Publication number | US20080123781 A1 |

Publication type | Application |

Application number | US 11/605,525 |

Publication date | May 29, 2008 |

Filing date | Nov 29, 2006 |

Priority date | Jun 26, 2006 |

Also published as | US7895497 |

Publication number | 11605525, 605525, US 2008/0123781 A1, US 2008/123781 A1, US 20080123781 A1, US 20080123781A1, US 2008123781 A1, US 2008123781A1, US-A1-20080123781, US-A1-2008123781, US2008/0123781A1, US2008/123781A1, US20080123781 A1, US20080123781A1, US2008123781 A1, US2008123781A1 |

Inventors | Eran Pisek, Thomas M. Henige |

Original Assignee | Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. |

Export Citation | BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan |

Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (57), Classifications (23), Legal Events (2) | |

External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet | |

US 20080123781 A1

Abstract

A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) block decoder for decoding a received data block of input samples. The MAP block decoder segments the received data block into at least a first segment and a second segment and calculates and stores alpha values during forward processing of the first segment. The MAP block decoder uses a first selected alpha value calculated during forward processing of the first segment as initial state information during forward processing of the second segment. The first and second segments may overlap each other, such that the last M samples of the first segment are the same as the first M samples of the second segment.

Claims(25)

N processing units operating independently such that a first one of the N processing units may be selected to decode received input samples while a second one of the N processing units may be disabled, wherein each of the N processing units comprises a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) block decoder for decoding a received data block of input samples, wherein the MAP block decoder is operable to segment the received data block into at least a first segment and a second segment and calculate and store alpha values during forward processing of the first segment, and wherein the MAP block decoder uses a first selected alpha value calculated during forward processing of the first segment as initial state information during forward processing of the second segment.

receiving the data block of input samples;

segmenting the received data block into at least a first segment and a second segment that partially overlaps the first segment, wherein the first segment comprises a first non-overlapping portion and an overlapping portion and the second segment comprises a second non-overlapping portion and the overlapping portion;

during forward processing of the first segment, calculating and storing alpha values for the first non-overlapping portion of the first segment;

retrieving a first selected alpha value calculated during forward processing of the first segment; and

using the first selected alpha value as initial state information during forward processing of the second segment.

after storing the first selected alpha value, calculating beta values during reverse processing of the first segment, beginning with the last sample in the first segment.

calculating lambda values during reverse processing of the first segment using alpha values and beta values associated with samples from the first non-overlapping portion of the first segment.

Description

- [0001]This application is related to U.S. Provisional Patent No. 60/816,555, filed Jun. 26, 2006, entitled “Method And Apparatus For Reduced Memory Channel Decoding.” Provisional Patent No. 60/816,555 is assigned to the assignee of this application and is incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein. This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to Provisional Patent No. 60/816,555.
- [0002]This application is related to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/123,313, filed on May 6, 2005, entitled “Context-based Operation Reconfigurable Instruction Set Processor and Method of Operation” and to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/501,335, filed Aug. 9, 2006, entitled “Generic Maximum A posteriori Probability Decoder For Use In Software-Defined Radio Systems.” application Ser. Nos. 11/123,313 and 11/501,335 are assigned to the assignee of this application and are incorporated by reference into this application as if fully set forth herein.
- [0003]The present application relates generally to decoding algorithms and, more specifically, to a channel decoder using reduced memory in a software-defined radio (SDR) system.
- [0004]Many wireless communication standards use block codes, such as turbo codes, to increase the performance of channel decoding. In block coding techniques, the encoding and decoding processes are done on a block-by-block basis. Many standards, such as WiBro, CDMA2000 and WCDMA, use turbo encoding and decoding functions that handle different block sizes, spanning from a few bits to 20 kilobits (e.g., CDMA2000).
- [0005]Processing an entire block at one time requires sufficient memory to hold all of the intermediate results. By way of example, a dedicated alpha memory is used to hold alpha values that are calculated during a forward processing of the trellis in a turbo decoder. These intermediate result memories may consume at least half of the total turbo decoder memory, including the input-output (I/O) buffers. These intermediate result memories increase proportionally with the block size.
- [0006]Conventional block decoders reduce these memory requirements by introducing block segmentation techniques, in which the received data block is divided into smaller segments and the smaller segments are then processed one at a time. This reduces the intermediate result memory requirements according to the selected segment size. Unfortunately, switching the intermediate results in and out of memory between segments introduces a large amount of processing overhead, which decreases the supported bit rate significantly.
- [0007]Therefore, there is a need in the art for an improved reconfigurable decoder for use in a software-defined radio (SDR) system. In particular, there is a need for a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder that uses a reduced amount of memory to perform channel decoding.
- [0008]A maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) block decoder is provided for decoding a received data block of input samples. The MAP block decoder is operable to segment the received data block into at least a first segment and a second segment and calculate and store alpha values during forward processing of the first segment. The MAP block decoder uses a first selected alpha value calculated during forward processing of the first segment as initial state information during forward processing of the second segment.
- [0009]In an advantageous embodiment, the first and second segments overlap each other, such that the last M samples of the first segment are the same as the first M samples of the second segment. The first segment comprises a first non-overlapping portion and an overlapping portion and the second segment comprises a second non-overlapping portion and the overlapping portion. The first selected alpha value is the last alpha value calculated and stored by the MAP block decoder prior to the overlapping portion of the first segment.
- [0010]In another embodiment of the disclosure, a method is provided for performing block decoding of a data block of input samples according to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) algorithm. The method comprises the steps of receiving the data block of input samples and segmenting the received data block into at least a first segment and a second segment that partially overlaps the first segment. The first segment comprises a first non-overlapping portion and an overlapping portion and the second segment comprises a second non-overlapping portion and the overlapping portion. The method further comprises the steps, during forward processing of the first segment, of calculating and storing alpha values for the first non-overlapping portion of the first segment; retrieving a first selected alpha value calculated during forward processing of the first segment; and using the first selected alpha value as initial state information during forward processing of the second segment.
- [0011]Before undertaking the DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION below, it may be advantageous to set forth definitions of certain words and phrases used throughout this patent document: the terms “include” and “comprise,” as well as derivatives thereof, mean inclusion without limitation; the term “or,” is inclusive, meaning and/or; the phrases “associated with” and “associated therewith,” as well as derivatives thereof, may mean to include, be included within, interconnect with, contain, be contained within, connect to or with, couple to or with, be communicable with, cooperate with, interleave, juxtapose, be proximate to, be bound to or with, have, have a property of, or the like; and the term “controller” means any device, system or part thereof that controls at least one operation, such a device may be implemented in hardware, firmware or software, or some combination of at least two of the same. It should be noted that the functionality associated with any particular controller may be centralized or distributed, whether locally or remotely. Definitions for certain words and phrases are provided throughout this patent document, those of ordinary skill in the art should understand that in many, if not most instances, such definitions apply to prior, as well as future uses of such defined words and phrases.
- [0012]For a more complete understanding of the present disclosure and its advantages, reference is now made to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals represent like parts:
- [0013]
FIG. 1 is a high-level block diagram of a CRISP device that may be used to implement a reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder having reduced memory requirements; - [0014]
FIG. 2 is a high-level block diagram of a reconfigurable processing system; - [0015]
FIG. 3 is a high-level block diagram of a multi-standard software-defined radio (SDR) system that implements a reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder having reduced memory requirements; - [0016]
FIG. 4A is a block diagram of a reconfigurable turbo decoder implemented in a CRISP according to the principles of the disclosure; - [0017]
FIG. 4B is an exemplary trellis diagram for a WiBro wireless network; - [0018]
FIG. 5A is a high-level block diagram illustrating a duobinary encoder according to one embodiment of the disclosure; - [0019]
FIG. 5B is a high-level block diagram illustrating a binary encoder according to one embodiment of the disclosure; - [0020]
FIG. 6 is a high-level block diagram illustrating a turbo decoder according to one embodiment of the disclosure; - [0021]
FIGS. 7 and 8 are high-level block diagrams of a reconfigurable MAP decoder that operates in WiBro and WCDMA modes; - [0022]
FIGS. 9A and 9B illustrate a segmentation method for reducing the memory requirements of the reconfigurable MAP decoder according to one embodiment of the disclosure; and - [0023]
FIG. 10 illustrate a segmentation method for reducing the memory requirements of the reconfigurable MAP decoder according to another embodiment of the disclosure. - [0024]
FIGS. 1 through 10 , discussed below, and the various embodiments used to describe the principles of the present disclosure in this patent document are by way of illustration only and should not be construed in any way to limit the scope of the disclosure. Those skilled in the art will understand that the principles of the present disclosure may be implemented in any suitably arranged processing system. - [0025]In the descriptions that follow, the reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder disclosed herein is implemented as part of a turbo decoder that provides a high degree of parallelism to support high data rate standards and that has reduced intermediate result memory requirements. The exemplary turbo decoder was disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/225,479, incorporated by reference above. However, it will be understood that the embodiment of the reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder in a turbo decoder is by way of illustration only and should not be construed to limit the scope of this disclosure. The reconfigurable MAP decoder having reduced intermediate result memory requirements disclosed herein may easily be adapted for use in decoders other than turbo decoders.
- [0026]The reconfigurable MAP decoder and the reconfigurable turbo decoder support multimode operation for decoding in different communication standards, including WCDMA, CDMA2000, IEEE-802.16e (i.e., WiBro), among others. The disclosed MAP and turbo decoders also provide adaptability to support different data rates. WiBro and WCDMA/HSDPA operate at many different data rates. The disclosed MAP and turbo decoder architectures are optimized not only for the maximum data rates but also for different ranges of data rate.
- [0027]In one embodiment of the disclosure, the reconfigurable MAP and turbo decoders described herein may be implemented using a context-based operation reconfigurable instruction set processor (CRISP) device. CRISP devices are described in detail in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/123,313, which was incorporated by reference above.
- [0028]The present disclosure introduces a novel method of segmenting the received data block in the receiver. The block decoder operates on the segments without requiring intervention from the host side. The present disclosure uses three (3) registers that hold values defining the block segmentation process: the Segment Size register, the Segment Count register and the Window Size register. Although the unique segmentation process is implemented in a turbo decoder in the embodiments described herein, this is by way of illustration only and should not be construed so as to limit the scope of the present disclosure. Those skilled in the art will appreciate that the segmentation process disclosed herein may easily be adapted for use in other types of block decoder.
- [0029]
FIG. 1 is a high-level block diagram of context-based operation reconfigurable instruction set processor (CRISP)**100**, which may be used to implement a reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder that reduces memory requirements using block segmentation according to the principles of the present disclosure. CRISP**100**comprises memory**110**, programmable data path circuitry**120**, programmable finite state machine**130**, and optional program memory**140**. A context is a group of instructions of a data processor that are related to a particular function or application, such as turbo decoding instructions. As described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/123,313, CRISP**100**implements only a subset of context-related instructions in an optimum manner. - [0030]Context-based operation reconfigurable instruction set processor (CRISP)
**100**defines the generic hardware block that usually consists of higher level hardware processor blocks. The principle advantage to CRISP**100**is that CRISP**100**breaks down the required application into two main domains, a control domain and a data path domain, and optimizes each domain separately. By performing turbo decoding in CRISP**100**, the disclosed turbo decoder reduces the problems related to flexibility and power consumption that affect conventional turbo decoders. - [0031]The control domain is implemented by programmable finite state machine
**130**, which may comprise a DSP, an MCU or another prior art device. Programmable FSM**130**is configured by reconfiguration bits received from an external controller (not shown). Programmable FSM**130**may execute a program stored in associated optional program memory**140**. The program may be stored in program memory**140**via the DATA line from an external controller (not shown). Memory**110**is used to store application data used by data path circuitry**120**. - [0032]Programmable data path circuitry
**120**is divided into sets of building blocks that perform particular functions (e.g., registers, multiplexers, multipliers, and the like). Each of the building blocks is both reconfigurable and programmable to allow maximum flexibility. The division of programmable data path circuitry**120**into functional blocks depends on the level of reconfigurability and programmability required for a particular application. - [0033]Since different contexts are implemented by separate CRISP devices that work independently of other CRISP devices, implementing a turbo decoder using one or more CRISP devices provides an efficient power management scheme that is able to shut down a CRISP when the CRISP is not required. This assures that only the CRISPs that are needed at a given time are active, while other idle CRISPs do not consume significant power.
- [0034]
FIG. 2 is a high-level block diagram of reconfigurable processing system**200**according to one embodiment of the present disclosure. Reconfigurable processing system**200**comprises N context-based operation reconfigurable instruction set processors (CRISPs), including exemplary CRISPs**100***a*,**100***b*, and**100***c*, which are arbitrarily labeled CRISP**1**, CRISP**2**and CRISP N. Reconfigurable processing system**200**further comprises real-time sequencer**210**, sequence program memory**220**, programmable interconnect fabric**230**, and buffers**240**and**245**. - [0035]Reconfiguration bits may be loaded into CRISPs
**100***a*,**100***b*, and**100***c*from the CONTROL line via real-time sequencer**210**and buffer**240**. A control program may also be loaded into sequence program memory**220**from the CONTROL line via buffer**240**. Real-time sequencer**210**sequences the contexts to be executed by each one of CRISPs**100***a*-*c*by retrieving program instructions from program memory**220**and sending reconfiguration bits to CRISPs**100***a*-*c*. In an exemplary embodiment, real-time sequencer**210**may comprise a stack processor, which is suitable to operate as a real-time scheduler due to its low latency and simplicity. - [0036]Reconfigurable interconnect fabric
**230**provides connectivity between each one of CRISPs**100***a*-*c*and an external DATA bus via bi-directional buffer**245**. In an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, each one of CRISPs**100***a*-*c*may act as a master of reconfigurable interconnect fabric**230**and may initiate address access. The bus arbiter for reconfigurable interconnect fabric**230**may be internal to real-time sequencer**210**. - [0037]In an exemplary embodiment, reconfigurable processing system
**200**may be a cell phone or a similar wireless device, or a data processor for use in a laptop computer. In a wireless device embodiment based on a software-defined radio (SDR) architecture, each one of CRISPs**100***a*-*c*is responsible for executing a subset of context-related instructions that are associated with a particular reconfigurable function. For example, CRISP**100***a*may be configured to execute context-related instructions that process CDMA baseband signals or OFDMA baseband signals. CRISP**100***b*may be configured to execute context-related instructions that act as a memory controller. CRISP**100***c*may be configured to execute context-related instructions that perform turbo decoding or Viterbi decoding. - [0038]Since CRISP devices are largely independent and may be run simultaneously, a turbo decoder implemented using one or more CRISP devices has the performance advantage of parallelism without incurring the full power penalty associated with running parallel operations. The loose coupling and independence of CRISP devices allows them to be configured for different systems and functions that may be shut down separately.
- [0039]
FIG. 3 is a high-level block diagram of multi-standard software-defined radio (SDR) system**300**, which implements a reconfigurable maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoder that reduces the size of the intermediate results memory by using block segmentation according to the principles of the disclosure. SDR system**300**may comprise a wireless terminal (or mobile station, subscriber station, etc.) that accesses a wireless network, such as, for example, a GSM or CDMA cellular telephone, a PDA with WCDMA, IEEE-802.11x, OFDM/OFDMA capabilities, or the like. - [0040]Multi-standard SDR system
**300**comprises baseband subsystem**301**, applications subsystem**302**, memory interface (IF) and peripherals subsystem**365**, main control unit (MCU)**370**, memory**375**, and interconnect**380**. MCU**370**may comprise, for example, a conventional microcontroller or a microprocessor (e.g., x86, ARM, RISC, DSP, etc.). Memory IF and peripherals subsystem**365**may connect SDR system**300**to an external memory (not shown) and to external peripherals (not shown). Memory**375**stores data from other components in SDR system**300**and from external devices (not shown). For example, memory**375**may store a stream of incoming data samples associated with a down-converted signal generated by radio frequency (RF) transceiver**398**and antenna**399**associated with SDR system**300**. Interconnect**380**acts as a system bus that provides data transfer between subsystems**301**and**302**, memory IF and peripherals subsystem**365**, MCU**370**, and memory**375**. - [0041]Baseband subsystem
**301**comprises real-time (RT) sequencer**305**, memory**310**, baseband DSP subsystem**315**, interconnect**325**, and a plurality of special purpose context-based operation instruction set processors (CRISPs), including transform CRISP**100***d*, chip rate CRISP**100***e*, symbol rate CRISP**100***f*, and bit manipulation unit (BMU) CRISP**100***g*. By way of example, transform CRISP**100***d*may implement a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, chip rate CRISP**100***e*may implement a correlation function for a CDMA signal, and symbol rate CRISP**100***f*may implement a turbo decoder function or a Viterbi decoder function. - [0042]In such an exemplary embodiment, transform CRISP
**100***d*may receive samples of an intermediate frequency (IF) signal stored in memory**375**and perform an FFT function that generates a sequence of chip samples at a baseband rate. Next, chip rate CRISP**100***e*receives the chip samples from transform CRISP**100***d*and performs a correlation function that generates a sequence of data symbols. Next, symbol rate CRISP**100***f*receives the symbol data from chip rate CRISP**100***e*and performs turbo decoding or Viterbi decoding to recover the baseband user data. The baseband user data may then be used by applications subsystem**302**. - [0043]In an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure, symbol rate CRISP
**100***f*may comprise two or more CRISPs that operate in parallel. Also, by way of example, BMU CRISP**100***g*may implement such functions as variable length coding, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), convolutional encoding, and the like. Interconnect**325**acts as a system bus that provides data transfer between RT sequencer**305**, memory**310**, baseband DSP subsystem**315**and CRISPs**100***d*-**100***g.* - [0044]Applications subsystem
**302**comprises real-time (RT) sequencer**330**, memory**335**, multimedia DSP subsystem**340**, interconnect**345**, and multimedia macro-CRISP**350**. Multimedia macro-CRISP**350**comprises a plurality of special purpose context-based operation instruction set processors, including MPEG-4/H.264 CRISP**550***h*, transform CRISP**550***i*, and BMU CRISP**100***j*. In an exemplary embodiment of the disclosure, MPEG-4/H.264 CRISP**550***h*performs motion estimation functions and transform CRISP**100***h*performs a discrete cosine transform (DCT) function. Interconnect**380**provides data transfer between RT sequencer**330**, memory**335**, multimedia DSP subsystem**340**, and multimedia macro-CRISP**350**. - [0045]In the embodiment in
FIG. 3 , the use of CRISP devices enables applications subsystem**302**of multi-standard SDR system**300**to be reconfigured to support multiple video standards with multiple profiles and sizes. Additionally, the use of CRISP devices enables baseband subsystem**301**of multi-standard SDR system**300**to be reconfigured to support multiple air interface standards. Thus, SDR system**300**is able to operate in different types of wireless networks (e.g., CDMA, GSM, 802.11x, etc.) and can execute different types of video and audio formats. However, the use of CRISPS according to the principles of the present disclosure enables SDR system**300**to perform these functions with much lower power consumption than conventional wireless devices having comparable capabilities. - [0046]
FIG. 4A is a block diagram of a reconfigurable turbo decoder implemented in CRISP**100***f*according to the principles of the disclosure. Turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*comprises program memory**405**, configuration register files**410**, address generator**415**, communication switch**420**, processing units**430***a*-**430***d*, input data memories**440***a*-**440***d*, extrinsic information memories**445***a*-**445***d*, and internal bus**490**. Each one of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*comprises a control state machine (SM), a maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) datapath, a cache, and control register files. By way of example, processing unit**430**comprises control state machine**431***a*, MAP datapath**432***a*, cache**433***a*, and control register files**434***a*. Although four processing units**430**are illustrated inFIG. 4A , this is by way of example only. Other embodiments of turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*may implement less than four processing units**430**or more than four processing units**430**. - [0047]A conventional MAP turbo decoder architecture generally comprises two primary functional blocks: i) soft-input, soft-output (SISO) stages that implement an a posteriori probability (APP) algorithm; and ii) an interleaver/deinterleaver that scrambles the data according to the interleaving rules followed by the encoder in the transmitting device. Other blocks are required for the implementation of the decoder, such as a RAM (random-access memory) for storing data from each iteration of the decoder. Turbo decoder CRISP
**100***f*includes all the building blocks of a conventional MAP turbo decoder. In an exemplary embodiment, each one of MAP datapaths**432***a*-**432***d*implements a sliding window MAP algorithm. However, alternate embodiments of turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*may implement non-sliding window MAP algorithms. - [0048]In turbo decoder CRISP
**100***f*, MAP datapaths**432***a*,**432***b*,**432***c*and**432***d*temporarily store the values of α (alpha), β (beta), and λ (lambda) in caches**433***a*,**433***b*,**433***c*, and**433***d*. The extrinsic information (i.e., the λ values) from each iteration for each decoding block is stored in extrinsic information memories**445***a*,**445***b*,**445***c*and**445***d*via communication switch**420**. In an exemplary embodiment, MCU**370**loads a configuration program and configuration data into turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*via an external system bus (i.e., interconnect**325**). The configuration program is stored in program memory**405**. MCU**370**loads the configuration data into configuration register files**410**and control register files**434***a*-**434***d*in order to initialize the register files. Configuration register files**410**and control register files**434***a*-**434***d*are used to control which processing units**430***a*-**430***d*, input data memories**440***a*-**440***d*, and extrinsic information memories**445***a*-**445***d*are used in an application. Configuration register files**410**provide enable (EN) signals to control processing units**430**, input data memories**440**, and extrinsic information memories**445**. Turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*reads input data samples and writes decoded output data via the system bus (i.e., interconnect**325**). - [0049]In order to achieve high decoding rates, turbo decoder CRISP
**100***f*implements N parallel processing units**430***a*-**430***d*. In this example, N=4. Processing units**430***a*-**430***d*are independent and identical to each other. Each one of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*is capable of connecting to each one of input data memories**440***a*-**440***d*and extrinsic information memories**445***a*-**445***d*via communication switch**420**. For higher data rate standards, all of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*may operate simultaneously and in parallel. For lower data rate standards, one or more of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*may be set to a sleep mode (i.e., deactivated or disabled) in order to reduce power consumption. - [0050]As noted above, each one of processing units
**430***a*-**430***d*comprises control state machine**431**, MAP datapath**432**, cache**433**and control register files**434**. In an exemplary embodiment of turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*, each processing unit**430**processes two soft input data samples at a time. The two soft input data samples correspond to two data symbols. In an exemplary embodiment, each soft input data sample may comprise 8 bits. MAP datapath**432**performs both forward and backward recursions over the trellis. During the forward recursion and optionally also during the backward recursion, both the input symbol and the extrinsic (λ) information must be accessed to compute the branch metric, γ (gamma). In order to reduce memory access power consumption, the γ value may be computed and stored in cache**433**in each processing unit**430**. If the values of α, β, and λ are not calculated simultaneously, the α value may also be stored in cache**430**to reduce data movement and power consumption. - [0051]MAP datapath
**432**may compute the α, β, and λ values in parallel or in consecutive (or sequential) order. Parallel execution is faster, but requires more die space and power consumption. Consecutive processing incurs longer delays, but requires less die space and less power consumption. In an exemplary embodiment, each one of MAP datapaths**430***a*-**430***d*computes the α, β, and λ values sequentially. Control state machine**431**decodes instructions from program memory received via internal bus**490**and controls the overall operation and configuration of processing unit**430**. Since turbo decoder CRISP**100***f*may compute large instruction loops, control state machine**431**may use a hardware loop to reduce overhead and power consumption. - [0052]There are eight memory blocks in turbo decoder CRISP
**100***f*: four input data memories**440***a*that hold the input data (or symbol) samples and four extrinsic information memories**445**that hold the extrinsic information (i.e., λ values) generated in each half iteration of the turbo decoder. The eight memory blocks are divided into four groups. Each memory group includes one input data memory**440**and one extrinsic information memory**445**. By way of example, input data memory**440***a*and extrinsic information memory**445***a*form a first memory group, input data memory**440***b*and extrinsic information memory**445***b*form a second memory group, and so forth. - [0053]Each one of processing units
**430***a*-**430***d*reads and writes to one memory group at a time. Each one of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*is capable of writing to each one of the memory groups. Thus, none of the memory groups is dedicated to a specific processing unit**430**. For example, processing unit**430***a*may be connected by communication switch**420**to a first memory group (e.g., memories**440***a*and**445***a*) during one memory cycle and may read from or write to another memory group (e.g., memories**440***c*and**445***c*) during another memory cycle. - [0054]Communication switch
**420**dynamically controls the connections between processing units**430***a*-**430***d*and the memory groups comprised of memories**440***a*-**440***d*and memories**445***a*-**445***d*. The connection order or pattern is determined by the operation of address generator**415**. Thus, communication switch**420**performs the interleaver and deinterleaver operations for a MAP decoder. In one embodiment of the disclosure, address generator**415**may be implemented by a memory. In such an embodiment, the external control DSP/MCU, such as MCU**370**, pre-computes offline the interleaver pattern of the turbo decoder and writes the interleaver pattern to the memory of address generator**415**during an initialization phase. In another embodiment of the disclosure, address generator**415**may be designed to generate the interleaver pattern in real time. According to the principles of the disclosure, MAP datapaths**432***a*-*d*are reconfigurable devices that may be modified to operate in turbo decoders or other types of decoders and may be modified to operate under different RF protocols. Thus, MAP datapaths**432***a*-*d*provide a generic architecture to support not only α (alpha), β (beta), λ (lambda), and γ (gamma) calculations, but also to support different communication systems that use MAP decoders. - [0055]A MAP algorithm may be represented by a trellis. Different communication systems, such as WCDMA, WiBro, or the like, use different trellises.
FIG. 4B illustrates exemplary trellis**499**for a WiBro wireless network that may be implemented by reconfigurable MAP datapaths**432***a*-*d*. Inside trellis**499**inFIG. 4B , alpha, beta and lambda are calculated in either the forward direction or the backward direction. It is noted that there are eight states in trellis**499**and that there are four paths leading from a state at time t to a state at time t+1. This means there are 32 possible paths between states in trellis**499**. - [0056]As is well known, a conventional turbo encoder uses two constituent encoders. A first encoder receives an original bit stream and generates a first parity bit stream. A second encoder receives an interleaved copy of the original bit stream and generates a second parity bit stream. The data transmitted by the turbo encoder comprises the original bit stream, the first parity bits from the first encoder, and the second parity bits from the second encoder.
- [0057]
FIG. 5A is a high-level block diagram illustrating duobinary encoder**500**according to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure. Duobinary encoder**500**comprises recursive systematic code (RSC) encoders**505**and**510**and interleaver**515**. In a duo-binary encoder (i.e., WiBro mode), a first sequence of the inputs a and b is applied to RSC encoder**505**and a second, interleaved sequence of the inputs a and b is applied to RSC encoder**510**. The first encoder (RSC encoder**505**) outputs the first parity bit stream (y, w), and the second encoder (RSC encoder**510**) outputs the second parity bit stream (y′, w′). - [0058]
FIG. 5B is a high-level block diagram illustrating binary encoder**550**according to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure. Binary encoder**550**comprises recursive systematic code (RSC) encoders**555**and**560**and interleaver**565**. In a binary turbo encoder (i.e., WCDMA mode), a first sequence of input x_{k }is applied to RSC encoder**555**and a second, interleaved sequence of the input x_{k }is applied to RSC encoder**560**. The first encoder (RSC encoder**555**) outputs the first parity bit stream y_{k }and the second encoder (RSC encoder**560**) outputs the second parity bit stream y′_{k}. - [0059]
FIG. 6 is a high-level block diagram illustrating turbo decoder**600**according to an exemplary embodiment of the present disclosure. Each one of processing units**430***a*-**430***d*implements a turbo decoder similar to turbo decoder**600**. Turbo decoder**600**comprises maximum a-posterior probability (MAP) decoder block**610**, maximum a-posterior probability (MAP) decoder block**620**, and deinterleaver block**640**. MAP decoders**610**and**620**operate in an iterative manner. MAP decoder**620**generates a new sequence of soft decision outputs that are fed back to MAP decoder**610**via deinterleaver block**640**. This process may be iterated several times to increase the reliability of the decoded sequence. - [0060]MAP decoder block
**610**receives data samples (soft values) from the demodulator corresponding to the non-interleaved (non-I/L) original data bits (e.g., x_{k }or (a,b) fromFIGS. 5A and 5B ), the first parity bits (e.g., y_{k }or (y,w) fromFIGS. 5A and 5B ) processed by the first encoder (**505**or**555**) in the transmitter, and the input L_{a}, which is the extrinsic (λ) information from MAP decoder**620**. MAP decoder block**610**uses the original data bits and the first parity bits to estimate the probability, or log likelihood ratio (LLR), that the value of each original data bit is a Logic 1 or a Logic 0. MAP decoder block**620**receives data samples (soft values) from the demodulator corresponding to the interleaved (I/L) original data bits (e.g., interleaved x_{k }or interleaved (a,b) fromFIGS. 5A and 5B ), the second parity bits (e.g., y′_{k }or (y′,w′) fromFIGS. 5A and 5B ) processed by the second encoder (**510**or**560**), and the probability estimates (LR) from MAP decoder block**610**. - [0061]The process of decoding by MAP decoder blocks
**610**and**620**comprises one iteration of turbo decoder**600**. Turbo decoder**600**may perform a fixed number of iterations or half iterations or may perform iterations until some external mechanism determines that additional iterations will not improve the bit error rate (BER) for a particular data frame. A hard decision is then made on the last soft outputs to determine the original data bits. - [0062]As is well known, a MAP algorithm is a trellis decoding algorithm, similar to the Viterbi algorithm. The MAP algorithm within the two decoder blocks operates on soft inputs (i.e., the demodulator outputs and the probability estimates) and produces soft outputs. The following description summarizes the MAP algorithm computations performed by one iteration of one decoder block. It should be noted that the exemplary turbo decoder processes two (2) input symbols at a time. In the case of duo-binary code (i.e., WiBro mode), the two input symbols to turbo decoder
**600**are a, b, y, w, y′ and w′ from a single time sample. In the case of binary code (i.e., WCDMA mode), the inputs to the turbo decoder are x_{1}, y_{1}, and y′_{1 }from a first time sample and x_{2}, y_{2}, and y′_{2 }from a second time sample. Processing two input symbols at a time requires a radix-4 trellis mechanism, as shown inFIG. 4B . - [0063]In a first step, a conventional MAP algorithm may compute and store branch metrics, called gamma (or γ) values, for all branches of the trellis. Alternatively, in the first step, the MAP algorithm may perform an “on-the-fly” calculation of the branch metric for each alpha stage or beta stage. The branch metrics are the exponentials of the negatives of the distances between the hard encoder values and the soft received values from the demodulator, divided by the channel noise variance, multiplied by the probability estimate from the previous decoder. In the logarithmic domain, the branch metric (gamma) values are merely the summation of the above parameters.
- [0064]In a second step, the conventional MAP algorithm performs a forward recursion on the trellis. The forward recursion computes an alpha (or α) value for each node in the trellis. The α value is the sum of: i) the previous α value times the branch metric along one branch from a previous node, ii) the previous α value times the branch metric along another branch from a previous node, iii) the previous α value times the branch metric along one branch from another previous node, and iv) the previous α value times the branch metric along another branch from a previous node. In the logarithmic domain, the alpha values are the summation of the above parameters and finding the survivor between the four candidates, as described below.
- [0065]In a third step, the conventional MAP algorithm performs a backward recursion on the trellis. The backward recursion computes a beta (or β) value for each node in the trellis. The β values are computed in a manner similar to the α values, except that the backward recursion starts at the end of the trellis and progresses in the reverse direction.
- [0066]In a fourth step, the conventional MAP algorithm computes the log likelihood ratio (LLR), or λ (lambda) value, for each time t. In the case of a binary code, this value is the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic 1 value in the encoder, divided by the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic 0 value in the encoder. In the case of a duo-binary code, there are four (4) λ (lambda) values for each time t: λ00, λ01, λ10 and λ11. The λ00 value is the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic “00” value in the encoder. The λ01 value is the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic “01” value in the encoder. The λ10 value is the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic “10” value in the encoder. The λ11 value is the sum of the products of the α, β, and γ values for each branch at time t that is associated with a Logic “11” value in the encoder.
- [0067]Usually all lambdas are normalized by the L00 value and only three (3) lambdas—L01, L10, and L11—are saved and used for the next half iteration. Finally, the conventional MAP algorithm computes the extrinsic information that is to be sent to the next decoder in the iteration sequence. For binary code (i.e., WCDMA), the extrinsic information is the LLR value minus the input probability estimate. The computations described above are repeated in each iteration by each of the two decoder blocks. After all iterations are completed, decoded information bits may be detected by making a decision on each data bit or data pair. Alternatively, in both codes, the LLR values may be output to an external device that makes a decision on each data bit or data pair.
- [0068]According to the principles of the present disclosure, the soft decisions are obtained using a MAP algorithm that is similar to the Viterbi algorithm with two major modifications. First, unlike the Viterbi algorithm, the trellis is swept twice—once in the forward direction and once in the reverse direction. Also, the add-compare-select (ACS) operation is replaced by the more complex max* operation (explained below).
- [0069]The Log-Likelihood Ratio (LLR)—The binary values, Logic 0 and Logic 1, are represented by amplitudes (or signal levels) of +1 and −1, respectively, which are transferred to the receiver via a noisy channel. In the receiving device, the values of the soft symbols are distributed with characteristics depending on the channel. Without loss of generality, the descriptions that follow discuss the case of an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. The input symbols into the decoder are normally distributed with centers around values +1 and −1.
- [0070]The standard deviation, σ, is given by:
- [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}{\sigma}^{2}=0.5\ue89e{\left(\frac{{E}_{b}}{{N}_{0}}\right)}^{-1},& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e1\right]\end{array}$ - [0000]where E
_{b }is the energy per bit and N_{0 }is the channel noise. Hereafter, the following notations are used: i) the value, {right arrow over (Y)}, is a received sequence that includes systematic and parity information; and ii) Y_{k}≡(X_{k},Y_{k}^{0},Y_{k}^{1 }. . . ) is the noisy version of the unperturbed sequence (x_{k},y_{k}^{0},y_{k}^{1 }. . . ) - [0071]The decoder decides whether a soft input bit represents a Logic 1 or Logic 0 based on a maximum a posteriori likelihood process. If L
_{2}>L_{1}, the received bit, X_{k}, is decoded as d_{k}=+1. Otherwise, the received bit, X_{k}, is decoded as d_{k}=−1. For a received sequence, {right arrow over (Y)}, an observation, X_{k}, at the kth time interval is decoded as a Logic 1 if the a posteriori likelihood, P(d_{k}=−1|{right arrow over (Y)}), exceeds the a posteriori likelihood, P(d_{k}=+1|{right arrow over (Y)}). This may be expressed as: - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\frac{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=+1\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=-1\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}<1.& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e2\right]\end{array}$ - [0000]From Equation 2, it is noted that a bit is decoded according to the sign of the log-likelihood ratio (LLR). From Bayes theorem, it may be shown:
- [0000]

*P*(*d*_{k}=±1*{right arrow over (Y)}*)=*p*(*{right arrow over (Y)}|d*_{k}=±1)*P*(*d*_{k}=±1). [Eqn. 3] - [0072]Combining Equations 2 and 3 and taking the log of both sides yields the log-likelihood ratio (LLR), which is a useful metric in turbo decoding:
- [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\begin{array}{c}L\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)\equiv \ue89e\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(\frac{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=+1\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=-1\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}\right)\\ =\ue89e\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(\frac{p\ue8a0\left(\overrightarrow{Y}|{d}_{k}=+1\right)}{p\ue8a0\left(\overrightarrow{Y}|{d}_{k}=-1\right)}\right)+\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(\frac{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=+1\right)}{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=-1\right)}\right)\end{array}& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e4\right]\end{array}$ - [0073]MAP Decoding for Binary Turbo Codes
- [0074]During the iterative process, the extrinsic information, L
_{e}(d_{k}), is generated by the first decoder (i.e., MAP decoder block**610**) and then fed into the second decoder (i.e., MAP decoder block**620**). The first term on the right-hand side of Equation 4 has two parts: - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{log}\ue89e\frac{p\ue8a0\left(\overrightarrow{Y}|{d}_{k}=+1\right)}{p\ue8a0\left(\overrightarrow{Y}|{d}_{k}=-1\right)}={L}_{c}\ue89e{X}_{k}+{L}_{a}\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e5\right]\end{array}$ - [0075]The value L
_{c }is the channel information and depends solely on the statistic of the channel. For an AWGN channel, - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}{L}_{c}=4\ue89e\frac{{\mathrm{rE}}_{b}}{{N}_{0}},& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e6\right]\end{array}$ - [0000]where r is the code rate. The value, L
_{a}, is the extrinsic information fed back to MAP decoder block**610**by MAP decoder block**620**. At the start of the decoding process, L_{a }is set to zero. - [0076]The iterative decoding process goes as follows. First, the a-priori information, L
_{a}(d_{k}), is calculated from the other decoder by interleaving or deinterleaving its extrinsic information. Next, L(d_{k}) is calculated as shown in Equation 8 below. Finally, the extrinsic information for the other encoder is calculated using: - [0000]

*L*_{e}(*d*_{k})=*L*(*d*_{k})−*L*_{c}*X*_{k}*−L*_{a}(*d*_{k}). [Eqn. 7] - [0077]Calculation of LLR—A brief discussion of maximum a posteriori (MAP) symbol-by-symbol algorithms for convolutional codes is now presented. Three different decoding schemes are discussed: i) Log-MAP; ii) Max-Log-MAP; and iii) Linear Max*-Log-MAP. Because of the large number of multiplications and numerical instabilities, it is preferable to operate in the logarithmic domain in order to solve the numerical problem and reduce processing complexity.
- [0078]The following notations are used: i) S is the set of all 2
^{m }encoder states; ii) s_{k }is the encoder state at time k; and iii) S^{+}is the set of ordered pairs (s′,s) such that if s_{k−1}=s′ and the new data input bit is +1, the transition s_{k−1}=s′→s_{k}=s occurs. The set S^{31 }is similarly defined for input bit −1. - [0079]The Log-MAP Algorithm—It can be shown that L(d
_{k}) has the following form: - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}L\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)=\mathrm{log}\left(\frac{\sum _{S+}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\prime}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{1,{s}^{\prime}->s}\right)}{\sum _{S-}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\u2033}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{-1,{s}^{\u2033}->s}\right)}\right).& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e8\right]\end{array}$ - [0080]The value α is the forward state metric, the value β is the reverse state metric, and the value γ is the branch metric. The value S+ is the set of ordered pairs (s,s′) corresponding to all state transitions from state s′ at time k−1 to state s at time k due to input bit d
_{k}=+1. The value S− is similarly defined for the case where d_{k}=−1. - [0081]The values α and β are calculated recursively using:
- [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}{\alpha}_{k}^{s}=\mathrm{log}\ue89e\sum _{{s}^{\prime}}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{{s}^{\prime}}+{\gamma}^{{d}_{k},s->{s}^{\prime}}\right),{\beta}_{k-1}^{{s}^{\prime}}=\mathrm{log}\ue89e\sum _{s}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\beta}_{k}^{s}+{\gamma}^{{d}_{k},s->{s}^{\prime}}\right)& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e9\right]\end{array}$ - [0082]The boundary conditions for α and β are:
- [0000]

α_{0}^{0}=0, α_{0}^{s≠0}=−∞, β_{N−1}^{0}=0, β_{N−1}^{s≠0}=−∞ [Eqn. 10] - [0083]The branch metric, γ
^{d}^{ k, }^{s→s′}, is given by: - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}{\gamma}^{{d}_{k,}\ue89es->{s}^{\prime}}=\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{1}{2}\ue89e\left({d}_{k}\ue89e{L}_{c}\ue8a0\left({X}_{k}\right)+\sum _{j}\ue89e{L}_{c}\ue89e{y}_{k}^{j}\ue89e{Y}_{k}^{j}+{d}_{k}\ue89e{L}_{e}\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)\right)\right)& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e11\right]\end{array}$ - [0084]The Max-Log-MAP Algorithm—The implementation of the Log-MAP algorithm described above requires significant decoder complexity. The Max-Log-MAP algorithm is a simple approximation of the Log-MAP algorithm. It is noted that the calculation of the forward and reverse path metrics in Equation 9 involves a log-add operation. The max* operator is defined as:
- [0000]

max*(*x,y*)≡log(*e*^{x}*+e*^{y}). [Eqn. 12] - [0085]When this expression is computed exactly, it equals:
- [0000]

max*(*x,y*)=max(*x,y*)+log(1*−e*^{|x−y|}). [Eqn. 13] - [0086]A zero-order approximation to Equation 13 is obtained by equating:
- [0000]

max*(*x,y*)≈max(*x,y*) [Eqn. 14] - [0087]Hence, expressions of type
- [0000]
$\mathrm{log}\ue89e\sum _{i}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({x}_{i}\right)$ - [0000]become:
- [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{log}\ue89e\sum _{i}^{\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0.3ex}}}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({x}_{i}\right)\approx {\mathrm{max}}_{i}\ue89e\left({x}_{i}\right)& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e15\right]\end{array}$ - [0088]Using this result yields the following approximations for α and β″:
- [0000]

α_{k}^{s}≈max_{s′}(α_{k−1}^{s′}γ^{d}^{ k, }^{s→s′}), β_{k−1}^{s}≈max_{s′}(β_{k}^{s′}+γ^{d}^{ k }^{+1,s→s′}) [Eqn. 16] - [0089]The LLR is approximated as:
- [0000]

*L*(*d*_{k})≈max_{s,s′d}_{ k }_{=1}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+β_{k}^{s}+γ_{k}^{1,s→s′})−max_{s,s′d}_{ k }_{=−1}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+β_{k}^{s}+γ_{k}^{−1,s→s′}) [Eqn. 17] - [0090]The Linear Max*-Log-MAP Algorithm—Since the max* operation is performed twice for each node in the trellis, the numerical errors due to the approximation in Equation 14 may lead to significant performance degradation. The linear Max*-Log-MAP algorithm adds a linear order correction term to Equation 14:
- [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{max}*\left(x,y\right)\approx \mathrm{max}\ue8a0\left(x,y\right)+\{\begin{array}{cc}0& \mathrm{if}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\uf603x-y\uf604>T\\ C\ue8a0\left(\uf603x-y\uf604-T\right)& \mathrm{if}\ue89e\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e\uf603x-y\uf604\le T\end{array}& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e18\right]\end{array}$ - [0091]MAP Decoding for Duo-binary Turbo Codes—Unlike the decoding process for a binary turbo code, in which one binary symbol is represented by one log-likelihood ratio, the decoding process for a duo-binary turbo code calculates three log-likelihood ratios L
^{(z)}(d_{k}) for each symbol: - [0000]
$\begin{array}{cc}\begin{array}{c}{L}^{\left(z\right)}\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)\equiv \ue89e\frac{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=z\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}{P\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}=00\ue85c\overrightarrow{Y}\right)}\\ =\ue89e\mathrm{log}\ue89e\left(\frac{\sum _{s,{s}^{\prime},z}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\prime}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{z,{s}^{\prime}->s}\right)}{\sum _{s,{s}^{\prime}}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\u2033}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{00,{s}^{\u2033}->s}\right)}\right),\end{array}& \left[\mathrm{Eqn}.\phantom{\rule{0.8em}{0.8ex}}\ue89e19\right]\end{array}$ - [0000]where zε{01,10,11}.
- [0092]As in the binary case, extrinsic information is generated by one decoder and fed into the other decoder in order to update the log-likelihood ratios. The main difference is that in duo-binary mode, the expression for the extrinsic (λ) information contains no channel information, but is simply a subtraction of the input LLR from the output LLR:
- [0000]

*L*_{e}^{(z)}(*d*_{k})=*L*^{(z)}(*d*_{k})−*L*_{a}^{(z)}(*d*_{k}) [Eqn. 20] - [0093]Calculation of the LLR—The calculation of the LLR follows similar principles to those outlined above for the binary code mode. For duo-binary, the decoding algorithms used are the Log-MAP algorithm and the Max-Log-MAP algorithm.
- [0094]The Log-MAP Algorithm—The recursive equations for α and β and the boundary conditions are identical to Equations 9 and 10. The branch metric, γ
^{z,s→s′}, is given by: - [0000]

γ^{z,s→s′}=log(*p*(*Y*_{k}*|d*_{k}*=z*))+log(*p*(*d*_{k}*=z*)) [Eqn. 21] - [0000]The last term in Equation 21 contains the extrinsic information, as in the binary code case. The LLR is given by:
- [0000]
${L}^{\left(z\right)}\ue8a0\left({d}_{k}\right)=\mathrm{log}\ue8a0\left(\frac{\sum _{s,{s}^{\prime},z}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\prime}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{z,{s}^{\prime}->s}\right)}{\sum _{s,{s}^{\prime}}\ue89e\mathrm{exp}\ue8a0\left({\alpha}_{k-1}^{s}+{\beta}_{k}^{{s}^{\u2033}}+{\gamma}_{k}^{00,{s}^{\u2033}->s}\right)}\right).$ - [0095]The Max-Log-MAP Algorithm—As in the binary code case, simple approximations for α and β are given by:
- [0000]

α_{k}^{s}≈max_{s′}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+γ^{d}^{ k′ }^{s→s′}), β_{k=1}^{s}≈max_{s′}(β_{k}^{s′}+γ^{d}^{ k }^{+1,s→s′}) [Eqn. 23] - [0096]The branch metric, γ
^{z,s→s′}, is given by: - [0000]

γ^{z,s→s′}=log(*p*(*Y*_{k}*|d*_{k}*=z*))+log(*p*(*d*_{k}*=z*)). [Eqn. 24] - [0097]The last term in Equation 21 contains the extrinsic information, as in the binary case. The LLR is approximated as:
- [0000]

*L*^{(z)}(*d*_{k})≈max_{s,s′z}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+β_{k}^{s}+γ_{k}^{z,s→s′})−max_{s,s′}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+β_{k}^{s}+γ_{k}^{00,s→s′}) [Eqn. 25] - [0098]From Equations 16 and 23 above, it can be seen that the Max-Log MAP algorithm may calculate the value of alpha (α) for both the binary code mode and duo-binary code mode using Equation 26 below:
- [0000]

α_{k}^{s}≈max_{s′}(α_{k−1}^{s′}+γ^{d}^{ k }^{s→s′}). [Eqn. 26] - [0099]Additionally, from Equations 16 and 23 above, it can be seen that the Max-Log MAP algorithm may calculate the value of beta (β) for both the binary code mode and duo-binary code mode using Equation 27 below:
- [0000]

β_{k=1}^{s}≈max_{s′}(β_{k}^{s′}+γ^{d}^{ k }^{+1,s→s′}). [Eqn. 27] - [0100]In Equations 26 and 27, α
_{k}^{s }and β_{k}^{s−1 }are the values for the current states and α_{k}^{s−1 }and β_{k}^{s }are the values from the previous states. - [0101]It is noted that the alpha and beta calculations have the same operations, but different operands. According to the principles of the present disclosure, if the operands are prepared correctly, the alpha and beta calculations may be performed by the same arithmetic logic unit (ALU) hardware.
- [0102]It is further noted that Equations 17 and 25, which the Max-Log MAP algorithm uses to calculate the value of gamma (γ) for both the binary code mode and duo-binary code mode, are very similar to each other. Moreover, it is noted that Equations 17 and 25 use operations that are very similar to the alpha and beta calculations in Equations 26 and 27. Thus, according to the principles of the present disclosure, if the operands are prepared correctly, the lambda calculations may reuse the alpha and beta ALU hardware.
- [0103]
FIGS. 7 and 8 are high-level block diagrams of reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**, which may be used in WiBro mode and in WCDMA mode. MAP decoder**700**comprises gamma calculation block**705**, arithmetic logic unit (ALU) stage**710**, arithmetic logic unit (ALU) stage**715**, alpha memory**720**, lambda memory**725**, interleaver**730**, multiplexer**735**, multiplexer**740**, and optional gamma memory**750**. The diagram of reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**is a generalized representation of the functions performed by various components inFIG. 4A . For example, ALU stages**710**and**715**, multiplexers**735**and**740**, and gamma calculation block**705**may be implemented in each of MAP datapaths**432***a*-*d*. Similarly, interleaver**730**may be implemented by communication switch**420**, lambda memory**725**may be implemented by extrinsic information memories**445***a*-*d***430**, alpha memory**720**may be implements by caches**433***a*-*d*, and so forth. - [0104]The reconfigurable and reprogrammable capabilities of MAP datapaths
**432***a*-*d*and communication switch (i.e., interleaver)**420**enable reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**to operate in both duo-binary code (i.e., WiBro) systems and in binary code (i.e, WCDMA, HSDPA) systems. InFIG. 7 , MAP decoder**700**operates in duo-binary code mode. InFIG. 8 , MAP decoder**700**operates in binary code mode. - [0105]As will be explained below in greater detail, ALU stage
**710**performs the alpha (α) calculations in Equation 26 and the beta (β) calculation in Equation 27 for both binary code mode and duo-binary code mode. No particular architecture is required for ALU stage**710**. However, ALU stage**710**comprises an appropriate number of reconfigurable adders and comparators to perform the calculations in Equations 26 and 27. - [0106]As will be explained below in greater detail, the calculations of lambda (β) shown in Equations 17 and 25 are divided across ALU stage
**710**and ALU stage**715**in both binary code mode and duo-binary code mode. ALU stage**715**also comprises an appropriate number of reconfigurable adders and comparators to perform (along with ALU stage**710**) the calculations in Equations 17 and 25. - [0107]In the duo-binary code mode in
FIG. 7 , during a forward recursion, gamma calculation block**705**calculates and stores the branch metrics (or gamma (γ) values) using: i) input symbol information, namely the duo-binary inputs (a, b) and the parity inputs (y, y′, w, w′); and ii) extrinsic (λ) information in lambda memory**525**via interleaver**730**. In trellis**499**inFIG. 4B , there are 8 states for each time slot (or input symbol) and 4 branches associated with each state, for a total of 32 branches. In the exemplary embodiment, each soft input data sample comprises s=8 bits. Thus, the gamma output of gamma calculation block**505**is shown as 4×8×s inFIG. 7 . Gamma calculation block**505**also receives beta sign select and alpha sign select information. In the exemplary embodiment, there are a total of h=4 sign select bits for each of the 4×8 branches shown in trellis**499**. As noted above inFIG. 4A , the gamma value may be stored in gamma memory**750**(e.g., cache**433**) in order to reduce power consumption. - [0108]In the duo-binary code mode in
FIG. 7 , during a forward recursion, ALU stage**710**calculates the alpha (α) value for each node in trellis**499**. ALU stage receives the previous α value from alpha memory**720**(i.e., cache**433**) and, as noted above, receives branch metric information (γ) from gamma calculation block**705**. ALU stage**710**receives the alpha trellis information for each node via multiplexer**740**. In the exemplary embodiment, each of the eight trellis state in trellis**499**is represented by t=3 bits (i.e., 000-111). Since there are 4×8=32 branches associated with the 8 trellis states, the alpha trellis information is shown as 4×8xt inFIG. 7 . ALU stage**710**stores the s=8 bit alpha values for each of the eight trellis nodes in alpha memory**720**. - [0109]In the duo-binary code mode in
FIG. 7 , during a backward recursion, ALU stage**710**calculates the beta (β) value for each node in trellis**499**. The beta calculation process is very similar to the alpha calculation process. ALU stage**710**receives the previous β value and receives branch metric information (γ) from gamma calculation block**705**. ALU stage**710**receives the beta trellis information for each node via multiplexer**740**. Like the alpha trellis information, the beta trellis information is shown as 4×8xt inFIG. 7 . - [0110]In the duo-binary code mode in
FIG. 7 , ALU stage**710**partially calculates the LLR (λ) values in Equation 25 using the α, β, and γ values for each of the 32 branches in trellis**499**. ALU stage**715**completes the calculation of the LLR value. In duo-binary mode, the 2xk output of ALU stage**715**may be a hard decision pair of bits (k=1) or a pair of soft values (k=16 bits) that are sent to an external circuit for a decision. As noted above, all lambda values may be normalized by the L00 value, such that ALU stage**715**only needs to store three (3) s=16 bit values for L01, L10 and L11 in lambda memory**725**. - [0111]The binary code mode in
FIG. 8 operates similarly to the duo-binary code mode inFIG. 7 . However, whereas duo-binary code operations process two bits (i.e., a and b) from a single time slot, reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**processes two consecutive binary bits from different time slots (k=i and k=i+1) during binary code mode. These two consecutive binary bits are arbitrarily referred to as x_{i }and x_{i+1 }inFIG. 8 . The corresponding parity bits are y_{i }and y′_{i }for the first input bit and y_{i+1 }and y′_{i+1 }for the second input bit. - [0112]In binary code mode, ALU stage
**710**performs the alpha (α) calculations in Equation 26 and the beta (β) calculation in Equation 27. ALU stage**710**partially calculates the LLR (λ) values in Equation 17 using the α, β, and γ values for each of the 32 branches in trellis**499**. ALU stage**715**completes the calculation of the LLR value. In binary mode, the 2xk output of ALU stage**715**may be a hard decision pair of bits (k=1) or a pair of soft values (k=16 bits) that are sent to an external circuit for a decision. ALU stage**715**stores two k=16 bit lambda values in lambda memory**725**, one for each of the two input samples (i.e., x_{i }and x_{i+1}). - [0113]During the processing of a large received data block, the forward direction processing (recursion) generates a large number of intermediate results (i.e., alpha values). This requires that alpha memory
**720**be quite large—on the order of 50% of the total memory in reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**. To reduce the size of alpha memory**720**(i.e., caches**433**), reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**uses segmentation to divide up the received data block into smaller segments. - [0114]
FIGS. 9A and 9B illustrate a segmentation method for reducing the memory requirements of reconfigurable MAP decoder**700**according to one embodiment of the disclosure. MAP decoder**700**comprises registers that hold values defining the block segmentation process: a Segment Size register, a Segment Count register and a Window Size register. The Segment Size value defines the segment size, as opposed to the size of the total received data block. The Segment Count value defines the number of segments. If the Segment Count is equal to 1, the Segment Size is the same as the total received data block size. Although in the illustrated embodiment, it is assumed that all segments are the same size, in an alternate embodiment the segments may have different sizes. In such an embodiment, the Segment Size register may contain multiple values. - [0115]The Window Size value defines the step size between segments. The Window Size value may be equal to the total block size divided by the Segment Count value. The Window Size step may be smaller than the whole segment to allow processing of overlapping portions of segments, thereby adding a learning period between segments and increasing BER performance. MAP decoder
**700**may also use registers to save state information between segments for both feedforward processing (alpha) and feedback processing (beta) in both the interleaved and non-interleaved domains. - [0116]Each one of processing units
**430***a*-*d*may independently segment a received data block and then process each segment sequentially.FIG. 9B shows three overlapping segments (Segment**1**, Segment**2**and Segment**3**) that are processed by exemplary processing unit**430***a*. Line**940**indicates the total block size. Lines**901**,**902**and**903**indicated the segment sizes of Segment**1**, Segment**2**and Segment**3**, respectively. Lines**911**,**912**and**913**indicate the sizes of the processing windows (hereafter, windows**911**,**912**, and**913**). Lines**921**and**922**indicate the overlap periods of Segments**1**and**2**and Segments**2**and**3**, respectively (hereafter, overlap periods**921**and**922**). - [0117]Line
**931**indicates the tail idle padding (hereafter, tail idle period**931**). In cases when there is no exact division between the total block size and the segment size (e.g., any time that segment size greater than window size), idle values may be padded in the end of the block to get the exact division. - [0118]By way of example, each of Segments
**1**-**3**may comprise 1000 samples, with overlap periods of 50 samples. Thus, Segment**1**comprises Samples**1**-**1000**(from left to right). Segment**2**comprises Samples**951**-**1950**(from left to right). Segment**3**comprises samples**1901**-**2900**. Thus, overlap period**921**comprises Samples**951**-**1000**and overlap period**922**comprises Samples**1901**-**1950**. The total block size is 2900 samples. In an exemplary embodiment, the total block size may be in reality be, for example, 2850 samples of actual received data and the last 50 samples of Segment**3**are tail idle padding data that are added in tail idle period**931**. - [0119]Processing unit
**430***a*processes Segment**1**in the forward direction from Sample**1**to Sample**1000**to thereby generate 1000 alpha values. Since Segment**1**is the first segment to be processed, default initial values may be used in processing the first alpha value, starting at Sample**1**. Subsequent alpha values are calculated using actual alpha values from previous states and become more accurate as a result. - [0120]Processing unit
**430***a*processes Segment**2**in the forward direction from Sample**951**to Sample**1950**to thereby generate 1000 alpha values. Assuming no alpha values are carried over from Segment**1**, default initial values may be used in processing the first alpha value, starting at Sample**951**. Subsequent alpha values are calculated using actual alpha values from previous states and are more and more accurate as a result. - [0121]Processing unit
**430***a*processes Segment**1**in the reverse direction from Sample**1000**to Sample**1**to thereby generate beta and lambda values. Default initial values may be used in processing the first beta value, starting at Sample**1000**. Subsequent beta values are calculated using actual beta values from previous states and become more accurate as a result. Samples**951**-**1000**in overlap period**921**represent a learning period for beta calculations during reverse processing. - [0122]Processing unit
**430***a*processes Segment**2**in the reverse direction from Sample**1950**to Sample**951**to thereby generate beta and lambda values. Default initial values may be used in processing the first beta value, starting at Sample**1950**. Subsequent beta values are calculated using actual beta values from previous states and are more accurate as a result. Samples**1901**-**1950**in overlap period**922**represent a learning period for beta calculations during reverse processing. - [0123]In overlap period
**921**, beta values from Segment**2**, which are based on previous state information, will tend to be more accurate than the beta values from Segment**1**, which are based on an initial default value. Thus, in window**911**, processing unit**430***a*calculates the lambda values in Segment**1**from Sample**950**to Sample**1**during reverse processing using the Segment**1**alpha values and the Segment**1**beta values. - [0124]However, in overlap period
**921**, processing unit**430***a*does not calculate lambda values during the backward recursion of Segment**1**. Instead, processing unit calculates lambda values for Samples**951**-**1000**using beta values calculated for Samples**951**-**1000**during the reverse processing in window**912**for Segment**2**. Similarly, in overlap period**922**, processing unit**430***a*may calculate the lambda values for Samples**1901**-**1950**using beta values for Samples**1901**-**1950**during the reverse processing in window**913**for Segment**3**. - [0125]The memory requirements of processing unit
**430***a*are reduced by means of segmentation, since a smaller number of alpha values need to be stored from the forward recursion. However, the accuracy of the lambda calculations are improved over the prior art by using overlap periods**921**and**922**as learning periods for beta calculations during reverse processing. - [0126]The description of
FIG. 9B above assumes that alpha values from one segment are not carried over to the next segment.FIG. 10 illustrate a segmentation method for reducing the memory requirements of the reconfigurable MAP decoder according to another embodiment of the disclosure. InFIG. 9B , no overlapping periods are used. Thus, the window sizes and the segment sizes are the same, as indicated by lines**1001**,**1002**and**1003**. - [0127]However, state information may be saved from one segment to the next segment. Thus, at the segmentation boundary between Segment
**1**and Segment**2**inFIG. 10 , the value Alpha 1 maybe saved in a dedicated register in MAP decoder**700**at the end of the forward processing of Segment**1**. Assuming there are 1000 samples per segment, the alpha value for Sample**1000**is saved at the end of the forward processing of Segment**1**. At the start of the Segment**2**forward processing, the saved alpha value for Sample**1000**is then retrieved from the dedicated register and is used in the calculation of the alpha value for Sample**1001**at the start of Segment**2**. - [0128]Advantageously, the method of using overlapping learning periods
**921**and**922**described inFIG. 9B may be combined with the method of using saved state information described inFIG. 10 to obtain accurate lambda values. Thus, inFIG. 9B for example, processing unit**430***a*may calculate alpha values in window**911**from Sample**1**to Sample**950**during forward processing of Segment**1**. Processing unit**430***a*then stores the alpha value for Sample**950**and skips to Sample**1000**to begin the beta calculations for reverse processing of Segment**1**. After overlapping learning period**921**, processing unit**430***a*uses the beta value for Sample**951**and the stored alpha values from the forward recursion of Segment**1**to begin calculating beta values and lambda values from Sample**950**to Sample**1**. - [0129]During forward processing of Segment
**2**, processing unit**430***a*retrieves the stored alpha value for Sample**950**from Segment**1**forward processing. Processing unit**430***a*uses the stored alpha value for Sample**950**as an accurate initial state, rather than assuming a default value for the initial state. Processing unit**403***a*then calculates alpha values in window**912**from Sample**951**to Sample**1900**during forward processing of Segment**2**. Processing unit**430***a*then stores the alpha value for Sample**1900**and skips to Sample**1950**to begin the beta calculations for reverse processing of Segment**2**. After overlapping learning period**922**, processing unit**430***a*uses the beta value for Sample**1901**and the stored alpha values from the forward recursion of Segment**2**to begin calculating beta values and lambda values from Sample**1900**to Sample**951**. - [0130]The use of overlapping learning periods between segments and the saving of boundary state information between segments enables MAP decoder
**700**to greatly reduce the required size of alpha memory**720**, while minimizing inaccuracies in the calculations of beta and lambda caused by segmentation methods used in conventional decoding systems. - [0131]Although the present disclosure has been described with an exemplary embodiment, various changes and modifications may be suggested to one skilled in the art. It is intended that the present disclosure encompass such changes and modifications as fall within the scope of the appended claims.

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Classifications

U.S. Classification | 375/340, 714/E11.021, 714/794 |

International Classification | H04L27/06, G06F11/07 |

Cooperative Classification | H03M13/3905, H04L1/0057, H03M13/3911, H04L1/0052, H03M13/2969, H04L1/0055, H04L1/005, H03M13/3972, H04L1/0066, H03M13/3983, H03M13/6569 |

European Classification | H03M13/65P, H03M13/39T, H03M13/39R, H04L1/00B5M, H03M13/39A, H03M13/29T1N, H03M13/39A1 |

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