US 20080121160 A1
A method and a building system for manufacturing a floating structure, for instance a watercraft, in which method the hull part for the floating structure is formed, it is provided with deck structures or similar support structures, and space units are prefabricated and installed between said deck structures or similar support structures. In the method such space units are manufactured, which comprise engineering units, which are provided at least with WC-equipment, as well as room units so that an engineering unit interconnected with a room unit forms a cabin unit. The engineering units of two adjacent cabin units are prefabricated and joined together to form an engineering unit pair and the thus accomplished engineering unit pair is transferred to and installed in its place on the floating structure. Further, the floating structure is provided with a number of vertical support elements, such as stanchions, to be installed between the deck structures, preferably prior to the installation of the engineering units.
33. A method of manufacturing a floating structure, comprising:
providing a hull part having support structures for cabin units each composed of an engineering unit and a room unit,
providing a prefabricated engineering unit pair comprising two engineering units for serving the room units of two adjacent cabin units, each engineering unit of the engineering unit pair including at least WC-equipment, and
placing the engineering unit pair in the hull part and transferring the engineering unit pair as a single unit to a desired position in the hull part where the engineering unit pair abuts onto a cabin corridor,
and wherein each engineering unit defines a passage space for leading from the cabin corridor to its respective room unit.
34. A method according to
providing two prefabricated room units,
placing the prefabricated room units in the hull part and transferring each room unit to a desired position in the hull part where the room unit can be connected to a respective engineering unit, and
connecting the room units to the respective engineering units and to support structures of the floating structure, whereby the two room units and the respective engineering units form two adjacent cabin units.
35. A method according to
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40. A method according to
providing two prefabricated room units, and
placing the prefabricated room units in the hull part and transferring each room unit to a desired position in the hull part where the room units can be connected to the engineering unit pair and the first location is between an engineering unit and a room unit.
41. A method according to
42. A floating structure, comprising:
a hull structure having support structures for cabin units each composed of an engineering unit and a room unit,
a prefabricated engineering unit pair abutting onto a cabin corridor and comprising two engineering units for serving the room units of two adjacent cabin units and at least one common element for serving both adjacent cabin units, and each engineering unit of the engineering unit pair including at least WC-equipment,
two prefabricated room units positioned adjacent the engineering units respectively, each engineering unit defining a passage space leading from the cabin corridor to its respective adjacent room unit, whereby each engineering unit and the adjacent room unit form a cabin unit, and the two adjacent cabin units are of substantially the same extent lengthwise of the cabin corridor as the engineering unit pair.
43. A floating structure according to
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52. A floating structure according to
The present invention relates to a method in accordance with the preamble of claim 1 of manufacturing a floating structure, for instance a watercraft, in which method a hull part for the floating structure is formed, it is provided with deck structures or similar support structures, and space units to be installed between said deck structures or similar support structures are prefabricated.
Various ways of installing cabin units into a watercraft or the like are known from prior art. Originally, the cabin units were mainly assembled on site. DE1808781A1 discloses a solution, where the sanitary cabins, i.e. WC and shower units, of two adjacent cabin units are interconnected and can be transferred and installed as one pre-furnished unit. The cabin spaces related to these sanitary units are, instead, built on site onboard the watercraft around the sanitary cabins. Thus, an essential part of the manufacturing and installation of the cabins is, according to this solution, still performed onboard.
Later on, more or less prefabricated self-supporting cabin units have been introduced, whereby the cabin units have been transported from the manufacturing plant to the site and moved aboard the watercraft to be finished and coupled with the various systems, such as the HEVAC systems, of the watercraft. Previously known solutions are for instance the installation of a so-called bottomless cabin unit disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,528,928, and the one disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,959,933, where the dimensions of the cabin unit can be reduced for transport and transfer to the mounting site.
The general trend is to try to avoid additional installation work on the watercraft itself in uncomfortable circumstances and to move most of the prefabrication of cabin units and cabin equipment as well as of the installation work to plant conditions. Consequently, it has been realized that also the integration of elements included in the immediate environment of cabin units may as well be carried out, as required, in conjunction with the prefabrication of cabin units. Thus, it has been possible to equip cabin units e.g. with balconies and/or elements facing the cabin corridor, as is disclosed e.g. in WO2004/041633A1.
On one hand there is a general tendency related to watercrafts, i.e. to reduce the weight of the watercraft and/or to lower its centre of gravity, whereby the stability of the watercraft can be improved and it is possible to manage with less propulsion power. On the other hand, this gives also the opportunity to increase the number of decks and thereby the number of cabins and the passenger capacity. The reduced weight may be accomplished by shortening the distance between the decks on the watercraft and/or by decreasing their number. An example of the former is disclosed in FI20030352, where the upper parts of the cabin units are lifted so that they are located between the deck beams, and the lead-ins of various pipes and cables are arranged individually on each deck in a suitable manner so that the number of through-holes in the deck beams can be minimised, whereby the deck beams may be made lower without compromising on their strength properties. As for the latter, an example is disclosed in the above-mentioned WO2004/041633A1. In an arrangement according thereto every second deck may completely omitted.
A purpose of the present invention is to provide a novel solution, by means of which the prefabrication and outfitting of cabin units may to an increasing extent be moved to better circumstances on plant, and thus to further minimise the installation work carried out on watercrafts, often in hard conditions. A purpose is also to enable the lowering of the deck height or the centre of gravity of watercrafts as well as to improve the utilisation of cabin units and the spaces related thereto. Further, a purpose is to improve the use of materials and to simplify and speed up the installation of cabin units onboard the watercraft.
The purposes of the invention can be achieved in the manner disclosed in claim 1 and more precisely in the other claims. In the method according to the invention, space units are manufactured comprising engineering units and room units so that an engineering unit interconnected with a room unit makes a cabin unit. The engineering unit is provided at least with WC-equipment and a passage to its respective room unit. The engineering units of two adjacent cabin units are prefabricated and connected to one another to form an engineering unit pair and the thus accomplished engineering unit pair is transferred to and installed in its place on a floating structure. Engineering unit pairs are arranged successively within the deck structure so that they abut onto a cabin corridor and define the width of the cabin units facing the cabin corridor. In addition, the floating structure is provided with a number of vertical support elements, such as stanchions, to be installed between the deck structures preferably prior to the installation of the engineering units.
According to the invention, by joining the engineering units of adjacent cabin units together to form an engineering unit pair it is possible to move the prefabrication and installation work to a considerable extent to better conditions on manufacturing plants. The engineering unit pair may be provided with various common elements, the coupling means of each individual cabin may be mounted in advance and the unit may also be equipped with elements for the immediate environment of the cabin units. Moreover, an engineering unit pair is easier to transfer to and install in its place between the stanchions than an entire cabin unit. This, among other things, enables the changing of the mutual distances related to deck beams and their vertical support elements so that the deck height can be reduced and/or space utilisation improved.
The room units for the engineering unit pair are prefabricated and transferred into their places preferably as one unit and connected to the engineering unit pair as well as to the deck structures or similar support structures of the floating structure. The room units may thus also be furnished in advance and provided for instance with a window and/or a balcony, if required.
In the practical installation work preferably at least the majority of the engineering unit pairs of the cabin units of a particular deck structure are transferred to and installed first in their places on the floating structure and thereafter the respective room units are transferred to and installed in their places to provide cabin units. Further, the cabin units are preferably arranged in rows within the deck structure so that a corridor is formed between the rows. Then the deck beams or the like included in the deck structure may preferably be supported by said vertical support elements at two different points on different sides of the corridor. Due to the accomplished additional support, the deck beam itself may be made lower, without compromising on the strength properties, than in a traditional arrangement, where the deck beam is supported only at one point. By changing the heights of deck beams and by changes in the clear span it is possible to affect also the natural frequencies of the structure and thereby the various vibrations and shakings, which is an important factor from the viewpoint of travelling comfort.
In practise, said vertical support elements are preferably installed so that they are located between an engineering unit and a room unit, when they are installed in place. For this purpose, the engineering units of an engineering unit pair are equipped with a recess in the wall for said vertical support element. This is advantageous in terms of space utilisation and does not disturb the installation of space units prefabricated according to the invention. The vertical support elements are most preferably mounted in advance prior to the installation of space units. In principle it is, as well, possible to install them or a part of them also afterwards, e.g. after a part of the cabin units has already been brought onto the watercraft, in which case they are welded onto the deck structure and deck beams. This might, however, result in damages to the cabin unit as well as in a higher fire safety risk. The installation of support elements also delays the outfitting work carried out onboard.
The engineering units of an engineering unit pair may preferably be equipped with a common partition, which tends to reduce the weight of the structure. Other elements possibly shared by adjacent cabin units are e.g. an air-conditioning unit. In addition, the engineering units of an engineering unit pair are equipped with a passage to their respective room units and with an entrance door from the cabin corridor to a cabin unit. Then the engineering unit preferably defines the width of the entire cabin unit facing the cabin corridor. Thus at the same time, the successively installed engineering units preferably form the wall of the cabin corridor, whereby the engineering unit pair may be further equipped with a pre-installed furnishing wall facing the cabin corridor and a common service space opening to the cabin corridor. In the service space it is possible to install various kind of equipment for coupling a cabin unit and/or the cabin corridor with the different systems of the floating structure, such as the air conditioning, electrical supply, water supply, and grey and black water discharge system, and for providing vertical lead-ins for these systems, as required. Then, the wall of the cabin corridor is preferably equipped with a service door to the service space. By these measures the items in the cabin unit requiring service may be installed in advance so that they are easily accessible and the service may be performed from the service space, whereby there is no need to use the other spaces of the cabin unit separately for this purpose.
The engineering units and the ceiling structure integrated with them are preferably made lower than the room units in the vertical direction, whereby the space above the engineering units and/or the ceiling structure of the corridor is available for instance for leading in and coupling the pipes, conduits and cables of the HEVAC systems with the cabin units individually on each deck. Accordingly, the room units may be made higher and their ceiling may be provided, in a manner known per se, with foldable beds etc.
The present invention also relates to a building system according to claim 12 and a floating structure according to claim 23 with respective dependent claims.
In the following the invention is described by way of example with reference to the attached drawings, in which
Traditionally, the transfer and installation of cabin units onto a watercraft or the like is carried out in the way shown in
The cabin units 1′ are installed in rows on the deck 19′ so that a cabin corridor 6′ is formed between them and the pitch of the cabin units is determined by said deck beams 4′ and on the other hand, by the stanchions 5′. The cabin unit 1′ is adapted into the outboard structure 2′ by means of a lining 7′. Every cabin unit 1′ is then coupled separately with the systems of the watercraft, e.g. the HEVAC systems, which are not for the sake of clarity shown here separately. The aim is to provide these various couplings by utilising, if possible, the service space 10′, known per se, arranged between the cabin units. The ceiling of the cabin units may be brought into its place at the same time or it may be mounted separately between the deck beams 4′. Further, the lining of the cabin units on the corridor's side is carried out on site by installing furnishing walls and ceiling boards as well as other technical equipment required by the corridor, e.g. lighting and air conditioning (not shown in detail), between the cabin units and the cabin corridor. In addition, the linings 7′ against the watercraft's outboard structure 2′, possible balcony assemblies etc. are provided.
As shown in
Further measures to be taken in the installation area will be provided in the manner shown in
The invention is not limited to the above-described embodiments, but several modifications are conceivable in the scope of the appended claims. The prefabrication degree of the room units, among other things, may be chosen, if required, so that the room units are provided e.g. with furniture, a window, balcony etc. already prior to the transfer of the room units into their places, if so desired or required by the situation. Similarly, the engineering units are preferably outfitted as completely as possible in advance in order to minimise the installation work carried out onboard the watercraft. Thus, the engineering unit is provided in advance preferably at least with sanitary facilities, a service space with equipment and technical couplings for the cabin unit. Further, the engineering units can in principle also be installed so that they are not actually located between the stanchions, but the stanchions remain between the engineering unit pair and the room units in the cabin unit's centre section.