US 20080130082 A1
Methods for forming a MEMS display device are provided. In one embodiment, a transparent substrate comprising an array of MEMS devices (e.g., interferometric modulators) formed thereon is annealed following removal of a sacrificial silicon layer. The array is subsequently encapsulated with a backplate comprising a desiccant. MEMS devices disposed below the desiccant have an offset voltage substantially equal to zero.
1. A method for manufacturing a microelectromechanical (MEMS) display device, comprising:
providing a transparent substrate having an array of MEMS devices formed thereon;
baking the transparent substrate under predetermined conditions to remove contaminants from the array; and
sealing said transparent substrate to a backplate to form a package.
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14. A method for manufacturing a microelectromechanical (MEMS) display device, comprising:
providing a transparent substrate with an array of MEMS devices formed thereon;
removing voltage-changing contaminants from the array; and
sealing said transparent substrate to a backplate to form a package.
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1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and the packaging of such systems. More specifically, the invention relates to interferometric modulators and methods of fabricating such modulators using a desiccant.
2. Description of the Related Technology
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. Micromechanical elements may be created using deposition, etching, and or other micromachining processes that etch away parts of substrates and/or deposited material layers or that add layers to form electrical and electromechanical devices. One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. As used herein, the term interferometric modulator or interferometric light modulator refers to a device that selectively absorbs and/or reflects light using the principles of optical interference. In certain embodiments, an interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both of which may be transparent and/or reflective in whole or part and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. In a particular embodiment, one plate may comprise a stationary layer deposited on a substrate and the other plate may comprise a metallic membrane separated from the stationary layer by an air gap. As described herein in more detail, the position of one plate in relation to another can change the optical interference of light incident on the interferometric modulator. Such devices have a wide range of applications, and it would be beneficial in the art to utilize and/or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products that have not yet been developed.
The system, method, and devices described herein each have several aspects, no single one of which is solely responsible for its desirable attributes. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled “Detailed Description of Certain Embodiments” one will understand how the features of described herein provide advantages over other display devices. Some embodiments described herein provide a package structure and a method of manufacturing a package structure in ambient conditions.
In one embodiment a method for manufacturing a microelectromechanical (MEMS) display device comprises providing a transparent substrate having an array of MEMS devices formed thereon, baking the transparent substrate under predetermined conditions to remove contaminants from the array and sealing the transparent substrate to a backplate to form a package.
In another embodiment a method for manufacturing a microelectromechanical (MEMS) display device comprises providing a transparent substrate with an array of MEMS devices formed thereon, removing voltage-changing contaminants from the array and sealing the transparent substrate to a backplate to form a package.
These and other aspects will be readily apparent from the following description and from the appended drawings (not to scale), which are meant to illustrate and not to limit the embodiments described herein, and wherein:
The following detailed description is directed to certain specific embodiments. However, the devices and methods described herein can be embodied in a multitude of different ways. In this description, reference is made to the drawings wherein like parts are designated with like numerals throughout. As will be apparent from the following description, the embodiments may be implemented in any device that is configured to display an image, whether in motion (e.g., video) or stationary (e.g., still image), and whether textual or pictorial. More particularly, it is contemplated that the embodiments may be implemented in or associated with a variety of electronic devices such as, but not limited to, mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDAs), hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers/navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (e.g., odometer display, etc.), cockpit controls and/or displays, display of camera views (e.g., display of a rear view camera in a vehicle), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures (e.g., display of images on a piece of jewelry). MEMS devices of similar structure to those described herein can also be used in non-display applications such as in electronic switching devices.
One embodiment of the invention is a MEMS device, such as an interferometric modulator for use in a display. These types of devices are typically packaged with a backplate. In some embodiments, the backplate includes an interfering member that can prevent the MEMS device from its proper function. For example, in one embodiment, the backplate has a desiccant affixed to the backplate, and the desiccant interferes with the proper functioning of the MEMS device. In one embodiment, the desiccant material alters the electronic properties of the MEMS devices that are adjacent to the desiccant.
With regard to MEMS devices that are interferometric modulators, it has been observed that the individual interferometric modulators disposed below the desiccant interact with the desiccant under normal operating conditions. This interaction produces an offset voltage, causing the interferometric modulators disposed below the desiccant to behave differently than interferometric modulators that are not below the desiccant. The offset voltage produces a desiccant pattern that is visible during normal operation of the MEMS device. The desiccant pattern is even more pronounced at elevated operating temperatures.
In one embodiment, the invention includes processing steps that eliminate the undesired effects of a desiccant pattern in a MEMS display element. As is known, MEMS devices, such as interferometric modulators are formed on a substrate and may include a desiccant material to reduce moisture within the packaged device. In one embodiment, the MEMS device is annealed at a predetermined temperature and time to reduce the voltage offset effects of the desiccant material. The MEMS device is subsequently encapsulated by sealing a backplate to the substrate. In some embodiments, an interfering member, such as, e.g., a desiccant is provided over at least some of the MEMS devices.
While preferred embodiments are described in the context of interferometric modulators, it will be appreciated that preferred embodiments can apply to any MEMS device. As an example, while certain examples below describe interferometric modulators disposed below a desiccant, it will be appreciated that the interferometric modulators can be replaced with any MEMS device.
One interferometric modulator display embodiment comprising an interferometric MEMS display element is illustrated in
The depicted portion of the pixel array in
The optical stacks 16 a and 16 b (collectively referred to as optical stack 16), as referenced herein, typically comprise several fused layers, which can include an electrode layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), a partially reflective layer, such as chromium, and a transparent dielectric. The optical stack 16 is thus electrically conductive, partially transparent, and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more of the above layers onto a transparent substrate 20. The partially reflective layer can be formed from a variety of materials that are partially reflective such as various metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. The partially reflective layer can be formed of one or more layers of materials, and each of the layers can be formed of a single material or a combination of materials.
In some embodiments, the layers of the optical stack 16 are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device as described further below. The movable reflective layers 14 a, 14 b may be formed as a series of parallel strips of a deposited metal layer or layers (orthogonal to the row electrodes of 16 a, 16 b) deposited on top of posts 18 and an intervening sacrificial material deposited between the posts 18. When the sacrificial material is etched away, the movable reflective layers 14 a, 14 b are separated from the optical stacks 16 a, 16 b by a defined gap 19. A highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the reflective layers 14, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device.
With no applied voltage, the gap 19 remains between the movable reflective layer 14 a and optical stack 16 a, with the movable reflective layer 14 a in a mechanically relaxed state, as illustrated by the pixel 12 a in
In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicate with an array driver 22. In one embodiment, the array driver 22 includes a row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26 that provide signals to a display array or panel 30. The cross section of the array illustrated in
In typical applications, a display frame may be created by asserting the set of column electrodes in accordance with the desired set of actuated pixels in the first row. A row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, actuating the pixels corresponding to the asserted column lines. The asserted set of column electrodes is then changed to correspond to the desired set of actuated pixels in the second row. A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, actuating the appropriate pixels in row 2 in accordance with the asserted column electrodes. The row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in the state they were set to during the row 1 pulse. This may be repeated for the entire series of rows in a sequential fashion to produce the frame. Generally, the frames are refreshed and/or updated with new display data by continually repeating this process at some desired number of frames per second. A wide variety of protocols for driving row and column electrodes of pixel arrays to produce display frames are also well known and may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
The display device 40 includes a housing 41, a display 30, an antenna 43, a speaker 45, an input device 48, and a microphone 46. The housing 41 is generally formed from any of a variety of manufacturing processes as are well known to those of skill in the art, including injection molding and vacuum forming. In addition, the housing 41 may be made from any of a variety of materials, including, but not limited to, plastic, metal, glass, rubber, and ceramic, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the housing 41 includes removable portions (not shown) that may be interchanged with other removable portions of different color, or containing different logos, pictures, or symbols.
The display 30 of exemplary display device 40 may be any of a variety of displays, including a bi-stable display, as described herein. In other embodiments, the display 30 includes a flat-panel display, such as plasma, EL, OLED, STN LCD, or TFT LCD as described above, or a non-flat-panel display, such as a CRT or other tube device, as is well known to those of skill in the art. However, for purposes of describing the present embodiment, the display 30 includes an interferometric modulator display, as described herein.
The components of one embodiment of exemplary display device 40 are schematically illustrated in
The network interface 27 includes the antenna 43 and the transceiver 47 so that the exemplary display device 40 can communicate with one or more devices over a network. In one embodiment, the network interface 27 may also have some processing capabilities to relieve requirements of the processor 21. The antenna 43 is any antenna known to those of skill in the art for transmitting and receiving signals. In one embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the IEEE 802.11 standard, including IEEE 802.11(a), (b), or (g). In another embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the BLUETOOTH standard. In the case of a cellular telephone, the antenna is designed to receive CDMA, GSM, AMPS, or other known signals that are used to communicate within a wireless cell phone network. The transceiver 47 pre-processes the signals received from the antenna 43 so that they may be received by and further manipulated by the processor 21. The transceiver 47 also processes signals received from the processor 21 so that they may be transmitted from the exemplary display device 40 via the antenna 43.
In an alternative embodiment, the transceiver 47 can be replaced by a receiver. In yet another alternative embodiment, network interface 27 can be replaced by an image source, which can store or generate image data to be sent to the processor 21. For example, the image source can be a digital video disc (DVD) or a hard-disc drive that contains image data, or a software module that generates image data.
Processor 21 generally controls the overall operation of the exemplary display device 40. The processor 21 receives data, such as compressed image data from the network interface 27 or an image source, and processes the data into raw image data or into a format that is readily processed into raw image data. The processor 21 then sends the processed data to the driver controller 29 or to frame buffer 28 for storage. Raw data typically refers to the information that identifies the image characteristics at each location within an image. For example, such image characteristics can include color, saturation, and gray-scale level.
In one embodiment, the processor 21 includes a microcontroller, CPU, or logic unit to control operation of the exemplary display device 40. Conditioning hardware 52 generally includes amplifiers and filters for transmitting signals to the speaker 45, and for receiving signals from the microphone 46. Conditioning hardware 52 may be discrete components within the exemplary display device 40, or may be incorporated within the processor 21 or other components.
The driver controller 29 takes the raw image data generated by the processor 21 either directly from the processor 21 or from the frame buffer 28 and reformats the raw image data appropriately for high speed transmission to the array driver 22. Specifically, the driver controller 29 reformats the raw image data into a data flow having a raster-like format, such that it has a time order suitable for scanning across the display array 30. Then the driver controller 29 sends the formatted information to the array driver 22. Although a driver controller 29, such as a LCD controller, is often associated with the system processor 21 as a stand-alone Integrated Circuit (IC), such controllers may be implemented in many ways. They may be embedded in the processor 21 as hardware, embedded in the processor 21 as software, or fully integrated in hardware with the array driver 22.
Typically, the array driver 22 receives the formatted information from the driver controller 29 and reformats the video data into a parallel set of waveforms that are applied many times per second to the hundreds and sometimes thousands of leads coming from the display's x-y matrix of pixels.
In one embodiment, the driver controller 29, array driver 22, and display array 30 are appropriate for any of the types of displays described herein. For example, in one embodiment, driver controller 29 is a conventional display controller or a bi-stable display controller (e.g., an interferometric modulator controller). In another embodiment, array driver 22 is a conventional driver or a bi-stable display driver (e.g., an interferometric modulator display). In one embodiment, a driver controller 29 is integrated with the array driver 22. Such an embodiment is common in highly integrated systems such as cellular phones, watches, and other small area displays. In yet another embodiment, display array 30 is a typical display array or a bi-stable display array (e.g., a display including an array of interferometric modulators).
The input device 48 allows a user to control the operation of the exemplary display device 40. In one embodiment, input device 48 includes a keypad, such as a QWERTY keyboard or a telephone keypad, a button, a switch, a touch-sensitive screen, or a pressure- or heat-sensitive membrane. In one embodiment, the microphone 46 is an input device for the exemplary display device 40. When the microphone 46 is used to input data to the device, voice commands may be provided by a user for controlling operations of the exemplary display device 40.
Power supply 50 can include a variety of energy storage devices as are well known in the art. For example, in one embodiment, power supply 50 is a rechargeable battery, such as a nickel-cadmium battery or a lithium ion battery. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is a renewable energy source, a capacitor, or a solar cell including a plastic solar cell, and solar-cell paint. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is configured to receive power from a wall outlet.
In some embodiments, control programmability resides, as described above, in a driver controller which can be located in several places in the electronic display system. In some embodiments, control programmability resides in the array driver 22. Those of skill in the art will recognize that the above-described optimizations may be implemented in any number of hardware and/or software components and in various configurations.
The details of the structure of interferometric modulators that operate in accordance with the principles set forth above may vary widely. For example,
In embodiments such as those shown in
Packaging techniques for interferometric modulators will be described in more detail below.
Interferometric modulators typically include moving parts, such as the movable mirrors 14 a and 14 b, which have a protected space in which to move. A schematic of one embodiment of a MEMS display element 800 comprising an array of interferometric modulators 830 is illustrated in
With continued reference to
While the MEMS display package 800 of the illustrated embodiment comprises one interfering member 840, it will be appreciated that multiple interfering members may be included. Additionally, the interfering member 840 can have any shape and configuration. As an example, the interfering member can be shaped triangular, circular, or hexagonal. As another example, the interfering member 840 can circumscribe the array, with a portion of the interfering member being disposed over the array 830.
It will be appreciated that the packages and packaging methods described herein may be used for packaging any MEMS device, including, but not limited to, the interferometric modulators described herein.
As discussed above, the array 830 is configured to reflect light through the transparent substrate 810. Each interferometric modulator in the array 830 includes moving parts, such as the movable mirrors 14 a, 14 b. The movable mirrors 14 a and 14 b are delicate and should not come into direct contact with the backplate cover 820 or the interfering member 840. Thus, a gap or cavity 845 is preferably created between the moveable mirrors 14 a and 14 b and the backplate 820 and/or the interfering member 840. The gap or cavity 845 provides a buffer space for the mechanical parts, such as the movable mirrors 14 a and 14 b of each interferometric modulator. In preferred embodiments, the gap or cavity is created before the backplate 820 is joined to the transparent substrate 810.
The transparent substrate 810 may be any transparent substance capable of having thin film, MEMS devices built upon it. Such transparent substances include, but are not limited to, glass, plastic, and transparent polymers. Images are displayed through the transparent substrate 810, which serves as an imaging surface.
In accordance with an embodiment, the array 830 is formed on the transparent substrate 810. It will be understood that the fixed mirrors 16 a and 16 b of each interferometric modulator is adjacent the transparent substrate 810 and the movable mirrors 14 a and 14 b are formed over the fixed mirrors 16 a and 16 b such that the movable mirrors 14 a and 14 b may move within the cavity 845 (see also
To form each interferometric modulator of the array 830, in one embodiment, the transparent substrate 810 is covered with indium tin oxide (ITO), which may be deposited by standard deposition techniques, including chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and sputtering, preferably to a thickness of about 500 Å. A relatively thin layer of chrome may be deposited over the ITO. The ITO/chrome bilayer is then etched and patterned into columns to form the column electrodes 16 a, 16 b. A layer of silicon dioxide (SiO2) is preferably formed over the ITO/chrome columns to create partially reflective fixed mirrors 16 a, 16 b. A sacrificial layer of molybdenum (Mo) is then deposited (and later released) over the structure to create a resonant optical cavity between the fixed mirrors 16 a, 16 b and the movable mirrors 14 a, 14 b. In other embodiments, this sacrificial layer may be formed of silicon (Si), tungsten (W), or titanium (Ti).
Another mirror layer, in some embodiments formed of aluminum, is deposited over the sacrificial layer to form the movable mirrors 14 a, 14 b of each interferometric modulator. This mirror layer is deposited and patterned into rows orthogonal to the column electrodes 16 a, 16 b to create the row/column array described above. In other embodiments, this mirror layer may comprise highly reflective metals, such as, for example, silver (Ag) or gold (Au). Alternatively, this mirror layer may be a stack of metals configured to give the proper optical and mechanical properties.
The sacrificial layer is removed, using a gas etching process, after the movable mirrors 14 a, 14 b are formed to create the optical cavity between the fixed mirrors 16 a, 16 b and the movable mirrors 14 a, 14 b. In an embodiment, this sacrificial layer is removed after the backplate is joined to the transparent substrate through an opening in either the backplate or perimeter seal, as will be described in more detail below. Standard etching techniques may be used to remove the sacrificial layer. The particular release etching will depend on the material to be released. In one embodiment, a fluorine containing etching chemistry, such as, e.g., xenon diflouride (XeF2), is used to remove the sacrificial layer. In another embodiment, the sacrificial layer between the mirrors 16 a, 16 b, 14 a, 14 b is removed before the backplate 820 is joined to the transparent substrate 810. The skilled artisan will appreciate that each layer of an interferometric modulator is deposited and patterned using standard deposition techniques and standard photolithographic techniques.
The skilled artisan will understand that the backplate 820 serves a mechanical function, protecting the array 830 from contaminants in the environment. The backplate 820 along with the transparent substrate 810 and covered interfering member 840 prevent mechanical interference, moisture, and contaminant gases from reaching and potentially damaging the array 830 within the display package 800. The backplate 820 may therefore be formed of any suitable material, whether transparent or opaque, conductive or insulating. Suitable materials for the backplate 820 include, but are not limited to, glass (e.g., float, 1737, soda lime), plastic, ceramics, polymers, laminates, and metals and metal foils (e.g., stainless steel (SS302, SS410), Kovar, plated Kovar).
A sealing means or a seal 842 is typically provided to join the transparent substrate 810 and the backplate 820 to encapsulate the array 830, forming the package 800. The seal is typically a semi-hermetic seal, such as a conventional epoxy-based adhesive. In other embodiments, the seal may be Polyisobutylene (PIB), o-rings, polyurethane, thin film metal weld, liquid spin-on glass, solders, glass frit or silica glass mixtures (fired to make a solid glass frit), polymers, or plastics, among other types of seals. In still other embodiment, the seal may be a hermetic seal. Once the backplate 820 and transparent substrate 810 are joined, the seal may be cured and hardened.
In one embodiment having a hermetic seal, the seal 842 is a hermetic barrier that acts as an environmental barrier preventing all air and water vapor from flowing through the seal 842 and entering the display package 800. Suitable materials for a hermetic seal include, but are not limited to, welds, solders, adhesives mixed with molecular sieves, such as a Zeolite. The adhesive component alone may not act as a suitable environmental barrier because it will eventually allow moisture and other contaminants to permeate into the display package 800. Thus, in one embodiment, the display package 800 also includes the covered interfering member 840 which reduces moisture from the interior environment of the package 800. Exemplary desiccants used herein may be a calcium dioxide, strontium oxide (SRO), silica gels, montmorillonite clay (preferably a magnesium aluminum silicate), molecular sieves (zeolites such as Na12AlO3SiO212XH20), or calcium sulfates.
The interfering member 840 may be used to reduce moisture resident within the package 800. Desiccants may be used for packages that have either hermetic or semi-hermetic seals. In a package having a semi-hermetic seal, a desiccant may be used to control moisture moving into the package from the environment. For packages having hermetic seals, desiccants may be provided within the package to absorb any moisture that moves into the package during the manufacturing process.
During operation of a MEMS display element, such as the MEMS display package 800 illustrated in
With all interferometric modulators initially in the actuated state, interferometric modulators adjacent to the desiccant transition to a relaxed state at a time (t1) and interferometric modulators not adjacent the desiccant transition to a relaxed state at a time (t2). Preferably, interferometric modulators within a single display should transition to a relaxed state at approximately the same time, i.e., Δt=t2−t1≈0, resulting in no desiccant pattern being observed. If the interferometric modulators within a single display have differing hysteresis windows, than the display is not of optimum quality because instructions provided to the array to change states will be carried out at differing times by different modulators. This can lead to a display that does not provide a high quality, sharp picture, because the modulator elements are not transitioning together. It should be realized that the time delay, Δt, can be between about 1-20 microseconds or preferably between about 5-12 microseconds or more preferably about 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 or 11 microseconds.
In one embodiment of the invention, the desiccant pattern is eliminated by baking (also referred to herein as “annealing”) the transparent substrate having the array of interferometric modulators. While not being bound by any particular theory, it appears that baking the formed interferometric modulators desorbs contaminants from the transparent substrate and/or the interferometric modulators. In one embodiment, the MEMS display element is annealed with a backplate attached to the transparent substrate, in which case annealing may desorb contaminants from the transparent substrate, the interferometric modulators and/or the backplate.
Next, following an optional cool-down period, the array of interferometric modulators is encapsulated at a state 915 by sealing a backplate against the transparent substrate to form a package, as described above. In one embodiment, this step entails providing the backplate with desiccant disposed over at least a portion of the array and adjacent to the interferometric modulators. In another embodiment, this step entails providing the backplate without the interfering member.
The annealing state 910 may be performed in a controlled atmosphere, such as an inert gas atmosphere. In some embodiments, annealing is performed in a processing chamber under vacuum generated by a pumping system. In other embodiments, annealing is performed in a chamber (or dry box) purged with an inert gas (e.g., N2, He, Ar) and pumped with a vacuum system, if desired. In still other embodiments, the annealing step is performed in an oven having an inert gas (e.g., N2, He, Ar) atmosphere. As the annealing state 910 may evolve water and other contaminants, sufficient purging and/or pumping is desirable in order to prevent re-adsorption of water and contaminants. Contaminants, also referred to herein as “voltage changing contaminants,” include any material that adheres to the transparent substrate and/or interferometric modulators within the array.
Voltage-changing contaminants may interact with desiccant disposed adjacent the array (see
In an alternative embodiment, the array of released interferometric modulators is encapsulated with a backplate (with or without an interfering member) prior to annealing. In such a case, one or more holes may be provided in the backplate to allow contaminants to escape during the annealing step. The skilled artisan will appreciate that provision of purging and/or pumping may be desirable to prevent re-adsorption of contaminants.
The transparent substrate may be annealed via resistive, conductive and/or convective heating. As an example, the transparent substrate may be resistively heated via heating elements disposed in a hot plate in contact with the transparent substrate. As another example, the transparent substrate may be radiatively heated with heating lamps in direct view of the reticle. The skilled artisan will understand that various combinations of heating modes can be used to achieve a desired heating rate.
It will be appreciated that the annealing state 910 may include an initial temperature ramp-up and a subsequent temperature ramp-down. The rate at which the transparent substrate is heated (heating rate) and the rate at which the transparent substrate is cooled (cooling rate) can be selected as desired. As an example, the transparent substrate can be heated at 4° C./minute.
By annealing the transparent substrate and the array, as described above, the dynic pattern was found to be eliminated. MEMS display elements that were treated by the aforementioned annealing process were found to have an offset voltage substantially equal to zero.
A MEMS display device comprising an array of interferometric modulators (“iMOD array”) is fabricated on a substrate as show in
While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the device or process illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. As an example, while preferred embodiments have been described in the context interferometric modulators, it will be appreciated that preferred methods can be applied to any MEMS device. As will be recognized, the present invention may be embodied within a form that does not provide all of the features and benefits set forth herein, as some features may be used or practiced separately from others.