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Publication numberUS20080151030 A9
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/982,804
Publication dateJun 26, 2008
Filing dateNov 8, 2004
Priority dateJul 15, 1997
Also published asUS6948794, US6988784, US7221867, US7258418, US7404617, US7524018, US7551201, US7572000, US7604345, US7726771, US7753508, US7854504, US8328351, US20040119775, US20040119828, US20040119829, US20050062828, US20050104923, US20050110899, US20050162449, US20050179722, US20060023019, US20070195175, US20070200891, US20090046133, US20090195594, US20090201322, US20100002085, US20100271446, US20130182020
Publication number10982804, 982804, US 2008/0151030 A9, US 2008/151030 A9, US 20080151030 A9, US 20080151030A9, US 2008151030 A9, US 2008151030A9, US-A9-20080151030, US-A9-2008151030, US2008/0151030A9, US2008/151030A9, US20080151030 A9, US20080151030A9, US2008151030 A9, US2008151030A9
InventorsKia Silverbrook
Original AssigneeKia Silverbrook
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Platen for a print on demand digital device
US 20080151030 A9
A platen for a print on demand digital device, such as a digital camera, is provided. The platen includes a print media transport roller located on a first side of a planar member to support print media. A cutting mechanism is located on a second opposite side of the planar member to sever the print media. The cutting mechanism includes a cutting wheel mounted to a block threaded on a rotating threaded rod. A pawl extends from the block and is arranged to incrementally rotate a counter wheel with each cutting action.
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1. A platen for a print on demand digital device includes:
a planar member to support print media;
a print media transport roller located on a first side of the planar member to move the print media; and
a cutting mechanism located on a second opposite side of the planar member to sever the print media and arranged to increment a counter with each severing operation.
2. A platen according to claim 1, wherein the cutting mechanism includes a cutting edge and a cutting edge transport assembly disposed along the second side of the planar member.
3. A platen according to claim 2, wherein the cutting edge transport assembly comprises body, to which the cutting edge is fixed, driven by a threaded rod.
4. A platen according to claim 3, including a member driven by the threaded rod to engage an edge of the counter.
5. A platen according to claim 4, wherein the member comprises a pawl mounted upon the body and arranged to rotate the counter by engagement the edge of the counter.
6. A platen according to claim 1, further including a printhead capping mechanism.
7. A platen according to claim 6, wherein the printhead capping mechanism is fast with the planar member.
8. A platen according to claim 7, wherein the printhead capping mechanism includes biasing members arranged to bias a printhead capping member away from the platen.
9. A platen according to claim 8, wherein the printhead capping mechanism includes an electromagnetic assembly to selectively overcome the biasing members.
10. A platen according to claim 9, wherein the printhead capping mechanism includes an elongated sponge to blot the printhead.
11. A platen according to claim 9, wherein the electromagnetic assembly includes a coil that acts as a solenoid.

This is a Continuation application of U.S. Ser. No. 10/729,151 filed on Dec. 8, 2003.


The present invention relates substantially to the concept of a disposable camera having instant printing capabilities and in particular, discloses an image capture and processing device for a digital camera system.


Recently, the concept of a “single use” disposable camera has become an increasingly popular consumer item. Disposable camera systems presently on the market normally include an internal film roll and a simplified gearing mechanism for traversing the film roll across an imaging system including a shutter and lensing system. The user, after utilising a single film roll returns the camera system to a film development centre for processing. The film roll is taken out of the camera system and processed and the prints returned to the user. The camera system is then able to be re-manufactured through the insertion of a new film roll into the camera system, the replacement of any worn or wearable parts and the re-packaging of the camera system in accordance with requirements. In this way, the concept of a single use “disposable” camera is provided to the consumer.

Recently, a camera system has been proposed by the present applicant which provides for a handheld camera device having an internal print head, image sensor and processing means such that images sense by the image sensing means, are processed by the processing means and adapted to be instantly printed out by the printing means on demand. The proposed camera system further discloses a system of internal “print rolls” carrying print media such as film on to which images are to be printed in addition to ink to supplying the printing means for the printing process. The print roll is further disclosed to be detachable and replaceable within the camera system.

Unfortunately, such a system is likely to only be constructed at a substantial cost and it would be desirable to provide for a more inexpensive form of instant camera system which maintains a substantial number of the quality aspects of the aforementioned arrangement.

It would be further advantageous to provide for the effective interconnection of the sub components of a camera system.


In accordance with a first aspect of the invention, there is provided an image capture and processing device which comprises

    • an image sensor integrated circuit;
    • a plurality of analogue-to-digital converters (ADC's) that are connected to the image sensor integrated circuit to convert analogue signals generated by the image sensor integrated circuit into digital signals;
    • image processing circuitry that is connected to the ADC's to carry out image processing operations on the digital signals and
    • a print head interface that is connected to the image processing circuitry to receive data from the image processing circuitry and to format that data correctly for a printhead.

A memory device may be interposed between the image sensor integrated circuit and the image processing circuitry to store data relating to an image sensed by the image sensor integrated circuit.

The image sensor integrated circuit may define a CMOS active pixel sensor array. The image sensor integrated circuit may incorporate a plurality of analog signal processors that are configured to carry out enhancement processes on analog signals generated by the active pixel sensor array.

The image processing circuitry may include color interpolation circuitry to interpolate pixel data.

The image processing circuitry may include convolver circuitry that is configured to apply a convolution process to the image data.

The print head interface may be configured to format the data correctly for a pagewidth printhead.

The device may be a single integrated circuit.

The invention extends to a camera system that includes an image capture and processing device as described above.

In accordance with a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided in a camera system comprising: an image sensor device for sensing an image; a processing means for processing the sensed image; a print media supply means for the supply of print media to a print head; a print head for printing the sensed image on the print media stored internally to the camera system; a portable power supply interconnected to the print head, the sensor and the processing means; and a guillotine mechanism located between the print media supply means and the print head and adapted to cut the print media into sheets of a predetermined size.

Further, preferably, the guillotine mechanism is detachable from the camera system. The guillotine mechanism can be attached to the print media supply means and is detachable from the camera system with the print media supply means. The guillotine mechanism can be mounted on a platen unit below the print head.


Notwithstanding any other forms which may fall within the scope of the present invention, preferred forms of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. 1 illustrates a front perspective view of the assembled camera of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 2 illustrates a rear perspective view, partly exploded, of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of the chassis of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the chassis illustrating mounting of electric motors;

FIG. 5 is an exploded perspective of the ink supply mechanism of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 6 is rear perspective of the assembled form of the ink supply mechanism of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 7 is a front perspective view of the assembled form of the ink supply mechanism of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 8 is an exploded perspective view of the platen unit of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 9 is a perspective view of the assembled form of the platen unit;

FIG. 10 is also a perspective view of the assembled form of the platen unit;

FIG. 11 is an exploded perspective view of the printhead recapping mechanism of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 12 is a close up exploded perspective of the recapping mechanism of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 13 is an exploded perspective of the ink supply cartridge of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 14 is a close up perspective, view partly in section, of the internal portions of the ink supply cartridge in an assembled form;

FIG. 15 is a schematic block diagram of one form of integrated circuit layer of the image capture and processing integrated circuit of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 16 is an exploded view perspective illustrating the assembly process of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 17 illustrates a front exploded perspective view of the assembly process of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 18 illustrates a perspective view of the assembly process of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 19 illustrates a perspective view of the assembly process of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 20 is a perspective view illustrating the insertion of the platen unit in the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 21 illustrates the interconnection of the electrical components of the preferred embodiment;

FIG. 22 illustrates the process of assembling the preferred embodiment; and

FIG. 23 is a perspective view further illustrating the assembly process of the preferred embodiment.


Turning initially simultaneously to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2 there are illustrated perspective views of an assembled camera constructed in accordance with the preferred embodiment with FIG. 1 showing a front perspective view and FIG. 2 showing a rear perspective view. The camera 1 includes a paper or plastic film jacket 2 which can include simplified instructions 3 for the operation of the camera system 1. The camera system 1 includes a first “take” button 4 which is depressed to capture an image. The captured image is output via output slot 6. A further copy of the image can be obtained through depressing a second “printer copy” button 7 whilst an LED light 5 is illuminated. The camera system also provides the usual view finder 8 in addition to a CCD image capture/lensing system 9.

The camera system 1 provides for a standard number of output prints after which the camera system 1 ceases to function. A prints left indicator slot 10 is provided to indicate the number of remaining prints. A refund scheme at the point of purchase is assumed to be operational for the return of used camera systems for recycling.

Turning now to FIG. 3, the assembly of the camera system is based around an internal chassis 12 which can be a plastic injection molded part. A pair of paper pinch rollers 28, 29 utilized for decurling are snap fitted into corresponding frame holes eg. 26, 27.

As shown in FIG. 4, the chassis 12 includes a series of mutually opposed prongs eg. 13, 14 into which is snapped fitted a series of electric motors 16, 17. The electric motors 16, 17 can be entirely standard with the motor 16 being of a stepper motor type. The motor 16, 17 include cogs 19, 20 for driving a series of gear wheels. A first set of gear wheels is provided for controlling a paper cutter mechanism and a second set is provided for controlling print roll movement.

Turning next to FIGS. 5 to 7, there is illustrated an ink supply mechanism 40 utilized in the camera system. FIG. 5 illustrates a back exploded perspective view, FIG. 6 illustrates a back assembled view and FIG. 7 illustrates a front assembled view. The ink supply mechanism 40 is based around an ink supply cartridge 42 which contains printer ink and a print head mechanism for printing out pictures on demand. The ink supply cartridge 42 includes a side aluminium strip 43 which is provided as a shear strip to assist in cutting images from a paper roll.

A dial mechanism 44 is provided for indicating the number of “prints left”. The dial mechanism 44 is snap fitted through a corresponding mating portion 46 so as to be freely rotatable.

As shown in FIG. 6, the mechanism 40 includes a flexible PCB strip 47 which interconnects with the print head and provides for control of the print head. The interconnection between the Flex PCB strip and an image sensor and print head integrated circuit can be via Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) Strips 51, 58. A moulded aspherical lens and aperture shim 50 (FIG. 5) is also provided for imaging an image onto the surface of the image sensor integrated circuit normally located within cavity 53 and a light box module or hood 52 is provided for snap fitting over the cavity 53 so as to provide for proper light control. A series of decoupling capacitors eg. 34 can also be provided. Further a plug 45 (FIG. 7) is provided for re-plugging ink holes after refilling. A series of guide prongs eg. 55-57 are further provided for guiding the flexible PCB strip 47.

The ink supply mechanism 40 interacts with a platen unit 60 which guides print media under a printhead located in the ink supply mechanism. FIG. 8 shows an exploded view of the platen unit 60, while FIGS. 9 and 10 show assembled views of the platen unit. The platen unit 60 includes a first pinch roller 61 which is snap fitted to one side of a platen base 62. Attached to a second side of the platen base 62 is a cutting mechanism 63 which traverses the platen unit 60 by means of a rod 64 having a screw thread which is rotated by means of cogged wheel 65 which is also fitted to the platen base 62. The screw threaded rod 64 mounts a block 67 which includes a cutting wheel 68 fastened via a fastener 69. Also mounted to the block 67 is a counter actuator which includes a pawl 71. The pawl 71 acts to rotate the dial mechanism 44 of FIG. 6 upon the return traversal of the cutting wheel. As shown previously in FIG. 6, the dial mechanism 44 includes a cogged surface which interacts with pawl 71, thereby maintaining a count of the number of photographs by means of numbers embossed on the surface of dial mechanism 44. The cutting mechanism 63 is inserted into the platen base 62 by means of a snap fit via clips 74.

The platen unit 60 includes an internal recapping mechanism 80 for recapping the print head when not in use. The recapping mechanism 80 includes a sponge portion 81 and is operated via a solenoid coil so as to provide for recapping of the print head. In the preferred embodiment, there is provided an inexpensive form of printhead re-capping mechanism provided for incorporation into a handheld camera system so as to provide for printhead re-capping of an inkjet printhead.

FIG. 11 illustrates an exploded view of the recapping mechanism whilst FIG. 12 illustrates a close up of the end portion thereof. The re-capping mechanism 80 is structured around a solenoid including a 16 turn coil 75 which can comprise insulated wire. The coil 75 is turned around a first stationery solenoid arm 76 which is mounted on a bottom surface of the platen base 62 (FIG. 8) and includes a post portion 77 to magnify effectiveness of operation. The arm 76 can comprise a ferrous material.

A second moveable arm 78 of the solenoid actuator is also provided. The arm 78 is moveable and is also made of ferrous material. Mounted on the arm is a sponge portion surrounded by an elastomer strip 79. The elastomer strip 79 is of a generally arcuate cross-section and act as a leaf spring against the surface of the printhead ink supply cartridge 42 (FIG. 5) so as to provide for a seal against the surface of the printhead ink supply cartridge 42. In the quiescent position an elastomer spring unit 87, 88 acts to resiliently deform the elastomer seal 79 against the surface of the ink supply unit 42.

When it is desired to operate the printhead unit, upon the insertion of paper, the solenoid coil 75 is activated so as to cause the arm 78 to move down to be adjacent to the end plate 76. The arm 78 is held against end plate 76 while the printhead is printing by means of a small “keeper current” in coil 75. Simulation results indicate that the keeper current can be significantly less than the actuation current. Subsequently, after photo printing, the paper is guillotined by the cutting mechanism 63 of FIG. 8 acting against Aluminium Strip 43; and rewound so as to clear the area of the re-capping mechanism 80; Subsequently, the current is turned off and springs 87, 88 return the arm 78 so that the elastomer seal is again resting against the printhead ink supply cartridge.

It can be seen that the preferred embodiment provides for a simple and inexpensive means of re-capping a printhead through the utilisation of a solenoid type device having a long rectangular form. Further, the preferred embodiment utilises minimal power in that currents are only required whilst the device is operational and additionally, only a low keeper current is required whilst the printhead is printing.

Turning next to FIGS. 13 and 14, FIG. 13 illustrates an exploded perspective of the ink supply cartridge 42 whilst FIG. 14 illustrates a close up sectional view of a bottom of the ink supply cartridge with the printhead unit in place. The ink supply cartridge 42 is based around a pagewidth printhead 102 which comprises a long slither of silicon having a series of holes etched on the back surface for the supply of ink to a front surface of the silicon wafer for subsequent ejection via a micro electro mechanical system. The form of ejection can be many different forms such as those set out in the tables below.

Of course, many other inkjet technologies, as referred to the attached tables below, can also be utilised when constructing a printhead unit 102. The fundamental requirement of the ink supply cartridge 42 is the supply of ink to a series of colour channels etched through the back surface of the printhead 102. In the description of the preferred embodiment, it is assumed that a three colour printing process is to be utilised so as to provide full colour picture output. Hence, the print supply unit includes three ink supply reservoirs being a cyan reservoir 104, a magenta reservoir 105 and a yellow reservoir 106. Each of these reservoirs is required to store ink and includes a corresponding sponge type material 107-109 which assists in stabilising ink within the corresponding ink channel and inhibiting the ink from sloshing back and forth when the printhead is utilised in a handheld camera system. The reservoirs 104, 105, 106 are formed through the mating of first exterior plastic piece 110 and a second base piece 111.

At a first end 118 of the base piece 111 a series of air inlet 113-115 are provided. Each air inlet leads to a corresponding winding channel which is hydrophobically treated so as to act as an ink repellent and therefore repel any ink that may flow along the air inlet channel. The air inlet channel further takes a convoluted path assisting in resisting any ink flow out of the chambers 104-106. An adhesive tape portion 117 is provided for sealing the channels within end portion 118.

At the top end, there is included a series of refill holes (not shown) for refilling corresponding ink supply chambers 104, 105, 106. A plug 121 is provided for sealing the refill holes.

Turning now to FIG. 14, there is illustrated a close up perspective view, partly in section through the ink supply cartridge 42 of FIG. 13 when formed as a unit. The ink supply cartridge includes the three colour ink reservoirs 104, 105, 106 which supply ink to different portions of the back surface of printhead 102 which includes a series of apertures 128 defined therein for carriage of the ink to the front surface.

The ink supply cartridge 42 includes two guide walls 124, 125 which separate the various ink chambers and are tapered into an end portion abutting the surface of the printhead 102. The guide walls 124, 125 are further mechanically supported by block portions eg. 126 which are placed at regular intervals along the length of the ink supply unit. The block portions 126 leave space at portions close to the back of printhead 102 for the flow of ink around the back surface thereof.

The ink supply unit is preferably formed from a multi-part plastic injection mould and the mould pieces eg. 110, 111 (FIG. 13) snap together around the sponge pieces 107, 109. Subsequently, a syringe type device can be inserted in the ink refill holes and the ink reservoirs filled with ink with the air flowing out of the air outlets 113-115. Subsequently, the adhesive tape portion 117 and plug 121 are attached and the printhead tested for operation capabilities. Subsequently, the ink supply cartridge 42 can be readily removed for refilling by means of removing the ink supply cartridge, performing a washing cycle, and then utilising the holes for the insertion of a refill syringe filled with ink for refilling the ink chamber before returning the ink supply cartridge 42 to a camera.

Turning now to FIG. 15, there is shown an example layout of the Image Capture and Processing integrated circuit (ICP) 48.

The Image Capture and Processing integrated circuit 48 provides most of the electronic functionality of the camera with the exception of the print head integrated circuit. The integrated circuit 48 is a highly integrated system. It combines CMOS image sensing, analog to digital conversion, digital image processing, DRAM storage, ROM, and miscellaneous control functions in a single integrated circuit.

The integrated circuit is estimated to be around 32 mm2 using a leading edge 0.18 micron CMOS/DRAM/APS process. The integrated circuit size and cost can scale somewhat with Moore's law, but is dominated by a CMOS active pixel sensor array 201, so scaling is limited as the sensor pixels approach the diffraction limit.

The ICP 48 includes CMOS logic, a CMOS image sensor, DRAM, and analog circuitry. A very small amount of flash memory or other non-volatile memory is also preferably included for protection against reverse engineering.

Alternatively, the ICP can readily be divided into two integrated circuits: one for the CMOS imaging array, and the other for the remaining circuitry. The cost of this two integrated circuit solution should not be significantly different than the single integrated circuit ICP, as the extra cost of packaging and bond-pad area is somewhat cancelled by the reduced total wafer area requiring the color filter fabrication steps.

The ICP preferably contains the following functions:

1.5 megapixel image sensor
Analog Signal Processors
Image sensor column decoders
Image sensor row decoders
Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC)
Column ADC's
Auto exposure
12 Mbits of DRAM
DRAM Address Generator
Color interpolator
Color ALU
Halftone matrix ROM
Digital halftoning
Print head interface
8 bit CPU core
Program ROM
Flash memory
Scratchpad SRAM
Parallel interface (8 bit)
Motor drive transistors (5)
Clock PLL
JTAG test interface
Test circuits
Bond pads

The CPU, DRAM, Image sensor, ROM, Flash memory, Parallel interface, JTAG interface and ADC can be vendor supplied cores. The ICP is intended to run on 1.5V to minimize power consumption and allow convenient operation from two AA type battery cells.

FIG. 15 illustrates a layout of the ICP 48. The ICP 48 is dominated by the imaging array 201, which consumes around 80% of the integrated circuit area. The imaging array is a CMOS 4 transistor active pixel design with a resolution of 1,500×1,000. The array can be divided into the conventional configuration, with two green pixels, one red pixel, and one blue pixel in each pixel group. There are 750×500 pixel groups in the imaging array.

The latest advances in the field of image sensing and CMOS image sensing in particular can be found in the October, 1997 issue of IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices and, in particular, pages 1689 to 1968. Further, a specific implementation similar to that disclosed in the present application is disclosed in Wong et. al, “CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors Fabricated Using a 1.8V, 0.25 μm CMOS Technology”, IEDM 1996, page 915.

The imaging array uses a 4 transistor active pixel design of a standard configuration. To minimize integrated circuit area and therefore cost, the image sensor pixels should be as small as feasible with the technology available. With a four transistor cell, the typical pixel size scales as 20 times the lithographic feature size. This allows a minimum pixel area of around 3.6 μm×3.6 μm. However, the photosite must be substantially above the diffraction limit of the lens. It is also advantageous to have a square photosite, to maximize the margin over the diffraction limit in both horizontal and vertical directions. In this case, the photosite can be specified as 2.5 μm×2.5 μm. The photosite can be a photogate, pinned photodiode, charge modulation device, or other sensor.

The four transistors are packed as an ‘L’ shape, rather than a rectangular region, to allow both the pixel and the photosite to be square. This reduces the transistor packing density slightly, increasing pixel size. However, the advantage in avoiding the diffraction limit is greater than the small decrease in packing density.

The transistors also have a gate length which is longer than the minimum for the process technology. These have been increased from a drawn length of 0.18 micron to a drawn length of 0.36 micron. This is to improve the transistor matching by making the variations in gate length represent a smaller proportion of the total gate length.

The extra gate length, and the ‘L’ shaped packing, mean that the transistors use more area than the minimum for the technology. Normally, around 8 μm2 would be required for rectangular packing. Preferably, 9.75 μm2 has been allowed for the transistors.

The total area for each pixel is 16 μm2, resulting from a pixel size of 4 μm×4 μm. With a resolution of 1,500×1,000, the area of the imaging array 101 is 6,000 μm×4,000 μm, or 24 mm2.

The presence of a color image sensor on the integrated circuit affects the process required in two major ways:

    • The CMOS fabrication process should be optimized to minimize dark current Color filters are required. These can be fabricated using dyed photosensitive polyimides, resulting in an added process complexity of three spin coatings, three photolithographic steps, three development steps, and three hardbakes.

There are 15,000 analog signal processors (ASPs) 205, one for each of the columns of the sensor. The ASPs amplify the signal, provide a dark current reference, sample and hold the signal, and suppress the fixed pattern noise (FPN).

There are 375 analog to digital converters 206, one for each four columns of the sensor array. These may be delta-sigma or successive approximation type ADC's. A row of low column ADC's are used to reduce the conversion speed required, and the amount of analog signal degradation incurred before the signal is converted to digital. This also eliminates the hot spot (affecting local dark current) and the substrate coupled noise that would occur if a single high speed ADC was used. Each ADC also has two four bit DAC's which trim the offset and scale of the ADC to further reduce FPN variations between columns. These DAC's are controlled by data stored in flash memory during integrated circuit testing.

The column select logic 204 is a 1:1500 decoder which enables the appropriate digital output of the ADCs onto the output bus. As each ADC is shared by four columns, the least significant two bits of the row select control 4 input analog multiplexors.

A row decoder 207 is a 1:1000 decoder which enables the appropriate row of the active pixel sensor array. This selects which of the 1000 rows of the imaging array is connected to analog signal processors. As the rows are always accessed in sequence, the row select logic can be implemented as a shift register.

An auto exposure system 208 adjusts the reference voltage of the ADC 205 in response to the maximum intensity sensed during the previous frame period. Data from the green pixels is passed through a digital peak detector. The peak value of the image frame period before capture (the reference frame) is provided to a digital to analogue converter (DAC), which generates the global reference voltage for the column ADCs. The peak detector is reset at the beginning of the reference frame. The minimum and maximum values of the three RGB color components are also collected for color correction.

The second largest section of the integrated circuit is consumed by a DRAM 210 used to hold the image. To store the 1,500×1,000 image from the sensor without compression, 1.5 Mbytes of DRAM 210 are required. This equals 12 Mbits, or slightly less than 5% of a 256 Mbit DRAM. The DRAM technology assumed is of the 256 Mbit generation implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS.

Using a standard 8F cell, the area taken by the memory array is 3.11 mm2. When row decoders, column sensors, redundancy, and other factors are taken into account, the DRAM requires around 4 mm2.

This DRAM 210 can be mostly eliminated if analog storage of the image signal can be accurately maintained in the CMOS imaging array for the two seconds required to print the photo. However, digital storage of the image is preferable as it is maintained without degradation, is insensitive to noise, and allows copies of the photo to be printed considerably later.

A DRAM address generator 211 provides the write and read addresses to the DRAM 210. Under normal operation, the write address is determined by the order of the data read from the CMOS image sensor 201. This will typically be a simple raster format. However, the data can be read from the sensor 201 in any order, if matching write addresses to the DRAM are generated. The read order from the DRAM 210 will normally simply match the requirements of a color interpolator and the print head. As the cyan, magenta, and yellow rows of the print head are necessarily offset by a few pixels to allow space for nozzle actuators, the colors are not read from the DRAM simultaneously. However, there is plenty of time to read all of the data from the DRAM many times during the printing process. This capability is used to eliminate the need for FIFOs in the print head interface, thereby saving integrated circuit area. All three RGB image components can be read from the DRAM each time color data is required. This allows a color space converter to provide a more sophisticated conversion than a simple linear RGB to CMY conversion.

Also, to allow two dimensional filtering of the image data without requiring line buffers, data is re-read from the DRAM array.

The address generator may also implement image effects in certain models of camera. For example, passport photos are generated by a manipulation of the read addresses to the DRAM. Also, image framing effects (where the central image is reduced), image warps, and kaleidoscopic effects can all be generated by manipulating the read addresses of the DRAM.

While the address generator 211 may be implemented with substantial complexity if effects are built into the standard integrated circuit, the integrated circuit area required for the address generator is small, as it consists only of address counters and a moderate amount of random logic.

A color interpolator 214 converts the interleaved pattern of red, 2× green, and blue pixels into RGB pixels. It consists of three 8 bit adders and associated registers. The divisions are by either 2 (for green) or 4 (for red and blue) so they can be implemented as fixed shifts in the output connections of the adders.

A convolver 215 is provided as a sharpening filter which applies a small convolution kernel (5×5) to the red, green, and blue planes of the image. The convolution kernel for the green plane is different from that of the red and blue planes, as green has twice as many samples. The sharpening filter has five functions:

    • To improve the color interpolation from the linear interpolation provided by the color interpolator, to a close approximation of a sinc interpolation.
    • To compensate for the image ‘softening’ which occurs during digitization.
    • To adjust the image sharpness to match average consumer preferences, which are typically for the image to be slightly sharper than reality. As the single use camera is intended as a consumer product, and not a professional photographic products, the processing can match the most popular settings, rather than the most accurate.
    • To suppress the sharpening of high frequency (individual pixel) noise. The function is similar to the ‘unsharp mask’ process.
    • To antialias Image Warping.

These functions are all combined into a single convolution matrix. As the pixel rate is low (less than 1 Mpixel per second) the total number of multiplies required for the three color channels is 56 million multiplies per second. This can be provided by a single multiplier. Fifty bytes of coefficient ROM are also required.

A color ALU 113 combines the functions of color compensation and color space conversion into the one matrix multiplication, which is applied to every pixel of the frame. As with sharpening, the color correction should match the most popular settings, rather than the most accurate.

A color compensation circuit of the color ALU provides compensation for the lighting of the photo. The vast majority of photographs are substantially improved by a simple color compensation, which independently normalizes the contrast and brightness of the three color components.

A color look-up table (CLUT) 212 is provided for each color component. These are three separate 256×8 SRAMs, requiring a total of 6,144 bits. The CLUTs are used as part of the color correction process. They are also used for color special effects, such as stochastically selected “wild color” effects.

A color space conversion system of the color ALU converts from the RGB color space of the image sensor to the CMY color space of the printer. The simplest conversion is a 1's complement of the RGB data. However, this simple conversion assumes perfect linearity of both color spaces, and perfect dye spectra for both the color filters of the image sensor, and the ink dyes. At the other extreme is a tri-linear interpolation of a sampled three dimensional arbitrary transform table. This can effectively match any non-linearity or differences in either color space. Such a system is usually necessary to obtain good color space conversion when the print engine is a color electrophotographic.

However, since the non-linearity of a halftoned ink jet output is very small, a simpler system can be used. A simple matrix multiply can provide excellent results. This requires nine multiplies and six additions per contone pixel. However, since the contone pixel rate is low (less than 1 Mpixel/sec) these operations can share a single multiplier and adder. The multiplier and adder are used in a color ALU which is shared with the color compensation function.

Digital halftoning can be performed as a dispersed dot ordered dither using a stochastic optimized dither cell. A halftone matrix ROM 216 is provided for storing dither cell coefficients. A dither cell size of 32×32 is adequate to ensure that the cell repeat cycle is not visible. The three colors—cyan, magenta, and yellow—are all dithered using the same cell, to ensure maximum co-positioning of the ink dots. This minimizes ‘muddying’ of the mid-tones which results from bleed of dyes from one dot to adjacent dots while still wet. The total ROM size required is 1 KByte, as the one ROM is shared by the halftoning units for each of the three colors.

The digital halftoning used is dispersed dot ordered dither with stochastic optimized dither matrix. While dithering does not produce an image quite as ‘sharp’ as error diffusion, it does produce a more accurate image with fewer artifacts. The image sharpening produced by error diffusion is artificial, and less controllable and accurate than ‘unsharp mask’ filtering performed in the contone domain. The high print resolution (1,600 dpi×1,600 dpi) results in excellent quality when using a well formed stochastic dither matrix.

Digital halftoning is performed by a digital halftoning unit 217 using a simple comparison between the contone information from the DRAM 210 and the contents of the dither matrix 216. During the halftone process, the resolution of the image is changed from the 250 dpi of the captured contone image to the 1,600 dpi of the printed image. Each contone pixel is converted to an average of 40.96 halftone dots.

The ICP incorporates a 16 bit microcontroller CPU core 219 to run the miscellaneous camera functions, such as reading the buttons, controlling the motor and solenoids, setting up the hardware, and authenticating the refill station. The processing power required by the CPU is very modest, and a wide variety of processor cores can be used. As the entire CPU program is run from a small ROM 220, program compatibility between camera versions is not important, as no external programs are run. A 2 Mbit (256 Kbyte) program and data ROM 220 is included on integrated circuit. Most of this ROM space is allocated to data for outline graphics and fonts for specialty cameras. The program requirements are minor. The single most complex task is the encrypted authentication of the refill station. The ROM requires a single transistor per bit.

A Flash memory 221 may be used to store a 128 bit authentication code. This provides higher security than storage of the authentication code in ROM, as reverse engineering can be made essentially impossible. The Flash memory is completely covered by third level metal, making the data impossible to extract using scanning probe microscopes or electron beams. The authentication code is stored in the integrated circuit when manufactured. At least two other Flash bits are required for the authentication process: a bit which locks out reprogramming of the authentication code, and a bit which indicates that the camera has been refilled by an authenticated refill station. The flash memory can also be used to store FPN correction data for the imaging array. Additionally, a phase locked loop rescaling parameter is stored for scaling the clocking cycle to an appropriate correct time. The clock frequency does not require crystal accuracy since no date functions are provided. To eliminate the cost of a crystal, an on integrated circuit oscillator with a phase locked loop 224 is used. As the frequency of an on-integrated circuit oscillator is highly variable from integrated circuit to integrated circuit, the frequency ratio of the oscillator to the PLL is digitally trimmed during initial testing. The value is stored in Flash memory 221. This allows the clock PLL to control the ink-jet heater pulse width with sufficient accuracy.

A scratchpad SRAM is a small static RAM 222 with a 6T cell. The scratchpad provided temporary memory for the 16 bit CPU. 1024 bytes is adequate.

A print head interface 223 formats the data correctly for the print head. The print head interface also provides all of the timing signals required by the print head. These timing signals may vary depending upon temperature, the number of dots printed simultaneously, the print medium in the print roll, and the dye density of the ink in the print roll.

The following is a table of external connections to the print head interface:

Connection Function Pins
DataBits[0-7] Independent serial data to the eight 8
segments of the print head
BitClock Main data clock for the print head 1
ColorEnable[0-2] Independent enable signals for the 3
CMY actuators, allowing different
pulse times for each color.
BankEnable[0-1] Allows either simultaneous or 2
interleaved actuation of two banks
of nozzles. This allows two different
print speed/power consumption tradeoffs
NozzleSelect[0-4] Selects one of 32 banks of nozzles 5
for simultaneous actuation
ParallelXferClock Loads the parallel transfer register 1
with the data from the shift registers
Total 20

The print head utilized is composed of eight identical segments, each 1.25 cm long. There is no connection between the segments on the print head integrated circuit. Any connections required are made in the external TAB bonding film, which is double sided. The division into eight identical segments is to simplify lithography using wafer steppers. The segment width of 1.25 cm fits easily into a stepper field. As the print head integrated circuit is long and narrow (10 cm×0.3 mm), the stepper field contains a single segment of 32 print head integrated circuits. The stepper field is therefore 1.25 cm×1.6 cm. An average of four complete print heads are patterned in each wafer step.

A single BitClock output line connects to all 8 segments on the print head. The 8 DataBits lines lead one to each segment, and are clocked into the 8 segments on the print head simultaneously (on a BitClock pulse). For example, dot 0 is transferred to segment0, dot 750 is transferred to segment1, dot 1500 to segment2 etc simultaneously.

The ParallelXferClock is connected to each of the 8 segments on the print head, so that on a single pulse, all segments transfer their bits at the same time.

The NozzleSelect, BankEnable and ColorEnable lines are connected to each of the 8 segments, allowing the print head interface to independently control the duration of the cyan, magenta, and yellow nozzle energizing pulses. Registers in the Print Head Interface allow the accurate specification of the pulse duration between 0 and 6 ms, with a typical duration of 2 ms to 3 ms.

A parallel interface 125 connects the ICP to individual static electrical signals. The CPU is able to control each of these connections as memory mapped I/O via a low speed bus.

The following is a table of connections to the parallel interface:

Connection Direction Pins
Paper transport stepper motor Output 4
Capping solenoid Output 1
Copy LED Output 1
Photo button Input 1
Copy button Input 1
Total 8

Seven high current drive transistors eg. 227 are required. Four are for the four phases of the main stepper motor, two are for the guillotine motor, and the remaining transistor is to drive the capping solenoid. These transistors are allocated 20,000 square microns (600,000 F) each. As the transistors are driving highly inductive loads, they must either be turned off slowly, or be provided with a high level of back EMF protection. If adequate back EMF protection cannot be provided using the integrated circuit process chosen, then external discrete transistors should be used. The transistors are never driven at the same time as the image sensor is used. This is to avoid voltage fluctuations and hot spots affecting the image quality. Further, the transistors are located as far away from the sensor as possible.

A standard JTAG (Joint Test Action Group) interface 228 is included in the ICP for testing purposes and for interrogation by the refill station. Due to the complexity of the integrated circuit, a variety of testing techniques are required, including BIST (Built In Self Test) and functional block isolation. An overhead of 10% in integrated circuit area is assumed for integrated circuit testing circuitry for the random logic portions. The overhead for the large arrays the image sensor and the DRAM is smaller.

The JTAG interface is also used for authentication of the refill station. This is included to ensure that the cameras are only refilled with quality paper and ink at a properly constructed refill station, thus preventing inferior quality refills from occurring. The camera must authenticate the refill station, rather than vice versa. The secure protocol is communicated to the refill station during the automated test procedure. Contact is made to four gold plated spots on the ICP/print head TAB by the refill station as the new ink is injected into the print head.

FIG. 16 illustrates a rear view of the next step in the construction process whilst FIG. 17 illustrates a front view.

Turning now to FIG. 16, the assembly of the camera system proceeds via first assembling the ink supply mechanism 40. The flex PCB is interconnected with batteries 84 only one of which is shown, which are inserted in the middle portion of a print roll 85 which is wrapped around a plastic former 86. An end cap 89 is provided at the other end of the print roll 85 so as to fasten the print roll and batteries firmly to the ink supply mechanism.

The solenoid coil is interconnected (not shown) to interconnects 97, 98 (FIG. 8) which include leaf spring ends for interconnection with electrical contacts on the Flex PCB so as to provide for electrical control of the solenoid.

Turning now to FIGS. 17-19 the next step in the construction process is the insertion of the relevant gear trains into the side of the camera chassis. FIG. 17 illustrates a front view, FIG. 18 illustrates a rear view and FIG. 19 also illustrates a rear view. The first gear train comprising gear wheels 22, 23 is utilised for driving the guillotine blade with the gear wheel 23 engaging the gear wheel 65 of FIG. 8. The second gear train comprising gear wheels 24, 25 and 26 engage one end of the print roller 61 of FIG. 8. As best indicated in FIG. 18, the gear wheels mate with corresponding pins on the surface of the chassis with the gear wheel 26 being snap fitted into corresponding mating hole 27.

Next, as illustrated in FIG. 20, the assembled platen unit 60 is then inserted between the print roll 85 and aluminium cutting blade 43.

Turning now to FIG. 21, by way of illumination, there is illustrated the electrically interactive components of the camera system. As noted previously, the components are based around a Flex PCB board and include a TAB film 58 which interconnects the printhead 102 with the image sensor and processing integrated circuit 48. Power is supplied by two AA type batteries 83, 84 and a paper drive stepper motor 16 is provided in addition to a rotary guillotine motor 17.

An optical element 31 is provided for snapping into a top portion of the chassis 12. The optical element 31 includes portions defining an optical view finder 32, 33 which are slotted into mating portions 35, 36 in view finder channel 37. Also provided in the optical element 31 is a lensing system 38 for magnification of the prints left number in addition to an optical pipe element 39 for piping light from the LED 5 for external display.

Turning next to FIG. 22, the assembled unit 90 is then inserted into a front outer case 91 which includes button 4 for activation of printouts.

Turning now to FIG. 23, next, the unit 90 is provided with a snap-on back cover 93 which includes a slot 6 and copy print button 7. A wrapper label containing instructions and advertising (not shown) is then wrapped around the outer surface of the camera system and pinch clamped to the cover by means of clamp strip 96 which can comprise a flexible plastic or rubber strip.

Subsequently, the preferred embodiment is ready for use as a one time use camera system that provides for instant output images on demand. It will be evident that the preferred embodiment further provides for a refillable camera system. A used camera can be collected and its outer plastic cases removed and recycled. A new paper roll and batteries can be added and the ink cartridge refilled. A series of automatic test routines can then be carried out to ensure that the printer is properly operational. Further, in order to ensure only authorised refills are conducted so as to enhance quality, routines in the on-integrated circuit program ROM can be executed such that the camera authenticates the refilling station using a secure protocol. Upon authentication, the camera can reset an internal paper count and an external case can be fitted on the camera system with a new outer label. Subsequent packing and shipping can then take place.

It will be further readily evident to those skilled in the art that the program ROM can be modified so as to allow for a variety of digital processing routines. In addition to the digitally enhanced photographs optimised for mainstream consumer preferences, various other models can readily be provided through mere re-programming of the program ROM. For example, a sepia classic old fashion style output can be provided through a remapping of the colour mapping function. A further alternative is to provide for black and white outputs again through a suitable colour remapping algorithm. Minimum colour can also be provided to add a touch of colour to black and white prints to produce the effect that was traditionally used to colourize black and white photos. Further, passport photo output can be provided through suitable address remappings within the address generators. Further, edge filters can be utilised as is known in the field of image processing to produce sketched art styles. Further, classic wedding borders and designs can be placed around an output image in addition to the provision of relevant clip arts. For example, a wedding style camera might be provided. Further, a panoramic mode can be provided so as to output the well known panoramic format of images. Further, a postcard style output can be provided through the printing of postcards including postage on the back of a print roll surface. Further, cliparts can be provided for special events such as Halloween, Christmas etc. Further, kaleidoscopic effects can be provided through address remappings and wild colour effects can be provided through remapping of the colour lookup table. Many other forms of special event cameras can be provided for example, cameras dedicated to the Olympics, movie tie-ins, advertising and other special events.

The operational mode of the camera can be programmed so that upon the depressing of the take photo a first image is sampled by the sensor array to determine irrelevant parameters. Next a second image is again captured which is utilised for the output. The captured image is then manipulated in accordance with any special requirements before being initially output on the paper roll. The LED light is then activated for a predetermined time during which the DRAM is refreshed so as to retain the image. If the print copy button is depressed during this predetermined time interval, a further copy of the photo is output. After the predetermined time interval where no use of the camera has occurred, the onboard CPU shuts down all power to the camera system until such time as the take button is again activated. In this way, substantial power savings can be realized.

Ink Jet Technologies

The embodiments of the invention use an ink jet printer type device. Of course many different devices could be used. However presently popular ink jet printing technologies are unlikely to be suitable.

The most significant problem with thermal inkjet is power consumption. This is approximately 100 times that required for high speed, and stems from the energy-inefficient means of drop ejection. This involves the rapid boiling of water to produce a vapor bubble which expels the ink. Water has a very high heat capacity, and must be superheated in thermal inkjet applications. This leads to an efficiency of around 0.02%, from electricity input to drop momentum (and increased surface area) out.

The most significant problem with piezoelectric inkjet is size and cost. Piezoelectric crystals have a very small deflection at reasonable drive voltages, and therefore require a large area for each nozzle. Also, each piezoelectric actuator must be connected to its drive circuit on a separate substrate. This is not a significant problem at the current limit of around 300 nozzles per print head, but is a major impediment to the fabrication of pagewide print heads with 19,200 nozzles.

Ideally, the inkjet technologies used meet the stringent requirements of in-camera digital color printing and other high quality, high speed, low cost printing applications. To meet the requirements of digital photography, new inkjet technologies have been created. The target features include:

    • low power (less than 10 Watts)
    • high resolution capability (1,600 dpi or more)
    • photographic quality output
    • low manufacturing cost
    • small size (pagewidth times minimum cross section)
    • high speed (<2 seconds per page).

All of these features can be met or exceeded by the inkjet systems described below with differing levels of difficulty. 45 different inkjet technologies have been developed by the Assignee to give a wide range of choices for high volume manufacture. These technologies form part of separate applications assigned to the present Assignee as set out in the table below.

The inkjet designs shown here are suitable for a wide range of digital printing systems, from battery powered one-time use digital cameras, through to desktop and network printers, and through to commercial printing systems.

For ease of manufacture using standard process equipment, the print head is designed to be a monolithic 0.5 micron CMOS integrated circuit with MEMS post processing. For color photographic applications, the print head is 100 mm long, with a width which depends upon the inkjet type. The smallest print head designed is IJ38, which is 0.35 mm wide, giving a integrated circuit area of 35 square mm. The print heads each contain 19,200 nozzles plus data and control circuitry.

Ink is supplied to the back of the print head by injection molded plastic ink channels. The molding requires 50 micron features, which can be created using a lithographically micromachined insert in a standard injection molding tool. Ink flows through holes etched through the wafer to the nozzle chambers fabricated on the front surface of the wafer. The print head is connected to the camera circuitry by tape automated bonding.

Cross-Referenced Applications

The following table is a guide to cross-referenced patent applications filed concurrently herewith and discussed hereinafter with the reference being utilized in subsequent tables when referring to a particular case:

No. Reference Title
IJ01US IJ01 Radiant Plunger Ink Jet Printer
IJ02US IJ02 Electrostatic Ink Jet Printer
IJ03US IJ03 Planar Thermoelastic Bend Actuator Ink Jet
IJ04US IJ04 Stacked Electrostatic Ink Jet Printer
IJ05US IJ05 Reverse Spring Lever Ink Jet Printer
IJ06US IJ06 Paddle Type Ink Jet Printer
IJ07US IJ07 Permanent Magnet Electromagnetic Ink
Jet Printer
IJ08US IJ08 Planar Swing Grill Electromagnetic Ink
Jet Printer
IJ09US IJ09 Pump Action Refill Ink Jet Printer
IJ10US IJ10 Pulsed Magnetic Field Ink Jet Printer
IJ11US IJ11 Two Plate Reverse Firing Electromagnetic
Ink Jet Printer
IJ12US IJ12 Linear Stepper Actuator Ink Jet Printer
IJ13US IJ13 Gear Driven Shutter Ink Jet Printer
IJ14US IJ14 Tapered Magnetic Pole Electromagnetic Ink
Jet Printer
IJ15US IJ15 Linear Spring Electromagnetic Grill Ink
Jet Printer
IJ16US IJ16 Lorenz Diaphragm Electromagnetic Ink
Jet Printer
IJ17US IJ17 PTFE Surface Shooting Shuttered Oscillating
Pressure Ink Jet Printer
IJ18US IJ18 Buckle Grip Oscillating Pressure Ink
Jet Printer
IJ19US IJ19 Shutter Based Ink Jet Printer
IJ20US IJ20 Curling Calyx Thermoelastic Ink Jet Printer
IJ21US IJ21 Thermal Actuated Ink Jet Printer
IJ22US IJ22 Iris Motion Ink Jet Printer
IJ23US IJ23 Direct Firing Thermal Bend Actuator Ink
Jet Printer
IJ24US IJ24 Conductive PTFE Ben Activator Vented Ink
Jet Printer
IJ25US IJ25 Magnetostrictive Ink Jet Printer
IJ26US IJ26 Shape Memory Alloy Ink Jet Printer
IJ27US IJ27 Buckle Plate Ink Jet Printer
IJ28US IJ28 Thermal Elastic Rotary Impeller Ink Jet Printer
IJ29US IJ29 Thermoelastic Bend Actuator Ink Jet Printer
IJ30US IJ30 Thermoelastic Bend Actuator Using PTFE
and Corrugated Copper Ink Jet Printer
IJ31US IJ31 Bend Actuator Direct Ink Supply Ink
Jet Printer
IJ32US IJ32 A High Young's Modulus Thermoelastic Ink
Jet Printer
IJ33US IJ33 Thermally actuated slotted chamber wall ink
jet printer
IJ34US IJ34 Ink Jet Printer having a thermal actuator
comprising an external coiled spring
IJ35US IJ35 Trough Container Ink Jet Printer
IJ36US IJ36 Dual Chamber Single Vertical Actuator Ink Jet
IJ37US IJ37 Dual Nozzle Single Horizontal Fulcrum
Actuator Ink Jet
IJ38US IJ38 Dual Nozzle Single Horizontal Actuator Ink Jet
IJ39US IJ39 A single bend actuator cupped paddle ink
jet printing device
IJ40US IJ40 A thermally actuated ink jet printer having
a series of thermal actuator units
IJ41US IJ41 A thermally actuated ink jet printer
including a tapered heater element
IJ42US IJ42 Radial Back-Curling Thermoelastic Ink Jet
IJ43US IJ43 Inverted Radial Back-Curling Thermoelastic
Ink Jet
IJ44US IJ44 Surface bend actuator vented ink supply ink
jet printer
IJ45US IJ45 Coil Acutuated Magnetic Plate Ink Jet Printer

Tables of Drop-on-Demand Inkjets

Eleven important characteristics of the fundamental operation of individual ink-jet nozzles have been identified. These characteristics are largely orthogonal, and so can be elucidated as an eleven dimensional matrix. Most of the eleven axes of this matrix include entries developed by the present assignee.

The following tables form the axes of an eleven dimensional table of inkjet types.

  • Actuator mechanism (18 types)
  • Basic operation mode (7 types)
  • Auxiliary mechanism (8 types)
  • Actuator amplification or modification method (17 types)
  • Actuator motion (19 types)
  • Nozzle refill method (4 types)
  • Method of restricting back-flow through inlet (10 types)
  • Nozzle clearing method (9 types)
  • Nozzle plate construction (9 types)
  • Drop ejection direction (5 types)
  • Ink type (7 types)

The complete eleven dimensional table represented by these axes contains 36.9 billion possible configurations of inkjet nozzle. While not all of the possible combinations result in a viable inkjet technology, many million configurations are viable. It is clearly impractical to elucidate all of the possible configurations. Instead, certain inkjet types have been investigated in detail. These are designated IJ01 to IJ45 above.

Other inkjet configurations can readily be derived from these 45 examples by substituting alternative configurations along one or more of the 11 axes. Most of the IJ01 to IJ45 examples can be made into inkjet print heads with characteristics superior to any currently available inkjet technology.

Where there are prior art examples known to the inventor, one or more of these examples are listed in the examples column of the tables below. The IJ01 to IJ45 series are also listed in the examples column. In some cases, a printer may be listed more than once in a table, where it shares characteristics with more than one entry.

Suitable applications include: Home printers, Office network printers, Short run digital printers, Commercial print systems, Fabric printers, Pocket printers, Internet WWW printers, Video printers, Medical imaging, Wide format printers, Notebook PC printers, Fax machines, Industrial printing systems, Photocopiers, Photographic minilabs etc.

The information associated with the aforementioned 11 dimensional matrix are set out in the following tables.

Actuator Mechanism (Applied Only to Selected Ink Drops)

Mechanism Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Thermal An electrothermal heater Large force generated High power Canon Bubblejet 1979
bubble heats the ink to above Simple construction Ink carrier Endo et al GB patent
boiling point, No moving parts limited to water 2,007,162
transferring significant Fast operation Low efficiency Xerox heater-in-pit
heat to the aqueous Small integrated High temperatures 1990 Hawkins et al
ink. A bubble nucleates circuit area required U.S. Pat. No. 4,899,181
and quickly forms, required for actuator High mechanical Hewlett-Packard TIJ
expelling the ink. stress 1982 Vaught et al
The efficiency of the Unusual U.S. Pat. No. 4,490,728
process is low, with materials required
typically less than 0.05% Large drive
of the electrical energy transistors
being transformed into Cavitation causes
kinetic energy of the drop. actuator failure
Kogation reduces
bubble formation
Large print heads
are difficult to
Piezo- A piezoelectric crystal Low power Very large area Kyser et al
electric such as lead consumption required for actuator U.S. Pat. No. 3,946,398
lanthanum zirconate Many ink types Difficult to Zoltan U.S. Pat.
(PZT) is electrically can be used integrate with No. 3,683,212
activated, and either Fast operation electronics 1973 Stemme
expands, shears, or High efficiency High voltage U.S. Pat. No. 3,747,120
bends to apply drive transistors Epson Stylus Tektronix
pressure to the ink, required IJ04
ejecting drops. Full pagewidth
print heads
impractical due to
actuator size
electrical poling in
high field strengths
during manufacture
Electro- An electric field is Low power Low maximum Seiko Epson, Usui et
strictive used to activate consumption strain (approx. all JP 253401/96
electrostriction in Many ink types 0.01%) IJ04
relaxor materials such can be used Large area
as lead lanthanum Low thermal required for actuator
zirconate titanate expansion due to low strain
(PLZT) or lead Electric field Response speed
magnesium niobate strength required is marginal (˜10
(PMN). (approx. 3.5 μs)
V/μm) High voltage
can be generated drive transistors
without difficulty required
Does not require Full pagewidth
electrical poling print heads
impractical due to
actuator size
Ferro- An electric field is Low power Difficult to IJ04
electric used to induce a phase consumption integrate with
transition between the Many ink types electronics
antiferroelectric (AFE) can be used Unusual
and ferroelectric (FE) Fast operation materials such as
phase. Perovskite (<1 μs) PLZSnT are
materials such as tin Relatively high required
modified lead longitudinal strain Actuators require
lanthanum zirconate High efficiency a large area
titanate (PLZSnT) Electric field
exhibit large strains of strength of around 3
up to 1% associated V/μm can be
with the AFE to FE readily provided
phase transition.
Electro- Conductive plates are Low power Difficult to IJ02, IJ04
static plates separated by a consumption operate electrostatic
compressible or fluid Many ink types devices in an
dielectric (usually air). can be used aqueous
Upon application of a Fast operation environment
voltage, the plates The electrostatic
attract each other and actuator will
displace ink, causing normally need to be
drop ejection. The separated from the
conductive plates may ink
be in a comb or Very large area
honeycomb structure, required to achieve
or stacked to increase high forces
the surface area and High voltage
therefore the force. drive transistors
may be required
Full pagewidth
print heads are not
competitive due to
actuator size
Electro- A strong electric field Low current High voltage 1989 Saito et al,
static pull is applied to the ink, consumption required U.S. Pat. No. 4,799,068
on ink whereupon Low temperature May be damaged 1989 Miura et al,
electrostatic attraction by sparks due to air U.S. Pat. No. 4,810,954
accelerates the ink breakdown Tone-jet
towards the print Required field
medium. strength increases as
the drop size
High voltage
drive transistors
Electrostatic field
attracts dust
Permanent An electromagnet Low power Complex IJ07, IJ10
magnet directly attracts a consumption fabrication
electro- permanent magnet, Many ink types Permanent
magnetic displacing ink and can be used magnetic material
causing drop ejection. Fast operation such as Neodymium
Rare earth magnets High efficiency Iron Boron (NdFeB)
with a field strength Easy extension required.
around 1 Tesla can be from single nozzles High local
used. Examples are: to pagewidth print currents required
Samarium Cobalt heads Copper
(SaCo) and magnetic metalization should
materials in the be used for long
neodymium iron boron electromigration
family (NdFeB, lifetime and low
NdDyFeBNb, resistivity
NdDyFeB, etc) Pigmented inks
are usually
temperature limited
to the Curie
temperature (around
540 K)
Soft A solenoid induced a Low power Complex IJ01, IJ05, IJ08, IJ10
magnetic magnetic field in a soft consumption fabrication IJ12, IJ14, IJ15, IJ17
core electro- magnetic core or yoke Many ink types Materials not
magnetic fabricated from a can be used usually present in a
ferrous material such Fast operation CMOS fab such as
as electroplated iron High efficiency NiFe, CoNiFe, or
alloys such as CoNiFe Easy extension CoFe are required
[1], CoFe, or NiFe from single nozzles High local
alloys. Typically, the to pagewidth print currents required
soft magnetic material heads Copper
is in two parts, which metalization should
are normally held be used for long
apart by a spring. electromigration
When the solenoid is lifetime and low
actuated, the two parts resistivity
attract, displacing the Electroplating is
ink. required
High saturation
flux density is
required (2.0-2.1 T
is achievable with
CoNiFe [1])
Magnetic The Lorenz force Low power Force acts as a IJ06, IJ11, IJ13, IJ16
Lorenz acting on a current consumption twisting motion
force carrying wire in a Many ink types Typically, only a
magnetic field is can be used quarter of the
utilized. Fast operation solenoid length
This allows the High efficiency provides force in a
magnetic field to be Easy extension useful direction
supplied externally to from single nozzles High local
the print head, for to pagewidth print currents required
example with rare heads Copper
earth permanent metalization should
magnets. be used for long
Only the current electromigration
carrying wire need be lifetime and low
fabricated on the print- resistivity
head, simplifying Pigmented inks
materials are usually
requirements. infeasible
Magneto- The actuator uses the Many ink types Force acts as a Fischenbeck,
striction giant magnetostrictive can be used twisting motion U.S. Pat. No. 4,032,929
effect of materials Fast operation Unusual IJ25
such as Terfenol-D (an Easy extension materials such as
alloy of terbium, from single nozzles Terfenol-D are
dysprosium and iron to pagewidth print required
developed at the Naval heads High local
Ordnance Laboratory, High force is currents required
hence Ter-Fe-NOL). available Copper
For best efficiency, the metalization should
actuator should be pre- be used for long
stressed to approx. 8 electromigration
MPa. lifetime and low
may be required
Surface Ink under positive Low power Requires Silverbrook, EP
tension pressure is held in a consumption supplementary force 0771 658 A2 and
reduction nozzle by surface Simple to effect drop related patent
tension. The surface construction separation applications
tension of the ink is No unusual Requires special
reduced below the materials required in ink surfactants
bubble threshold, fabrication Speed may be
causing the ink to High efficiency limited by surfactant
egress from the Easy extension properties
nozzle. from single nozzles
to pagewidth print
Viscosity The ink viscosity is Simple Requires Silverbrook, EP
reduction locally reduced to construction supplementary force 0771 658 A2 and
select which drops are No unusual to effect drop related patent
to be ejected. A materials required in separation applications
viscosity reduction can fabrication Requires special
be achieved Easy extension ink viscosity
electrothermally with from single nozzles properties
most inks, but special to pagewidth print High speed is
inks can be engineered heads difficult to achieve
for a 100:1 viscosity Requires
reduction. oscillating ink
A high
difference (typically
80 degrees) is
Acoustic An acoustic wave is Can operate Complex drive 1993 Hadimioglu
generated and without a nozzle circuitry et al, EUP 550,192
focussed upon the plate Complex 1993 Elrod et al,
drop ejection region. fabrication EUP 572,220
Low efficiency
Poor control of
drop position
Poor control of
drop volume
Thermo- An actuator which Low power Efficient aqueous IJ03, IJ09, IJ17, IJ18
elastic bend relies upon differential consumption operation requires a IJ19, IJ20, IJ21, IJ22
actuator thermal expansion Many ink types thermal insulator on IJ23, IJ24, IJ27, IJ28
upon Joule heating is can be used the hot side IJ29, IJ30, IJ31, IJ32
used. Simple planar Corrosion IJ33, IJ34, IJ35, IJ36
fabrication prevention can be IJ37, IJ38, IJ39, IJ40
Small integrated difficult IJ41
circuit area Pigmented inks
required for each may be infeasible,
actuator as pigment particles
Fast operation may jam the bend
High efficiency actuator
compatible voltages
and currents
Standard MEMS
processes can be
Easy extension
from single nozzles
to pagewidth print
High CTE A material with a very High force can Requires special IJ09, IJ17, IJ18, IJ20
thermo- high coefficient of be generated material (e.g. PTFE) IJ21, IJ22, IJ23, IJ24
elastic thermal expansion PTFE is a Requires a PTFE IJ27, IJ28, IJ29, IJ30
actuator (CTE) such as candidate for low deposition process, IJ31, IJ42, IJ43, IJ44
polytetrafluoroethylene dielectric constant which is not yet
(PTFE) is used. As insulation in ULSI standard in ULSI
high CTE materials Very low power fabs
are usually non- consumption PTFE deposition
conductive, a heater Many ink types cannot be followed
fabricated from a can be used with high
conductive material is Simple planar temperature (above
incorporated. A 50 μm fabrication 350° C.) processing
long PTFE bend Small integrated Pigmented inks
actuator with circuit area may be infeasible,
polysilicon heater and required for each as pigment particles
15 mW power input actuator may jam the bend
can provide 180 Fast operation actuator
μN force High efficiency
and 10 μm CMOS
deflection. Actuator compatible voltages
motions include: and currents
Bend Easy extension
Push from single nozzles
Buckle to pagewidth print
Rotate heads
Conductive A polymer with a high High force can Requires special IJ24
polymer coefficient of thermal be generated materials
thermo- expansion (such as Very low power development (High
elastic PTFE) is doped with consumption CTE conductive
actuator conducting substances Many ink types polymer)
to increase its can be used Requires a PTFE
conductivity to about 3 Simple planar deposition process,
orders of magnitude fabrication which is not yet
below that of copper. Small integrated standard in ULSI
The conducting circuit area fabs
polymer expands required for each PTFE deposition
when resistively actuator cannot be followed
heated. Fast operation with high
Examples of High efficiency temperature (above
conducting dopants CMOS 350° C.) processing
include: compatible voltages Evaporation and
Carbon nanotubes and currents CVD deposition
Metal fibers Easy extension techniques cannot
Conductive polymers from single nozzles be used
such as doped to pagewidth print Pigmented inks
polythiophene heads may be infeasible,
Carbon granules as pigment particles
may jam the bend
Shape A shape memory alloy High force is Fatigue limits IJ26
memory such as TiNi (also available (stresses maximum number
alloy known as Nitinol - of hundreds of MPa) of cycles
Nickel Titanium alloy Large strain is Low strain (1%)
developed at the Naval available (more than is required to extend
Ordnance Laboratory) 3%) fatigue resistance
is thermally switched High corrosion Cycle rate
between its weak resistance limited by heat
martensitic state and Simple removal
its high stiffness construction Requires unusual
austenic state. The Easy extension materials (TiNi)
shape of the actuator from single nozzles The latent heat of
in its martensitic state to pagewidth print transformation must
is deformed relative to heads be provided
the austenic shape. Low voltage High current
The shape change operation operation
causes ejection of a Requires pre-
drop. stressing to distort
the martensitic state
Linear Linear magnetic Linear Magnetic Requires unusual IJ12
Magnetic actuators include the actuators can be semiconductor
Actuator Linear Induction constructed with materials such as
Actuator (LIA), Linear high thrust, long soft magnetic alloys
Permanent Magnet travel, and high (e.g. CoNiFe [1])
Synchronous Actuator efficiency using Some varieties
(LPMSA), Linear planar also require
Reluctance semiconductor permanent magnetic
Synchronous Actuator fabrication materials such as
(LRSA), Linear techniques Neodymium iron
Switched Reluctance Long actuator boron (NdFeB)
Actuator (LSRA), and travel is available Requires
the Linear Stepper Medium force is complex multi-
Actuator (LSA). available phase drive circuitry
Low voltage High current
operation operation

Basic Operation Mode

mode Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Actuator This is the simplest Simple operation Drop repetition Thermal inkjet
directly mode of operation: the No external rate is usually Piezoelectric inkjet
pushes ink actuator directly fields required limited to less than 10 IJ01, IJ02, IJ03, IJ04
supplies sufficient Satellite drops KHz. However, this IJ05, IJ06, IJ07, IJ09
kinetic energy to expel can be avoided if is not fundamental IJ11, IJ12, IJ14, IJ16
the drop. The drop drop velocity is less to the method, but is IJ20, IJ22, IJ23, IJ24
must have a sufficient than 4 m/s related to the refill IJ25, IJ26, IJ27, IJ28
velocity to overcome Can be efficient, method normally IJ29, IJ30, IJ31, IJ32
the surface tension. depending upon the used IJ33, IJ34, IJ35, IJ36
actuator used All of the drop IJ37, IJ38, IJ39, IJ40
kinetic energy must IJ41, IJ42, IJ43, IJ44
be provided by the
Satellite drops
usually form if drop
velocity is greater
than 4.5 m/s
Proximity The drops to be Very simple print Requires close Silverbrook, EP
printed are selected by head fabrication can proximity between 0771 658 A2 and
some manner (e.g. be used the print head and related patent
thermally induced The drop the print media or applications
surface tension selection means transfer roller
reduction of does not need to May require two
pressurized ink). provide the energy print heads printing
Selected drops are required to separate alternate rows of the
separated from the ink the drop from the image
in the nozzle by nozzle Monolithic color
contact with the print print heads are
medium or a transfer difficult
Electro- The drops to be Very simple print Requires very Silverbrook, EP
static pull printed are selected by head fabrication can high electrostatic 0771 658 A2 and
on ink some manner (e.g. be used field related patent
thermally induced The drop Electrostatic field applications
surface tension selection means for small nozzle Tone-Jet
reduction of does not need to sizes is above air
pressurized ink). provide the energy breakdown
Selected drops are required to separate Electrostatic field
separated from the ink the drop from the may attract dust
in the nozzle by a nozzle
strong electric field.
Magnetic The drops to be Very simple print Requires Silverbrook, EP
pull on ink printed are selected by head fabrication can magnetic ink 0771 658 A2 and
some manner (e.g. be used Ink colors other related patent
thermally induced The drop than black are applications
surface tension selection means difficult
reduction of does not need to Requires very
pressurized ink). provide the energy high magnetic fields
Selected drops are required to separate
separated from the ink the drop from the
in the nozzle by a nozzle
strong magnetic field
acting on the magnetic
Shutter The actuator moves a High speed (>50 Moving parts are IJ13, IJ17, IJ21
shutter to block ink KHz) operation can required
flow to the nozzle. The be achieved due to Requires ink
ink pressure is pulsed reduced refill time pressure modulator
at a multiple of the Drop timing can Friction and wear
drop ejection be very accurate must be considered
frequency. The actuator Stiction is
energy can be very possible
Shuttered The actuator moves a Actuators with Moving parts are IJ08, IJ15, IJ18, IJ19
grill shutter to block ink small travel can be required
flow through a grill to used Requires ink
the nozzle. The shutter Actuators with pressure modulator
movement need only small force can be Friction and wear
be equal to the width used must be considered
of the grill holes. High speed (>50 Stiction is
KHz) operation can possible
be achieved
Pulsed A pulsed magnetic Extremely low Requires an IJ10
magnetic field attracts an ‘ink energy operation is external pulsed
pull on ink pusher’ at the drop possible magnetic field
pusher ejection frequency. An No heat Requires special
actuator controls a dissipation materials for both
catch, which prevents problems the actuator and the
the ink pusher from ink pusher
moving when a drop is Complex
not to be ejected. construction

Auxiliary Mechanism (Applied to All Nozzles)

mechanism Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
None The actuator directly Simplicity of Drop ejection Most inkjets,
fires the ink drop, and construction energy must be including
there is no external Simplicity of supplied by piezoelectric and
field or other operation individual nozzle thermal bubble.
mechanism required. Small physical actuator IJ01-IJ07, IJ09, IJ11
size IJ12, IJ14, IJ20, IJ22,
Oscillating The ink pressure Oscillating ink Requires external Silverbrook, EP
ink pressure oscillates, providing pressure can provide ink pressure 0771 658 A2 and
(including much of the drop a refill pulse, oscillator related patent
acoustic ejection energy. The allowing higher Ink pressure applications
stimulation) actuator selects which operating speed phase and amplitude IJ08, IJ13, IJ15, IJ17
drops are to be fired The actuators must be carefully IJ18, IJ19, IJ21
by selectively may operate with controlled
blocking or enabling much lower energy Acoustic
nozzles. The ink Acoustic lenses reflections in the ink
pressure oscillation can be used to focus chamber must be
may be achieved by the sound on the designed for
vibrating the print nozzles
head, or preferably by
an actuator in the ink
Media The print head is Low power Precision Silverbrook, EP
proximity placed in close High accuracy assembly required 0771 658 A2 and
proximity to the print Simple print head Paper fibers may related patent
medium. Selected construction cause problems applications
drops protrude from Cannot print on
the print head further rough substrates
than unselected drops,
and contact the print
medium. The drop
soaks into the medium
fast enough to cause
drop separation.
Transfer Drops are printed to a High accuracy Bulky Silverbrook, EP
roller transfer roller instead Wide range of Expensive 0771 658 A2 and
of straight to the print print substrates can Complex related patent
medium. A transfer be used construction applications
roller can also be used Ink can be dried Tektronix hot
for proximity drop on the transfer roller melt piezoelectric
separation. inkjet
Any of the IJ
Electro- An electric field is Low power Field strength Silverbrook, EP
static used to accelerate Simple print head required for 0771 658 A2 and
selected drops towards construction separation of small related patent
the print medium. drops is near or applications
above air breakdown Tone-Jet
Direct A magnetic field is Low power Requires Silverbrook, EP
magnetic used to accelerate Simple print head magnetic ink 0771 658 A2 and
field selected drops of construction Requires strong related patent
magnetic ink towards magnetic field applications
the print medium.
Cross The print head is Does not require Requires external IJ06, IJ16
magnetic placed in a constant magnetic materials magnet
field magnetic field. The to be integrated in Current densities
Lorenz force in a the print head may be high,
current carrying wire manufacturing resulting in
is used to move the process electromigration
actuator. problems
Pulsed A pulsed magnetic Very low power Complex print IJ10
magnetic field is used to operation is possible head construction
field cyclically attract a Small print head Magnetic
paddle, which pushes size materials required in
on the ink. A small print head
actuator moves a
catch, which
selectively prevents
the paddle from moving.

Actuator Amplification or Modification Method

amplification Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
None No actuator Operational Many actuator Thermal Bubble
mechanical simplicity mechanisms have Inkjet
amplification is used. insufficient travel, IJ01, IJ02, IJ06, IJ07
The actuator directly or insufficient force, IJ16, IJ25, IJ26
drives the drop to efficiently drive
ejection process. the drop ejection
Differential An actuator material Provides greater High stresses are Piezoelectric
expansion bend expands more on one travel in a reduced involved IJ03, IJ09, IJ17-IJ24
actuator side than on the other. print head area Care must be IJ27, IJ29-IJ39, IJ42,
The expansion may be The bend actuator taken that the IJ43, IJ44
thermal, piezoelectric, converts a high force materials do not
magnetostrictive, or low travel actuator delaminate
other mechanism. mechanism to high Residual bend
travel, lower resulting from high
force mechanism. temperature or high
stress during
Transient bend A trilayer bend Very good High stresses are IJ40, IJ41
actuator actuator where the two temperature stability involved
outside layers are High speed, as a Care must be
identical. This cancels new drop can be taken that the
bend due to ambient fired before heat materials do not
temperature and dissipates delaminate
residual stress. The Cancels residual
actuator only responds stress of formation
to transient heating of
one side or the other.
Actuator A series of thin Increased travel Increased Some piezoelectric
stack actuators are stacked. Reduced drive fabrication ink jets
This can be voltage complexity IJ04
appropriate where Increased
actuators require high possibility of short
electric field strength, circuits due to
such as electrostatic pinholes
and piezoelectric
Multiple Multiple smaller Increases the Actuator forces IJ12, IJ13, IJ18, IJ20
actuators actuators are used force available from may not add IJ22, IJ28, IJ42, IJ43
simultaneously to an actuator linearly, reducing
move the ink. Each Multiple efficiency
actuator need provide actuators can be
only a portion of the positioned to control
force required. ink flow accurately
Linear A linear spring is used Matches low Requires print IJ15
Spring to transform a motion travel actuator with head area for the
with small travel and higher travel spring
high force into a requirements
longer travel, lower Non-contact
force motion. method of motion
Reverse The actuator loads a Better coupling Fabrication IJ05, IJ11
spring spring. When the to the ink complexity
actuator is turned off, High stress in the
the spring releases. spring
This can reverse the
force/distance curve of
the actuator to make it
compatible with the
requirements of the
drop ejection.
Coiled A bend actuator is Increases travel Generally IJ17, IJ21, IJ34, IJ35
actuator coiled to provide Reduces integrated restricted to planar
greater travel in a circuit area implementations
reduced integrated Planar due to extreme
circuit area. implementations are fabrication difficulty
relatively easy to in other orientations.
Flexure bend A bend actuator has a Simple means of Care must be IJ10, IJ19, IJ33
actuator small region near the increasing travel of taken not to exceed
fixture point, which a bend actuator the elastic limit in
flexes much more the flexure area
readily than the Stress
remainder of the distribution is very
actuator. The actuator uneven
flexing is effectively Difficult to
converted from an accurately model
even coiling to an with finite element
angular bend, resulting analysis
in greater travel of the
actuator tip.
Gears Gears can be used to Low force, low Moving parts are IJ13
increase travel at the travel actuators can required
expense of duration. be used Several actuator
Circular gears, rack Can be fabricated cycles are required
and pinion, ratchets, using standard More complex
and other gearing surface MEMS drive electronics
methods can be used. processes Complex
Friction, friction,
and wear are
Catch The actuator controls a Very low Complex IJ10
small catch. The catch actuator energy construction
either enables or Very small Requires external
disables movement of actuator size force
an ink pusher that is Unsuitable for
controlled in a bulk pigmented inks
Buckle plate A buckle plate can be Very fast Must stay within S. Hirata et al,
used to change a slow movement elastic limits of the “An Ink-jet Head
actuator into a fast achievable materials for long . . . ”,
motion. It can also device life Proc. IEEE MEMS,
convert a high force, High stresses February 1996,
low travel actuator involved pp 418-423.
into a high travel, Generally high IJ18, IJ27
medium force motion. power requirement
Tapered A tapered magnetic Linearizes the Complex IJ14
magnetic pole can increase magnetic construction
pole travel at the expense force/distance curve
of force.
Lever A lever and fulcrum is Matches low High stress IJ32, IJ36, IJ37
used to transform a travel actuator with around the fulcrum
motion with small higher travel
travel and high force requirements
into a motion with Fulcrum area has
longer travel and no linear movement,
lower force. The lever and can be used for
can also reverse the a fluid seal
direction of travel.
Rotary The actuator is High mechanical Complex IJ28
impeller connected to a rotary advantage construction
impeller. A small The ratio of force Unsuitable for
angular deflection of to travel of the pigmented inks
the actuator results in actuator can be
a rotation of the matched to the
impeller vanes, which nozzle requirements
push the ink against by varying the
stationary vanes and number of impeller
out of the nozzle. vanes
Acoustic A refractive or No moving parts Large area 1993 Hadimioglu
lens diffractive (e.g. zone required et al, EUP 550,192
plate) acoustic lens is Only relevant for 1993 Elrod et al,
used to concentrate acoustic ink jets EUP 572,220
sound waves.
Sharp A sharp point is used Simple Difficult to Tone-jet
conductive to concentrate an construction fabricate using
point electrostatic field. standard VLSI
processes for a
surface ejecting ink-
Only relevant for
electrostatic ink jets

Actuator Motion

motion Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Volume The volume of the Simple High energy is Hewlett-Packard
expansion actuator changes, construction in the typically required to Thermal Inkjet
pushing the ink in all case of thermal ink achieve volume Canon Bubblejet
directions. jet expansion. This
leads to thermal
stress, cavitation,
and kogation in
thermal ink jet
Linear, normal The actuator moves in Efficient High fabrication IJ01, IJ02, IJ04, IJ07
to integrated a direction normal to coupling to ink complexity may be IJ11, IJ14
circuit surface the print head surface. drops ejected required to achieve
The nozzle is typically normal to the perpendicular
in the line of movement. surface motion
Linear, parallel The actuator moves Suitable for Fabrication IJ12, IJ13, IJ15, IJ33,
to integrated parallel to the print planar fabrication complexity IJ34, IJ35, IJ36
circuit surface head surface. Drop Friction
ejection may still be Stiction
normal to the surface.
Membrane An actuator with a The effective Fabrication 1982 Howkins
push high force but small area of the actuator complexity U.S. Pat. No. 4,459,601
area is used to push a becomes the Actuator size
stiff membrane that is membrane area Difficulty of
in contact with the ink. integration in a
VLSI process
Rotary The actuator causes Rotary levers Device IJ05, IJ08, IJ13, IJ28
the rotation of some may be used to complexity
element, such a grill or increase travel May have
impeller Small integrated friction at a pivot
circuit area point
Bend The actuator bends A very small Requires the 1970 Kyser et al
when energized. This change in actuator to be made U.S. Pat. No. 3,946,398
may be due to dimensions can be from at least two 1973 Stemme
differential thermal converted to a large distinct layers, or to U.S. Pat. No. 3,747,120
expansion, motion. have a thermal IJ03, IJ09, IJ10,
piezoelectric difference across the IJ19, IJ23, IJ24,
expansion, actuator IJ25, IJ29, IJ30,
magnetostriction, or IJ31, IJ33, IJ34,
other form of relative IJ35
dimensional change.
Swivel The actuator swivels Allows operation Inefficient IJ06
around a central pivot. where the net linear coupling to the ink
This motion is suitable force on the paddle motion
where there are is zero
opposite forces Small integrated
applied to opposite circuit area
sides of the paddle, requirements
e.g. Lorenz force.
Straighten The actuator is Can be used with Requires careful IJ26, IJ32
normally bent, and shape memory balance of stresses
straightens when alloys where the to ensure that the
energized. austenic phase is quiescent bend is
planar accurate
Double bend The actuator bends in One actuator can Difficult to make IJ36, IJ37, IJ38
one direction when be used to power the drops ejected by
one element is two nozzles. both bend directions
energized, and bends Reduced integrated identical.
the other way when circuit size. A small
another element is Not sensitive to efficiency loss
energized. ambient temperature compared to
equivalent single
bend actuators.
Shear Energizing the Can increase the Not readily 1985 Fishbeck
actuator causes a shear effective travel of applicable to other U.S. Pat. No. 4,584,590
motion in the actuator piezoelectric actuator
material. actuators mechanisms
Radial con- The actuator squeezes Relatively easy High force 1970 Zoltan
striction an ink reservoir, to fabricate single required U.S. Pat. No. 3,683,212
forcing ink from a nozzles from glass Inefficient
constricted nozzle. tubing as Difficult to
macroscopic integrate with VLSI
structures processes
Coil/uncoil A coiled actuator Easy to fabricate Difficult to IJ17, IJ21, IJ34,
uncoils or coils more as a planar VLSI fabricate for non- IJ35
tightly. The motion of process planar devices
the free end of the Small area Poor out-of-plane
actuator ejects the ink. required, therefore stiffness
low cost
Bow The actuator bows (or Can increase the Maximum travel IJ16, IJ18, IJ27
buckles) in the middle speed of travel is constrained
when energized. Mechanically High force
rigid required
Push-Pull Two actuators control The structure is Not readily IJ18
a shutter. One actuator pinned at both ends, suitable for ink jets
pulls the shutter, and so has a high out-of- which directly push
the other pushes it. plane rigidity the ink
Curl A set of actuators curl Good fluid flow Design IJ20, IJ42
inwards inwards to reduce the to the region behind complexity
volume of ink that the actuator
they enclose. increases efficiency
Curl A set of actuators curl Relatively simple Relatively large IJ43
outwards outwards, pressurizing construction integrated
ink in a chamber circuit area
surrounding the
actuators, and
expelling ink from a
nozzle in the chamber.
Iris Multiple vanes enclose High efficiency High fabrication IJ22
a volume of ink. These Small integrated complexity
simultaneously rotate, circuit area Not suitable for
reducing the volume pigmented inks
between the vanes.
Acoustic The actuator vibrates The actuator can Large area 1993 Hadimioglu
vibration at a high frequency. be physically distant required for et al, EUP 550,192
from the ink efficient operation 1993 Elrod et al,
at useful frequencies EUP 572,220
coupling and
Complex drive
Poor control of
drop volume and
None In various ink jet No moving parts Various other Silverbrook, EP
designs the actuator tradeoffs are 0771 658 A2 and
does not move. required to related patent
eliminate moving applications
parts Tone-jet

Nozzle Refill Method

refill method Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Surface After the actuator is Fabrication Low speed Thermal inkjet
tension energized, it typically simplicity Surface tension Piezoelectric
returns rapidly to its Operational force relatively inkjet
normal position. This simplicity small compared to IJ01-IJ07, IJ10-IJ14,
rapid return sucks in actuator force IJ16, IJ20, IJ22-IJ45
air through the nozzle Long refill time
opening. The ink usually dominates
surface tension at the the total repetition
nozzle then exerts a rate
small force restoring
the meniscus to a
minimum area.
Shuttered Ink to the nozzle High speed Requires IJ08, IJ13, IJ15, IJ17
oscillating chamber is provided at Low actuator common ink IJ18, IJ19, IJ21
ink pressure a pressure that energy, as the pressure oscillator
oscillates at twice the actuator need only May not be
drop ejection open or close the suitable for
frequency. When a shutter, instead of pigmented inks
drop is to be ejected, ejecting the ink drop
the shutter is opened
for 3 half cycles: drop
ejection, actuator
return, and refill.
Refill After the main High speed, as Requires two IJ09
actuator actuator has ejected a the nozzle is independent
drop a second (refill) actively refilled actuators per nozzle
actuator is energized.
The refill actuator
pushes ink into the
nozzle chamber. The
refill actuator returns
slowly, to prevent its
return from emptying
the chamber again.
Positive ink The ink is held a slight High refill rate, Surface spill Silverbrook, EP 0771
pressure positive pressure. After therefore a high must be prevented 658 A2 and related
the ink drop is ejected, drop repetition rate Highly patent applications
the nozzle chamber fills is possible hydrophobic print Alternative for:
quickly as surface tension head surfaces are IJ01-IJ07, IJ10-IJ14
and ink pressure both required IJ16, IJ20, IJ22-IJ45
operate to refill the

Method of Restricting Back-Flow Through Inlet

method Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Long inlet The ink inlet channel Design simplicity Restricts refill Thermal inkjet
channel to the nozzle chamber Operational rate Piezoelectric
is made long and simplicity May result in a inkjet
relatively narrow, Reduces relatively large IJ42, IJ43
relying on viscous crosstalk integrated
drag to reduce inlet circuit area
back-flow. Only partially
Positive ink The ink is under a Drop selection Requires a Silverbrook, EP 0771
pressure positive pressure, so and separation method (such as a 658 A2 and related
that in the quiescent forces can be nozzle rim or patent applications
state some of the ink reduced effective Possible operation
drop already protrudes Fast refill time hydrophobizing, or of the following:
from the nozzle. both) to prevent IJ01-IJ07, IJ09-IJ12
This reduces the flooding of the IJ14, IJ16, IJ20, IJ22,
pressure in the nozzle ejection surface of IJ23-IJ34, IJ36-IJ41
chamber which is the print head. IJ44
required to eject a
certain volume of ink.
The reduction in
chamber pressure
results in a reduction
in ink pushed out
through the inlet.
Baffle One or more baffles The refill rate is Design HP Thermal Ink Jet
are placed in the inlet not as restricted as complexity Tektronix
ink flow. When the the long inlet May increase piezoelectric ink jet
actuator is energized, method. fabrication
the rapid ink Reduces complexity (e.g.
movement creates crosstalk Tektronix hot melt
eddies which restrict Piezoelectric print
the flow through the heads).
inlet. The slower refill
process is unrestricted,
and does not result in
Flexible flap In this method recently Significantly Not applicable to Canon
restricts disclosed by Canon, reduces back-flow most inkjet
inlet the expanding actuator for edge-shooter configurations
(bubble) pushes on a thermal ink jet Increased
flexible flap that devices fabrication
restricts the inlet. complexity
deformation of
polymer flap results
in creep over
extended use
Inlet filter A filter is located Additional Restricts refill IJ04, IJ12, IJ24, IJ27
between the ink inlet advantage of ink rate IJ29, IJ30
and the nozzle filtration May result in
chamber. The filter Ink filter may be complex
has a multitude of fabricated with no construction
small holes or slots, additional process
restricting ink flow. steps
The filter also removes
particles which may
block the nozzle.
Small inlet The ink inlet channel Design simplicity Restricts refill IJ02, IJ37, IJ44
compared to the nozzle chamber rate
to nozzle has a substantially May result in a
smaller cross section relatively large
than that of the nozzle, integrated
resulting in easier ink circuit area
egress out of the Only partially
nozzle than out of the effective
Inlet shutter A secondary actuator Increases speed Requires separate IJ09
controls the position of of the ink-jet print refill actuator and
a shutter, closing off head operation drive circuit
the ink inlet when the
main actuator is
The inlet is The method avoids the Back-flow Requires careful IJ01, IJ03, 1J05, IJ06
located problem of inlet back- problem is design to minimize IJ07, IJ10, IJ11, IJ14
behind the flow by arranging the eliminated the negative IJ16, IJ22, IJ23, IJ25
ink-pushing ink-pushing surface of pressure behind the IJ28, IJ31, IJ32, IJ33
surface the actuator between paddle IJ34, IJ35, IJ36, IJ39
the inlet and the IJ40, IJ41
Part of the The actuator and a Significant Small increase in IJ07, IJ20, IJ26, IJ38
actuator wall of the ink reductions in back- fabrication
moves to chamber are arranged flow can be complexity
shut off the so that the motion of achieved
inlet the actuator closes off Compact designs
the inlet. possible
Nozzle In some configurations Ink back-flow None related to Silverbrook, EP
actuator of ink jet, there is no problem is ink back-flow on 0771 658 A2 and
does not expansion or eliminated actuation related patent
result in ink movement of an applications
back-flow actuator which may Valve-jet
cause ink back-flow Tone-jet
through the inlet. IJ08, IJ13, IJ15, IJ17
IJ18, IJ19, IJ21

Nozzle Clearing Method

Clearing method Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Normal All of the nozzles are No added May not be Most ink jet
nozzle firing fired periodically, complexity on the sufficient to systems
before the ink has a print head displace dried ink IJ01-IJ07, IJ09-IJ12
chance to dry. When IJ14, IJ16, IJ20, IJ22
not in use the nozzles IJ23-IJ34, IJ36-IJ45
are sealed (capped)
against air.
The nozzle firing is
usually performed
during a special
clearing cycle, after
first moving the print
head to a cleaning
Extra In systems which heat Can be highly Requires higher Silverbrook, EP
power to the ink, but do not boil effective if the drive voltage for 0771 658 A2 and
ink heater it under normal heater is adjacent to clearing related patent
situations, nozzle the nozzle May require applications
clearing can be larger drive
achieved by over- transistors
powering the heater
and boiling ink at the
Rapid The actuator is fired in Does not require Effectiveness May be used with:
succession rapid succession. In extra drive circuits depends IJ01-IJ07, IJ09-IJ11
of actuator some configurations, on the print head substantially upon IJ14, IJ16, IJ20, IJ22
pulses this may cause heat Can be readily the configuration of IJ23-IJ25, IJ27-IJ34
build-up at the nozzle controlled and the inkjet nozzle IJ36-IJ45
which boils the ink, initiated by digital
clearing the nozzle. In logic
other situations, it may
cause sufficient
vibrations to dislodge
clogged nozzles.
Extra Where an actuator is A simple Not suitable May be used with:
power to not normally driven to solution where where there is a IJ03, IJ09, IJ16, IJ20
ink pushing the limit of its motion, applicable hard limit to IJ23, IJ24, IJ25, IJ27
actuator nozzle clearing may be actuator movement IJ29, IJ30, IJ31, IJ32
assisted by providing IJ39, IJ40, IJ41, IJ42
an enhanced drive IJ43, IJ44, IJ45
signal to the actuator.
Acoustic An ultrasonic wave is A high nozzle High IJ08, IJ13, IJ15, IJ17
resonance applied to the ink clearing capability implementation cost IJ18, IJ19, IJ21
chamber. This wave is can be achieved if system does not
of an appropriate May be already include an
amplitude and implemented at very acoustic actuator
frequency to cause low cost in systems
sufficient force at the which already
nozzle to clear include acoustic
blockages. This is actuators
easiest to achieve if
the ultrasonic wave is
at a resonant
frequency of the ink
Nozzle A microfabricated Can clear Accurate mechanical Silverbrook, EP
clearing plate is pushed against severely clogged alignment is 0771 658 A2 and
plate the nozzles. The plate nozzles required related patent
has a post for every Moving parts are applications
nozzle. The array of required
posts There is risk of
damage to the
fabrication is
Ink The pressure of the ink May be effective Requires May be used
pressure is temporarily where other pressure pump or with all IJ series ink
pulse increased so that ink methods cannot be other pressure jets
streams from all of the used actuator
nozzles. This may be Expensive
used in conjunction Wasteful of ink
with actuator
Print head A flexible ‘blade’ is Effective for Difficult to use if Many ink jet
wiper wiped across the print planar print head print head surface is systems
head surface. The surfaces non-planar or very
blade is usually Low cost fragile
fabricated from a Requires
flexible polymer, e.g. mechanical parts
rubber or synthetic Blade can wear
elastomer. out in high volume
print systems
Separate A separate heater is Can be effective Fabrication Can be used with
ink boiling provided at the nozzle where other nozzle complexity many IJ series ink
heater although the normal clearing methods jets
drop e-ection cannot be used
mechanism does not Can be
require it. The heaters implemented at no
do not require additional cost in
individual drive some ink jet
circuits, as many configurations
nozzles can be cleared
simultaneously, and no
imaging is required.

Nozzle Plate Construction

Nozzle plate
construction Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Electro- A nozzle plate is Fabrication High Hewlett Packard
formed separately fabricated simplicity temperatures and Thermal Inkjet
nickel from electroformed pressures are
nickel, and bonded to required to bond
the print head nozzle plate
integrated circuit . Minimum
thickness constraints
thermal expansion
Laser Individual nozzle No masks Each hole must Canon Bubblejet
ablated or holes are ablated by an required be individually 1988 Sercel et
drilled intense UV laser in a Can be quite fast formed al., SPIE, Vol. 998
polymer nozzle plate, which is Some control Special Excimer Beam
typically a polymer over nozzle profile equipment required Applications, pp.
such as polyimide or is possible Slow where there 76-83
polysulphone Equipment are many thousands 1993 Watanabe
required is relatively of nozzles per print et al., U.S. Pat. No.
low cost head 5,208,604
May produce thin
burrs at exit holes
Silicon A separate nozzle High accuracy is Two part K. Bean, IEEE
micro- plate is attainable construction Transactions on
machined micromachined from High cost Electron Devices,
single crystal silicon, Requires Vol. ED-25, No. 10,
and bonded to the precision alignment 1978, pp 1185-1195
print head wafer. Nozzles may be Xerox 1990
clogged by adhesive Hawkins et al.,
U.S. Pat. No. 4,899,181
Glass Fine glass capillaries No expensive Very small 1970 Zoltan
capillaries are drawn from glass equipment required nozzle sizes are U.S. Pat. No. 3,683,212
tubing. This method Simple to make difficult to form
has been used for single nozzles Not suited for
making individual mass production
nozzles, but is difficult
to use for bulk
manufacturing of print
heads with thousands
of nozzles.
Monolithic, The nozzle plate is High accuracy Requires Silverbrook, EP
surface deposited as a layer (<1 μm) sacrificial layer 0771 658 A2 and
micro- using standard VLSI Monolithic under the nozzle related patent
machined deposition techniques. Low cost plate to form the applications
using VLSI Nozzles are etched in Existing nozzle chamber IJ01, IJ02, IJ04, IJ11
litho- the nozzle plate using processes can be Surface may be IJ12, IJ17, IJ18, IJ20
graphic VLSI lithography and used fragile to the touch IJ22, IJ24, IJ27, IJ28
processes etching. IJ29, IJ30, IJ31, IJ32
IJ33, IJ34, IJ36, IJ37
IJ38, IJ39, IJ40, IJ41
IJ42, IJ43, IJ44
Monolithic, The nozzle plate is a High accuracy Requires long IJ03, IJ05, IJ06, IJ07
etched buried etch stop in the (<1 μm) etch times IJ08, IJ09, IJ10, IJ13
through wafer. Nozzle Monolithic Requires a IJ14, IJ15, IJ16, IJ19
substrate chambers are etched in Low cost support wafer IJ21, IJ23, IJ25, IJ26
the front of the wafer, No differential
and the wafer is expansion
thinned from the back
side. Nozzles are then
etched in the etch stop
No nozzle Various methods have No nozzles to Difficult to Ricoh 1995
plate been tried to eliminate become clogged control drop Sekiya et al
the nozzles entirely, to position accurately U.S. Pat. No. 5,412,413
prevent nozzle Crosstalk 1993 Hadimioglu
clogging. These problems et al EUP 550,192
include thermal bubble 1993 Elrod et al
mechanisms and EUP 572,220
acoustic lens
Trough Each drop ejector has Reduced Drop firing IJ35
a trough through manufacturing direction is sensitive
which a paddle moves. complexity to wicking.
There is no nozzle Monolithic
Nozzle slit The elimination of No nozzles to Difficult to 1989 Saito et al
instead of nozzle holes and become clogged control drop U.S. Pat. No. 4,799,068
individual replacement by a slit position accurately
nozzles encompassing many Crosstalk
actuator positions problems
reduces nozzle
clogging, but increases
crosstalk due to ink
surface waves

Drop Ejection Direction

direction Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Edge Ink flow is along the Simple Nozzles limited Canon Bubblejet
(‘edge surface of the construction to edge 1979 Endo et al GB
shooter’) integrated No silicon High resolution patent 2,007,162
circuit, and ink etching required is difficult Xerox heater-in-pit
drops are ejected Good heat Fast color 1990 Hawkins et al
from the integrated sinking via substrate printing requires U.S. Pat. No. 4,899,181
circuit edge. Mechanically one print head per Tone-jet
strong color
Ease of integrated
circuit handing
Surface Ink flow is along the No bulk silicon Maximum ink Hewlett-Packard TIJ
(‘roof surface of the etching required flow is severely 1982 Vaught et al
shooter’) integrated circuit, Silicon can make restricted U.S. Pat. No. 4,490,728
and ink drops are an effective heat IJ02, IJ11, IJ12, IJ20
ejected from the sink IJ22
integrated circuit Mechanical
surface, normal to the strength
plane of the
integrated circuit .
Through Ink flow is through the High ink flow Requires bulk Silverbrook, EP
integrated integrated circuit, Suitable for silicon etching 0771 658 A2 and
circuit,forward and ink drops are pagewidth print related patent
(‘up shooter’) ejected from the front High nozzle applications
surface of the packing density IJ04, IJ17, IJ18, IJ24
integrated circuit. therefore low IJ27-IJ45
manufacturing cost
Through Ink flow is through the High ink flow Requires wafer IJ01, IJ03, IJ05, IJ06
integrated integrated circuit, Suitable for thinning IJ07, IJ08, IJ09, IJ10
circuit, reverse and ink drops are pagewidth print Requires special IJ13, IJ14, IJ15, IJ16
(‘down ejected from the rear High nozzle handling during IJ19, IJ21, IJ23, IJ25
shooter’) surface of the packing density manufacture IJ26
integrated circuit. therefore low
manufacturing cost
Through Ink flow is through the Suitable for Pagewidth print Epson Stylus
actuator actuator, which is not piezoelectric print heads require Tektronix hot
fabricated as part of heads several thousand melt piezoelectric
the same substrate as connections to drive ink jets
the drive transistors. circuits
Cannot be
manufactured in
standard CMOS
assembly required

Ink Type

Ink type Description Advantages Disadvantages Examples
Aqueous, Water based ink which Environmentally Slow drying Most existing inkjets
dye typically contains: friendly Corrosive All IJ series ink jets
water, dye, surfactant, No odor Bleeds on paper Silverbrook, EP 0771
humectant, and May strikethrough 658 A2 and related
biocide. Cockles paper patent applications
Modern ink dyes have
high water-fastness,
light fastness
Aqueous, Water based ink which Environmentally Slow drying IJ02, IJ04, IJ21, IJ26
pigment typically contains: friendly Corrosive IJ27, IJ30
water, pigment, No odor Pigment may Silverbrook, EP 0771
surfactant, humectant, Reduced bleed clog nozzles 658 A2 and related
and biocide. Reduced wicking Pigment may patent applications
Pigments have an Reduced clog actuator Piezoelectric ink-jets
advantage in reduced strikethrough mechanisms Thermal ink jets
bleed, wicking and Cockles paper (with significant
strikethrough. restrictions)
Methyl Ethyl MEK is a highly Very fast drying Odorous All IJ series ink jets
Ketone (MEK) volatile solvent used Prints on various Flammable
for industrial printing substrates such as
on difficult surfaces metals and plastics
such as aluminum cans.
Alcohol Alcohol based inks Fast drying Slight odor All IJ series ink jets
(ethanol, 2- can be used where the Operates at sub- Flammable
butanol, printer must operate at freezing
and others) temperatures below temperatures
the freezing point of Reduced paper
water. An example of cockle
this is in-camera Low cost
photographic printing.
Phase change The ink is solid at No drying time- High viscosity Tektronix hot melt
(hot melt) room temperature, and ink instantly freezes Printed ink piezoelectric ink jets
is melted in the print on the print medium typically has a 1989 Nowak
head before jetting. Almost any print ‘waxy’ feel U.S. Pat. No. 4,820,346
Hot melt inks are medium can be used Printed pages All IJ series ink jets
usually wax based, No paper cockle may ‘block’
with a melting point occurs Ink temperature
around 80° C. After No wicking occurs may be above the
jetting the ink freezes No bleed occurs curie point of
almost instantly upon No strikethrough permanent magnets
contacting the print occurs Ink heaters
medium or a transfer consume power
roller. Long warm-up
Oil Oil based inks are High solubility High viscosity: All IJ series ink jets
extensively used in medium for some this is a significant
offset printing. They dyes limitation for use in
have advantages in Does not cockle inkjets, which
improved paper usually require a
characteristics on Does not wick low viscosity. Some
paper (especially no through paper short chain and
wicking or cockle). multi-branched oils
Oil soluble dies and have a sufficiently
pigments are required. low viscosity.
Slow drying
Micro- A microemulsion is a Stops ink bleed Viscosity higher All IJ series ink jets
emulsion stable, self forming High dye than water
emulsion of oil, water, solubility Cost is slightly
and surfactant. The Water, oil, and higher than water
characteristic drop size amphiphilic soluble based ink
is less than 100 nm, dies can be used High surfactant
and is determined by Can stabilize concentration
the preferred curvature pigment suspensions required (around 5%)
of the surfactant.

Ink Jet Printing

A large number of new forms of ink jet printers have been developed to facilitate alternative ink jet technologies for the image processing and data distribution system. Various combinations of ink jet devices can be included in printer devices incorporated as part of the present invention. Australian Provisional Patent Applications relating to these ink jets which are specifically incorporated by cross reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Provi- US Patent/Patent
sional Application
Number Filing Date Title and Filing Date
PO8066 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,227,652
and Apparatus (IJ01) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8072 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,213,588
and Apparatus (IJ02) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8040 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,213,589
and Apparatus (IJ03) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8071 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,231,163
and Apparatus (IJ04) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8047 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,795
and Apparatus (IJ05) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8035 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,394,581
and Apparatus (IJ06) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8044 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,244,691
and Apparatus (IJ07) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8063 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,257,704
and Apparatus (IJ08) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8057 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,416,168
and Apparatus (IJ09) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8056 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,220,694
and Apparatus (IJ10) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8069 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,257,705
and Apparatus (IJ11) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8049 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,794
and Apparatus (IJ12) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8036 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,234,610
and Apparatus (IJ13) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8048 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,793
and Apparatus (IJ14) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8070 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,264,306
and Apparatus (IJ15) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8067 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,241,342
and Apparatus (IJ16) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8001 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,792
and Apparatus (IJ17) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8038 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,264,307
and Apparatus (IJ18) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8033 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,254,220
and Apparatus (IJ19) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8002 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,234,611
and Apparatus (IJ20) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8068 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,302,528
and Apparatus (IJ21) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8062 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,283,582
and Apparatus (IJ22) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8034 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,239,821
and Apparatus (IJ23) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8039 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,338,547
and Apparatus (IJ24) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8041 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,796
and Apparatus (IJ25) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8004 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 09/113,122
and Apparatus (IJ26) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8037 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,390,603
and Apparatus (IJ27) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8043 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,362,843
and Apparatus (IJ28) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8042 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,293,653
and Apparatus (IJ29) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8064 15-Jul-97 Image Creation Method 6,312,107
and Apparatus (IJ30) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO9389 23-Sep-97 Image Creation Method 6,227,653
and Apparatus (IJ31) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO9391 23-Sep-97 Image Creation Method 6,234,609
and Apparatus (IJ32) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0888 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,238,040
and Apparatus (IJ33) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0891 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,188,415
and Apparatus (IJ34) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0890 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,227,654
and Apparatus (IJ35) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0873 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,209,989
and Apparatus (IJ36) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0993 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,247,791
and Apparatus (IJ37) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP0890 12-Dec-97 Image Creation Method 6,336,710
and Apparatus (IJ38) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP1398 19-Jan-98 An Image Creation 6,217,153
Method and Apparatus (Jul. 10, 1998
PP2592 25-Mar-98 An Image Creation 6,416,167
Method and Apparatus (Jul. 10, 1998
PP2593 25-Mar-98 Image Creation Method 6,243,113
and Apparatus (IJ41) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP3991 9-Jun-98 Image Creation Method 6,283,581
and Apparatus (IJ42) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP3987 9-Jun-98 Image Creation Method 6,247,790
and Apparatus (IJ43) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP3985 9-Jun-98 Image Creation Method 6,260,953
and Apparatus (IJ44) (Jul. 10, 1998
PP3983 9-Jun-98 Image Creation Method 6,267,469
and Apparatus (IJ45) (Jul. 10, 1998

Ink Jet Manufacturing

Further, the present application may utilize advanced semiconductor fabrication techniques in the construction of large arrays of ink jet printers. Suitable manufacturing techniques are described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications incorporated here by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Austral- US Patent/
ian Patent
Provi- Application
sional and Filing
Number Filing Date Title Date
PO7935 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,224,780
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM01)
PO7936 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,235,212
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM02)
PO7937 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,280,643
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM03)
PO8061 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,284,147
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM04)
PO8054 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,214,244
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM05)
PO8065 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,071,750
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 19980
Apparatus (IJM06)
PO8055 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,267,905
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM07)
PO8053 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,251,298
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM08)
PO8078 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,258,285
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM09)
PO7933 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,225,138
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM10)
PO7950 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,241,904
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM11)
PO7949 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,299,786
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM12)
PO8060 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 09/113,124
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM13)
PO8059 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,231,773
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM14)
PO8073 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,190,931
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM15)
PO8076 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,248,249
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM16)
PO8075 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,290,862
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM17)
PO8079 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,241,906
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM18)
PO8050 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 09/113,116
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM19)
PO8052 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,241,905
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM20)
PO7948 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,451,216
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM21)
PO7951 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,231,772
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM22)
PO8074 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,274,056
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM23)
PO7941 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,290,861
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM24)
PO8077 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,248,248
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM25)
PO8058 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,306,671
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM26)
PO8051 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,331,258
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM27)
PO8045 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,110,754
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM28)
PO7952 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,294,101
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM29)
PO8046 15-Jul-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,416,679
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM30)
PO8503 11-Aug-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,264,849
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM30a)
PO9390 23-Sep-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,254,793
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM31)
PO9392 23-Sep-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,235,211
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM32)
PP0889 12-Dec-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,235,211
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM35)
PP0887 12-Dec-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,264,850
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM36)
PP0882 12-Dec-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,258,284
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM37)
PP0874 12-Dec-97 A Method of Manufacture 6,258,284
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM38)
PP1396 19-Jan-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,228,668
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM39)
PP2591 25-Mar-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,180,427
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM41)
PP3989 9-Jun-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,171,875
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM40)
PP3990 9-Jun-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,267,904
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM42)
PP3986 9-Jun-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,245,247
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM43)
PP3984 9-Jun-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,245,247
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM44)
PP3982 9-Jun-98 A Method of Manufacture 6,231,148
of an Image Creation (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IJM45)

Fluid Supply

Further the present application may utilize an ink delivery system to the ink jet head. Delivery systems relating to the supply of ink to a series of ink jet nozzles are described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications, the disclosure of which are hereby incorporated by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Australian US Patent/Patent
Provisional Application and
Number Filing Date Title Filing Date
PO8003 15-Jul-97 Supply Method and 6,350,023
Apparatus (F1) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8005 15-Jul-97 Supply Method and 6,318,849
Apparatus (F2) (Jul. 10, 1998)

MEMS Technology

Further, the present application may utilize advanced semiconductor microelectromechanical techniques in the construction of large arrays of ink jet printers. Suitable microelectromechanical techniques are described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications incorporated here by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Australian US Patent/Patent
Provisional Application and
Number Filing Date Title Filing Date
PO8006 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS02) 6,087,638
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8007 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS03) 09/113,093
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8008 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS04) 6,340,222
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8010 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS05) 6,041,600
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8011 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS06) 6,299,300
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7947 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS07) 6,067,797
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7944 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS09) 6,286,935
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7946 15-Jul-97 A device (MEMS10) 6,044,646
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9393 23-Sep-97 A Device and 09/113,065
Method (MEMS11) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0875 12-Dec-97 A device (MEMS12) 09/113,078
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0894 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,382,769
Method (MEMS13) (Jul. 10, 1998)

IR Technologies

Further, the present application may include the utilization of a disposable camera system such as those described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications incorporated here by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Austral- US Patent/
ian Patent
Provis- Application
ional and Filing
Number Filing Date Title Date
PP0895 12-Dec-97 An Image Creation 6,231,148
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IR01)
PP0870 12-Dec-97 A Device and 09/113,106
Method (IR02) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0869 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,293,658
Method (IR04) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0887 12-Dec-97 Image Creation 6,614,560
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IR05)
PP0885 12-Dec-97 An Image 6,238,033
Production (Jul. 10, 1998)
System (IR06)
PP0884 12-Dec-97 Image Creation 6,312,070
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IR10)
PP0886 12-Dec-97 Image Creation 6,238,111
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (IR12)
PP0871 12-Dec-97 A Device and 09/113,086
Method (IR13) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0876 12-Dec-97 An Image 09/113,094
Processing (Jul. 10, 1998)
Method and
Apparatus (IR14)
PP0877 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,378,970
Method (IR16) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0878 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,196,739
Method (IR17) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0883 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,270,182
Method (IR19) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0880 12-Dec-97 A Device and 6,152,619
Method (IR20) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0881 12-Dec-97 A Device and 09/113,092
Method (IR21) (Jul. 10, 1998)

DotCard Technologies

Further, the present application may include the utilization of a data distribution system such as that described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications incorporated here by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Austra- US Patent/
lian Patent
Provis- Application
ional and Filing
Number Filing Date Title Date
PP2370 16-Mar-98 Data Processing 6,786,420
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)
Apparatus (Dot01)
PP2371 16-Mar-98 Data Processing 09/113,052
Method and (Jul. 10, 1998)

Artcam Technologies

Further, the present application may include the utilization of camera and data processing techniques such as an Artcam type device as described in the following Australian provisional patent specifications incorporated here by cross-reference. The serial numbers of respective corresponding U.S. patent applications are also provided for the sake of convenience.

Austral- US Patent/
ian Patent
Provi- Application
sional and Filing
Number Filing Date Title Date
PO7991 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,750,901
and Apparatus (ART01) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7988 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,476,863
and Apparatus (ART02) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7993 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,788,336
and Apparatus (ART03) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9395 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,322,181
and Apparatus (ART04) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8017 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,597,817
and Apparatus (ART06) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8014 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART07) 6,227,648
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8025 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,727,948
and Apparatus (ART08) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8032 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,690,419
and Apparatus (ART09) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7999 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,727,951
and Apparatus (ART10) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7998 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,742
and Apparatus (ART11) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8031 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,741
and Apparatus (ART12) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8030 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART13) 6,196,541
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7997 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART15) 6,195,150
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7979 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART16) 6,362,868
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8015 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART17) 09/112,738
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7978 15-Jul-97 Media Device (ART18) 09/113,067
(Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7982 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,431,669
and Apparatus (ART19) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO7989 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,362,869
and Apparatus (ART20) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8019 15-Jul-97 Media Processing Method 6,472,052
and Apparatus (ART21) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO7980 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,356,715
and Apparatus (ART22) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8018 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,777
and Apparatus (ART24) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7938 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,636,216
and Apparatus (ART25) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8016 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,366,693
and Apparatus (ART26) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8024 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,329,990
and Apparatus (ART27) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7940 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 09/113,072
and Apparatus (ART28) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7939 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,459,495
and Apparatus (ART29) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8501 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 6,137,500
and Apparatus (ART30) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8500 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 6,690,416
and Apparatus (ART31) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7987 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 09/113,071
and Apparatus (ART32) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8022 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,398,328
and Apparatus (ART33) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8497 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 09/113,090
and Apparatus (ART34) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8020 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,431,704
and Apparatus (ART38) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO8023 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 09/113,222
and Apparatus (ART39) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8504 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,786
and Apparatus (ART42) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8000 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,415,054
and Apparatus (ART43) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7977 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 09/112,782
and Apparatus (ART44) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7934 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,665,454
and Apparatus (ART45) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7990 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,542,645
and Apparatus (ART46) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8499 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 6,486,886
and Apparatus (ART47) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8502 11-Aug-97 Image Processing Method 6,381,361
and Apparatus (ART48) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7981 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,317,192
and Apparatus (ART50) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7986 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 09/113,057
and Apparatus (ART51) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO7983 15-Jul-97 Data Processing Method 6,646,757
and Apparatus (ART52) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8026 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,752
and Apparatus (ART53) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8027 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 09/112,759
and Apparatus (ART54) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO8028 15-Jul-97 Image Processing Method 6,624,848
and Apparatus (ART56) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9394 23-Sep-97 Image Processing Method 6,357,135
and Apparatus (ART57) (Jul. 10, 1998
PO9396 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 09/113,107
and Apparatus (ART58) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9397 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,271,931
and Apparatus (ART59) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9398 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,353,772
and Apparatus (ART60) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9399 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,106,147
and Apparatus (ART61) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9400 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,665,008
and Apparatus (ART62) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9401 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,304,291
and Apparatus (ART63) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9402 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 09/112,788
and Apparatus (ART64) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9403 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,305,770
and Apparatus (ART65) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PO9405 23-Sep-97 Data Processing Method 6,289,262
and Apparatus (ART66) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP0959 16-Dec-97 A Data Processing Method 6,315,200
and Apparatus (ART68) (Jul. 10, 1998)
PP1397 19-Jan-98 A Media Device (ART69) 6,217,165
(Jul. 10, 1998)

U.S. Classification347/104, 348/E05.055, 348/E05.024
International ClassificationB41J3/36, G06K1/12, G06F21/00, H04N1/00, B41J2/175, B41J15/04, H04N1/32, H04N1/21, B42D15/10, H04N5/262, B41J2/14, B41J2/01, B41J3/42, B41J2/16, B41J11/00, H04N5/225, G06F1/16, G06K19/073, G07F7/08, B41J2/165, G06K7/14, G11C11/56, B41J3/44, G06K19/06, B41J11/70, G07F7/12
Cooperative ClassificationB41J2202/19, B41J3/445, H04N2201/3222, H04N2101/00, B41J2/17596, G06K19/06037, B41J15/04, H04N1/00965, G06K7/14, H04N5/2628, B41J11/0005, H04N2201/02402, B41J2002/14362, B41J2/1433, B42D2035/34, H04N2201/328, G03B2219/045, G03B17/53, G06F2221/2129, B41J2/17503, G07F7/086, G06F21/79, G06K1/121, H04N2201/3261, B82Y30/00, B41J2/16585, G11C11/56, H04N2201/3264, G06K19/073, G07F7/08, G07F7/12, B41J3/36, H04N5/2252, B41J2/155, B41J2002/14419, H04N9/045, H04N2201/3269, G06F21/86, B41J2/16517, B41J2/17513, G03B17/02, B41J2202/21, H04N2201/3276, H04N1/2112, B41J2/16505, H04N5/225, H04N1/2154, G06K7/1417, B41J11/70, H04N1/32101
European ClassificationB82Y30/00, B41J2/155, B41J2/14G, B41J2/165C, H04N9/04B, G03B17/53, B41J2/165B, G03B17/02, B41J2/165L, G07F7/12, G06K7/14A2C, G06F21/79, G06F21/86, H04N1/21B3H, H04N1/00W1, G06K19/06C3, B41J11/70, B41J15/04, G07F7/08B, B41J11/00A, G06K19/073, G06K7/14, G06K1/12B, H04N5/262T, H04N1/21B3, B41J2/175C2, B41J3/36, B41J2/175C, H04N5/225, H04N1/32C, G11C11/56, B41J3/44B, G07F7/08
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