing for ten minutes at 75 C, ten minutes at 125 C, 45 minutes at 175 C, and 30 minutes at 187 C.
Specific formulations may vary based on design criteria and application. One example of a formulation in which carbon nanotubes are used for organic material 110
| || |
| || |
| ||Epoxy Type ||Weight (g) |
| || |
| ||CheapTubes ||5.4 |
| ||Epon 828 ||100 |
| ||Gelest Aminopropyltriethoxysilane ||4 |
| ||Total Epoxy ||104 |
| ||Nanophase Bismuth Oxide ||98 |
| ||HC Starck TiN ||164 |
| ||Degussa Dyhard T03 ||4.575 |
| ||NMP ||25.925 |
| ||Curative Soln. ||30.5 |
| ||1-methylimidazole ||0.6 |
| ||HC Stark TiB2 ||149 |
| ||Millenium Chemical Doped TiO2 ||190 |
| ||NMP ||250 |
| ||Total Solution ||986.1 |
| ||Total Solids ||715.575 |
| ||Epoxy:Amin Equiv Ratio % Solids ||72.6% |
| || |
| || |
*Curative Solution is a 15% by weight solution of Dyhard T03 dissolved in NMP.
Carbon nanotubes have the benefit of being a high aspect ratio organic filler. The lengths or aspect ratios may be varied to achieve a desired property, such as switching voltage for the material.
FIG. 3A is a cross-sectional illustration of VSD material provided on a device 302, where the VSD material is formulated in accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention. In an embodiment, a thickness or layer or VSD material 300 includes basic constituents of metal particles 310, binder material 315, and carbon nanotubes 320. As an alternative or addition to use of carbon nanotubes 320, other organic material may be used, such as C60 or C70 fullerenes (which may or may not be functionalized). Additionally, the use of organic conductors and semi-conductors provide ability to use electron donor or electro acceptor molecules.
Embodiments recognize, however, that carbon nanotubes have considerable length to width ratio. This dimensional property enables carbon nanotubes to enhance the ability of the binder to pass electrons from conductive particle to conductive particle in the occurrence of a transient voltage that exceeds the characteristic voltage. In this way, carbon nanotubes can reduce the amount of metal loading present in the VSD material. By reducing the metal loading, physical characteristics of the layer may be improved. For example, as mentioned with one or more other embodiments, the reduction of metal loading reduces the brittleness of the VSD material 300.
Furthermore, while an embodiment of FIG. 3A illustrates organic material in particulate form with the layer of VSD material, one or more embodiments contemplate use of an organic solvent soluble within the binder 315.
As described with an embodiment of FIG. 2, the VSD material 300 may be formed on device 302 by being deposited as a mixture on a target location of the device 302. The target location may correspond to a span 312 between a first and second electrode 322, 324. According to one or more embodiments, the span 312 is about (i.e. within 60%) 3.0 mil, 5.0 mil, or 7.5 mil for applications such as printed circuit boards. However, the exact distance of the span 312 may vary based on design specification (e.g. gap distance may range between 2-10 mil for printed circuit board applications). Moreover, some applications, such as semiconductor packaging, may use, for example, much smaller gap distances. Application of the VSD material in the gap enables handling of current that result from transient voltages that exceed the characteristic voltage of the VSD material.
Device 302 may correspond to anyone of many kinds of electrical devices. In an embodiment, device 302 be implemented as part of a printed circuit board. For example, the VSD material 300 may be provided as a thickness that is on the surface of the board, or within the board's thickness. Device 302 may further be provided as part of a semi-conductor package, or discrete device.
Alternatively, device 302 may be used with, for example, a light-emitting diode, a radio-frequency tag or device, or a semiconductor package.
As described with other embodiments, VSD material, when applied to a target location of a device, may be characterized by electrical properties such as characteristic (or trigger) voltage, clamp voltage, leakage current and current carrying capacity. Embodiments described herein provide for use of conductive or semi-conductive organic material in a mixture that enables adjustment of electrical properties such as described, while maintaining several desired mechanical properties described elsewhere in this application.
FIG. 3B illustrates a graph of basic electrical properties of clamp and trigger voltage for VSD material, in accordance with embodiments such as described with FIG. 3A and elsewhere in this application. Generally, the characteristic or trigger voltage is the voltage level (which may vary per unit length) by which the VSD material turns on or becomes conductive. The clamp voltage is typically less than or equal to the trigger voltage and is the voltage required to maintain the VSD material in the on-state. In some cases when the VSD material is provided between two or more electrodes, the trigger and clamp voltages may be measured as output across the VSD material itself. Thus, the on-state of the VSD material may be maintained by maintaining the input voltage level at above the clamp voltage, for a duration that is less than the break down threshold energy or time. In application, the trigger and/or clamp voltages may be varied as a result of an input signal that is spiked, pulsed, shaped or even modulated over several pulses. Embodiments further recognize that another electrical property of interest includes off-state resistance, determined by measuring current through operational voltages of the device. The resistivity of the off-state may correspond to the leakage current. A change in off-state resistivity as compared to before and after when the VSD material is turned on and off signals degradation of the performance of the VSD material. In most cases, this should be minimized.
Still further, another electrical characteristic may correspond to current carrying capacity, measured as the ability of the material to sustain itself after being turned on, then off.
Table 1 and Table 2 several examples of VSD material, including VSD material composed with carbon nanotubes in accordance with one or more embodiments described herein. Table 1 and Table 2 each list generically measured electrical properties (meaning no differentiation is provided between forms of input signal and/or manner in which data for electrical properties is determined), as quantified by clamp and trigger voltages, that result from use of the VSD material in accordance with the stated composition.
|TABLE 1 |
| ||Example 1 ||Example 2 ||Example 3 ||Example 4 ||Example 5 ||Example 6 |
|Material ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) |
|Hyperion CP-1203 ||0 ||31.29 ||0 ||40.86 ||40.36 ||40.67 |
|Nickel INP400 ||216.27 ||221.49 ||0 ||0 ||71.07 ||71.02 |
|Momentive TiB2 ||0 ||0 ||55.36 ||55.4 ||36.25 ||36.18 |
|(formerly GE) |
|Saint Gobain BN ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||11.26 ||11.35 |
|Epon 828 (Hexion) ||40.13 ||10.09 ||51.06 ||12.18 ||0 ||0 |
|Degussa Dyhard T03 ||1.83 ||1.83 ||2.34 ||2.33 ||1.73 ||1.73 |
|1-methylimidazole ||0.1 ||0.13 ||0.3 ||0.3 ||0.05 ||0.05 |
|imidazoledicarbonitrile ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||6 ||0 |
|Methylaminoantracene ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||0 ||6.02 |
|Millenium Chemical ||0 ||0 ||85.03 ||85.79 ||68.62 ||68.15 |
|N-methylpyrrolidinone ||80.37 ||80.46 ||83.5 ||123.4 ||108.8 ||98.9 |
|Gap ||5 mil ||5 mil ||5 mil ||5 mil ||5 mil ||5 mil |
|Trigger Voltage ||250 ||170 ||1475 ||775 ||530 ||550 |
|Clamp Voltage ||100 ||70 ||1380 ||220 ||210 ||255 |
| ||TABLE 2 |
| || |
| || |
| || ||Example 7 ||Example 8 ||Example 8 |
| ||Material ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) |
| || |
| ||Nickel INP400 ||0 ||0 ||160.28 |
| ||Aldrich fullerene ||0 ||0 ||1.5 |
| ||C60 soot |
| ||Cheaptubes Carbon ||5.4 ||5.44 ||4.0 |
| ||nanotubes |
| ||Nanophase Bi2O3 ||98 ||98.36 ||1.5 |
| ||HC Starck TiN ||164 ||164.3 ||0 |
| ||Epon 828 (Hexion) ||100 ||100 ||100.1 |
| ||Degussa Dyhard ||4.56 ||4.56 ||4.65 |
| ||T03 |
| ||1-methylimidazole ||0.6 ||0.6 ||0.3 |
| ||Saint Gobain BN ||0 ||0 ||19.67 |
| ||Momentive TiB2 ||0 ||0 ||85.26 |
| ||(formerly GE) |
| ||HC Starck TiB2 ||149 ||149 ||0 |
| ||Millenium ||190 ||190 ||150.59 |
| ||Chemical TiO2 |
| ||Gelest SIA610.1 ||4 ||4.05 ||0 |
| ||Sexithiophene ||0 ||1.03 ||0 |
| ||N- ||275.9 ||275.9 ||226.4 |
| ||methylpyrrolidinone |
| ||Gap ||5 mil ||5 mil ||5 mil |
| ||Trigger Voltage ||460 ||520 ||700 |
| ||Clamp Voltage ||348 ||413 ||380 |
| || |
With respect to Table 1, Example 1 provides a composition of VSD material that is a basis for comparison with other examples. In Example 1, no conductive or semiconductive organic material is used in the VSD material. Furthermore, the VSD material has relatively high metal loading. Example 2 illustrates a similar composition as to Example 1, but with the introduction of carbon nanotubes. The result is a reduction in trigger and clamp voltage. Trigger and clamp voltages may be reduced by adding carbon nanotubes at a given (constant) nickel loading
Example 3 also illustrates a VSD composition that lacks organic conductive/semi-conductive material, while Example 4 illustrates effect of including carbon nanotubes into the mixture, As shown, a dramatic reduction in the trigger and clamp voltages is shown. With regard to Example 3 and Example 4, both compositions illustrate compositions that have desirable mechanical characteristics, as well as characteristics of off-state resitivity and current-carrying capacity (neither of which are referenced in the chart). However, the clamp and trigger voltage values of Example 3 illustrate the composition, without inclusion of carbon nanotubes, is difficult to turn on and maintain on. Abnormally high trigger and clamp voltages thus reduce the usefulness of the composition.
Examples 5 and 6 illustrate the use of organic semiconductors with carbon nanotubes. In Example 5, the organic semiconductor is imidazoledicarbonitrile. In Example 6, the organic semiconductor is Methylaminoantracene.
Examples 7-10 shows various combinations of VSD material. Example 8 illustrates use of organic semiconductor (sexithiophene) and carbon nanotubes. Example 10 illustrates a VSD composition having multiple types of carbon nanotubes of different VSD compositions, illustrating various effects from use of conductive or semiconductive organic material, according to embodiments of the invention.
The performance diagrams shown with FIGS. 3C-3E
assume pulsed voltage inputs. The performance diagrams may be referenced to the examples provided in the following table.
|TABLE 3 |
| ||Example 11 ||Example 12 ||Example 13 |
|Material ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) ||Weight (g) |
|Hyperion CP1203 ||21.0 ||0 ||1.0 |
|Hexion Epon 828 ||50.25 ||0 ||5 |
|Cabosil coated ||40.33 ||26.33 ||0 |
|ATA5669 ||0 ||0 ||13.76 |
|Degussa Dyhard ||3.22 ||0.8 ||0.6 |
|Methoxyethanol ||25.8 ||6.39 ||4.68 |
|1-methylimidazole ||0.06 ||0.04 ||0.04 |
|Hexion Epon SU-8 ||0 ||19.55 ||14.32 |
|Methyl ethyl ketone ||0 ||11.73 ||6.6 |
|Cabosil coated ||0 ||15.31 ||0 |
FIG. 3C is a diagram that illustrates a performance diagram for VSD material that has a relatively large quantity of concentration of carbon nanotubes in the binder of the VSD material, as described by Example 11. As shown by the diagram of FIG. 3C, the occurrence of an initial voltage event 372 in the range of 500-1000 volts results in the material turning on, so as to carry current. Application of a second voltage event 374 after the device turns off from the first event results in a similar effect as the initial event 372, in the material carries currents at relatively the same voltage levels. The occurrence of the third voltage event 376 after the device turns off the second time results in a similar result in the amperage carried in the VSD material as the first two occurrences. As such FIG. 3C illustrates the VSD material of the composition in Example 11 has relatively-high current carrying capacity, in that the VSD material remains effective after two instances of switching on and off.
FIG. 3D correlates to Example 12, which is a VSD composition that contains no conductive or semi-conductive organic material. While the VSD material is effective in the first voltage event 382, there is no detectable non-linear behavior (i.e. turn-on voltage) when the subsequent second voltage event 384 occurs.
FIG. 3E correlates to Example 13, which has fewer amount of carbon nanotubes. The light addition of such conductive/semi-conductive organic material improves the current carrying capacity of the VSD material, as shown by the amperage of the first voltage event 392 and the lesser (but present) amperage of the second voltage event 394.
Coated Conductive or Semi-Conductive Particles
One or more embodiments include a formulation of VSD material that includes the use of conductive or semi-conductive micro-fillers that are coated or otherwise combined onto a periphery of a metal particle. Such formulation allows for additional reduction in the size of the metal particle and/or volume that would otherwise be occupied by the metal particle. Such reduction may improve the overall physical characteristics of the VSD material, in a manner described with other embodiments.
As described below, one or more embodiments provide for the use of conductive organic materials as micro-fillers that coat or bond metal or other inorganic conductor elements. One objective of coating the inorganic/metal particles with organic particles is to generally maintain overall effective volume of conductive material in the binder of the VSD material, while reducing a volume of metal particles in use.
FIG. 4 illustrates a more detailed process by which VSD material can be formulated, under an embodiment of the invention. According to a step 410, the conductive elements (or semi-conductive) that are to be loaded into a binder for VSD formulation are initially prepared. This step may include combining organic material (e.g. carbon nanotubes) with particles that are to be coated so as to create a desired effect when the end mixture is cured.
In one implementation, separate preparation steps are performed for the metal and metal oxide particles. Under one embodiment, step 410 may include sub-steps of filtering aluminum and alumina powder. Each of the powder sets are then coated with an organic conductor to form the conductive/semi-conductive element. In one implementation, the following process may be used for aluminum: (i) add 1-2 millimole of silane per gram of Aluminum (dispersed in an organic solvent); (ii) apply sonic applicator to distribute particles; (iii) let react 24 hours with stirring; (iv) weigh out Cab-O-Sil or organic conductor into solution; (v) add suitable solvent to Cab-O-Sil and/or organic conductor mix; (vi) add Cab-O-Sil and/or organic conductor to collection with Aluminum; and (vii) dry overnight at 30-50 C.
Similarly, the following process may be used by used for the Alumina: (i) add 1-2 millimole of silane per gram of Alumina (dispersed in an organic solvent); (ii) apply sonic applicator to distribute particles; (iii) let react 24 hours with stirring; (iv) weigh out Cab-O-Sil or organic conductor into solution; (v) add Cab-O-Sil and/or organic conductor to collection with Alumina; (vi) dry overnight at 30-50 C.
According to an embodiment, carbon nanotubes may be used in coating or preparing the conductive elements. The carbon nanotubes may be biased to stand on end when bonded with the metal particles, so as to extend conductive length of the particles, while at the same time reducing the overall volume of metal needed. This may be accomplished by placing a chemical reactive agent on the surface perimeter of the metal particles that are to form conductors within the VSD material. In one embodiment, the metal particles may be treated with a chemical that is reactive to another chemical that is positioned at the longitudinal end of the carbon nanotube. The metal particles may be treated with, for example, a Silane coupling agent. The ends of the carbon nanotubes may be treated with the reactive agent, to enable end-wise bonding of the carbon nano-tubes to the surface of the metal particles.
In step 420, a mixture is prepared. Binder material may be dissolved in an appropriate solvent. Desired viscosity may be achieved by adding more or less solvent. The conductive elements (or semi-conductive elements from step 410) are added to the binder materials. The solution may be mixed to form uniform distribution. Appropriate curative may then be added.
In step 430, the solution from step 420 is integrated or provided onto a target application (i.e. a substrate, or discrete element or a Light Emitting Diode or Organic LED), then heated or cured to form a solid VSD material. Prior to heating, the VSD material may be shaped or coated for the particular application of the VSDM. Various applications for VSD material with organic material coating metallic or inorganic conductors/semiconductors exist.
FIG. 5A and FIG. 5B illustrate how application of organic material to coat or bind the surface of the metal/inorganic conductor or semiconductors can reduce loading of such particles, under an embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5A is a simplified illustration of how conductor and/or semiconductor particles in a binder of the VSD material can be surface coated with carbon nanotubes. As shown, conductive element 500 includes a metal particle 510 and a metal oxide or other optional inorganic semi-conductor particle 520. The metal particle 510 may have a dimension represented by a diameter d1, while the metal oxide particle 520 may have a dimension represented by d2. In an embodiment shown by FIG. 5A, conductive organic fillers 530 (e.g. carbon nanotubes) are bonded or combined with a periphery of the respective particles 510, 520. As the bonded organic fillers 530 are conductive or semi-conductive, the effect is to increase the size of the particles 510, 520 without increasing the volume of those particles in the binder of the VSD material. The presence of the organic filler enables conduction, or electron hopping or tunneling from molecule to molecule when voltage exceeding the characteristic voltage occurs. The conductive element 500 may in fact be semi-conductive, in that conductive element 500 may have the property of being collectively conductive when a characteristic voltage is exceeded.
In FIG. 5B, a conventional VSD material is shown without addition of organic material. Metal particles 502, 504 are relatively closely spaced in order to pass charge when voltage exceeding the characteristic voltage is applied. As a result of more closely spaced conductors, more metal loading is required to enable the device to switch to a conductor state. In comparison to an embodiment such as illustrated by FIG. 5A, under a conventional approach shown by FIG. 5B, the particles 510, 520 are spaced by glass particle spaces (e.g. Cab-O-Sil), an embodiment such as shown in FIG. 5A substitutes metal volume with conductive fillers 530 that are conductive, have desirable physical properties, and have dimensions to adequately substitute for metal.
FIG. 5C illustrates a relatively disorganized distribution of organic fillers (e.g. carbon nanotubes), reflecting how the organic fillers, when uniformly dispersed at nanoscale, inherently produce results that are similar to those desired from the simplified illustration of FIG. 5A. A description of FIG. 5C may reflect embodiments such as shown and described with FIG. 3 or elsewhere in this application. As shown, a number of uniformly distributed conductive/semi-conductive fillers 530 enables sufficient touching and/or proximity to enable a conductive path for handling current, including through electron tunneling and hopping. This allows improvement in electrical and physical characteristics, particularly in relation to reduction of metal loading in the binder of the VSD material. Moreover, when particles are evenly dispersed at nanoscale within the binder, less organic material 530 is needed to produce the desired electrical conductivity effect.
Embodiments described with reference to the drawings are considered illustrative, and Applicant's claims should not be limited to details of such illustrative embodiments. Various modifications and variations will may be included with embodiments described, including the combination of features described separately with different illustrative embodiments. Accordingly, it is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims. Furthermore, it is contemplated that a particular feature described either individually or as part of an embodiment can be combined with other individually described features, or parts of other embodiments, even if the other features and embodiments make no mentioned of the particular feature.