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Publication numberUS20080200476 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/098,581
Publication dateAug 21, 2008
Filing dateApr 7, 2008
Priority dateAug 18, 2003
Also published asCA2534682A1, CA2534682C, EP1663235A1, EP1663235A4, EP1663235B1, US7064129, US7247637, US7368447, US7368451, US7388013, US7410968, US7868010, US8431579, US20050080091, US20050228182, US20050234072, US20060052394, US20060052395, US20060205738, US20080167466, US20080171880, US20080176863, US20090018144, US20110046158, WO2005018644A1, WO2005018644B1
Publication number098581, 12098581, US 2008/0200476 A1, US 2008/200476 A1, US 20080200476 A1, US 20080200476A1, US 2008200476 A1, US 2008200476A1, US-A1-20080200476, US-A1-2008200476, US2008/0200476A1, US2008/200476A1, US20080200476 A1, US20080200476A1, US2008200476 A1, US2008200476A1
InventorsMichael R. Johnson
Original AssigneeParion Sciences, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Alaphatic pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
US 20080200476 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to sodium channel blockers. The present invention also includes a variety of methods of treatment using these inventive sodium channel blockers.
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Claims(7)
1-178. (canceled)
179. A method of restoring mucosal defense, comprising administering an to a mucosal surface of a subject in need thereof an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I):
wherein
X is hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, lower alkyl-thio, phenyl-lower alkyl-thio, lower alkyl-sulfonyl, or phenyl-lower alkyl-sulfonyl;
Y is hydrogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, lower alkoxy, lower alkyl-thio, halogen, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted mononuclear aryl, or N(R2)2;
R1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl;
each R2 is, independently, R7, (CH2)mOR8, (CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-Zg-R7, (CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, or
R3 and R4 are each, independently, hydrogen, a group represented by formula (A), lower alkyl, hydroxy lower alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-lower alkyl, (halophenyl)-lower alkyl, lower-(alkylphenylalkyl), lower (alkoxyphenyl)-lower alkyl, naphthyl-lower alkyl, or pyridyl-lower alkyl, with the proviso that at least one of R3 and R4 is a group represented by formula (A):

(C(RL)2)O-x-(C(RL)2)PCR5R6R6  (A)
each RL is, independently, R7, (CH2), OR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)R8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
each o is, independently, an integer from 0 to 17;
each p is an integer from 0 to 17;
with the proviso that the sum of o and p in each contiguous chain is from 1 to 17;
each x is, independently, O, NR10, C(═O), CHOH, C(═NR10), CHNR7R10, or represents a single bond, with the proviso that when x is a single bond the sum of o and p is from 7 to 17;
each R5 is, independently, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
 (CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)mNR12R12, O(CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)m-(Z)gR12, (CH2)nNR11R11, O(CH2)mNR11R11, (CH2), N(R11)3, O(CH2)mN(R11)3, (CH2)n-(Z)g(CH2)mNR10R10, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, (CH2)n(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)nNR10O(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, O(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mOR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mCO2R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)nNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)gR12, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR11R11, -(Het)-(CH2)mN-(R11)3, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10)-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)1-7CH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)1-7CH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, -Link-(CH2)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2-CAP, -Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)nNR13CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2), (CHOR8)mCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, -Link-(CH2)nNR13(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, -Link-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-NHC(═O)NH(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)mC(═O)NR10R10, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR11R11, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR12R12, -Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)m-(Z)g-CAP, or -Link-Zg-(CH2)m-Het-(CH2)m-CAP;
each Link is, independently, O, (CH2)n, O(CH2)m, NR13C(═O)NR13, NR13C(═O)(CH2)m, C(═O)NR13(CH2)m, (CH2)n-Zg-(CH2)n, S, SO, SO2, SO2NR7, SO2NR10, or -Het-;
each CAP is, independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, -heteroaryl-C(═O)N R13R13, -heteroaryl-W, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,
each Ar is, independently, phenyl, substituted phenyl, wherein the substituents of the substituted phenyl are 1-3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of OH, OCH3, NR13R13, Cl, F, and CH3, or heteroaryl;
each W is independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)NR13R13, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,
each R6 is, independently, R5, R7, OR8, N(R7)2, (CH2)mOR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
each R7 is, independently, hydrogen lower alkyl, phenyl, or substituted phenyl;
each R8 is, independently, hydrogen, lower alkyl, C(═O)R11, glucuronide, 2-tetrahydropyranyl, or
each R9 is, independently, CO2R13, CON(R13)2, SO2CH2R13, or C(═O)R13;
each R10 is, independently, H, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or (CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH;
each Z is, independently, CHOH, C(═O), (CH2)n, CHNR13R13, C═NR13, or NR13;
each R11 is, independently, lower alkyl;
each R12 is, independently, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or CH2(CHOH), CH2OH;
each R13 is, independently, hydrogen, lower alkyl, phenyl, substituted phenyl, SO2CH3, CO2R7, C(═O)NR7R7, C(═O)NR7SO2CH3, C(═O)NR7CO2R7, C(═O)NR7C(═O)NR7R7, C(═O)NR7C(═O)R7, C(═O)NR7(CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH, C(═O)R7, or (CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH;
each Het is independently, NR13, S, SO, SO2, O, SO2NR13, NHSO2, NR13CO, or CONR13;
each g is, independently, an integer from 1 to 6;
each m is, independently, an integer from 1 to 7;
each n is, independently, an integer from 0 to 7;
with the proviso that, when any two CH2OR8 groups in the compound are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other, the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and
inclusive of all enantiomers, diastereomers, and racemic mixtures thereof.
180. The method of claim 179, wherein
Y is NH2,
R2 is hydrogen,
R1 is hydrogen,
X is chlorine,
R3 is hydrogen,
each RL is hydrogen, and
each R6 is hydrogen.
181. The compound of claim 179, compound represented by formula (I) is represented by the formula:
182. A method of preventing the onset of ventilator-induced pneumonia, comprising administering to a subject on a ventilator an effective amount of the compound represented by formula (I): an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I):
wherein
X is hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, lower alkyl-thio, phenyl-lower alkyl-thio, lower alkyl-sulfonyl, or phenyl-lower alkyl-sulfonyl;
Y is hydrogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, lower alkoxy, lower alkyl-thio, halogen, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted mononuclear aryl, or N(R2)2;
R1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl;
each R2 is, independently, R7, (CH2)mOR8, (CH2)mNR7R10(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-Zg-R7, (CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, or
R3 and R4 are each, independently, hydrogen, a group represented by formula (A), lower alkyl, hydroxy lower alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-lower alkyl, (halophenyl)-lower alkyl, lower-(alkylphenylalkyl), lower (alkoxyphenyl)-lower alkyl, naphthyl-lower alkyl, or pyridyl-lower alkyl, with the proviso that at least one of R3 and R4 is a group represented by formula (A):

(C(RL)2)O-x-(C(RL)2)PCR5R6R6  (A)
each RL is, independently, R7, (CH2), OR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7(CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
each o is, independently, an integer from 0 to 17;
each p is an integer from 0 to 17;
with the proviso that the sum of o and p in each contiguous chain is from 1 to 17;
each x is, independently, O, NR10, C(═O), CHOH, C(═NR10), CHNR7R10, or represents a single bond, with the proviso that when x is a single bond the sum of o and p is from 7 to 17;
each R5 is, independently, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
 (CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)mNR12R12, O(CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)m-(Z)gR12, (CH2)nNR11R11, O(CH2)mNR11R11, (CH2)nN(R11)3, O(CH2)mN(R11)3, (CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, (CH2)n(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, (CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)nNR10O(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, O(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mOR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mCO2R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)nNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)gR12, (Het)-(CH2)mNR11R11, -(Het)-(CH2)mN(R11)3, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)1-7CH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)1-7CH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located 1,2- or 1,3- to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, -Link-(CH2)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2-CAP, -Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-CAP, -Link (CH2)n(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)nNR13CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, -Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, -Link-(CH2)nNR13(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, -Link-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-NHC(═O)NH(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)mC(═O)NR10R10, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)m-CAP, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR11R11, -Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR12R12, -Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)m-(Z)g-CAP, or -Link-Zg-(CH2)m-Het-(CH2)m-CAP;
each Link is, independently, O, (CH2)n, O(CH2)m, NR13C(═O)NR13, NR13C(═O)(CH2)m, C(═O)NR13(CH2)m, (CH2)n-Zg-(CH2)n, S, SO, SO2, SO2NR7, SO2NR10, or -Het-;
each CAP is, independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, -heteroaryl-C(═O)NR13R13, -heteroaryl-W, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,
each Ar is, independently, phenyl, substituted phenyl, wherein the substituents of the substituted phenyl are 1-3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of OH, OCH3, NR13R13, Cl, F, and CH3, or heteroaryl;
each W is independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)NR13R13, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,
each R6 is, independently, R5, R7, OR8, N(R7)2, (CH2)mOR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,
each R7 is, independently, hydrogen lower alkyl, phenyl, or substituted phenyl;
each R8 is, independently, hydrogen, lower alkyl, C(═O)R11, glucuronide, 2-tetrahydropyranyl, or
each R9 is, independently, CO2R13, CON(R13)2, SO2CH2R13, or C(═O)R13;
each R10 is, independently, H, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or (CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH;
each Z is, independently, CHOH, C(═O), (CH2)n, CHNR13R13, C═NR13, or NR13;
each R11 is, independently, lower alkyl;
each R12 is, independently, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or CH2(CHOH)nCH2OH;
each R13 is, independently, hydrogen, lower alkyl, phenyl, substituted phenyl, SO2CH3, CO2R7, C(═O)NR7R7, C(═O)NR7SO2CH3, C(═O)NR7CO2R7, C(═O)NR7C(═O)NR7R7, C(═O)NR7C(═O)R7, C(═O)NR7(CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH, C(═O)R7, or (CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH;
each Het is independently, NR13, S, SO, SO2, O, SO2NR13, NHSO2, NR13CO, or CONR13;
each g is, independently, an integer from 1 to 6;
each m is, independently, an integer from 1 to 7;
each n is, independently, an integer from 0 to 7;
with the proviso that, when any two CH2OR8 groups in the compound are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other, the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and
inclusive of all enantiomers, diastereomers, and racemic mixtures thereof.
183. The method of claim 182, wherein
Y is NH2,
R2 is hydrogen,
R1 is hydrogen,
X is chlorine,
R3 is hydrogen,
each RL is hydrogen, and
each R6 is hydrogen.
184. The compound of claim 182, compound represented by formula (I) is represented by the formula:
Description
CONTINUING APPLICATION DATA

This application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/495,712, filed on Aug. 18, 2003, and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to sodium channel blockers. The present invention also includes a variety of methods of treatment using these inventive sodium channel blockers.

2. Description of the Background

The mucosal surfaces at the interface between the environment and the body have evolved a number of innate defense, i.e., protective mechanisms. A principal form of such innate defense is to cleanse these surfaces with liquid. Typically, the quantity of the liquid layer on a mucosal surface reflects the balance between epithelial liquid secretion, often reflecting anion (Cl and/or HCO3 ) secretion coupled with water (and a cation counter-ion), and epithelial liquid absorption, often reflecting Na+ absorption, coupled with water and counter anion (Cl and/or HCO3 ). Many diseases of mucosal surfaces are caused by too little protective liquid on those mucosal surfaces created by an imbalance between secretion (too little) and absorption (relatively too much). The defective salt transport processes that characterize these mucosal dysfunctions reside in the epithelial layer of the mucosal surface.

One approach to replenish the protective liquid layer on mucosal surfaces is to re-balance the system by blocking Na+ channel and liquid absorption. The epithelial protein that mediates the rate-limiting step of Na+ and liquid absorption is the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). ENaC is positioned on the apical surface of the epithelium, i.e. the mucosal surface-environmental interface. Therefore, to inhibit ENaC mediated Na+ and liquid absorption, an ENaC blocker of the amiloride class (which blocks from the extracellular domain of ENaC) must be delivered to the mucosal surface and, importantly, be maintained at this site, to achieve therapeutic utility. The present invention describes diseases characterized by too little liquid on mucosal surfaces and topical sodium channel blockers designed to exhibit the increased potency, reduced mucosal absorption, and slow dissociation (unbinding or detachment) from ENaC required for therapy of these diseases.

Chronic bronchitis (CB), including the most common lethal genetic form of chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis (CF), are diseases that reflect the body's failure to clear mucus normally from the lungs, which ultimately produces chronic airways infection. In the normal lung, the primary defense against chronic intrapulmonary airways infection (chronic bronchitis) is mediated by the continuous clearance of mucus from bronchial airway surfaces. This function in health effectively removes from the lung potentially noxious toxins and pathogens. Recent data indicate that the initiating problem, i.e., the basic defect, in both CB and CF is the failure to clear mucus from airway surfaces. The failure to clear mucus reflects an imbalance between the amount of liquid and mucin on airway surfaces. This airway surface liquid (ASL) is primarily composed of salt and water in proportions similar to plasma (i.e., isotonic). Mucin macromolecules organize into a well defined mucus layer which normally traps inhaled bacteria and is transported out of the lung via the actions of cilia which beat in a watery, low viscosity solution termed the periciliary liquid (PCL). In the disease state, there is an imbalance in the quantities of mucus as ASL on airway surfaces. This results in a relative reduction in ASL which leads to mucus concentration, reduction in the lubricant activity of the PCL, and a failure to clear mucus via ciliary activity to the mouth. The reduction in mechanical clearance of mucus from the lung leads to chronic bacterial colonization of mucus adherent to airway surfaces. It is the chronic retention of bacteria, the failure of local antimicrobial substances to kill mucus-entrapped bacteria on a chronic basis, and the consequent chronic inflammatory responses of the body to this type of surface infection, that lead to the syndromes of CB and CF.

The current afflicted population in the U.S. is 12,000,000 patients with the acquired (primarily from cigarette smoke exposure) form of chronic bronchitis and approximately 30,000 patients with the genetic form, cystic fibrosis. Approximately equal numbers of both populations are present in Europe. In Asia, there is little CF but the incidence of CB is high and, like the rest of the world, is increasing.

There is currently a large, unmet medical need for products that specifically treat CB and CF at the level of the basic defect that cause these diseases. The current therapies for chronic bronchitis and cystic fibrosis focus on treating the symptoms and/or the late effects of these diseases. Thus, for chronic bronchitis, β-agonists, inhaled steroids, anti-cholinergic agents, and oral theophyllines and phosphodiesterase inhibitors are all in development. However, none of these drugs treat effectively the fundamental problem of the failure to clear mucus from the lung. Similarly, in cystic fibrosis, the same spectrum of pharmacologic agents is used. These strategies have been complemented by more recent strategies designed to clear the CF lung of the DNA (Pulmozyme; Genentech) that has been deposited in the lung by neutrophils that have futilely attempted to kill the bacteria that grow in adherent mucus masses and through the use of inhaled antibiotics (TOBI) designed to augment the lungs' own killing mechanisms to rid the adherent mucus plaques of bacteria. A general principle of the body is that if the initiating lesion is not treated, in this case mucus retention/obstruction, bacterial infections became chronic and increasingly refractory to antimicrobial therapy. Thus, a major unmet therapeutic need for both CB and CF lung diseases is an effective means of re-hydrating airway mucus (i.e., restoring/expanding the volume of the ASL) and promoting its clearance, with bacteria, from the lung.

R. C. Boucher, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,264,975, describes the use of pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers for hydrating mucosal surfaces. These compounds, typified by the well-known diuretics amiloride, benzamil, and phenamil, are effective. However, these compounds suffer from the significant disadvantage that they are (1) relatively impotent, which is important because the mass of drug that can be inhaled by the lung is limited; (2) rapidly absorbed, which limits the half-life of the drug on the mucosal surface; and (3) are freely dissociable from ENaC. The sum of these disadvantages embodied in these well known diurectics produces compounds with insufficient potency and/or effective half-life on mucosal surfaces to have therapeutic benefit for hydrating mucosal surfaces.

Clearly, what is needed are drugs that are more effective at restoring the clearance of mucus from the lungs of patients with CB/CF. The value of these new therapies will be reflected in improvements in the quality and duration of life for both the CF and the CB populations.

Other mucosal surfaces in and on the body exhibit subtle differences in the normal physiology of the protective surface liquids on their surfaces but the pathophysiology of disease reflects a common theme, i.e., too little protective surface liquid. For example, in xerostomia (dry mouth) the oral cavity is depleted of liquid due to a failure of the parotid sublingual and submandibular glands to secrete liquid despite continued Na+ (ENaC) transport mediated liquid absorption from the oral cavity. Similarly, keratoconjunctivitis sira (dry eye) is caused by failure of lacrimal glands to secrete liquid in the face of continued Na+ dependent liquid absorption on conjunctional surfaces. In rhinosinusitis, there is an imbalance, as in CB, between mucin secretion and relative ASL depletion. Finally, in the gastrointestinal tract, failure to secrete Cl (and liquid) in the proximal small intestine, combined with increased Na+ (and liquid) absorption in the terminal ileum leads to the distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS). In older patients excessive Na+ (and volume) absorption in the descending colon produces constipation and diverticulitis.

Fifty million Americans and hundreds of millions of others around the world suffer from high blood pressure and the subsequent sequale leading to congestive heart failure and increasing mortality. It is the Western World's leading killer and there is a need there for new medicines to treat these diseases. Thus, in addition, some of the novel sodium channel blockers of this invention can be designed to target the kidney and as such they may be used as diuretics for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF) and other cardiovascular diseases. These new agents may be used alone or in combination with beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, HMGCoA reductase inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and other cardiovascular agents.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide compounds that are more potent and/or absorbed less rapidly from mucosal surfaces, and/or are less reversible as compared to known compounds.

It is another aspect of the present invention to provide compounds of formula (I) that are more potent and/or absorbed less rapidly and/or exhibit less reversibility, as compared to compounds such as amilorde, benzamil, and phenamil. Therefore, the compounds of formula (I) will give a prolonged pharmacodynamic half-life on mucosal surfaces as compared to known compounds.

It is another object of the present invention to provide compounds of formula (I) which are (1) absorbed less rapidly from mucosal surfaces, especially airway surfaces, as compared to known compounds and; (2) when absorbed from musosal surfaces after administration to the mucosal surfaces, are converted in vivo into metabolic derivatives thereof which have reduced efficacy in blocking sodium channels as compared to the administered parent compound.

It is another object of the present invention to provide compounds of formula (I) that are more potent and/or absorbed less rapidly and/or exhibit less reversibility, as compared to compounds such as amiloride, benzamil, and phenamil. Therefore, the compounds of formula (I) will give a prolonged pharmacodynamic half-life on mucosal surfaces as compared to previous compounds.

It is another object of the present invention to provide compounds of formula (I) that target the kidney for use in the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

It is another object of the present invention to provide methods of treatment which take advantage of the properties described above.

The objects of the present invention may be accomplished with a class of pyrazinoylguanidine compounds represented by formula (I):

wherein

X is hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, lower alkyl-thio, phenyl-lower alkyl-thio, lower alkyl-sulfonyl, or phenyl-lower alkyl-sulfonyl;

Y is hydrogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, lower alkoxy, lower alkyl-thio, halogen, lower alkyl, unsubstituted or substituted mononuclear aryl, or N(R2)2;

R1 is hydrogen or lower alkyl;

each R2 is, independently, R7, (CH2)mOR8, (CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-Zg-R7, (CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, or

R3 and R4 are each, independently, hydrogen, a group represented by formula (A), lower alkyl, hydroxy lower alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-lower alkyl, (halophenyl)-lower alkyl, lower-(alkylphenylalkyl), lower (alkoxyphenyl)-lower alkyl, naphthyl-lower alkyl, or pyridyl-lower alkyl, with the proviso that at least one of R3 and R4 is a group represented by formula (A):


(C(RL)2)O-x-(C(RL)2)PCR5R6R6  (A)

wherein

each RL is, independently, R7, (CH2), OR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O), CH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2), C(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR11CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,

each o is, independently, an integer from 0 to 17;

each p is an integer from 0 to 17;

with the proviso that the sum of o and p in each contiguous chain is from 1 to 17;

each x is, independently, O, NR10, C(═O), CHOH, C(═NR10), CHNR7R10, or represents a single bond, with the proviso that when x is a single bond the sum of o and p is from 7 to 17;

each R5 is, independently, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2), C(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)C(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,

each R5 may also be, independently, (CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)mNR12R12, O(CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)m-(Z)gR2(CH2)nNR11R11, O(CH2)nNR11R11, (CH2), N(R11)3, O(CH2)mN(R11)3, (CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, (CH2)n(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)nNR10O(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, O(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mOR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mCO2R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)nNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)gR2, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR11R11, -(Het)-(CH2)mN(R11)3, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10,

wherein when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,

(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,
O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,
(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, or
O(CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;

wherein each R5 may also be, independently, Link-(CH2)n-CAP, Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2-CAP, Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2 CAP, Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-CAP, Link-CH2)n(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, Link-(CH2)nNR13CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, Link-(CH2)nNR13(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, Link-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, Link-NHC(═O)NH(CH2)m-CAP, Link-CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)mC(═O)NR10R10, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR-3-(CH2)m-CAP, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR11R11, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR12R12, Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)m-(Z)g-CAP, Link-Zg-(CH2)m-Het-(CH2)m-CAP;

each Link is, independently, O, (CH2)n, O(CH2)m, NR13C(═O)NR13, NR13C(═O)(CH2)m, C(═O)NR13(CH2)m, (CH2)n-Zg-(CH2)n, S, SO, SO2, SO2NR7, SO2NR10, or -Het-;

each CAP is, independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)NR13R13, heteroaryl-W, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,

each Ar is, independently, phenyl, substituted phenyl, wherein the substituents of the substituted phenyl are 1-3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of OH, OCH3, NR13R13, Cl, F, and CH3, or heteroaryl;

each W is independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)NR13R13, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,

Examples of heteroaryl include pyridyl, pyrazyl, tinazyl, furyl, furfuryl, thienyl, tetrazyl, thiazolidinedionyl and imidazoyl, pyrrolyl, furanyl, thiophenyl, quinolyl, indolyl, adenyl, pyrazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, purinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, pyridazyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazyl, 1,2,3-triazyl, 1,2,4-triazyl, 1,3,5-triazyl, cinnolyl, phthalazyl, quinazolyl, quinoxalyl or pterdyl groups.

In the groups above, when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;

each R6 is, independently, R5, R7, OR8, N(R7)2, (CH2)mOR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,

wherein when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;

each R7 is, independently, hydrogen lower alkyl, phenyl, substituted phenyl, or CH2(CHOR)8 m-R10;

each R8 is, independently, hydrogen, lower alkyl, C(═O)R11, glucuronide, 2-tetrahydropyranyl, or

each R9 is, independently, CO2R13, CON(R13)2, SO2CH2R13, or C(═O)R13;

each R10 is, independently, H, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or CH2)m(CHOH)nCH2OH;

each Z is, independently, CHOH, C(═O), (CH2)n, CHNR13R13, C═NR13, or NR13;

each R11 is, independently, lower alkyl;

    • each R12 is independently, SO2CH3, CO2R13, C(═O)NR13R13, C(═O)R13, or CH2(CHOH)nCH2OH;
    • each R13 is, independently, hydrogen, R7, R10, (CH2)mNR13R13, +(CH2)mNR13R13R13, (CH2)m(CHOR8)m(CH2)mNR13R13(CH2)mNR10R10+(CH2)m(CHOR8)m(CH2)mNR13R13R13,

with the proviso that NR13R13 can be joined on itself to form a ring comprising one of the following:

each Het is independently, NR13, S, SO, or SO2; O, SO2NR13, NHSO2, NR13CO, or CONR13;

each g is, independently, an integer from 1 to 6;

each m is, independently, an integer from 1 to 7;

each n is, independently, an integer from 0 to 7;

each V is, independently, (CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)mNR7R7, (CH2)m+NR11R11R11, CH2)n(CHOR8)m(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)nNR10R10, +(CH2)n(CHOR8)m(CH2)mNR7R7, (CH2)n(CHOR8)m(CH2)mNR11R11R11

    • with the proviso that when V is attached directly to a nitrogen atom, then V can also be, independently, R7, R10, or (R11)2;

wherein for any of the above compounds when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;

wherein any of the above compounds can be a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, and wherein the above compounds are inclusive of all enantiomers, diastereomers, and racemic mixtures thereof.

In a preferred embodiment, each (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7 falls within the scope of the structures described above and is, independently,

(CH2), (C═N)NH2,

(CH2), NHC(═NH)NH2,

(CH2), CONHCH2(CHOH)nCH2OH, or

NHC(═O)CH2(CHOH)nCH2OH.

In another a preferred embodiment, each O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7 falls within the scope of the structures described above and is, independently,

O(CH2)MNHC(═NH)N(R7)2, or

O(CH2)mCHNH2CO2NR7R10.

In another preferred embodiment, each R5 falls within the scope of the structures described above and is, independently,

OCH2CHOHCH2O-glucuronide,

OCH2CHOHCH3,

OCH2CH2NH2,

OCH2CH2NHCO(CH3)3,

CH2CH2OH,

OCH2CH2OH,

O(CH2)m-Boc,

(CH2)m-Boc,

OCH2CH2OH,

OCH2CO2H,

O(CH2)m, NE-C(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2)nNHC(═NH)N(R7)2,

NHCH2(CHOH)2CH2OH,

OCH2CO2Et,

NHSO2CH3,

(CH2)mNHC(═O)OR7,

O(CH2)mNHC(═O)OR7,

(CH2)nNHC(═O)R11,

O(CH2)mNHC(═O)R11,

OCH2C(═O)NH2,

CH2NH2,

NHCO2Et,

OCH2CH2CH2CH2OH,

CH2NHSO2CH3,

OCH2CH2CHOHCH2OH,

OCH2CH2NHCO2Et,

NHC(═NH2)-NH2,

OCH2 (α-CHOH)2CH2OH

OCH2CHOHCH2NH2,

(CH2)mCHOHCH2NHBoc,

O(CH2)mCHOHCH2NHBoc,

(CH2)mNHC(O)OR7,

O(CH2)mNHC(O)OR7,

OCH2CH2CH2NH2,

OCH2CH2NHCH2(CHOH)2CH2OH,

OCH2CH2NH(CH2[(CHOH)2CH2OH)]2,

(CH2)4NHBoc,

(CH2)4NH2,

(CH2)4OH,

OCH2CH2NHSO2CH3,

O(CH2)mC(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2), C(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2)3NH Boc,

(CH2)3NH2,

O(CH2)mNHNHC(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2), NHNHC(═NH)N(R7)2, or

OCH2CHOHCH2NHC(═NH)N(R7)2;

Preferred examples of R5 in the embodiments described above include:

N(SO2CH3)2, CH2CHNHBocCO2CH3 (α), OCH2CHNH2CO2H (α), OCH2CHNH2CO2CH3 (α), O(CH2)2N+(CH3)3, C(═O)NH(CH2)2NH2, and C(═O)NH(CH2)2NHC(═NH)NH2.

Preferred examples of R5 also include:

N(SO2CH3)2, CH2CHNHBocCO2CH3 (α), OCH2CHNH2CO2H (α), OCH2CHNH2CO2CH3 (α), O(CH2)2N+(CH3)3, C(═O)NH(CH2)2NH2, C(═O)NH(CH2)2NHC(═NH)NH2, and

The present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions which contain a compound described above.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting hydration of mucosal surfaces, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a mucosal surface of a subject.

The present invention also provides a method of restoring mucosal defense, comprising:

topically administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to a mucosal surface of a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of blocking ENaC, comprising:

contacting sodium channels with an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I).

The present invention also provides a method of promoting mucus clearance in mucosal surfaces, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a mucosal surface of a subject.

The present invention also provides a method of treating chronic bronchitis, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating cystic fibrosis, comprising:

administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating rhinosinusitis, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by a formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating nasal dehydration, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the nasal passages of a subject in need thereof.

In a specific embodiment, the nasal dehydration is brought on by administering dry oxygen to the subject.

The present invention also provides a method of treating sinusitis, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating pneumonia, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of preventing ventilator-induced pneumonia, comprising:

administering an effective compound represented by formula (I) to a subject by means of a ventilator.

The present invention also provides a method of treating asthma, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating primary ciliary dyskinesia, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating otitis media, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of inducing sputum for diagnostic purposes, comprising:

administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating emphysema, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating dry eye, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the eye of the subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting ocular hydration, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the eye of the subject.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting corneal hydration, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the eye of the subject.

The present invention also provides a method of treating Sjgren's disease, comprising:

administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating vaginal dryness, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the vaginal tract of a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating dry skin, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to the skin of a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating dry mouth (xerostomia), comprising:

administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to the mouth of the subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, comprising:

administering an effective amount of compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating esophagitis, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating constipation, comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof. In one embodiment of this method, the compound is administered either orally or via a suppository or enema.

The present invention also provides a method of treating chronic diverticulitis comprising:

administering an effective amount of a compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating hypertension, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of reducing blood pressure, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of treating edema, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting diuresis, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting natriuresis, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

The present invention also provides a method of promoting saluresis, comprising administering the compound represented by formula (I) to a subject in need thereof.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is based on the discovery that the compounds of formula (I) are more potent and/or, absorbed less rapidly from mucosal surfaces, especially airway surfaces, and/or less reversible from interactions with ENaC as compared to compounds such as amiloride, benzamil, and phenamil. Therefore, the compounds of formula (I) have a longer half-life on mucosal surfaces as compared to these compounds.

The present invention is also based on the discovery that certain compounds embraced by formula (I) are converted in vivo into metabolic derivatives thereof that have reduced efficacy in blocking sodium channels as compared to the parent administered compound, after they are absorbed from mucosal surfaces after administration. This important property means that the compounds will have a lower tendency to cause undesired side-effects by blocking sodium channels located at untargeted locations in the body of the recipient, e.g., in the kidneys.

In the compounds represented by formula (I), X may be hydrogen, halogen, trifluoromethyl, lower alkyl, lower cycloalkyl, unsubstituted or substituted phenyl, lower alkyl-thio, phenyl-lower alkyl-thio, lower alkyl-sulfonyl, or phenyl-lower alkyl-sulfonyl. Halogen is preferred.

Examples of halogen include fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Chlorine and bromine are the preferred halogens. Chlorine is particularly preferred. This description is applicable to the term halogen as used throughout the present disclosure.

As used herein, the term lower alkyl means an alkyl group having less than 8 carbon atoms. This range includes all specific values of carbon atoms and subranges there between, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 carbon atoms. The term alkyl embraces all types of such groups, e.g., linear, branched, and cyclic alkyl groups. This description is applicable to the term lower alkyl as used throughout the present disclosure. Examples of suitable lower alkyl groups include methyl, ethyl, propyl, cyclopropyl, butyl, isobutyl, etc.

Substituents for the phenyl group include halogens. Particularly preferred halogen substituents are chlorine and bromine.

Y may be hydrogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, lower alkoxy, lower alkyl-thio, halogen, lower alkyl, lower cycloalkyl, mononuclear aryl, or N(R2)2. The alkyl moiety of the lower alkoxy groups is the same as described above. Examples of mononuclear aryl include phenyl groups. The phenyl group may be unsubstituted or substituted as described above. The preferred identity of Y is N(R2)2. Particularly preferred are such compounds where each R2 is hydrogen.

R1 may be hydrogen or lower alkyl. Hydrogen is preferred for R1.

Each R2 may be, independently, R7, (CH2)mOR8, (CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-Zg-R7, (CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2), CO2R7, or

Hydrogen and lower alkyl, particularly C1-C3 alkyl are preferred for R2. Hydrogen is particularly preferred.

R3 and R4 may be, independently, hydrogen, a group represented by formula (A), lower alkyl, hydroxy lower alkyl, phenyl, phenyl-lower alkyl, (halophenyl)-lower alkyl, lower-(alkylphenylalkyl), lower (alkoxyphenyl)-lower alkyl, naphthyl-lower alkyl, or pyridyl-lower alkyl, provided that at least one of R3 and R4 is a group represented by formula (A).

Preferred compounds are those where one of R3 and R4 is hydrogen and the other is represented by formula (A).

In formula (A), the moiety (C(RL)2)o-x-(C(RL)2)p defines an alkylene group. The variables o and p may each be an integer from 0 to 17, subject to the proviso that the sum of o and p in the chain is from 1 to 17. Thus, o and p may each be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 or 17. Preferably, the sum of o and p is from 2 to 6. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the sum of o and p is 4.

The linking group in the alkylene chain, x, may be, independently, O, NR10, C(═O), CHOH, C(═NR10), CHNR7R10, or represents a single bond.

Therefore, when x represents a single bond, the alkylene chain bonded to the ring is represented by the formula (C(RL)2)o+p, in which the sum o+p is from 1 to 10. When x is a single bond, the sum of o and p is from 7 to 17, inclusive of all values and subranges therebetween.

Each RL may be, independently, R7, (CH2), OR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,

The preferred RL groups include H, OH, N(R7)2, especially where each R7 is hydrogen.

In the alkylene chain in formula (A), it is preferred that when one RL group bonded to a carbon atoms is other than hydrogen, then the other RL bonded to that carbon atom is hydrogen, i.e., the formula CHRL. It is also preferred that at most two RL groups in an alkylene chain are other than hydrogen, where in the other RL groups in the chain are hydrogens. Even more preferably, only one RL group in an alkylene chain is other than hydrogen, where in the other RL groups in the chain are hydrogens. In these embodiments, it is preferable that x represents a single bond.

In another particular embodiment of the invention, all of the RL groups in the alkylene chain are hydrogen. In these embodiments, the alkylene chain is represented by the formula


(CH2)o-x-(CH2)p.

Each R5 may be, independently, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)CH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR8, O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2)nC(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7, OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose,

Each R5 may also be, independently, (CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)mNR12R12, O(CH2)nNR12R12, O(CH2)m-(Z)gR12, (CH2)nNR11R11, O(CH2)mNR11R11, (CH2)nN(R11)3, O(CH2)mN(R11)3, (CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, (CH2)n(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, (CH2)nNR10O(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, O(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mOR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mR8, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, -(Het)-(CH2)mCO2R7, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)nNR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)n-(Z)gR12, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR11R11, -(Het)-(CH2)mN(R11)3, -(Het)-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)mNR10R10, -(Het)-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(C═O)NR12R12, -(Het)-(CH2)m(CHOR8)mCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10, -(Het)-(CH2)mNR10(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR10-(Z)g-R10,

wherein when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,

(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,
O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane,
(CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane, or
O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, with the proviso that at least two CH2OR8 are located adjacent to each other and the R8 groups are joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane;

Each R5 may also be, independently, Link-(CH2)n-CAP, Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2-CAP, Link-(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2-CAP, Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-CAP, Link-(CH2)n(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, Link (CH2)nNR13CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)n-CAP, Link-(CH2)n(CHOR8)nCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, Link-(CH2)nNR13(CH2)m(CHOR8)nCH2NR13-(Z)g-CAP, Link-(CH2)m-(Z)g-(CH2)m-CAP, Link-NHC(═O)NH(CH2)m-CAP, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)mC(═O)NR10R10, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR13(CH2)m-CAP, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR11R11, Link-(CH2)mC(═O)NR12R12, Link-(CH2)n-(Z)g-(CH2)m-(Z)g-CAP, Link-Zg-(CH2)m-Het-(CH2)m-CAP.

Each Link is, independently, O, (CH2)n, O(CH2)m, NR13C(═O)NR13, NR13C(═O)(CH2)m, C(═O)NR13(CH2)m, (CH2)n-Zg-(CH2)n, S, SO, SO2, SO2NR7, SO2NR10, or -Het-;

Each CAP is, independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)N R13R13, heteroaryl-W, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, -ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13) (Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,

Each Ar is, independently, phenyl, substituted phenyl, wherein the substituents of the substituted phenyl are 1-3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of OH, OCH3, NR13R13, Cl, F, and CH3, or heteroaryl.

Each W is independently, thiazolidinedione, oxazolidinedione, heteroaryl-C(═O)N R13R13, CN, OC(═S)NR13R13, ZgR13, CR10(ZgR13)(ZgR13), C(═O)OAr, C(═O)NR13Ar, imidazoline, tetrazole, tetrazole amide, SO2NHR13, SO2NHC(R13R13)-(Z)g-R13, a cyclic sugar or oligosaccharide, a cyclic amino sugar or oligosaccharide,

Examples of heteroaryl include pyridyl, pyrazyl, tinazyl, furyl, furfuryl, thienyl, tetrazyl, thiazolidinedionyl and imidazoyl, pyrrolyl, furanyl, thiophenyl, quinolyl, indolyl, adenyl, pyrazolyl, thiazolyl, isoxazolyl, indolyl, benzimidazolyl, purinyl, quinolinyl, isoquinolinyl, pyridazyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazyl, 1,2,3-triazyl, 1,2,4-triazyl, 1,3,5-triazyl, cinnolyl, phthalazyl, quinazolyl, quinoxalyl or pterdyl groups.

In the groups above, when two CH2OR8 groups are located 1,2- or 1,3- with respect to each other the R8 groups may be joined to form a cyclic mono- or di-substituted 1,3-dioxane or 1,3-dioxolane.

In a preferred embodiment, each (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7 falls within the scope of the structures described above and is, independently,

(CH2), (C═N)NH2,

(CH2), NHC(═NH)NH2,

(CH2), CONHCH2(CHOH), CH2OH, or

NHC(═O)CH2(CHOH)nCH2OH.

In another a preferred embodiment, each O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7 falls within the scope of the structures described above and is, independently,

O(CH2)MNHC(═NH)N(R7)2, or

O(CH2)mCHNH2CO2NR7R10.

In another preferred embodiment, R5 may be is within the scope of the groups described above as follows:

OCH2CHOHCH2O-glucuronide,

OCH2CHOHCH3,

OCH2CH2NH2,

OCH2CH2NHCO(CH3)3,

CH2CH2OH,

OCH2CH2OH,

O(CH2)m-Boc,

(CH2)m-Boc,

OCH2CH2OH,

OCH2CO2H,

O(CH2)mNHC(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2), NHC(═NH)N(R7)2,

NHCH2(CHOH)2CH2OH,

OCH2CO2Et,

NHSO2CH3,

(CH2), NHC(═O)OR7,

O(CH2), NHC(═O)OR7,

(CH2)nNHC(═O)R11,

O(CH2)mNHC(═O)R11,

OCH2C(═O)NH2,

CH2NH2,

NHCO2Et,

OCH2CH2CH2CH2OH,

CH2NHSO2CH3,

OCH2CH2CHOHCH2OH,

OCH2CH2NHCO2Et,

NHC(═NH2)NH2,

OCH2(α-CHOH)2CH2OH

OCH2CHOHCH2NH2,

(CH2)mCHOHCH2NHBoc,

O(CH2)mCHOHCH2NHBoc,

(CH2)mNHC(O)OR7,

O(CH2), NHC(O)OR7,

OCH2CH2CH2NH2,

OCH2CH2NHCH2(CHOH)2CH2OH,

OCH2CH2NH(CH2[(CHOH)2CH2OH)]2,

(CH2)4NHBoc,

(CH2)4NH2,

(CH2)4OH,

OCH2CH2NHSO2CH3,

O(CH2)mC(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2), C(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2)3NH Boc,

(CH2)3NH2,

O(CH2)mNHNHC(═NH)N(R7)2,

(CH2), NHNHC(═NH)N(R7)2, or

OCH2CHOHCH2NHC(═NH)N(R7)2;

Each R6 may be each, independently, R7, OR11, N(R7)2 (CH2)mOR8, O(CH2)mOR8, (CH2)nNR7R10, O(CH2)mNR7R10, (CH2)n(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)m(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2CH2O)mR89O(CH2CH2O)mR8, (CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, O(CH2CH2O)mCH2CH2NR7R10, (CH2), C(═O)NR7R10, O(CH2)mC(═O)NR7R10, (CH2)n-(Z)g-R7, O(CH2)m-(Z)g-R7, (CH2)nNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, O(CH2)mNR10CH2(CHOR8)(CHOR8)nCH2OR8, (CH2)nCO2R7, O(CH2)mCO2R7OSO3H, O-glucuronide, O-glucose, or

In addition, one of more of the R6 groups can be one of the R5 groups which fall within the broad definition of R6 set forth above.

As discussed above, R6 may be hydrogen. Therefore, 1 or 2 R6 groups may be other than hydrogen. Preferably at most 3 of the R6 groups are other than hydrogen.

Each g is, independently, an integer from 1 to 6. Therefore, each g may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.

Each m is an integer from 1 to 7. Therefore, each m may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7.

Each n is an integer from 0 to 7. Therefore, each n may be 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, Y is NH2.

In another preferred embodiment, R2 is hydrogen.

In another preferred embodiment, R1 is hydrogen.

In another preferred embodiment, X is chlorine.

In another preferred embodiment, R3 is hydrogen.

In another preferred embodiment, RL is hydrogen.

In another preferred embodiment, o is 4.

In another preferred embodiment, p is 2.

In another preferred embodiment, the sum of o and p is 6.

In another preferred embodiment, x represents a single bond.

In another preferred embodiment, R6 is hydrogen.

In a preferred embodiment of the present invention:

X is halogen;

Y is N(R7)2;

R1 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl;

R2 is R7, OR7, CH2O7, or CO2R7;

R3 is a group represented by formula (A); and

R4 is hydrogen, a group represented by formula (A), or lower alkyl;

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention:

X is chloro or bromo;

Y is N(R7)2;

R2 is hydrogen or C1-C3 alkyl;

at most three R6 are other than hydrogen as described above; and

at most three RL are other than hydrogen as described above;

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention:

Y is NH2;

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention:

R4 is hydrogen;

at most one RL is other than hydrogen as described above; and

at most two R6 are other than hydrogen as described above;

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

In another preferred embodiment of the present invention the compound of formula (1) is represented by the formula:

The compounds of formula (I) may be prepared and used as the free base. Alternatively, the compounds may be prepared and used as a pharmaceutically acceptable salt. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts are salts that retain or enhance the desired biological activity of the parent compound and do not impart undesired toxicological effects. Examples of such salts are (a) acid addition salts formed with inorganic acids, for example, hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid and the like; (b) salts formed with organic acids such as, for example, acetic acid, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, gluconic acid, citric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, tannic acid, palmitic acid, alginic acid, polyglutamic acid, naphthalenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, naphthalenedisulfonic acid, polygalacturonic acid, malonic acid, sulfosalicylic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate, pamoate, salicylic acid, stearic acid, phthalic acid, mandelic acid, lactic acid and the like; and (c) salts formed from elemental anions for example, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.

It is to be noted that all enantiomers, diastereomers, and racemic mixtures of compounds within the scope of formula (I) are embraced by the present invention. All mixtures of such enantiomers and diastereomers are within the scope of the present invention.

Without being limited to any particular theory, it is believed that the compounds of formula (I) function in vivo as sodium channel blockers. By blocking epithelial sodium channels present in mucosal surfaces the compounds of formula (I) reduce the absorption of water by the mucosal surfaces. This effect increases the volume of protective liquids on mucosal surfaces, rebalances the system, and thus treats disease.

The present invention also provides methods of treatment that take advantage of the properties of the compounds of formula (I) discussed above. Thus, subjects that may be treated by the methods of the present invention include, but are not limited to, patients afflicted with cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive airway disease, artificially ventilated patients, patients with acute pneumonia, etc. The present invention may be used to obtain a sputum sample from a patient by administering the active compounds to at least one lung of a patient, and then inducing or collecting a sputum sample from that patient. Typically, the invention will be administered to respiratory mucosal surfaces via aerosol (liquid or dry powders) or lavage.

Subjects that may be treated by the method of the present invention also include patients being administered supplemental oxygen nasally (a regimen that tends to dry the airway surfaces); patients afflicted with an allergic disease or response (e.g., an allergic response to pollen, dust, animal hair or particles, insects or insect particles, etc.) that affects nasal airway surfaces; patients afflicted with a bacterial infection e.g., staphylococcus infections such as Staphylococcus aureus infections, Hemophilus influenza infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections, Pseudomonas aeuriginosa infections, etc.) of the nasal airway surfaces; patients afflicted with an inflammatory disease that affects nasal airway surfaces; or patients afflicted with sinusitis (wherein the active agent or agents are administered to promote drainage of congested mucous secretions in the sinuses by administering an amount effective to promote drainage of congested fluid in the sinuses), or combined, Rhinosinusitis. The invention may be administered to rhino-sinal surfaces by topical delivery, including aerosols and drops.

The present invention may be used to hydrate mucosal surfaces other than airway surfaces. Such other mucosal surfaces include gastrointestinal surfaces, oral surfaces, genito-urethral surfaces, ocular surfaces or surfaces of the eye, the inner ear and the middle ear. For example, the active compounds of the present invention may be administered by any suitable means, including locally/topically, orally, or rectally, in an effective amount.

The compounds of the present invention are also useful for treating a variety of functions relating to the cardiovascular system. Thus, the compounds of the present invention are useful for use as antihypertensive agents. The compounds may also be used to reduce blood pressure and to treat edema. In addition, the compounds of the present invention are also useful for promoting diuresis, natriuresis, and saluresis. The compounds may be used alone or in combination with beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, HMGCoA, reductase inhibitors, calcium channel blockers and other cardiovascular agents to treat hypertension, congestive heart failure and reduce cardiovascular mortality.

The compounds of the present invention are also useful for treating airborne infections. Examples of airborne infections include, for example, RSV. The compounds of the present invention are also useful for treating an anthrax infection.

The present invention is concerned primarily with the treatment of human subjects, but may also be employed for the treatment of other mammalian subjects, such as dogs and cats, for veterinary purposes.

As discussed above, the compounds used to prepare the compositions of the present invention may be in the form of a pharmaceutically acceptable free base. Because the free base of the compound is generally less soluble in aqueous solutions than the salt, free base compositions are employed to provide more sustained release of active agent to the lungs. An active agent present in the lungs in particulate form which has not dissolved into solution is not available to induce a physiological response, but serves as a depot of bioavailable drug which gradually dissolves into solution.

Another aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical composition, comprising a compound of formula (I) in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier (e.g., an aqueous carrier solution). In general, the compound of formula (I) is included in the composition in an amount effective to inhibit the reabsorption of water by mucosal surfaces.

The compounds of the present invention may also be used in conjunction with a P2Y2 receptor agonist or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof (also sometimes referred to as an active agent herein). The composition may further comprise a P2Y2 receptor agonist or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof (also sometimes referred to as an active agent herein). The P2Y2 receptor agonist is typically included in an amount effective to stimulate chloride and water secretion by airway surfaces, particularly nasal airway surfaces. Suitable P2Y2 receptor agonists are described in columns 9-10 of U.S. Pat. No. 6,264,975, U.S. Pat. No. 5,656,256, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,292,498, each of which is incorporated herein by reference.

Bronchodiloators can also be used in combination with compounds of the present invention. These bronchodilators include, but are not limited to, β-adrenergic agonists including but not limited to epinephrine, isoproterenol, fenoterol, albutereol, terbutalin, pirbuterol, bitolterol, metaproterenol, iosetharine, salmeterol xinafoate, as well as anticholinergic agents including but not limited to ipratropium bromide, as well as compounds such as theophylline and aminophylline. These compounds may be administered in accordance with known techniques, either prior to or concurrently with the active compounds described herein.

Another aspect of the present invention is a pharmaceutical formulation, comprising an active compound as described above in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier (e.g., an aqueous carrier solution). In general, the active compound is included in the composition in an amount effective to treat mucosal surfaces, such as inhibiting the reabsorption of water by mucosal surfaces, including airway and other surfaces.

The active compounds disclosed herein may be administered to mucosal surfaces by any suitable means, including topically, orally, rectally, vaginally, ocularly and dermally, etc. For example, for the treatment of constipation, the active compounds may be administered orally or rectally to the gastrointestinal mucosal surface. The active compound may be combined with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier in any suitable form, such as sterile physiological or dilute saline or topical solution, as a droplet, tablet or the like for oral administration, as a suppository for rectal or genito-urethral administration, etc. Excipients may be included in the formulation to enhance the solubility of the active compounds, as desired.

The active compounds disclosed herein may be administered to the airway surfaces of a patient by any suitable means, including as a spray, mist, or droplets of the active compounds in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier such as physiological or dilute saline solutions or distilled water. For example, the active compounds may be prepared as formulations and administered as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,789,391 to Jacobus, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.

Solid or liquid particulate active agents prepared for practicing the present invention could, as noted above, include particles of respirable or non-respirable size; that is, for respirable particles, particles of a size sufficiently small to pass through the mouth and larynx upon inhalation and into the bronchi and alveoli of the lungs, and for non-respirable particles, particles sufficiently large to be retained in the nasal airway passages rather than pass through the larynx and into the bronchi and alveoli of the lungs. In general, particles ranging from about 1 to 5 microns in size (more particularly, less than about 4.7 microns in size) are respirable. Particles of non-respirable size are greater than about 5 microns in size, up to the size of visible droplets. Thus, for nasal administration, a particle size in the range of 10-500 μm may be used to ensure retention in the nasal cavity.

In the manufacture of a formulation according to the invention, active agents or the physiologically acceptable salts or free bases thereof are typically admixed with, inter alia, an acceptable carrier. Of course, the carrier must be compatible with any other ingredients in the formulation and must not be deleterious to the patient. The carrier must be solid or liquid, or both, and is preferably formulated with the compound as a unit-dose formulation, for example, a capsule, that may contain 0.5% to 99% by weight of the active compound. One or more active compounds may be incorporated in the formulations of the invention, which formulations may be prepared by any of the well-known techniques of pharmacy consisting essentially of admixing the components.

Compositions containing respirable or non-respirable dry particles of micronized active agent may be prepared by grinding the dry active agent with a mortar and pestle, and then passing the micronized composition through a 400 mesh screen to break up or separate out large agglomerates.

The particulate active agent composition may optionally contain a dispersant which serves to facilitate the formulation of an aerosol. A suitable dispersant is lactose, which may be blended with the active agent in any suitable ratio (e.g., a 1 to 1 ratio by weight).

Active compounds disclosed herein may be administered to airway surfaces including the nasal passages, sinuses and lungs of a subject by an suitable means know in the art, such as by nose drops, mists., etc. In one embodiment of the invention, the active compounds of the present invention and administered by transbronchoscopic lavage. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the active compounds of the present invention are deposited on lung airway surfaces by administering an aerosol suspension of respirable particles comprised of the active compound, which the subject inhales. The respirable particles may be liquid or solid. Numerous inhalers for administering aerosol particles to the lungs of a subject are known.

Inhalers such as those developed by Inhale Therapeutic Systems, Palo Alto, Calif., USA, may be employed, including but not limited to those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,740,794; 5,654,007; 5,458,135; 5,775,320; and 5,785,049, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. The Applicant specifically intends that the disclosures of all patent references cited herein be incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. Inhalers such as those developed by Dura Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, Calif., USA, may also be employed, including but not limited to those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,622,166; 5,577,497; 5,645,051; and 5,492,112, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. Additionally, inhalers such as those developed by Aradigm Corp., Hayward, Calif., USA, may be employed, including but not limited to those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,826,570; 5,813,397; 5,819,726; and 5,655,516, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. These apparatuses are particularly suitable as dry particle inhalers.

Aerosols of liquid particles comprising the active compound may be produced by any suitable means, such as with a pressure-driven aerosol nebulizer or an ultrasonic nebulizer. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,501,729, which is incorporated herein by reference. Nebulizers are commercially available devices which transform solutions or suspensions of the active ingredient into a therapeutic aerosol mist either by means of acceleration of compressed gas, typically air or oxygen, through a narrow venturi orifice or by means of ultrasonic agitation. Suitable formulations for use in nebulizers consist of the active ingredient in a liquid carrier, the active ingredient comprising up to 40% w/w of the formulation, but preferably less than 20% w/w. The carrier is typically water (and most preferably sterile, pyrogen-free water) or dilute aqueous alcoholic solution. Perfluorocarbon carriers may also be used. Optional additives include preservatives if the formulation is not made sterile, for example, methyl hydroxybenzoate, antioxidants, flavoring agents, volatile oils, buffering agents and surfactants.

Aerosols of solid particles comprising the active compound may likewise be produced with any solid particulate medicament aerosol generator. Aerosol generators for administering solid particulate medicaments to a subject produce particles which are respirable, as explained above, and generate a volume of aerosol containing predetermined metered dose of medicament at a rate suitable for human administration. One illustrative type of solid particulate aerosol generator is an insufflator. Suitable formulations for administration by insufflation include finely comminuted powders which may be delivered by means of an insufflator or taken into the nasal cavity in the manner of a snuff. In the insufflator, the powder (e.g., a metered dose thereof effective to carry out the treatments described herein) is contained in capsules or cartridges, typically made of gelatin or plastic, which are either pierced or opened in situ and the powder delivered by air drawn through the device upon inhalation or by means of a manually-operated pump. The powder employed in the insufflator consists either solely of the active ingredient or of powder blend comprising the active ingredient, a suitable powder diluent, such as lactose, and an optional surfactant. The active ingredient typically comprises of 0.1 to 100% w/w of the formulation. A second type of illustrative aerosol generator comprises a metered dose inhaler. Metered dose inhalers are pressurized aerosol dispensers, typically containing a suspension or solution formulation of active ingredient in a liquified propellant. During use, these devices discharge the formulation through a valve adapted to deliver a metered volume, typically from 10 to 150 μl, to produce a fine particle spray containing the active ingredient. Suitable propellants include certain chlorofluorocarbon compounds, for example, dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane and mixtures thereof. The formulation may additionally contain one of more co-solvents, for example, ethanol, surfactants, such as oleic acid or sorbitan trioleate, antioxidants and suitable flavoring agents.

The aerosol, whether formed from solid or liquid particles, may be produced by the aerosol generator at a rate of from about 10 to 150 liters per minute, more preferable from 30 to 150 liters per minute, and most preferably about 60 liters per minute. Aerosols containing greater amounts of medicament may be administered more rapidly.

The dosage of the active compounds disclosed herein will vary depending on the condition being treated and the state of the subject, but generally may be from about 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1 to 1, 5, 10 or 20 mg of the pharmaceutic agent, deposited on the airway surfaces. The daily dose may be divided among one or multiple unit dose administrations. The goal is to achieve a concentration of the pharmaceutic agents on lung airway surfaces of between 10−9-10−4 M.

In another embodiment, they are administered by administering an aerosol suspension of respirable or non-respirable particles (preferably non-respirable particles) comprised of active compound, which the subject inhales through the nose. The respirable or non-respirable particles may be liquid or solid. The quantity of active agent included may be an amount of sufficient to achieve dissolved concentrations of active agent on the airway surfaces of the subject of from about 10−9, 10−8, or 10−7 to about 10−3, 10−2, 10−1 moles/liter, and more preferably from about 10−9 to about 10−4 moles/liter.

The dosage of active compound will vary depending on the condition being treated and the state of the subject, but generally may be an amount sufficient to achieve dissolved concentrations of active compound on the nasal airway surfaces of the subject from about 10−9, 10−8, 10−7 to about 10−3, 10−2, or 10−1 moles/liter, and more preferably from about 10−7 to about 10−4 moles/liter. Depending upon the solubility of the particular formulation of active compound administered, the daily dose may be divided among one or several unit dose administrations. The daily dose by weight may range from about 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 to 10 or 20 milligrams of active agent particles for a human subject, depending upon the age and condition of the subject. A currently preferred unit dose is about 0.5 milligrams of active agent given at a regimen of 2-10 administrations per day. The dosage may be provided as a prepackaged unit by any suitable means (e.g., encapsulating a gelatin capsule).

In one embodiment of the invention, the particulate active agent composition may contain both a free base of active agent and a pharmaceutically acceptable salt to provide both early release and sustained release of active agent for dissolution into the mucus secretions of the nose. Such a composition serves to provide both early relief to the patient, and sustained relief over time. Sustained relief, by decreasing the number of daily administrations required, is expected to increase patient compliance with the course of active agent treatments.

Pharmaceutical formulations suitable for airway administration include formulations of solutions, emulsions, suspensions and extracts. See generally, J. Naim, Solutions, Emulsions, Suspensions and Extracts, in Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, chap. 86 (19th ed. 1995), incorporated herein by reference. Pharmaceutical formulations suitable for nasal administration may be prepared as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,389,393 to Schor; 5,707,644 to Illum; 4,294,829 to Suzuki; and 4,835,142 to Suzuki, the disclosures of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.

Mists or aerosols of liquid particles comprising the active compound may be produced by any suitable means, such as by a simple nasal spray with the active agent in an aqueous pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, such as a sterile saline solution or sterile water. Administration may be with a pressure-driven aerosol nebulizer or an ultrasonic nebulizer. See e.g. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,501,729 and 5,656,256, both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Suitable formulations for use in a nasal droplet or spray bottle or in nebulizers consist of the active ingredient in a liquid carrier, the active ingredient comprising up to 40% w/w of the formulation, but preferably less than 20% w/w. Typically the carrier is water (and most preferably sterile, pyrogen-free water) or dilute aqueous alcoholic solution, preferably made in a 0.12% to 0.8% solution of sodium chloride. Optional additives include preservatives if the formulation is not made sterile, for example, methyl hydroxybenzoate, antioxidants, flavoring agents, volatile oils, buffering agents, osmotically active agents (e.g. mannitol, xylitol, erythritol) and surfactants.

Compositions containing respirable or non-respirable dry particles of micronized active agent may be prepared by grinding the dry active agent with a mortar and pestle, and then passing the micronized composition through a 400 mesh screen to break up or separate out large agglomerates.

The particulate composition may optionally contain a dispersant which serves to facilitate the formation of an aerosol. A suitable dispersant is lactose, which may be blended with the active agent in any suitable ratio (e.g., a 1 to 1 ratio by weight).

The compounds of formula (I) may be synthesized according to procedures known in the art. A representative synthetic procedure is shown in the scheme below:

These procedures are described in, for example, E. J. Cragoe, The Synthesis of Amiloride and Its Analogs (Chapter 3) in Amiloride and Its Analogs, pp. 25-36, incorporated herein by reference. Other methods of preparing the compounds are described in, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,313,813, incorporated herein by reference. See in particular Methods A, B, C, and D described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,313,813. Other methods useful for the preparation of these compounds, especially for the preparation of the novel HNR3R4 fragment. are described in, for example, 229929US, 233377US, and 234105US, incorporated herein by reference. Schemes 1-4 are representative but not limited to, procedures used to prepare sodium channel blockers described herein.

Several assays may be used to characterize the compounds of the present invention. Representative assays are discussed below.

In Vitro Measure of Sodium Channel Blocking Activity and Reversibility

One assay used to assess mechanism of action and/or potency of the compounds of the present invention involves the determination of lumenal drug inhibition of airway epithelial sodium currents measured under short circuit current (ISC) using airway epithelial monolayers mounted in Ussing chambers. Cells obtained from freshly excised human, dog, sheep or rodent airways are seeded onto porous 0.4 micron Snapwell Inserts (CoStar), cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions in hormonally defined media, and assayed for sodium transport activity (ISC) while bathed in Krebs Bicarbonate Ringer (KBR) in Using chambers. All test drug additions are to the lumenal bath with half-log dose addition protocols (from 110−11 M to 310−5 M), and the cumulative change in ISC (inhibition) recorded. All drugs are prepared in dimethyl sulfoxide as stock solutions at a concentration of 110−2 M and stored at −20 C. Eight preparations are typically run in parallel; two preparations per run incorporate amiloride and/or benzamil as positive controls. After the maximal concentration (510−5 M) is administered, the lumenal bath is exchanged three times with fresh drug-free KBR solution, and the resultant ISC measured after each wash for approximately 5 minutes in duration. Reversibility is defined as the percent return to the baseline value for sodium current after the third wash. All data from the voltage clamps are collected via a computer interface and analyzed off-line.

Dose-effect relationships for all compounds are considered and analyzed by the Prism 3.0 program. IC50 values, maximal effective concentrations, and reversibility are calculated and compared to amiloride and benzamil as positive controls.

Pharmacological Assays of Absorption (1) Apical Disappearance Assay

Bronchial cells (dog, human, sheep, or rodent cells) are seeded at a density of 0.25106/cm2 on a porous Transwell-Col collagen-coated membrane with a growth area of 1.13 cm2 grown at an air-liquid interface in hormonally defined media that promotes a polarized epithelium. From 12 to 20 days after development of an air-liquid interface (ALI) the cultures are expected to be >90% ciliated, and mucins will accumulate on the cells. To ensure the integrity of primary airway epithelial cell preparations, the transepithelial resistance (Rt) and transepithelial potential differences (PD), which are indicators of the integrity of polarized nature of the culture, are measured. Human cell systems are preferred for studies of rates of absorption from apical surfaces. The disappearance assay is conducted under conditions that mimic the thin films in vivo (25 μl) and is initiated by adding experimental sodium channel blockers or positive controls (amiloride, benzamil, phenamil) to the apical surface at an initial concentration of 10 μM. A series of samples (5 μl volume per sample) is collected at various time points, including 0, 5, 20, 40, 90 and 240 minutes. Concentrations are determined by measuring intrinsic fluorescence of each sodium channel blocker using a Fluorocount Microplate Fluorometer or HPLC. Quantitative analysis employs a standard curve generated from authentic reference standard materials of known concentration and purity. Data analysis of the rate of disappearance is performed using nonlinear regression, one phase exponential decay (Prism V 3.0).

2. Confocal Microscopy Assay of Amiloride Congener Uptake

Virtually all amiloride-like molecules fluoresce in the ultraviolet range. This property of these molecules may be used to directly measure cellular update using x-z confocal microscopy. Equimolar concentrations of experimental compounds and positive controls including amiloride and compounds that demonstrate rapid uptake into the cellular compartment (benzamil and phenamil) are placed on the apical surface of airway cultures on the stage of the confocal microscope. Serial x-z images are obtained with time and the magnitude of fluorescence accumulating in the cellular compartment is quantitated and plotted as a change in fluorescence versus time.

3. In Vitro Assays of Compound Metabolism

Airway epithelial cells have the capacity to metabolize drugs during the process of transepithelial absorption. Further, although less likely, it is possible that drugs can be metabolized on airway epithelial surfaces by specific ectoenzyme activities. Perhaps more likely as an ecto-surface event, compounds may be metabolized by the infected secretions that occupy the airway lumens of patients with lung disease, e.g. cystic fibrosis. Thus, a series of assays is performed to characterize the compound metabolism that results from the interaction of test compounds with human airway epithelia and/or human airway epithelial lumenal products.

In the first series of assays, the interaction of test compounds in KBR as an ASL stimulant are applied to the apical surface of human airway epithelial cells grown in the T-Col insert system. For most compounds, metabolism (generation of new species) is tested for using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to resolve chemical species and the endogenous fluorescence properties of these compounds to estimate the relative quantities of test compound and novel metabolites. For a typical assay, a test solution (25 μl KBR, containing 10 μM test compound) is placed on the epithelial lumenal surface. Sequential 5 to 10 μl samples are obtained from the lumenal and serosal compartments for HPLC analysis of (1) the mass of test compound permeating from the lumenal to serosal bath and (2) the potential formation of metabolites from the parent compound. In instances where the fluorescence properties of the test molecule are not adequate for such characterizations, radiolabeled compounds are used for these assays. From the HPLC data, the rate of disappearance and/or formation of novel metabolite compounds on the lumenal surface and the appearance of test compound and/or novel metabolite in the basolateral solution is quantitated. The data relating the chromatographic mobility of potential novel metabolites with reference to the parent compound are also quantitated.

To analyze the potential metabolism of test compounds by CF sputum, a representative mixture of expectorated CF sputum obtained from 10 CF patients (under IRB approval) has been collected. The sputum has been be solubilized in a 1:5 mixture of KBR solution with vigorous vortexing, following which the mixture was split into a neat sputum aliquot and an aliquot subjected to ultracentrifugation so that a supernatant aliquot was obtained (neat=cellular; supernatant=liquid phase). Typical studies of compound metabolism by CF sputum involve the addition of known masses of test compound to neat CF sputum and aliquots of CF sputum supernatant incubated at 37 C., followed by sequential sampling of aliquots from each sputum type for characterization of compound stability/metabolism by HPLC analysis as described above. As above, analysis of compound disappearance, rates of formation of novel metabolities, and HPLC mobilities of novel metabolites are then performed.

4. Pharmacological Effects and Mechanism of Action of the Drug in Animals

The effect of compounds for enhancing mucociliary clearance (MCC) can be measured using an in vivo model described by Sabater et al., Journal of Applied Physiology, 1999, pp. 2191-2196, incorporated herein by reference.

Methods

Animal Preparation: Adult ewes (ranging in weight from 25 to 35 kg) were restrained in an upright position in a specialized body harness adapted to a modified shopping cart. The animals' heads were immobilized and local anesthesia of the nasal passage was induced with 2% lidocaine. The animals were then nasally intubated with a 7.5 mm internal diameter endotracheal tube (ETT). The cuff of the ETT was placed just below the vocal cords and its position was verified with a flexible bronchoscope. After intubation the animals were allowed to equilibrate for approximately 20 minutes prior to initiating measurements of mucociliary clearance.
Administration of Radio-aerosol: Aerosols of 99mTc-Human serum albumin (3.1 mg/ml; containing approximately 20 mCi) were generated using a Raindrop Nebulizer which produces a droplet with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.6 μm. The nebulizer was connected to a dosimetry system consisting of a solenoid valve and a source of compressed air (20 psi). The output of the nebulizer was directed into a plastic T connector; one end of which was connected to the endotracheal tube, the other was connected to a piston respirator. The system was activated for one second at the onset of the respirator's inspiratory cycle. The respirator was set at a tidal volume of 500 mL, an inspiratory to expiratory ratio of 1:1, and at a rate of 20 breaths per minute to maximize the central airway deposition. The sheep breathed the radio-labeled aerosol for 5 minutes. A gamma camera was used to measure the clearance of 99mTc-Human serum albumin from the airways. The camera was positioned above the animal's back with the sheep in a natural upright position supported in a cart so that the field of image was perpendicular to the animal's spinal cord. External radio-labeled markers were placed on the sheep to ensure proper alignment under the gamma camera. All images were stored in a computer integrated with the gamma camera. A region of interest was traced over the image corresponding to the right lung of the sheep and the counts were recorded. The counts were corrected for decay and expressed as percentage of radioactivity present in the initial baseline image. The left lung was excluded from the analysis because its outlines are superimposed over the stomach and counts can be swallowed and enter the stomach as radio-labeled mucus.
Treatment Protocol (Assessment of activity at t-zero): A baseline deposition image was obtained immediately after radio-aerosol administration. At time zero, after acquisition of the baseline image, vehicle control (distilled water), positive control (amiloride), or experimental compounds were aerosolized from a 4 ml volume using a Pari LC JetPlus nebulizer to free-breathing animals. The nebulizer was driven by compressed air with a flow of 8 liters per minute. The time to deliver the solution was 10 to 12 minutes. Animals were extubated immediately following delivery of the total dose in order to prevent false elevations in counts caused by aspiration of excess radio-tracer from the ETT. Serial images of the lung were obtained at 15-minute intervals during the first 2 hours after dosing and hourly for the next 6 hours after dosing for a total observation period of 8 hours. A washout period of at least 7 days separated dosing sessions with different experimental agents.
Treatment Protocol (Assessment of Activity at t−4 hours): The following variation of the standard protocol was used to assess the durability of response following a single exposure to vehicle control (distilled water), positive control compounds (amiloride or benzamil), or investigational agents. At time zero, vehicle control (distilled water), positive control (amiloride), or investigational compounds were aerosolized from a 4 ml volume using a Pari LC JetPlus nebulizer to free-breathing animals. The nebulizer was driven by compressed air with a flow of 8 liters per minute. The time to deliver the solution was 10 to 12 minutes. Animals were restrained in an upright position in a specialized body harness for 4 hours. At the end of the 4-hour period animals received a single dose of aerosolized 99mTc-Human serum albumin (3.1 mg/ml; containing approximately 20 mCi) from a Raindrop Nebulizer. Animals were extubated immediately following delivery of the total dose of radio-tracer. A baseline deposition image was obtained immediately after radio-aerosol administration. Serial images of the lung were obtained at 15-minute intervals during the first 2 hours after administration of the radio-tracer (representing hours 4 through 6 after drug administration) and hourly for the next 2 hours after dosing for a total observation period of 4 hours. A washout period of at least 7 days separated dosing sessions with different experimental agents.
Statistics: Data were analyzed using SYSTAT for Windows, version 5. Data were analyzed using a two-way repeated ANOVA (to assess overall effects), followed by a paried t-test to identify differences between specific pairs. Significance was accepted when P was less than or equal to 0.05. Slope values (calculated from data collected during the initial 45 minutes after dosing in the t-zero assessment) for mean MCC curves were calculated using linear least square regression to assess differences in the initial rates during the rapid clearance phase. The compounds can be further tested for potency in canine bronchial epithelia using the in vitro assay described above. The results for the compounds of the present invention are reported as fold-enhancement values relative to amiloride.

EXAMPLES

Having generally described this invention, a further understanding can be obtained by reference to certain specific examples which are provided herein for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be limiting unless otherwise specified.

Preparation of Sodium Channel Blockers

Materials and methods. All reagents and solvents were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Corp. and used without further purification. NMR spectra were obtained on either a Bruker WM 360 (1H NMR at 360 MHz and 13C NMR at 90 MHz) or a Bruker AC 300 (1H NMR at 300 MHz and 13C NMR at 75 MHz). Flash chromatography was performed on a Flash Elute system from Elution Solution (PO Box 5147, Charlottesville, Va. 22905) charged with a 90 g silica gel cartridge (40M FSO-0110-040155, 32-63 μm) at 20 psi (N2). GC-analysis was performed on a Shimadzu GC-17 equipped with a Heliflex Capillary Column (Alltech); Phase: AT-1, Length: 10 meters, ID: 0.53 mm, Film: 0.25 micrometers. GC Parameters: Injector at 320 C., Detector at 320 C., FID gas flow: H2 at 40 ml/min., Air at 400 ml/min. Carrier gas: Split Ratio 16:1, N2 flow at 15 ml/min., N2 velocity at 18 cm/sec. The temperature program is 70 C. for 0-3 min, 70-300 C. from 3-10 min, 300 C. from 10-15 min.

HPLC analysis was performed on a Gilson 322 Pump, detector U/Vis-156 at 360 nm, equipped with a Microsorb MV C8 column, 100 A, 25 cm. Mobile phase: A=acetonitrile with 0.1% TFA, B=water with 0.1% TFA. Gradient program: 95:5 B:A for 1 min, then to 20:80 B:A over 7 min, then to 100% A over 1 min, followed by washout with 100% A for 11 min, flow rate: 1 ml/min.

General Procedures Method A. Mono-Protection of Symmetrical Diamine by Boc-Protecting Group

The diamine was dissolved in anhydrous methanol. To the solution was added Hunig's base (DIPEA, 3 equiv). The newly resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. To the reaction mixture was slowly added (over 2 to 4 hours) a solution of Boc2O (1 equiv) dissolved in anhydrous methanol. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 2 hours, then quenched with water. The product was extracted with dichloromethane. The combined extracts were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was chromatographed on silica gel eluting with a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane. The fractions containing the desired product were collected and concentrated under vacuum. The product was spectroscopically characterized.

Method B. Removal of Boc-Protecting Group from Amino or Guanidino Group

The compound containing Boc-protected amino or guanidino group was dissolved in methanol. The solution was then treated with concentrated HCl (12 N) at room temperature for 1 to 2 hours. All liquid in the reaction mixture was then completely removed under vacuum. The resulting residue was further dried under vacuum and generally directly used in the next step without purification.

Method C. Guanylation of Free Amine by Reaction with (tert-butoxycarbonylamino-trifluoromethanesulfonyliminomethyl)carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (Goodman's Reagent)

To a solution containing the free amine dissolved in anhydrous methanol was added Hunig's base (DIPEA, 3 equiv). The newly resulting solution was stirred at room temperature for 30 min before the Goodman's reagent was added (1.5 equiv). The stirring was continued for an additional 3 to 5 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated. The resulting residue was chromatographed on silica gel eluting with a mixture of dichloromethane, methanol, and concentrated ammonium hydroxide (CMA). The fractions containing the desired product were collected and concentrated. The product was characterized by spectroscopic methods.

Method D. Coupling of Un-Protected Amine with 1-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-2-methylisothiourea hydriodide (Cragoe Compound)

The un-protected amine was dissolved in anhydrous ethanol. To the solution was added Hunig's base (DIPEA, 3 equiv). The newly resulting solution was heated at 65 C. for 15 min. The Cragoe compound (1.2 equiv) was then added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 65 C. for an additional 2 to 3 hours, and then cooled to room temperature before it was concentrated under vacuum. The resulting residue was chromatographed on silica gel eluting with CMA. The appropriate fractions were collected and concentrated under vacuum. The desired product (typically a yellow solid) was characterized by spectroscopic methods.

Example 1 Synthesis of N-(6-aminohexyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 18706)

{6-[N′-(3,5-Diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]hexyl}carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (2a).

Compound 2a was synthesized from 1a, 6-aminohexylcarbamic acid tert-butyl ester (Scheme 1), in 90% yield using method D. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.42 (s, 9H), 1.46-1.65 (m, 8H), 3.04 (t, 2H), 3.22 (t, 2H). m/z (APCI): 429 [C17H29ClN8O3+H]+.

N-(6-Aminohexyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine dihydrochloride (3a, PSA 18706)

Compound 3a was synthesized from compound 2a in 34% yield using method B. mp>240 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.42-1.54 (m, 4H), 1.65-1.78 (m, 4H), 2.94 (t, 2H), 3.34 (t, 2H). m/z (APCI): 329 [C12H21ClN8O+H]+.

Example 2 Synthesis of N-(7-aminoheptyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine (PSA 18705)

Compound 3b (PSA 18705) was synthesized from heptane-1,7-diamine in 65% yield using method D. mp 185-187 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHZ, CD3OD): δ 1.40-1.55 (m, 6H), 1.58-1.76 (m, 4H), 2.80 (t, 2H), 3.30 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 343 [C13H23ClN8O+H]+.

Example 3 Synthesis of N-{7-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]heptyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19155)

N-(7-Aminoheptyl)-[N′,N″-bis-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)]guanidine (6b)

Compound 6b was synthesized from heptane-1,7-diamine (Scheme 2) in 43% yield using method C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.44-1.50 (m, 10H), 1.55 (s, 18H), 1.84 (t, 2H), 2.78 (t, 2H), 3.46 (t, 2H). m/z (ESI): 373 [C18H36N4O4+H]+.

N-{7-[N′-(3,5-Diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]heptyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (5b, PSA 19155)

Compound 6b was reacted with the Cragoe compound according to method D (Scheme 2). The product of the reaction, after chromatographic purification, was directly treated with concentrated HCl using method B to afford the desired compound 5b in 17% overall yield. mp 140-142 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.42-1.54 (m, 6H), 1.60-1.82 (m, 4H), 3.18 (t, 2H), 3.34 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 385 [C14H25ClN10O+H]+.

Example 4 Synthesis of {8-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]octyl}carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA 19156)

Octane-1,8-diamine was mono-protected by Boc-protecting group using method A (Scheme 1). The product from this step was directly reacted with the Cragoe compound using method D, which afforded the desired product 2c (PSA 19156) in 81% yield. mp 189-191 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.38-1.56 (m, 19H), 1.70 (m, 2H), 3.02 (t, 2H), 3.24 (t, 2H). m/z (ESI): 457 [C19H33ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 5 Synthesis of N-(8-aminooctyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19336)

Compound 3c (PSA 19336) was synthesized from 2c using method B. mp 253-255 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.40 (m, 8H), 1.66 (m, 4H), 2.90 (m, 2H), 3.32 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 357 [C14H25ClN8O+H]+.

Example 6 Synthesis of N-{8-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]octyl}{N′,N′″-bis-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)}guanidine (PSA 19486)

Compound 4c (PSA 19486) was synthesized from 3c in 52% yield using method C. mp 208-210 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ1.33-1.72 (m, 30H), 3.18-3.39 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 599 [C25H43ClN10O5+H]+.

Example 7 Synthesis of N-{8-[A)-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]octyl}-guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19604)

Compound 5c (PSA 19604) was synthesized from 4c in quantitative yield using method B. mp 130-132 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.33-1.72 (m, 12H), 3.18-3.39 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 399 [C15H27ClN10O+H]+.

Example 8 Synthesis of {9-[N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]nonyl}-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA 19484)

Compound 2d (PSA 19484) was synthesized in a similar method to compound 2c (PSA 19156). mp 187-189 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.35 (m, 12H), 1.41 (s, 9H), 1.60 (m, 2H), 3.00 (m, 2H), 3.20 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 471 [C20H35ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 9 Synthesis of N-(9-aminononyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19335)

Compound 3d (PSA 19335) was synthesized in quantitative yield from 2d (PSA 19484) using method B. mp 155-157 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.40 (m, 10H), 1.70 (m, 4H), 2.90 (m, 2H), 3.32 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 357 [C15H27ClN8O+H]+.

Example 10 Synthesis of N-{9-[N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]nonyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19006)

Compound 5d (PSA 19006) was synthesized similarly to compound 5c (PSA 19155). mp 178-180 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.44-1.54 (m, 10H), 1.58-1.80 (m, 4H), 3.20 (t, 2H), 3.34 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 413 [C16H29ClN10O+H]+.

Example 11 Synthesis of {10-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]decyl}-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA 19485)

Compound 2e (PSA 19485) was synthesized in a similar method to compound 2c. mp 186-188 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.29-1.51 (m, 23H), 1.59-1.70 (m, 2H), 3.02 (t, 2H), 3.19-3.28 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 485 [C21H37ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 12 Synthesis of N-(10-aminodecyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19487)

Compound 3e (PSA 19487) was synthesized from compound 2e using method B. mp 168-170 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.41 (m, 12H), 1.57-1.79 (m, 4H), 2.84-2.99 (m, 2H), 3.34-3.40 (m, 2H); m/z (ESI): 385 [C16H29ClN8O+H]+.

Example 13 Synthesis of N-{10-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]-decyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 23608)

Compound 3e (PSA 19487) was reacted with the Goodman's reagent (Scheme 1) according to method C. The product of the reaction, after chromatographic purification, was directly treated with concentrated HCl using method B to afford the desired product 5e (PSA 23608). mp 156-158 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.31-1.48 (m, 12H), 1.55-1.62 (m, 2H), 1.65-1.76 (m, 2H), 3.11-3.19 (m, 2H), 3.34-3.38 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 427 [C17H31ClN10O+H]+.

Example 14 Synthesis of {11-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]undecyl}carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA 23777)

Compound 2f (PSA 23777) was synthesized in a similar method to compound 2c (PSA 19156). mp 82-84 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.27 (s, 12H), 1.45 (s, 13H), 1.65 (m, 2), 2.95 (m, 2H), 3.21 (m, 2H). m/z (APCI): 499 [C22H39ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 15 Synthesis of N-(11-aminoundecyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 23682)

Compound 3f (PSA 23682) was synthesized from 2f using method B. mp 220-222 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.35 (m, 14H), 1.65 (m, 4H), 2.91 (m, 2H), 3.31 (m, 2H). m/z (APCI): 399 [C17H31ClN8O+H]+.

Example 16 Synthesis of N-{11-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]-undecyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 23991)

Compound 5f (PSA 23991) was synthesized in a similar manner to compound 5e. mp 151-153 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.27 (m, 18H), 1.45 (m, 2H), 1.55 (m, 2H), 3.07 (m, 2H), 3.27 (m, 2H), 7.43 (m, 2H), 7.66 (m, 1H), 8.78 (br, 1H), 8.94 (br, 1H), 9.25 (br, 1H), 10.5 (br, 1H). m/z (APCI): 441 [C18H33ClN10O+H]+.

Example 17 Synthesis of {12-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]dodecyl}-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA 23776)

Compound 2g (PSA 23776) was synthesized similarly to compound 2c. mp 154-156 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.25 (m, 14H), 1.47 (m, 13H), 1.65 (m, 2H), 2.98 (m, 2H), 3.21 (m, 2H). m/z (APCI): 513 [C23H41ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 18 Synthesis of N-(12-aminododecyl)-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 23609)

Compound 3g (PSA 23609) was synthesized from compound 2g using method B. mp 235-237 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.35 (m, 16H), 1.65 (m, 4H), 2.89 (m, 2H), 3.31 (m, 2H). m/z (ESI): 413 [C18H33ClN8O+H]+.

Example 19 Synthesis of N-{12-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]dodecyl)guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 23683)

Compound 5g (PSA 23683) was synthesized from compound 3g in a similar method to 5b.

mp 145-147 C. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.30-1.48 (m, 16H), 1.64 (t, 2H), 1.75 (t, 2H), 3.18 (t, 2H), 3.35 (m, 2H). m/z (APCI): 455 [C19H35ClN10O+H]+.

Example 20 Synthesis of (3-{3-[N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]propoxy}propyl])carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (PSA19333)

[3-(3-Aminopropoxy)propyl]carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (7)

Compound 7 was synthesized from 3-(3-aminopropoxy)propylamine (Scheme 3) using method A. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.40 (m, 2H), 1.44 (s, 9H), 1.74 (m, 4H), 2.81 (m, 2H), 3.23 (m, 2H), 3.48 (m, 4H), 5.03 (br s, 1H).

(3-{3-[N-(3,5-Diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidino]propoxy}propyl)-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (8, PSA 19333)

Compound 8 was synthesized from compound 7 using method D. mp 62-65 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.40 (s, 9H), 1.80 (m, 4H), 3.12 (m, 2H), 3.32 (m, 2H), 3.52 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 445 [C17H29ClN8O4+H]+.

Example 21 Synthesis of N-[3-(3-aminopropoxy)propyl]-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA19157)

Compound 9 (PSA 19157) was synthesized from compound 8 (PSA 19333) using method B. mp 164-166 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.95 (m, 4H), 3.05 (m, 2H), 3.48 (m, 2H), 3.60 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 345 [C12H21ClN8O2+H]+.

Example 22 Synthesis of N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N′-[3-(3-{N″,N′″-bis-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)guanidino}propoxy)propyl]guanidine (PSA 19488)

Compound 10 (PSA 19488) was synthesized from compound 9 (PSA 19157) using method C. mp 89-93 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.46 (s, 9H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 1.90 (m, 4H), 3.40 (m, 4H), 3.55 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 587 [C23H39ClN10O6+H]+.

Example 23 Synthesis of N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N′-[3-(3-guanidino-propoxy)propyl]guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 19334)

Compound 11 (PSA 19334) was synthesized from compound 10 (PSA 19488) using method B. mp 72-75 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD) δ 1.91 (m, 4H), 3.30 (m, 2H), 3.50 (m, 2H), 3.60 (m, 4H). m/z (ESI): 387 [C13H23ClN10O2+H]+.

Example 24 Synthesis of N-{2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}-N′-(3,5-diamino-6-chloro-pyrazine-2-carbonyl)guanidine (PSA 18848)

Compound 12 (PSA 18848) was synthesized from 2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]-ethylamine (Scheme 4) in 86% yield using method D. mp 87-90 C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 2.84 (t, 2H), 3.45 (t, 2H), 3.54-3.66 (m, 8H). m/z (APCI): 361 [C12H21ClN8O3+H]+.

Example 25 Synthesis of N-(3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazine-2-carbonyl)-N′-{2-[2-(2-guanidinoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl}guanidine dihydrochloride (PSA 18849)

Compound 14 (PSA 18849) was synthesized from compound 12 by a similar method used to prepared compound 5e. mp 108-112 C. (decomposed). 1H NMR (300 MHz, CD3OD): δ 1.38 (t, 2H), 3.38 (t, 2H), 3.57 (t, 2H), 3.67 (t, 2H), 3.75 (m, 4H). m/z (APCI): 403 [C13H23ClN10O3+H]+.

Example 26 Sodium Channel Blocking Activity of Selected Alaphatic Pyrazinoylguanidines

PSA EC50(nM) Fold Amiloride** (PSA 4022 = 100)
18705 99 31 (n = 4) 8 2 (n = 4)
18706 254 118 (n = 4) 4 1 (n = 4)
19006 60 15 (n = 3) 11 2 (n = 3) 
19155 81 45 (n = 3) 8 7 (n = 3)
19156 46 20 (n = 2) 18 2 (n = 2) 
19333 81 8 (n = 4)  7 2 (n = 4)
19335 36 7 (n = 4)  19 7 (n = 4) 
19336 76 18 (n = 4) 12 3 (n = 3) 
19484 66 (n = 1) 12 (n = 1)
19487 25 11 (n = 4) 37 1 (n = 4) 
19604 25 27 (n = 4) 63 61 (n = 4)
23608 17 8 (n = 2)  41 29 (n = 2)
23609 13 7 (n = 4)  66 36 (n = 4)
23682 12 3 (n = 3)  51 15 (n = 3)
23683 41 68 (n = 6) 68 48 (n = 6)
23776 75 (n = 1)  7 (n = 1)
23991 64 77 (n = 4) 20 12 (n = 4)
**Relative potency for PSA 4022 = 100 using EC50 from PSA 4022 in same run

Obviously, numerous modifications and variations of the present invention are possible in light of the above teachings. It is therefore to be understood that within the scope of the appended claims, the invention may be practiced otherwise than as specifically described herein.

Referenced by
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US8124607Feb 26, 2009Feb 28, 2012Parion Sciences, Inc.Poly aromatic pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
US8163758Jun 11, 2007Apr 24, 2012Parion Sciences, Inc.Phenyl substituted pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers possessing beta agonist activity
US8198286Jul 24, 2008Jun 12, 2012Parion Sciences, Inc.Sodium channel blockers
US8211895Sep 7, 2010Jul 3, 2012Parion Sciences, Inc.Capped pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
US8324218Jun 11, 2007Dec 4, 2012Parion Sciences, Inc.Aliphatic pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers with beta agonist activity
US8431579Nov 4, 2010Apr 30, 2013Parion Sciences, Inc.Capped pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
US8507497May 9, 2012Aug 13, 2013Parion Sciences, Inc.Capped pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
US8575176Jan 18, 2012Nov 5, 2013Parion Sciences, Inc.Heteroaromatic pyrazinoylguanidine sodium channel blockers
Classifications
U.S. Classification514/255.05, 514/255.06, 544/406, 544/405
International ClassificationC07D241/26, C07D241/02, A61K31/4965, A61P11/12, C07D401/02, C07D403/12, A61K31/497, C07D413/12
Cooperative ClassificationA61K31/4965, C07D417/12, C07D241/32, C07D473/00, C07D473/16, C07D241/26, C07D403/12, A61K31/497, C07D413/12
European ClassificationC07D473/16, C07D417/12, C07D473/00, C07D241/26, C07D403/12, C07D413/12