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Publication numberUS20080141435 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/639,714
Publication dateJun 19, 2008
Filing dateDec 15, 2006
Priority dateDec 15, 2006
Also published asUS20130191963
Publication number11639714, 639714, US 2008/0141435 A1, US 2008/141435 A1, US 20080141435 A1, US 20080141435A1, US 2008141435 A1, US 2008141435A1, US-A1-20080141435, US-A1-2008141435, US2008/0141435A1, US2008/141435A1, US20080141435 A1, US20080141435A1, US2008141435 A1, US2008141435A1
InventorsEric Friedman
Original AssigneeThe Grandoe Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ultra breathable waterproof glove or the like
US 20080141435 A1
Abstract
A glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions comprising an exterior layer having an interior and being sized to fit a hand; a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer covering the entire interior of the exterior layer; and a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, optionally located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion, and located on one or more finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the air vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.
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Claims(19)
1. A glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions comprising:
an exterior layer having an interior and being sized to fit a hand;
a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer covering the entire interior of the exterior layer; and
a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, and located on one or more finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the air vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.
2. The glove of claim 1 wherein air vents are located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion.
3. The glove of claim 1 wherein the non-waterproof exterior layer is comprised of a member of the group consisting of leather and synthetic leather-like material, or any other similar material.
4. The glove of claim 1 wherein the waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of an organic polymer.
5. The glove of claim 1 wherein the organic polymer waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of a member of the group consisting of polyester, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyurethane, ethylene methyl acrylate, and ethylene methyl acrylic acid.
6. The glove of claim 1 wherein the air vents are in vapor communication with the interior layer.
7. A glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions comprising:
an exterior layer having an interior and being sized to fit a hand;
a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer comprised of a synthetic organic polymer and covering the entire interior of the exterior layer; and
a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, and located on one or more finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the air vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.
8. The glove of claim 7 wherein air vents are located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion.
9. The glove of claim 7 wherein the organic polymer waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of a member of the group consisting of polyester, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyurethane, ethylene methyl acrylate, and ethylene methyl acrylic acid.
10. The glove of claim 7 wherein the air vents are in water vapor communication with the interior layer.
11. A glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions comprising:
an exterior layer comprised of a member of the group consisting of leather and synthetic leather-like material, having an interior and being sized to fit a hand;
a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer comprised of a member of the group consisting of polyester, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyurethane, ethylene methyl acrylate, and ethylene methyl acrylic acid, and covering the entire interior of the exterior layer; and
a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, and located on one or more finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the air vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.
12. The glove of claim 11 wherein air vents are located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion.
13. The glove of claim 11 wherein the air vents are in water vapor communication with the interior layer.
14. A glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions comprising:
an exterior layer having an interior and being sized to fit a hand;
a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer covering the entire interior of the exterior layer wherein said waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of a first water prevention layer having pores of a size that prevent water passage, a second water porous layer, and a third water resistance layer; and
a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion, and located on one or more finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the air vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.
15. The glove of claim 14 wherein air vents are located on each finger portion.
16. The glove of claim 14 wherein the non-waterproof exterior layer is comprised of a member of the group consisting of leather and synthetic leather-like material.
17. The clove of claim 14 wherein the waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of an organic polymer.
18. The glove of claim 14 wherein the organic polymer waterproof, air-permeable interior layer is comprised of a member of the group consisting of polyester, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyurethane, ethylene methyl acrylate, and ethylene methyl acrylic acid.
19. The glove of claim 14 wherein the air vents are in vapor communication with the interior layer.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The subject invention pertains to articles of environmental covering worn on the hands.

U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2004/0148679 issued to Garneau teaches a thermally insulated hand glove for use in sporting activities. The hand glove has a main body for enclosing a user's hand, with a palm area having an exposed wall surface being substantially waterproof. A window aperture is made in a fraction of the palm area. A moisture permeable stretchable membrane is applied to fully close the window aperture, so as to provide an air vent system integral to the palm area for promoting moisture outflow generated from the user's hand palm perspiration outwardly from said glove main body, while controlling accidental moisture inflow seepage from outside weather conditions. The stretchable nature of the arcuate membrane pad biases the thumb finger part of the glove to a tilted location overhanging spacedly over the window, thus reducing the likelihood of accidental access of water or snow to the non waterproof membrane pad covering the window. Garneau discloses a palm vent, while the vents of the subject invention are on the fingers, the glove sidewalls and optionally on the back of the hand. Also, the subject invention relates to vents which are covered by a screen which make the shell of the glove non-waterproof along with the use of a waterproof breathable membrane covering the entire hand allowing all areas of the hand to expel water vapor while remaining dry. This results in superior hand warmth while maintaining dryness. In contrast, Garneau uses a waterproof breathable membrane covering just the vent opening, reducing the transmission of water vapor while maintaining the waterproof characteristics of the shell of the glove. The placement of this vent in the palm also makes the glove wear out rapidly as all waterproof breathable membranes are thin and non-abrasion resistant.

U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2004/0031087 issued to Griesbach, III teaches an elastomeric glove that contains zones of differing water vapor transmission rates. The glove contains at least one liquid and vapor impermeable zone, i.e., “moisture-impermeable” zone. Such moisture-impermeable zones generally have a Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) of less than about 1500 g/m.sup.2/24 hours. Further, the glove also contains at least one liquid-impermeable, but vapor-permeable zone, i.e., “breathable” zone. Such breathable zones generally have a WVTR of at least about 250 g/m.sup.2/24 hours. As a result, the glove may sufficiently inhibit liquids and moisture from contacting the hand during use, and allow water vapor that would otherwise accumulate on the skin of a user to escape from the glove, thereby enhancing the comfort of the user's hands during long periods of use. Griesbach, III teaches an elastomeric glove with at least one liquid and vapor impermeable zone. In contrast, the present invention embodies the concept of a water resistant shell with breathable zones wherein multiple open vents covered by a screen render the outer shell non-waterproof but with a breathable waterproof permeable membrane covering the entire hand, allowing moisture to dissipate while keeping hands dry.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,503,565 issued to Lippitt, Jr. et al. teaches a water excluding vent valve for insulated gloves or other portions of a diver's dry suit utilizing a vent control element including a microporous membrane disposed in obturating relation to an opening in the shell of the glove or other article. The membrane is laminated between protective layers of woven synthetic fabric, and a retaining means permitting replacement of the control element is described. Lippitt, Jr. is for diving gloves used with a dry diving suit. The glove and/or diving suit contain a single disc-shaped valve placed over a micro porous membrane that may be opened upon ascent to release excess pressure contained in the dry diving suit. The subject invention contains no valves and is not designed to release pressure. The present invention contains multiple vents that are not waterproof. Lippitt, Jr. contains a breathable waterproof membrane only under the vent while the waterproof breathable membrane of the present invention covers the entire hand.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,964,063 issued to Bamber teaches a sports glove, such as a golf glove, baseball batting glove, or other type of glove. In one non-limiting embodiment, the sports glove has a fastener made of a breathable material. In another embodiment, the sports glove has a fastener with apertures therein. In another embodiment, the sports glove has a container joined thereto that can be used for storing the glove after use. In another embodiment, the sports glove is provided with one or more regions comprising extensible material. In another embodiment, the sports glove is provided with an extensible fastener. In some embodiments, any portion of the glove, such as the fingers and/or the palm and back of the glove, may be provided in a pre-formed curved configuration. Bamber is for a breathable closure system for the back of a sports glove. It is not waterproof and contains no provision to make it waterproof. In contrast, the present invention includes vents in each finger, optionally on the back of the hand and the sidewalls of the glove in unison with a waterproof breathable liner.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,813,780 issued to Morrow teaches a protective sports glove for the game of lacrosse having a cuff portion, a hand portion, a plurality of finger portions, and a thumb portion. The hand portion has a palm portion and a back portion. The back portion has a plurality of protective padded portions disposed thereon. A wrist guard is elastically coupled to the hand portion. A plurality of vent openings are formed in the back portion of the hand portion. A plurality of mesh portions are disposed on the palm portion in areas that are not intended to provide primary contact with a stick. The Morrow glove is not waterproof and contains no waterproof breathable membrane.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,415,447 issued to Frazier teaches an article of clothing, such as a hand covering, and method of making the same which results in a leakproof and breathable article of clothing with good dexterity. The hand covering includes a body cavity for covering a palm and a dorsum of a hand and at least one seamed finger cavity, extending from the body cavity, for covering at least one finger. The finger cavity has a base adjacent the body cavity and a tip opposite the base. A seam extends between and includes the area of the base and the tip. A cut may be made in the hand covering so that a component of a tape sealing machine may be inserted therein to support the seam to be sealed. Once this seam is sealed, the cut is seamed and sealed. The hand covering may therefore be sealed using a single tape sealing machine to effectively seal all seams while minimizing manufacturing costs. Frazier thus teaches a construction method for tape sealing the seams of a glove to make it waterproof and breathable, unlike the focus of the present invention.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,122,769 issued to Wilder et al. teaches a glove for use in playing hockey provided with ventilation holes extending through the glove to allow air to circulate directly to the skin of the hand in the glove. Segmented foam pads of the glove have cutaway sides substantially conforming to the shape of the holes. Preferably, the glove includes a floating cuff at the wrist for free yet protected movement of the wrist. Also preferably, the thumb, fingers, and palm have additional layers for reinforcement and enhanced gripping of a hockey stick. Unlike the present invention, Wilder et al. relates to a hockey glove with air holes for breath ability. There is no provision for containing a waterproof breathable membrane as in the subject invention.

U.S. Patent No. 6,065,155 issued to Sandursky describes a glove which includes a glove body having first and second regions, the first region covering approximately the front half of the glove, the front half of all the fingers and all of the thumb region, the first region having a rubber-like softened PVC surface layer which is waterproof and otherwise having characteristics to improve the catching of a football. The second region, which comprises the rear half of the glove, except for the thumb, is made from a material which is stretchable and breathable. A tightening strap is provided at the lower end of the glove on the second region thereof. This patent is for a football glove with a waterproof palm and a breathable back along with specific construction requirements. The breathable portion is not waterproof and the waterproof proof portion is not breathable.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,542,125 issued to Zuckerwar teaches a glove which includes a body portion and interchangeable mitten and finger caps. The body portion, the mitten cap portion and the finger cap portion are provided with a sealing fastener which allows the body portion to be fitted with either the mitten cap or the finger cap based on the weather conditions and the user's need or desire for manual dexterity.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,718,556 issued to Zuckerwar teaches an improved article of hand-wear comprising a mitten or a glove having an additional finger or digital section of insulating material, corresponding to the finger section of the article of hand-wear. The article comprises: (a) an inner lining that is preferably moisture absorbent, into which the hand is inserted; (b) an insulating lining made of micro-fibers covering the inner lining; (c) a second insulating micro-fiber ““pouch”” or ““cap”” (hereinafter also ““macrocap””) over the integral fingers or digital section into which the first micro-fiber lining and inner lining is inserted; and (d) an outer cover covering all of the above.

U.S. Patent Publication No. 2006/0090242 issued to Zuckerwar teaches an article of apparel in the form of a hand-worn article, such as a mitten or glove. The hand-worn article has an inner lining into which the wearer's hand is inserted, an insulating layer covering the inner lining, and an outer cover covering all of the above. The insulating layer has varied insulation to provide multiple levels of insulation to the wearer's hand. The hand-worn article so formed is capable of providing enhanced comfort to the wearer's hand.

U.S. Patent Publication No. 2003/0167555 issued to Han teaches an inner cloth for a glove which is inserted between a lining material contacting with a user's skin and an outer skin exposed to the outside and includes a certain connection member for thereby being fixed together with a lining material and an outer skin based on a sewing operation, so that it is possible to implement good moisture penetration, anti-cold, and waterproof functions. The inner cloth for a glove includes a pair of hand-shaped panel members which include a certain size or area and an edge portion connected at a certain width, and a connection member which is arranged at a certain position of the pair of the panel members and is integrally formed when the panel members are connected, and is formed in a certain shape.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,583,248 issued to Edwards et al. teaches an insulated ski glove having an outer shell formed to surround the hand. A portion of the outer shell is fabricated from a material which is permeable to water vapor and impermeable to liquid water. The glove is lined with a material having low thermal conductivity, a portion of which is permeable to moisture. Thus, Edwards et al. teaches a ski glove where a portion of the outer shell is fabricated from a material which is permeable to water vapor and impermeable to liquid water. The outer shell of the subject invention is not impermeable to liquid water.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The subject invention includes a glove that provides superior release of water vapor while keeping the hand dry and warm. When an individual is active in cold weather the body increases blood flow to the body extremities to dissipate excess body heat. This makes the hand expel moisture along with the heat. This moisture is trapped in the glove if it is not allowed to pass out into the atmosphere. Once the activity level is reduced the body reduces blood flow back to the body's core to maintain body temperature. The reduced blood flow to the hands lowers the hand temperature.

If the hands remain dry they are able to maintain a comfortable temperature even with less blood supply. If the hands are wet the heat generated from the hand is easily transmitted to the atmosphere. An illustration of this same phenomenon would be the difference in how fast the body becomes chilled in 60 degree water compared to 60 degree air temperature.

The glove of the subject invention keeps hands dry by having a vent on at least one or more fingers. This allows all water vapor to be released from the outer shell of the glove. Several other gloves are produced with a single air vent on the back of the body of the glove. This vent is not adequate to release all of the water vapor produced by the hand during exercise. The vapor builds up in the fingers and condenses into moisture.

The vents of the subject invention are integrated in finger portions including the exterior edges of the glove and optionally on the back of each hand. The vents enhance moisture release on the palm side without interfering with the palm side functionality. The venting system works in conjunction with a waterproof breathable insert around the entire hand. This membrane allows water vapor to pass through while keeping moisture out. The combination of expelling all internally produced water vapor and stopping water from entering the insulation around the hand from outside the glove is a major benefit of the subject invention.

In prior art gloves, water vapor is trapped between the membrane and the outer shell and condenses into moisture. This trapped moisture chills the hands. The combination of a waterproof breathable membrane and placement of multiple strategic air vents of the subject invention is superior to other gloves with waterproof breathable membranes with or without a single air vent.

The present invention discloses a glove having a back side, two exterior edges, and a palm side and having finger, palm and wrist portions and comprising a non-waterproof exterior layer having an interior and being sized to fit a hand; a waterproof, air-permeable interior layer covering the entire interior of the exterior layer; and a plurality of vapor vents passing through the exterior layer and being located on the glove back side on at least some finger portions, optionally located on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion and located on two finger portions defining the two exterior edges of the glove wherein the location of the vapor vents keeps the palm portion of the palm side free of air vents to facilitate user palm bending.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The detailed description of the present invention is best understood with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a back view of the glove of the subject invention;

FIG. 2 is a palm view of the glove of the subject invention;

FIG. 3 is a second back view of the glove of the subject invention partially exposed to show the liquid waterproof, air (and water vapor) permeable layer underneath the non-elastic, non-waterproof exterior layer;

FIG. 4 is a left side view of the glove of the subject invention showing a vapor vent on a finger portion defining one exterior edge of the glove; and

FIG. 5 is a right side view of the glove of the subject invention showing a vapor vent on a finger portion defining the other exterior edge of the glove.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The subject invention pertains to articles of environmental protective covering worn on the hands and is contemplated to include by non-limiting example, gloves.

The subject invention has a non-waterproof exterior layer; a waterproof air (and water vapor) permeable interior layer covering the entire interior layer of the exterior layer; and a plurality of vapor vents in the exterior layer and in water vapor communication with the interior layer. The air vents are located on portions of the glove, such as at least the finger portions thereof, including the exterior edges of the glove to keep the palm of the glove free of the air vents to facilitate user palm bending while still providing water vapor venting.

Next referring to FIG. 1 through FIG. 5, the subject invention is described in detail. Glove 2 includes exterior layer 4 and interior layer 6 (see FIG. 3). Exterior layer 4 is a non-waterproof external shell that can be comprised of leather or a synthetic leather-like material or any other suitable material.

As best shown in FIG. 3, interior layer 6 is comprised of a waterproof, air (and water vapor) permeable material and preferably covers the entire interior of exterior layer 4 such that air and water vapor can pass from the hand of the glove-wearer during perspiration, through interior layer 6 and to exterior layer 4 where it is dissipated by vapor vents 20 described in further detail below. The waterproof aspect of interior layer 6 prevents liquid water passing through exterior layer 4 from reaching the wearer's hand. Interior layer 6, in a first embodiment, can be comprised of Hypora™ or a similar material. In this embodiment, interior layer 6 is a three layer liquid waterproof, air (water vapor)-permeable material having a first water prevention layer with pores therein too small to allow passage of liquid water there through (i.e. less than 0.5 mm in diameter), a second layer of a preferably honey-combed structure that provides porosity in the form of water permeability, and a third water resistance layer having a high density.

In a second embodiment, interior layer 6 can be comprised of any material or materials capable of achieving the desired air and water vapor permeability and liquid (i.e. water) impermeability. In the second embodiment, interior layer 6 may be formed from films, nonwoven webs, nonwovens coated with a film-forming material (e.g., an emulsion coated onto a meltblown web or a laminate comprising spunbond and meltblown webs), combinations thereof, and the like. For example, a film may be constructed with micropores therein to provide breathability. The micropores form what is often referred to as tortuous pathways through the film. Liquid contacting one side of the film does not have a direct passage through the film. Instead, a network of microporous channels in the film prevents liquids from passing, but allows gases and water vapor to pass. Another type of film that may be used is a nonporous, continuous film, which, because of its molecular structure and thickness, is capable of forming a vapor-pervious barrier. Among the various polymeric films that fall into this type include films made from a sufficient amount of polyester, nylon, poly(vinyl alcohol), polyvinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl alcohol, polyurethane, ethylene methyl acrylate, ethylene methyl acrylic acid, and other films that contain hydrophilic components to make them breathable. Without intending to be held to a particular mechanism of operation, it is believed that films made from such polymers have sufficient levels of water solubility to allow transportation of those molecules from one surface of the film to the other. Accordingly, these films may be sufficiently continuous, i.e., nonporous, to make them liquid-impermeable, but still allow for vapor permeability. These films may be single- or multi-layered, and may be formed by extrusion, solvent casting, and other known techniques. The post-formed may also be stretched to achieve the desired thickness dimension.

Next, the physical structure of glove 2 is described in detail to provide reference for the placement of vapor vents 20 there on. More specifically, glove 2 includes glove back side 8 and glove palm side 10. Glove 2 also includes glove finger portions 12, glove palm portion 16 (having optional flexible gripping areas 14 thereon) and glove wrist portion 18.

Vapor vents 20 provide transition of air and water vapor caused by perspiration of the hand of the wearer of glove 2 to the external environment through vapor vents 20 in exterior layer 4 after the perspiration has passed through interior layer 6 in a vapor state. Vapor vents 20 are preferably mesh in structure and are preferably comprised of a flexible organic polymer that allows movement of the user's hand within glove 2, such as, for example, nylon.

Vapor vents 20 are fixedly secured in exterior layer 4 and are in vapor communication with interior layer 6. Vapor vents 20 are located on portions of glove 2 other than glove palm portion 16 of palm side 10 of glove 2. Keeping glove palm portion 16 of palm side 10 of glove 2 free of vapor vents 20 is an important aspect of the present invention in order to facilitate bending of the palm of the hand of the wearer of glove 2 during use. In this regard, vapor vents 20 are preferably located on glove finger portions 12, and most preferably on each of glove finger portions 12. Vapor vents 20 can also be located on glove back side 8 adjacent wrist portion 18. Locating vapor vents 20 on the glove back side adjacent the wrist portion is an optional placement for the vapor vents and may or may not be used depending on the environmental conditions to which the glove is subjected. Additionally, as best shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, vapor vents 20 are located on the sides of each of the two finger portions 12 defining the two exterior edges, 22 in FIG. 4 and 24 in FIG. 5, of glove 2.

While there has been described what is presently believed to be the preferred embodiments of the invention, those skilled in the art will realize that various changes and modifications may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit of the invention and it is intended to claim all such changes and modifications within the scope of the invention.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8356366 *Apr 30, 2010Jan 22, 2013Adidas AgGlove having a flexible cuff with integral vent
US20100281599 *Apr 30, 2010Nov 11, 2010Henson Company, Inc.Glove having a flexible cuff with integral vent
US20110265243 *May 3, 2010Nov 3, 2011Jennifer KaplanTethering an Unused Glove or Mitten to a Wearer Method and Device
US20120131716 *Nov 30, 2010May 31, 2012Copeland Steve ASports glove with an elastically joined palm
US20140250564 *Mar 11, 2013Sep 11, 2014The North Face Apparel Corp.Waterproof Taped Glove and Mitten with Laminated Leather
WO2010008804A1 *Jun 22, 2009Jan 21, 2010180S, Inc.Adjustable hand covering
Classifications
U.S. Classification2/167, 2/159
International ClassificationA41D19/015, A41D19/00
Cooperative ClassificationA41D2400/20, A41D2400/22, A63B71/146, A63B71/143, A41D19/01529, A41D19/0006
European ClassificationA41D19/015D, A63B71/14G2, A63B71/14G6
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Apr 25, 2013ASAssignment
Owner name: TOTES ISOTONER CORPORATION, OHIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:THE GRANDOE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:030289/0837
Effective date: 20130328
Dec 15, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: GRANDOE CORPORATION, THE, NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FRIEDMAN, ERIC D.;REEL/FRAME:018692/0877
Effective date: 20061214