US 20080063099 A1 Abstract A method for reducing the peak-to-average ratio in an OFDM communication signal is provided. The method includes defining a constellation having a plurality of symbols, defining a symbol duration for the OFDM communication signal, and defining a plurality of time instants in the symbol duration. A plurality of tones are allocated to a particular communication device, and a discrete signal is constructed in the time domain by mapping symbols from the constellation to the time instants. A continuous signal is generated by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal such that the continuous signal only includes sinusoids having frequencies which are equal to the allocated tones.
Claims(25) 1. A communication device for use in a communications system that uses multiple tones distributed over a predetermined bandwidth to communicate data, the device comprising:
mapping means for receiving data symbols and mapping the symbols to prescribed time instants in a predetermined time interval to generate a discrete signal including mapped symbols, each mapped symbol corresponding to a discrete point in time; interpolation means for receiving the discrete signal and generating a continuous signal by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal, the interpolation function operating on the discrete signal such that a frequency response of the continuous signal includes sinusoids having non-zero values at a first set of tones, the first set of tones being a subset of said multiple tones, the non-zero value at each of said first set of tones being a function of a plurality of mapped symbols corresponding to different discrete points in time, the frequency response of the continuous signal also including zero values at a second set of tones, the second set of tones being different from said first set of tones and being another subset of said multiple tones; and cyclic prefix means located after the interpolation means for prepending a cyclic prefix. 2. The device of 3. The device of 4. The device of 5. The device of 6. The device of 7. The device of 8. The device of 9. The device of 10. A communication device for generating an OFDM signal having allocated frequency tones distributed over a predetermined bandwidth, the communication device comprising:
mapping means for receiving data symbols from a symbol constellation and mapping the symbols to prescribed time instants in a time domain symbol duration to generate a discrete signal of mapped symbols; interpolation means for receiving the discrete signal and generating a continuous signal by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal; wherein the interpolation function operates on the discrete signal such that a frequency response of the continuous signal includes sinusoids having non-zero values at the allocated frequency tones, and zero values at frequency tones other than the allocated frequency tones; and cyclic prefix means located after the interpolation means for prepending a cyclic prefix. 11. The communication device of 12. The communication device of 13. The communication device of 14. The communication device of 15. A communication device for generating an OFDM signal having allocated frequency tones distributed over a predetermined bandwidth, the communication device comprising:
mapping means for receiving data symbols from a symbol constellation and mapping the symbols to prescribed time instants in a time domain symbol duration to generate a discrete signal of mapped symbols; and interpolation means for receiving the discrete signal and generates a digital signal sample vector by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal; wherein the interpolation function operates on the discrete signal such that a frequency response of the digital signal sample vector includes sinusoids having non-zero values at the allocated frequency tones, and zero values at frequency tones other than the allocated frequency tones; and cyclic prefix means located after the interpolation means for prepending a cyclic prefix. 16. The communication device of 17. A device including a processor configured to implement a communications method, the method comprising:
providing a time domain symbol duration having equally spaced time instants; allocating a predetermined number of frequency tones to the communication device; receiving as input data symbols to be transmitted by an OFDM communication signal; mapping the data symbols to the equally spaced time instants in the symbol duration to generate a discrete signal of mapped symbols; generating a continuous signal by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal, the interpolation function operating on the discrete signal such that a frequency response of the continuous signal includes sinusoids having non-zero values at the allocated frequency tones, and zero values at frequency tones other than the allocated frequency tones; and sampling the continuous signal at discrete time instants distributed over the time domain symbol duration, to generate a digital signal sample vector; and prepending a cyclic prefix to the digital signal sample vector produced by sampling the continuous signal after generation of the continuous signal by applying the interpolation function. 18. The device of 19. The device of 20. The device of 21. The device of map the data symbols to a block of complex data symbols wherein the block of complex data symbols includes odd numbered symbols and even numbered symbols; phase rotate each even numbered symbol by π/4; and map the block of complex data symbols to equally spaced time instants in the symbol duration to generate the discrete signal of mapped symbols. 22. The device of prepend a cyclic prefix to the digital signal sample vector. 23. A computer readable medium embodying machine executable instructions for controlling a communications device to implement a communications method, the communications method comprising:
providing a time domain symbol duration having equally spaced time instants; allocating a predetermined number of frequency tones to the communication device; receiving as input data symbols to be transmitted by an OFDM communication signal; mapping the data symbols to the equally spaced time instants in the symbol duration to generate a discrete signal of mapped symbols; generating a continuous signal by applying an interpolation function to the discrete signal, the interpolation function operating on the discrete signal such that a frequency response of the continuous signal includes sinusoids having non-zero values at the allocated frequency tones, and zero values at frequency tones other than the allocated frequency tones; and sampling the continuous signal at discrete time instants distributed over the time domain symbol duration, to generate a digital signal sample vector; and prepending a cyclic prefix to the digital signal sample vector produced by sampling the continuous signal after generation of the continuous signal by applying the interpolation function. 24. The computer readable medium of 25. The computer readable medium of Description The present application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/805,887 which was filed on Mar. 15, 2001, which is hereby expressly incorporated by reference and which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/230,937 filed Sep. 13, 2000, and titled “SIGNALING METHOD IN AN OFDM MULTIPLE ACCESS WIRELESS SYSTEM,” which is also incorporated by reference. This invention relates to an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communication system, and more particularly to an OFDM communication system for a multiple access communication network. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a relatively well known multiplexing technique for communication systems. OFDM communication systems can be used to provide multiple access communication, where different users are allocated different orthogonal tones within a frequency bandwidth to transmit data at the same time. In an OFDM communication system, the entire bandwidth allocated to the system is divided into orthogonal tones. In particular, for a given symbol duration T available for user data transmission, and a given bandwidth W, the number of available orthogonal tones F is given by WT. The spacing between the orthogonal tones Δ is chosen to be 1/T, thereby making the tones orthogonal. In addition to the symbol duration T which is available for user data transmission, an additional period of time T In prior OFDM techniques, an OFDM signal is first constructed in the frequency domain by mapping symbols of a constellation to prescribed frequency tones. The signal constructed in the frequency domain is then transformed to the time domain by an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) or inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) to obtain the digital signal samples to be transmitted. In general, symbols of the constellation have a relatively low peak-to-average ratio property. For example, symbols of a QPSK constellation all have the same amplitude. However, after being transformed by the IDFT or IFFT, the resultant time domain signal samples are the weighted sum of all the symbols, and therefore generally do not preserve the desirable low peak-to-average ratio property. In particular, the resulting time domain signal typically has a high peak-to-average ratio. Existing techniques for implementing OFDM communication systems can be highly inefficient due to the relatively high peak-to-average ratio when compared with other signaling schemes, such as single carrier modulation schemes. As a result, existing OFDM techniques are not well suited for a wireless multiple access communication network with highly mobile users because the high peak-to-average ratio of the transmitted signal requires a large amount of power at the base station and at the wireless device. The large power requirements result in short battery life and more expensive power amplifiers for handheld wireless communication devices or terminals. Accordingly, it is desirable to provide an OFDM technique which reduces the peak-to-average ratio of the signal to be transmitted, while simultaneously taking advantage of the larger communication bandwidth offered by an OFDM communication system. In one aspect of the communication system, power consumption associated with generating and transmitting OFDM signals is reduced as compared to the prior OFDM systems discussed above. The OFDM signaling method includes defining a constellation having a plurality of symbols, defining the symbol duration for the OFDM communication signal, and defining a plurality of time instants in the symbol duration. In a given symbol duration, a plurality of tones in the symbol duration are allocated to a particular transmitter and the signal to be transmitted is represented by a vector of data symbols from the symbol constellation. The symbols are first directly mapped to the prescribed time instants in the symbol duration. A continuous signal is then constructed by applying continuous interpolation functions to the mapped symbols such that the values of the continuous signal at the prescribed time instants are respectively equal to the mapped symbols and the frequency response of the continuous signal only contains sinusoids at the allocated tones. Finally the digital signal, which is to be transmitted, consists of samples of the continuous signal. Alternatively, the digital signal can be generated directly by applying discrete interpolation functions to the mapped symbols. As symbols from the constellation generally have good peak-to-average ratio property, proper choices of allocated frequency tones, prescribed time instants and interpolation functions can result in a minimized peak-to-average ratio of the continuous function and the digital signal samples. In one implementation the method of directly generating the digital signal samples is to multiply the symbol vector consisting of symbols to be transmitted with a constant matrix, where the constant matrix is determined by the allocated frequency tones and the prescribed time instants. The matrix can be precomputed and stored in a memory. In one aspect, a transmitter associated with the communication system is allocated a number of contiguous tones and the prescribed time instants are equally-spaced time instants over the entire OFDM symbol duration. In another aspect, the transmitter is allocated a number of equally-spaced tones and the prescribed time instants are equally-spaced time instants over a fraction of the OFDM symbol duration. In the above aspects, in addition to the general method, the digital signal samples can be constructed by expanding the mapped symbols to a prescribed set of time instants from minus infinity to plus infinity and interpolating the expanded set of the mapped symbols with a sinc function. Equivalently, the digital signal samples can also be generated by a series of operations including discrete Fourier transformation, zero insertion, and inverse discrete Fourier transformation. To further reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the digital signal samples obtained through interpolation, when symbols of the constellation are mapped to the prescribed time instants, the constellations used by two adjacent time instants are offset by π/4. In another aspect of the system, the real and the imaginary components of the resultant digital sample vector are cyclically offset before the cyclic prefix is added. In yet another aspect of the communication system, the intended transmitter is allocated more tones than the number of symbols to be transmitted. Symbols of the constellation are directly mapped to prescribed equally-spaced time instants. The digital signal samples are constructed by expanding the mapped symbols to a prescribed set of time instants from minus infinity to plus infinity and interpolating the expanded set of the mapped symbols with a function whose Fourier transformation satisfies the Nyquist zero intersymbol interference criterion, such as raised cosine functions. The digital signal samples can also be generated by a series of operations including discrete Fourier transformation, windowing, and inverse discrete Fourier transformation. The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims. Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements. Referring to Next, a time instant mapping circuit In one implementation of the OFDM communication system The details of the interpolation circuit In one implementation, the OFDM communication system The complex data symbols C The interpolation functions The output of the DSP In another implementation of OFDM communication system The purpose of constructing the signal in the time domain is to directly map the symbols Referring to Complex symbols C The second time domain graph of Turning to Turning to The complex symbols C For comparison purposes, In this case where the allocated tones are equally-spaced tones, the constructed continuous function CF(t) is identical in each of the L time intervals, [0,T/L), [T/L,2T/L), . . . , and [(L−1)T/L, T/L). As part of this technique, symbols C The procedure for obtaining the digital signal samples S In Referring now to With reference to At an OFDM symbol duration, if the digital signal samples S In one implementation, the value of d is determined by
The digital signal sample vector S′ is then passed to the cyclic prefix prepender circuit Not specifically shown in As a variation of the technique shown in A first series of digital signal samples In the block diagram method described with regard to Referring to For example, if the communication system As with the technique described with respect to As part of this technique shown in At block To provide additional insight to the above signal construction technique, assume that the allocated tones f In one exemplary aspect of this technique, if a raised cosine windowing function is used, i.e.,
A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims. Referenced by
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